WorldWideScience

Sample records for outdoors testing associations

  1. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  2. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  3. PASLINK and dynamic outdoor testing of building components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, P.H.; Dijk, H.A.L. van

    2008-01-01

    The PASLINK test facilities and analysis procedures aim to obtain the thermal and solar characteristics of building components under real dynamic outdoor conditions. Both the analysis and the test methodology have evolved since the start of the PASSYS Project in 1985. A programme of upgrading the

  4. Associations of outdoor air pollution with hemorrhagic stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuro; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-01

    Evidence linking short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution with hemorrhagic stroke is inconsistent. We evaluated the associations between outdoor air pollution and specific types of stroke in Tokyo, Japan, from April 2003 to December 2008. We obtained daily counts of stroke mortality (n = 41,440) and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide as well as particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter. Time-series analysis was employed. Although same-day air pollutants were positively associated with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage mortality, both air pollutants were more strongly associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage mortality: rate ratio was 1.041 (95% confidence interval: 1.011-1.072) for each 10 μg/m3 increase in the previous-day particles less than 2.5 μm. This study suggests that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risks of hemorrhagic stroke mortality as well as ischemic stroke mortality.

  5. Technique for Outdoor Test on Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sansoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor experimentation of solar cells is essential to maximize their performance and to assess utilization requirements and limits. More generally tests with direct exposure to the sun are useful to understand the behavior of components and new materials for solar applications in real working conditions. Insolation and ambient factors are uncontrollable but can be monitored to know the environmental situation of the solar exposure experiment. A parallel characterization of the photocells can be performed in laboratory under controllable and reproducible conditions. A methodology to execute solar exposure tests is proposed and practically applied on photovoltaic cells for a solar cogeneration system. The cells are measured with concentrated solar light obtained utilizing a large Fresnel lens mounted on a sun tracker. Outdoor measurements monitor the effects of the exposure of two multijunction photovoltaic cells to focused sunlight. The main result is the continuous acquisition of the V-I (voltage-current curve for the cells in different conditions of solar concentration and temperature of exercise to assess their behavior. The research investigates electrical power extracted, efficiency, temperatures reached, and possible damages of the photovoltaic cell.

  6. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  7. 78 FR 63971 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Outdoor Research, Development, Test and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Outdoor Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Activities at Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren... (NSWCDD) outdoor research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) activities within the Potomac River...

  8. Temperament Is Associated With Outdoor Free Play in Young Children: A TARGet Kids! Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Julia R; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Abdullah, Kawsari; Chen, Yang; Perrin, Eliana M; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    Outdoor free play is important for preschoolers' physical activity, health, and development. Certain temperamental characteristics are associated with obesity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviors in preschoolers, but the relationship between temperament and outdoor play has not been examined. This study examined whether there is an association between temperament and outdoor play in young children. Healthy children aged 1 to 5 years recruited to The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!), a community-based primary care research network, from July 2008 to September 2013 were included. Parent-reported child temperament was assessed using the Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Outdoor free play and other potential confounding variables were assessed through validated questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between temperament and outdoor play, adjusted for potential confounders. There were 3393 children with data on outdoor play. The association between negative affectivity and outdoor play was moderated by sex; in boys, for every 1-point increase in negative affectivity score, mean outdoor play decreased by 4.7 minutes per day. There was no significant association in girls. Surgency was associated with outdoor play; for every 1-point increase in surgency/extraversion, outdoor play increased by 4.6 minutes per day. Young children's temperamental characteristics were associated with their participation in outdoor free play. Consideration of temperament could enhance interventions and strategies to increase outdoor play in young children. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between children's early temperament and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inverse associations of outdoor activity and vitamin D intake with the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Liu, Gui-you; Lv, Zheng; Wen, Shi-rong; Bi, Sheng; Wang, Wei-zhi

    2014-10-01

    Early studies had suggested that vitamin D intake was inversely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. However, the associations of vitamin D intake and outdoor activities with Parkinson's disease (PD) are still unclear, so this study is to evaluate these relationships from a case-control study in elderly Chinese. The study population involved 209 cases with new onsets of PD and 210 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. The data on dietary vitamin D and outdoor activities were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary outdoor activities, vitamin D intake and PD. Adjustment was made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for PD in quartiles for outdoor physical activity were 1 (reference), 0.739 (0.413, 1.321), 0.501 (0.282, 0.891), and 0.437 (0.241, 0.795), respectively (P=0.002 for trend). Adjusted ORs for PD in quartiles for total vitamin D intake were 1 (reference), 0.647 (0.357, 1.170), 0.571 (0.318, 1.022), and 0.538 (0.301, 0.960), respectively (P=0.011 for trend). Our study suggested that outdoor activity and total vitamin D intake were inversely associated with PD, and outdoor activity seems to be more significantly associated with decreased risk for PD.

  10. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM. However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma, aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5. An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3 for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08 in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41 in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32 in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04, but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10 levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma.

  11. Outdoor time is associated with physical activity, sedentary time, and cardiorespiratory fitness in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lee; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Majumdar, Sumit R; Mollard, Rebecca; Woo, Meaghan; Sadman, Rashik; Rinaldi, Randi Lynn; Boulé, Normand; Torrance, Brian; Ball, Geoff D C; Veugelers, Paul; Wozny, Paul; McCargar, Linda; Downs, Shauna; Lewanczuk, Richard; Gleddie, Douglas; McGavock, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether time spent outdoors was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and related health benefits in youth. We performed a cross-sectional study of 306 youth aged 13.6 ± 1.4 years. The exposure of interest was self-reported time spent outdoors after school, stratified into three categories: none, some, and most/all of the time. The main outcome of interest was accelerometer-derived MVPA (Actical: 1500 to >6500 counts/min). Secondary outcomes included sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, overweight status, and blood pressure. Among the 306 youth studied, those who reported spending most/all of their after-school time outdoors (n = 120) participated in more MVPA (61.0 ± 24.3 vs 39.9 ± 19.1 min/day; adjusted P outdoors (n = 52). No differences in overweight/obesity or blood pressure were observed across the groups. Time spent outdoors is positively associated with MVPA and cardiorespiratory fitness in youth and negatively associated with sedentary behavior. Experimental trials are needed to determine whether strategies designed to increase time spent outdoors exert a positive influence on physical activity and fitness levels in youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Who children spend time with after school: associations with objectively recorded indoor and outdoor physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding how the determinants of behaviour vary by context may support the design of interventions aiming to increase physical activity. Such factors include independent mobility, time outdoors and the availability of other children. At present little is known about who children spend their time with after school, how this relates to time spent indoors or outdoors and activity in these locations. This study aimed to quantify who children spend their time with when indoors or outdoors and associations with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Participants were 427 children aged 10–11 from Bristol, UK. Physical activity was recorded using an accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M) and matched to Global Positioning System receiver (Garmin Foretrex 201) data to differentiate indoor and outdoor location. Children self-reported who they spent time with after school until bed-time using a diary. Each 10 second epoch was coded as indoors or outdoors and for ‘who with’ (alone, friend, brother/sister, mum/dad, other grown-up) creating 10 possible physical activity contexts. Time spent and MVPA were summarised for each context. Associations between time spent in the different contexts and MVPA were examined using multiple linear regression adjusting for daylight, age, deprivation and standardised body mass index. Results During the after school period, children were most often with their mum/dad or alone, especially when indoors. When outdoors more time was spent with friends (girls: 32.1%; boys: 28.6%) than other people or alone. Regression analyses suggested hours outdoors with friends were positively associated with minutes of MVPA for girls (beta-coefficient [95% CI]: 17.4 [4.47, 30.24]) and boys (17.53 [2.76, 32.31]). Being outdoors with brother/sister was associated with MVPA for girls (21.2 [14.17, 28.25]) but not boys. Weaker associations were observed for time indoors with friends (girls: 4.61 [1.37, 7.85]; boys: (7.42 [2.99, 11

  13. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don, E-mail: lee.sangdon@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Viani, Brian [Simbol Mining Corp., Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States); Drake, John [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); MacKinney, John [U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  14. Radiological dispersal device outdoor simulation test: Cesium chloride particle characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don; Snyder, Emily G.; Willis, Robert; Fischer, Robert; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Sutton, Mark; Viani, Brian; Drake, John; MacKinney, John

    2010-01-01

    Particles were generated from the detonation of simulated radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) using non-radioactive CsCl powder and explosive C4. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles were characterized. Two RDD simulation tests were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: one of the simulated RDDs was positioned 1 m above a steel plate and the other was partially buried in soil. Particles were collected with filters at a distance of 150 m from the origin of the RDD device, and particle mass concentrations were monitored to identify the particle plume intensity using real time particle samplers. Particles collected on filters were analyzed via computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (CCSEM/EDX) to determine their size distribution, morphology, and chemical constituents. This analysis showed that particles generated by the detonation of explosives can be associated with other materials (e.g., soil) that are in close proximity to the RDD device and that the morphology and chemical makeup of the particles change depending on the interactions of the RDD device with the surrounding materials.

  15. Cross sectional associations of screen time and outdoor play with social skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Brown, Helen; Carson, Valerie; Teychenne, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Screen time and physical activity behaviours develop during the crucial early childhood period (0-5 years) and impact multiple health and developmental outcomes, including psychosocial wellbeing. Social skills, one component of psychosocial wellbeing, are vital for children's school readiness and future mental health. This study investigates potential associations of screen time and outdoor play (as a proxy for physical activity) with social skills. Cross sectional data were available for 575 mothers with a child (54% boys) aged 2-5 years. Mothers reported their child's screen time, outdoor play time and social skills (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASBI). Multiple linear regression analyses assessed associations of screen and outdoor play time (Model 1) and compliance with screen time and physical activity recommendations (Model 2) with three ASBI subscales. Boys and girls spent a mean of 2.0 and 2.2 hours per day in screen time, and 3.3 and 2.9 hours per day in outdoor play, respectively. Girls scores for express and comply skills were significantly higher than boys (p<0.005). After applying the Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure to adjust for multiple associations, children's television/DVD/video viewing was inversely associated with their compliant scores (B = -0.35 95% CI -0.26, -0.14; p = 0.001) and outdoor play time was positively associated with both expressive (B = 0.20 95% CI 0.07, 0.34; p = 0.004) and compliant (B = 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.36; p = 0.002) scores. Findings indicate that television/DVD/video viewing may be adversely, and outdoor play favourably, associated with preschool children's social skills. Future research is required to identify the direction of causation and explore potential mechanisms of association.

  16. Review Analysis of the Association between the Prevalence of Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Outdoor Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is important for regulating body weight. Environmental temperature influences BAT activation. Activated BAT is identifiable using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F18-FDG PET/CT. F18-FDG PET/CT scans done between June 2005 and May 2009 in our institution in tropical southern Taiwan and BAT studies from PubMed (2002–2011 were reviewed, and the average outdoor temperatures during the study periods were obtained. A simple linear regression was used to analyze the association between the prevalence of activated BAT (P and the average outdoor temperature (T. The review analysis for 9 BAT studies (n=16,765 showed a significant negative correlation (r=-0.741, P=0.022 between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature. The equation of the regression line is P(%=6.99−0.20×T  (C∘. The prevalence of activated BAT decreased by 1% for each 5C∘ increase in average outdoor temperature. In a neutral ambient temperature, the prevalence of activated BAT is low and especially rare in the tropics. There is a significant linear negative correlation between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature.

  17. State-of-the-art methods for testing materials outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, computers, sensors, microelectronics, and communication technologies have made it possible to automate the way materials are tested in the field. It is now possible to purchase monitoring equipment to measure weather and materials properties. The measurement of materials response often requires innovative approaches and added expense, but the...

  18. Associations Between Parent-Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Encouragement and Child Outdoor Physical Activity Among Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Salahuddin, Meliha; Butte, Nancy F; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of research has examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and parental encouragement for child physical activity (PA), yet these potential predictors have not been studied together to predict child outdoor PA. The purpose of this study is to examine these predictors and parent- and child-reported child outdoor PA. The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study collected data from fifth-grade students attending 31 elementary schools across Austin and Houston and their parents (N = 748 parent-child dyads). Mixed-effects linear and logistic regressions stratified by gender and adjusted for sociodemographic covariates assessed associations among parental-perceived neighborhood safety, parental encouragement for child's outdoor PA, and parent- and child-reported child's outdoor PA. Parental-perceived neighborhood safety was significantly associated with encouraging outdoor PA (P = .01) and child-reported child's outdoor PA in boys, but not in girls. Significant associations were found between parental encouragement and child-reported outdoor PA for girls (P < .05) and parent-reported outdoor PA (P < .01) for boys and girls. Parent encouragement of PA and neighborhood safety are potential predictors of child outdoor PA and could be targeted in youth PA interventions.

  19. Cross sectional associations of screen time and outdoor play with social skills in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    Screen time and physical activity behaviours develop during the crucial early childhood period (0–5 years) and impact multiple health and developmental outcomes, including psychosocial wellbeing. Social skills, one component of psychosocial wellbeing, are vital for children’s school readiness and future mental health. This study investigates potential associations of screen time and outdoor play (as a proxy for physical activity) with social skills. Cross sectional data were available for 575 mothers with a child (54% boys) aged 2–5 years. Mothers reported their child’s screen time, outdoor play time and social skills (Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASBI). Multiple linear regression analyses assessed associations of screen and outdoor play time (Model 1) and compliance with screen time and physical activity recommendations (Model 2) with three ASBI subscales. Boys and girls spent a mean of 2.0 and 2.2 hours per day in screen time, and 3.3 and 2.9 hours per day in outdoor play, respectively. Girls scores for express and comply skills were significantly higher than boys (poutdoor play time was positively associated with both expressive (B = 0.20 95% CI 0.07, 0.34; p = 0.004) and compliant (B = 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.36; p = 0.002) scores. Findings indicate that television/DVD/video viewing may be adversely, and outdoor play favourably, associated with preschool children’s social skills. Future research is required to identify the direction of causation and explore potential mechanisms of association. PMID:29617366

  20. Testing and evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Stephen; Russler, Pat; Clipp, Brian; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Bennett, Matthew; Mauger, Jennifer; Church, William; Towles, Herman; MacCabe, Stephen; Webb, Jeffrey; Lupo, Jasper; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Dunn, Enrique; Leslie, Christopher; Welch, Greg

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes performance evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments. Applied Research Associates (ARA), as prime integrator on the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program, is developing a soldier-worn system to provide intuitive `heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a novel pose estimation capability, a helmet-mounted see-through display, and a wearable processing unit to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (e.g., navigation waypoints, sensor points of interest, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. We achieve accurate pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, terrain data, and computer-vision inputs. We leverage a helmet-mounted camera and custom computer vision algorithms to provide terrain-based measurements of absolute orientation (i.e., orientation of the helmet with respect to the earth). These orientation measurements, which leverage mountainous terrain horizon geometry and mission planning landmarks, enable our system to operate robustly in the presence of external and body-worn magnetic disturbances. Current field testing activities across a variety of mountainous environments indicate that we can achieve high icon geo-registration accuracy (<10mrad) using these vision-based methods.

  1. Acute Associations Between Outdoor Temperature and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ambient temperatures have been linked to preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes is a common precursor to preterm birth but is rarely studied in relation to temperature. We linked 15,381 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes from a nationwide US obstetrics cohort (2002-2008) to local temperature. Case-crossover analyses compared daily temperature during the week preceding delivery and the day of delivery to 2 control periods, before and after the case period. Conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of preterm and term premature rupture of membranes for a 1°C increase in temperature during the warm (May-September) and cold (October-April) season separately after adjusting for humidity, barometric pressure, ozone, and particulate matter. During the warm season, 1°C increase during the week before delivery was associated with a 5% (95% CI, 3%, 6%) increased preterm premature rupture of membranes risk, and a 4% (95% CI, 3%, 5%) increased term premature rupture of membranes risk. During the cold season, 1°C increase was associated with a 2% decreased risk for both preterm (95% CI, 1%, 3%) and term premature rupture of membranes (95% CI, 1%, 3%). The day-specific associations for the week before delivery were similar, but somewhat stronger for days closer to delivery. Relatively small ambient temperature changes were associated with the risk of both preterm and term premature of membranes. Given the adverse consequences of premature rupture of membranes and concerns over global climate change, these findings merit further investigation. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B312.

  2. Environmental lead exposure risks associated with children's outdoor playgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Camenzuli, Danielle; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Forbes, Miriam; Zahran, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines exposure risks associated with lead smelter emissions at children's public playgrounds in Port Pirie, South Australia. Lead and other metal values were measured in air, soil, surface dust and on pre- and post-play hand wipes. Playgrounds closest to the smelter were significantly more lead contaminated compared to those further away (t(27.545) = 3.76; p = .001). Port Pirie post-play hand wipes contained significantly higher lead loadings (maximum hand lead value of 49,432 μg/m 2 ) than pre-play hand wipes (t(27) = 3.57, p = .001). A 1% increase in air lead (μg/m 3 ) was related to a 0.713% increase in lead dust on play surfaces (95% CI, 0.253–1.174), and a 0.612% increase in post-play wipe lead (95% CI, 0.257–0.970). Contaminated dust from smelter emissions is determined as the source and cause of childhood lead poisoning at a rate of approximately one child every third day. -- Highlights: •Spatial and temporal variations in lead exposure due to smelter emissions is examined. •Exposure to lead and other metals is evaluated using pre and post-play hand wipe measures. •The relationship of smelter emissions to surface and hand lead exposures is modelled. •A 1% increase in air lead (μg/m 3 ) was related to a 0.713% increase in lead dust on play surfaces. -- Playgrounds in Port Pirie are seriously contaminated by smelter emissions, with levels of surface dust and hand dust that pose a significant risk of harm to human health

  3. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanwalleghem, Joachim; De Baere, Ives; Van Paepegem, Wim; Loccufier, Mia

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand–arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle–cyclist contact points. (paper)

  4. Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Labrèche, France; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Brand, Allan; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers' Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers.

  5. Association between indoor and outdoor air pollution and adolescent asthma from 1995 to 1996 in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.N.; Ko, Y.C.; Chao, Y.Y.; Huang, C.C.; Lin, R.S.

    1999-10-01

    The study aim was to estimate the contribution of indoor and outdoor air pollution to the 1-year prevalence of adolescent asthma after personal susceptibility and other potential risk factors were taken into account. A large-scaled cross-sectional study was conducted among 165,173 high school students aged 11 to 16 years in the different communities of Kaohsiung and Pintong in Taiwan, from October 1995 to June 1996. Each student and his/her parents participating in the study completed a video and a written International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire about symptoms of wheezing and allergies, passive smoking, and demographic variables. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents exposed to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke were found to suffer from asthma at an increased frequency. The authors observed a statistically significant association between outdoor air pollution and asthma, after controlling for potential confound variables. Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and airborne dust particles all displayed an independent association with asthma, respectively. There were no selection biases in this community-based study, which provides evidence that passive smoking and long-term, high average outdoor air pollution are independent risk factors of asthma.

  6. Real-time and accelerated outdoor endurance testing of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Anagnostou, E.

    1977-01-01

    Real-time and accelerated outdoor endurance testing was performed on a variety of samples of interest to the National Photovoltaic Conversion Program. The real-time tests were performed at seven different sites and the accelerated tests were performed at one of those sites in the southwestern United States. The purpose of the tests were to help evaluate the lifetime of photovoltaic systems. Three types of samples were tested; transmission samples of possible cover materials, sub-modules constructed using these materials attached to solar cells, and solar cell modules produced by the manufacturers for the ERDA program. Results indicate that suitable cover materials are glass, FEP-A and PFA. Dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors in the selection of solar cell module covers and encapsulants.

  7. Testing low cost OEM CO2 sensors for outdoor ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, C. M.; Risk, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    IR (Infrared) gas sensors are used extensively in CO2 research but price and power requirement often limits low-cost distributed sensing. In the past three years, sensors have been introduced to the industrial market at prices as low as $100 US for air-handling and automotive application. These inexpensive sensors are small in size, and have low power demand making them potentially ideal for low-cost distributed deployments. However, the sensors are only tested and calibrated for indoor use and for industrial standards and may not show their true potential for outdoor ecological studies. This poster summarizes the results of a sensor inter-comparison test, to document functionality, response time, electrical noise, precision, and accuracy, under varying moistures and temperatures broadly representative of a wide range of outdoor settings. The three selected sensors were placed in a closed loop system with a valving system using a LiCor Li-7000 as reference, controlled by a CR1000 datalogger that controlled CO2 and moisture concentrations content within the cell on the basis of LiCor readings. To achieve different temperatures, the tests were repeated at room temperature, inside a freezer (-18°C) and incubator (40°C). The tests involved repeatedly stepping the sensors from 2000 ppm CO2 to 400 ppm CO2 in 200 ppm or 400 ppm increments, at various moisture contents, and under the various temperature regimes. Vaisala 222 and 343 sensors were also part of the test group as comparators, as both are used widely in ecological research. The OEM sensors displayed good linearity, fast response time, and results comparable to Vaisala probes. In most cases the sensors performed beyond our expectations with notably less electrical noise than the Vaisala sensors and excellent power thriftiness. Some sensors showed better response to extreme moisture and temperature conditions. Provided that suitable protective embodiments were built around them, and that they are deployed in an

  8. Effects of the pyrethroid insecticide gamma-cyhalothrin on aquatic invertebrates in laboratory and outdoor microcosm tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Barber, I.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of a range of freshwater lentic invertebrates to gamma-cyhalothrin (GCH), a single enantiomer of the synthetic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, was assessed in single species laboratory tests and an outdoor multi-species ecosystem test. The most sensitive species in the laboratory

  9. Dog walking is associated with more outdoor play and independent mobility for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Trapp, Georgina; Villanueva, Karen; Zubrick, Stephen R; Koekemoer, Rachelle; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-10-01

    Dog ownership is positively associated with children's physical activity. It is plausible that dog-facilitated activity rather than dog ownership per se encourages children's physical activity behaviors. We examined relationships between dog walking and children's physical activity, and outdoor play and independent mobility. Cross-sectional survey data from the 2007 Perth (Western Australia) TRavel, Environment, and Kids (TREK) project were analyzed for 727 10-12 year olds with a family dog. Weekly minutes of overall physical activity and walking, local walking and outdoor play were collected from children and parents. Children's weekly pedometer steps were measured. Independent mobility was determined by active independent travel to 15 local destinations. Overall, 55% of children walked their dog. After adjustment, more dog walkers than non-dog walkers walked in the neighborhood (75% vs. 47%), played in the street (60% vs. 45%) and played in the yard (91% vs. 84%) (all p ≤ 0.05). Dog walkers were more independently mobile than non-dog walkers (p ≤ 0.001). Dog walking status was not associated with overall physical activity, walking, or pedometer steps (p>0.05). Dog-facilitated play and physical activity can be an effective strategy for increasing children's physical activity. Dog walking may provide a readily accessible and safe option for improving levels of independent mobility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Elementary Science Education in Classrooms and Outdoors: Stakeholder Views, Gender, Ethnicity, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Thomson, Margareta M.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a mixed-methods study of 2 schools' elementary science programs including outdoor instruction specific to each school's culture. We explore fifth-grade students in measures of science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels including gender and ethnic differences. We further examine students'…

  11. Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality? A cohort study based on iron-ore mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2016-01-01

    A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models were used to generate smoothed estimates of standardized mortality ratios and adjusted rate ratios, both models by cumulative exposure time in outdoor work. The adjusted rate ratio between employment classified as outdoor work ≥25 years and outdoor work 0-4 years was 1.62 (95 % CI 1.07-2.42). The subgroup underground work ≥15 years deviated most in occurrence of cerebrovascular disease mortality compared with the external reference population: SMR (0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.85)). Employment in outdoor environments was associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality. In contrast, work in tempered underground employment was associated with a protecting effect.

  12. Evaluating weather factors and material response during outdoor exposure to determine accelerated test protocols for predicting service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2005-01-01

    To develop service life prediction methods for the study of sealants, a fully instrumented weather station was installed at an outdoor test site near Madison, WI. Temperature, relative humidiy, rainfall, ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 18 wavelengths, and wind speed and direction are being continuously measured and stored. The weather data can be integrated over time to...

  13. Watching reality television beauty shows is associated with tanning lamp use and outdoor tanning among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Krausz, Faye

    2013-05-01

    Ultraviolet radiation exposure through natural sunlight or tanning lamps is a risk factor for skin cancer. As the media can influence behavior, we studied whether watching reality television (TV) beauty shows is associated with tanning lamp use or outdoor tanning. College students (n = 576) were surveyed on their reality TV beauty show watching, their use of tanning lamps, and outdoor tanning behavior. We asked media attitude questions about connectivity with reality TV shows and Internet use of Facebook to discuss reality TV shows. Those who did versus did not watch reality TV beauty shows used tanning lamps (12.9% vs 3.7%, P < .001) and tanned outdoors (43.3% vs 28.7%, P < .001) at significantly greater percentages. Significant predictors of tanning lamp use included watching reality TV beauty shows (odds ratio [OR] 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-6.00), increasing age (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.32), and female sex (OR 10.16, 95% CI 3.29-31.41). Significant predictors of outdoor tanning included watching reality TV beauty shows (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.33-3.34). The specific names of the reality TV beauty shows watched were not obtained and therefore we cannot determine if particular shows were more or less associated with this behavior. Watching reality TV beauty shows is associated with both tanning lamp use and outdoor tanning. Dermatologists should consider discussing the potential harmful aspects of tanning beds and outdoor tanning, especially with their patients who watch reality TV beauty shows. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing of a new morphing trailing edge flap system on a novel outdoor rotating test rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barlas, Athanasios; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The morphing trailing edge system or flap system, CRTEF, has been developed over the last 10 years at DTU Wind Energy. After a promising wind tunnel test of the system in 2009 the INDUFLAP project has been carried out from 2011-2014 to transfer the technology from laboratory to industrial...... manufacturing and application. To narrow the gap between wind tunnel testing and full scale prototype testing we developed the rotating test rig. The overall objectives with the rotating test rig are: 1) to test the flap system in a realistic rotating environment with a realistic g-loading; 2) to measure...... the flap performance in real turbulent inflow and 3) to test the flap system in a realistic size and Reynolds number when comparing with full scale applications.. The rotating test rig consists of a 2.2m blade section attached to a 10m boom and mounted on a 100kW turbine platform. It was installed in June...

  15. The association of outdoor vegetation with ADHD-related behavior among children living in an urban community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Emerging research supports potential benefits of green space on children's behavior. Methods: We evaluated the cross-sectional association of outdoor vegetation (OV) and distance to parks with ADHD-like behavior in 560 eight-year-olds from a prospective, sociodemogr...

  16. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  17. Semantic data association for planar features in outdoor 6D-SLAM using lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas, C.; Temeltas, H.

    2013-05-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is a fundamental problem of the autonomous systems in GPS (Global Navigation System) denied environments. The traditional probabilistic SLAM methods uses point features as landmarks and hold all the feature positions in their state vector in addition to the robot pose. The bottleneck of the point-feature based SLAM methods is the data association problem, which are mostly based on a statistical measure. The data association performance is very critical for a robust SLAM method since all the filtering strategies are applied after a known correspondence. For point-features, two different but very close landmarks in the same scene might be confused while giving the correspondence decision when their positions and error covariance matrix are solely taking into account. Instead of using the point features, planar features can be considered as an alternative landmark model in the SLAM problem to be able to provide a more consistent data association. Planes contain rich information for the solution of the data association problem and can be distinguished easily with respect to point features. In addition, planar maps are very compact since an environment has only very limited number of planar structures. The planar features does not have to be large structures like building wall or roofs; the small plane segments can also be used as landmarks like billboards, traffic posts and some part of the bridges in urban areas. In this paper, a probabilistic plane-feature extraction method from 3DLiDAR data and the data association based on the extracted semantic information of the planar features is introduced. The experimental results show that the semantic data association provides very satisfactory result in outdoor 6D-SLAM.

  18. Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Reduced Forced Vital Capacity: A Study Using Personal Monitors for Outdoor Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Paula Santos

    Full Text Available The effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function in adults are still controversial.Evaluate the effects of exposure to different levels of traffic-generated PM2.5 on workers' lung functions in São Paulo, Brazil.To cover a wide range of exposures, 101 non-smoking workers from three occupations (taxi drivers, traffic controllers, and forest rangers were selected for the study. After clinical evaluation, the participants were scheduled to attend four consecutive weekly visits in which they received a 24-hour personal PM2.5 sampler and had lung function tests measured on the following day. The association between the spirometric variables and the averaged PM2.5 levels was assessed using robust regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, time at the job, daily work hours, diabetes or hypertension and former smoking habits.Relative to workers in the lowest exposed group (all measures 39.6 μg/m3 showed a reduction of predicted FVC (-12.2%; CI 95%: [-20.0% to -4.4%], a marginal reduction of predicted FEV1 (-9.1%; CI 95%: [-19.1% to 0.9%] and an increase of predicted FEF25-75%/FVC (14.9%; CI 95%: [2.9% to 26.8%] without changes of FEV1/FVC.Exposure to vehicular traffic air pollution is associated with a small but significant reduction of FVC without a reduction of FEV1/FVC.

  19. Testing tools for outdoor recreation, environmental education, and stewardship: Allowing children to choose the rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Baird; Logan O. Park

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in natural settings enhances learning, promotes early childhood development, and makes use of protected natural areas. Unfortunately, many schoolchildren, especially from economically disadvantaged areas, lack support for environmental education (EE) to develop skills and attitudes that increase rates of appropriate outdoor behaviors. Improved access...

  20. Classification of soft-shell materials for leisure outdoor jackets by clo defined from thermal properties testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesinova, P.; Steklova, P.; Duchacova, T.

    2017-10-01

    Materials for outdoor activities are produced in various combinations and lamination helps to combine two or more components for gaining high comfort properties and lighten the structure. Producers can choose exact suitable material for construction of part or set of so called layered clothing for expected activity. Decreasing the weight of materials when preserving of high quality of water-vapour permeability, wind resistivity and hydrostatic resistivity and other comfort and usage properties is a big task nowadays. This paper is focused on thermal properties as an important parameter for being comfort during outdoor activities. Softshell materials were chosen for testing and computation of clo. Results compared with standardised clo table helps us to classify thermal insulation of the set of fabrics when defining proper clothing category.

  1. Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

    2011-01-01

    Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

  2. Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality? : a cohort study based on iron-ore mining

    OpenAIRE

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. METHODS: This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models wer...

  3. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Nasser, Wissam; Abou Abbas, Linda; Elias, Elias; Leveque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000-2013) was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m(3), PM10 = 20 μg/m(3)). We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Outdoor particulate matter (PM and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina Nasser

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM, as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000–2013 was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m3, PM10 = 20 μg/m3. We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases.

  5. Environmentally Sustainable Practices among College Outdoor Programs and Their Association with Organizational Support Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauman, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has gained increasing importance amongst both academic research and organizational practice over the past two decades (Davis & Challenger, 2014). The primary purpose of this study was to examine environmentally sustainable practices among college outdoor programs, while also examining how college level policy and infrastructural…

  6. Response of archaeal and bacterial soil communities to changes associated with outdoor cattle overwintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Schloter-Hai, B.; Radl, V.; Endesfelder, D.; Quince, Ch.; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Schloter, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), e0135627 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA ČR GA526/09/1570; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13046 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : archaea * bacteria * soil * outdoor cattle overwintering Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  7. Associations of maternal influences with outdoor play and screen time of two-year-olds: Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate if maternal influences are associated with children's outdoor playtime and screen time at the age of 2 years. A cross-sectional study with 497 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia during 2007-2010. Maternal influences included their own physical activity and screen time, television rules for their child, perceived neighbourhood environment, parental self-efficacy and parenting style (warmth and hostility). Children's outdoor playtime, screen time and maternal influences were collected through face-to-face interviews with participating mothers when the children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between maternal influences and children's outdoor play and screen time. Mothers with low levels of parental hostility and high perceived safe outdoor play environment were more likely to have children playing outdoor for ≥ 2 h/day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68-4.20, P maternal influences were independently associated with children's outdoor play or screen time at an early stage of life. Therefore, different intervention strategies are needed to increase children's outdoor playtime and decrease their screen time. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  9. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  10. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering

    OpenAIRE

    Chro??kov?, Alica; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Radl, Viviane; Endesfelder, David; Quince, Christopher; Elhottov?, Dana; ?imek, Miloslav; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI) and long-term impact (17 years; LTI), one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG) and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON). Cattle manure (CMN), the source of...

  11. Profiles of Nature Exposure and Outdoor Activities Associated With Occupational Well-Being Among Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvönen, Katriina; Törnroos, Kaisa; Salonen, Kirsi; Korpela, Kalevi; Feldt, Taru; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    This research addresses the profiles of nature exposure and outdoor activities in nature among Finnish employees (N = 783). The profiles were formed on the bases of nature exposure at work and the frequency and type of outdoor activities in nature engaged in during leisure time. The profiles were investigated in relation to work engagement and burnout. The latent profile analysis identified a five-class solution as the best model: High exposure (8%), Versatile exposure (22%), Unilateral exposure (38%), Average exposure (13%), and Low exposure (19%). An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for each well-being outcome in order to evaluate how the identified profiles related to occupational well-being. Participants with a High, Versatile, or Unilateral exposure profile reported significantly higher work engagement in the dimensions of vigor and dedication than did the participants with a Low exposure profile. The participants with the High exposure profile also reported lower burnout in the dimensions of cynicism and professional inadequacy than the participants with the Low exposure profile. Nature exposure during the workday and leisure time is an under researched but important aspect in promoting occupational well-being. PMID:29867699

  12. Is outdoor use of the six-minute walk test with a global positioning system in stroke patients' own neighbourhoods reproducible and valid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.E.; Kwakkel, G.; van de Port, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the reproducibility, responsiveness and concurrent validity of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) when tested outdoors in patients' own neighbourhoods using a global positioning system (GPS) or a measuring wheel. Methods: A total of 27 chronic stroke patients, discharged to their

  13. Real test-bed studies at the ETH House of Natural Resources – wood surface protection for outdoor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for sustainable construction materials used in urban areas calls for novel wood protective coatings, which retain the natural appearance of wood while minimizing maintenance intervals. This work reports on three different wood surface modification processes and evaluates their protective effect against weathering after installation at a testing façade of the ETH House of Natural Resources (HoNR, a recently opened living lab located in Zürich, Switzerland. We monitored the discoloration upon outdoor exposure of subsequently improved generations of thin metal oxide coatings developed in our lab. We target almost transparent and durable coatings with water repellent properties to diminish discoloration due to UV light and biological attack. This should lead to wooden facades with increased reliability and thereby boost an enhanced utilization of the renewable and CO2 storing resource wood.

  14. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lesser, Lenard I; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Cohen, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on...

  15. The impact of mass transfer limitations on size distributions of particle associated SVOCs in outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Yinping [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Weschler, Charles J., E-mail: weschlch@rwjms.rutgers.edu [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); International Center for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-11-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition between the gas phase and airborne particles. The size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs impacts their fate in outdoor and indoor environments, as well as human exposure to these compounds and subsequent health risks. Allen et al. (1996) previously proposed that the rate of mass transfer can impact polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) partitioning among different sized particles, especially for time scales relevant to urban aerosols. The present study quantitatively builds on this idea, presenting a model that incorporates dynamic SVOC/particle interaction and applying this model to typical outdoor and indoor scenarios. The model indicates that the impact of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of a particle-associated SVOC can be evaluated by the ratio of the time to achieve gas–particle equilibrium relative to the residence time of particles. The higher this ratio, the greater the influence of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs. The influence of such constraints is largest on the fraction of particle-associated SVOCs in the coarse mode (> 2 μm). Predictions from the model have been found to be in reasonable agreement with size distributions measured for PAHs at roadside and suburban locations in Japan. The model also quantitatively explains shifts in the size distributions of particle associated SVOCs compared to those for particle mass, and the manner in which these shifts vary with temperature and an SVOC's molecular weight. - Highlights: • Rate of mass transfer can impact SVOC partitioning among different sized particles. • Model was developed that incorporates dynamic SVOC/particle sorption. • Key parameters: mass-transfer coefficients, partition coefficient, residence time • Model explains observed SVOC size distribution shifts with temperature and MW. • Largest impact of mass transfer constraints: SVOC sorption to coarse

  16. Internal roosting location is associated with differential use of the outdoor range by free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, I C; Weeks, C A; Norman, K I; Knowles, T G; Nicol, C J

    2018-04-01

    1. In commercial free-range systems for laying hens, popholes to the outdoor range are often installed on one side of the house only. In multi-tier systems, it is possible that some individuals fail to access the range due to internal barriers to movement. 2. Five commercial multi-tier flocks from different units were studied. For each flock, two different colour markers were used to distinguish 200 birds roosting near the popholes (NP-Roost) and 200 birds roosting far from the popholes (FP-Roost) at night. The following day, counts of marked birds on the range and inside the house were performed. 3. Significantly more NP-Roost birds were observed in all areas of the outdoor range than FP-Roost birds the next day. Distance of FP area from the popholes was very strongly positively correlated with effect size in the adjacent range area. 4. Additionally, in the indoor area far from the popholes (FP) more FP-Roost birds were observed the next day than NP-Roost birds. In the indoor area near to the popholes (NP) more NP-Roost birds were observed the next day than FP-Roost birds. 5. These results suggest that roosting location is associated with differential range use when popholes are only available on one side of the shed as birds that roosted far from the popholes used the range less.

  17. [Outdoor activity and myopia among 681 primary students in urban and rural regions of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Liu, Lijuan; Xu, Liang; Lü, Yanyun; Tang, Ping; Feng, Yi

    2014-01-21

    To explore the association between outdoor activity and myopia among 681 primary students from Beijing. School-based, cross-sectional investigation. Eye examination includes the visual acuity test, auto-refractor, slit lamp, ocular biometry and non-mydriatic fundus camera. Questionnaire includes regular items, near work, outdoor activity and social-economic status. The mean time spent outdoors was 1.6 ± 0.8 hours daily. Time spent on outdoor sports and outdoor leisure were 0.7 ± 0.1 hours daily, 1.0 ± 0.8 hours daily, respectively. Mean time of outdoor activity in urban was 1.1 ± 0.4 hours daily, compared with 2.2 ± 0.8 hours daily in rural (P = 0.000). In grade-1, total time spent outdoors is significantly different between myopia and non-myopia (1.4 ± 0.6 vs 1.8 ± 0.8 hours daily, P = 0.000), similar to outdoor leisure (0.8 ± 0.6 vs 1.1 ± 0.9 hours daily, P = 0.000). The same trend was also found in grade-4. The mean time spent outdoors was 1.6 ± 0.8 hours daily. Myopia spent a lower outdoor activity compared with non-myopia. More outdoor activity, e.g., in schools, may potentially be helpful to reduce the high prevalence of myopia in the young generation.

  18. Expanding Our Horizons. Wilderness Education Association Proceedings of the National Conference on Outdoor Leadership (Estes Park, Colorado, February 18-20, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Hayashi, Aya, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of the Wilderness Education Association's 2005 National Conference on Outdoor Leadership. Following a brief history of the Wilderness Education Association (WEA), 21 conference papers are presented. Topics of the conference papers include: wilderness education curriculum, programs, history, environmental…

  19. Outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8–25 percent). The activity projected to...

  20. Is outdoor use of the six-minute walk test with a global positioning system in stroke patients' own neighbourhoods reproducible and valid?

    OpenAIRE

    Wevers, L.E.; Kwakkel, G.; Port, van de, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the reproducibility, responsiveness and concurrent validity of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) when tested outdoors in patients' own neighbourhoods using a global positioning system (GPS) or a measuring wheel. Methods: A total of 27 chronic stroke patients, discharged to their own homes, were tested twice, within 5 consecutive days. The 6MWT was conducted using a GPS and an measuring wheel simultaneously to determine walking distance. Reproducibility was determined as te...

  1. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Chroňáková

    Full Text Available Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI and long-term impact (17 years; LTI, one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON. Cattle manure (CMN, the source of allochthonous microbes, was collected from the same area. We used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to assess the composition of archaeal and bacterial communities in each soil type and CMN. Both short- and long- term cattle impact negatively altered archaeal and bacterial diversity, leading to increase of homogenization of microbial communities in overwintering soils over time. Moreover, strong shifts in the prokaryotic communities were observed in response to cattle overwintering, with the greatest impact on archaea. Oligotrophic and acidophilic microorganisms (e.g. Thaumarchaeota, Acidobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria dominated in CON and expressed strong negative response to increased pH, total C and N. Whereas copiotrophic and alkalophilic microbes (e.g. methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were common in LTI showing opposite trends. Crenarchaeota were also found in LTI, though their trophic interactions remain cryptic. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae indicated the introduction and establishment of faecal microbes into the impacted soils, while Chloroflexi and Methanosarcinaceae suggested increased abundance of soil-borne microbes under altered environmental conditions. The observed changes in prokaryotic community composition may have driven corresponding changes in soil functioning.

  2. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroňáková, Alica; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Radl, Viviane; Endesfelder, David; Quince, Christopher; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI) and long-term impact (17 years; LTI), one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG) and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON). Cattle manure (CMN), the source of allochthonous microbes, was collected from the same area. We used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to assess the composition of archaeal and bacterial communities in each soil type and CMN. Both short- and long- term cattle impact negatively altered archaeal and bacterial diversity, leading to increase of homogenization of microbial communities in overwintering soils over time. Moreover, strong shifts in the prokaryotic communities were observed in response to cattle overwintering, with the greatest impact on archaea. Oligotrophic and acidophilic microorganisms (e.g. Thaumarchaeota, Acidobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria) dominated in CON and expressed strong negative response to increased pH, total C and N. Whereas copiotrophic and alkalophilic microbes (e.g. methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) were common in LTI showing opposite trends. Crenarchaeota were also found in LTI, though their trophic interactions remain cryptic. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae indicated the introduction and establishment of faecal microbes into the impacted soils, while Chloroflexi and Methanosarcinaceae suggested increased abundance of soil-borne microbes under altered environmental conditions. The observed changes in prokaryotic community composition may have driven corresponding changes in soil functioning.

  3. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroňáková, Alica; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Radl, Viviane; Endesfelder, David; Quince, Christopher; Elhottová, Dana; Šimek, Miloslav; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI) and long-term impact (17 years; LTI), one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG) and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON). Cattle manure (CMN), the source of allochthonous microbes, was collected from the same area. We used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to assess the composition of archaeal and bacterial communities in each soil type and CMN. Both short- and long- term cattle impact negatively altered archaeal and bacterial diversity, leading to increase of homogenization of microbial communities in overwintering soils over time. Moreover, strong shifts in the prokaryotic communities were observed in response to cattle overwintering, with the greatest impact on archaea. Oligotrophic and acidophilic microorganisms (e.g. Thaumarchaeota, Acidobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria) dominated in CON and expressed strong negative response to increased pH, total C and N. Whereas copiotrophic and alkalophilic microbes (e.g. methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) were common in LTI showing opposite trends. Crenarchaeota were also found in LTI, though their trophic interactions remain cryptic. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae indicated the introduction and establishment of faecal microbes into the impacted soils, while Chloroflexi and Methanosarcinaceae suggested increased abundance of soil-borne microbes under altered environmental conditions. The observed changes in prokaryotic community composition may have driven corresponding changes in soil functioning. PMID:26274496

  4. Outdoor time and dietary patterns in children around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Mark S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Mikkilä, Vera; Hu, Gang; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; LeBlanc, Allana G

    2018-04-19

    Whether outdoor time is linked to dietary patterns of children has yet to be empirically tested. The objective of this study was to examine the association between outdoor time and dietary patterns of children from 12 countries around the world. This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6229 children 9-11 years of age. Children self-reported the time that they spent outside before school, after school and on weekends. A composite score was calculated to reflect overall daily outdoor time. Dietary patterns were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and two components were used for analysis: healthy and unhealthy dietary pattern scores. On average, children spent 2.5 h outside per day. After adjusting for age, sex, parental education, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, screen time and body mass index z-score, greater time spent outdoors was associated with healthier dietary pattern scores. No association was found between outdoor time and unhealthy dietary pattern scores. Similar associations between outdoor time and dietary patterns were observed for boys and girls and across study sites. Greater time spent outside was associated with a healthier dietary pattern in this international sample of children. Future research should aim to elucidate the mechanisms behind this association.

  5. Celebrating the Past--Creating Our Future. Wilderness Education Association National Conference on Outdoor Leadership Proceedings (Paul Smith, New York, January 23-25, 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawdy, Paul, Ed.; Luo, Ping, Ed.

    This proceedings of the 2003 Wilderness Education Association (WEA) conference contains 10 papers and presentation summaries on outdoor leadership, wilderness programs, and related training. Following a brief history of WEA, the entries are: (1) "Adventure Education and Rock 'n Roll: Sustaining the Revolution in Post-Communist Romania" (Dawn M.…

  6. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O.; Pilatowsky, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco, s/n, Colonia Centro, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Ruiz, V. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla, Espana (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design

  7. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Valladares, O.; Pilatowsky, I.; Ruiz, V.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design and

  8. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-06-18

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources.

  9. Associations between outdoor temperature and markers of inflammation: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanobetti Antonella

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between ambient temperature and cardiovascular mortality are well established. This study investigated whether inflammation could be part of the mechanism leading to temperature-related cardiovascular deaths. Methods The study population consisted of a cohort of 673 men with mean age of 74.6 years, living in the greater Boston area. They were seen for examination roughly every 4 years, and blood samples for inflammation marker analyses were drawn in 2000-2008 (total of 1254 visits. We used a mixed effects model to estimate the associations between ambient temperature and a variety of inflammation markers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukins -1β, -6 and -8. Random intercept for each subject and several possible confounders, including combustion-related air pollution and ozone, were used in the models. Results We found a 0 to 1 day lagged and up to 4 weeks cumulative responses in C-reactive protein in association with temperature. We observed a 24.9% increase [95% Confidence interval (CI: 7.36, 45.2] in C-reactive protein for a 5°C decrease in the 4 weeks' moving average of temperature. We observed similar associations also between temperature and soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (4.52%, 95% CI: 1.05, 8.10, over 4 weeks' moving average, and between temperature and soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (6.60%, 95% CI: 1.31, 12.2 over 4 weeks' moving average. Penalized spline models showed no deviation from linearity. There were no associations between temperature and other inflammation markers. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to decreased temperature is associated with an increase in inflammation marker levels among elderly men. This suggests that inflammation markers are part of intermediate processes, which may lead to cold-, but not heat-, related

  10. The Association of Outdoor Activity and Age-Related Cataract in a Rural Population of Taizhou Eye Study: Phase 1 Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Tang

    Full Text Available To study the relationship between outdoor activity and risk of age-related cataract (ARC in a rural population of Taizhou Eye Study (phrase 1 report.A population-based, cross-sectional study of 2006 eligible rural adults (≥45 years old from Taizhou Eye Study was conducted from Jul. to Sep. 2012. Participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations including uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, slit lamp and fundus examinations as well as questionnaires about previous outdoor activity and sunlight protection methods. ARC was recorded by LOCSⅢ classification system. The prevalence of cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract were assessed separately for the risk factors and its association with outdoor activity.Of all 2006 eligible participants, 883 (44.0% adults were diagnosed with ARC. The prevalence rates of cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract per person were 41.4%, 30.4% and 1.5%, respectively. Women had a higher tendency of nuclear and cortical cataract than men (OR = 1.559, 95% CI 1.204-2.019 and OR = 1.862, 95% CI 1.456-2.380, respectively. Adults with high myopia had a higher prevalence of nuclear cataract than adults without that (OR = 2.528, 95% CI 1.055-6.062. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that age was risk factor of nuclear (OR = 1.190, 95% CI 1.167-1.213 and cortical (OR = 1.203, 95% CI 1.181-1.226 cataract; eyes with fundus diseases was risk factor of posterior subcapsular cataract (OR = 6.529, 95% CI 2.512-16.970. Outdoor activity was an independent risk factor of cortical cataract (OR = 1.043, 95% CI 1.004-1.083. The risk of cortical cataract increased 4.3% (95% CI 0.4%-8.3% when outdoor activity time increased every one hour. Furthermore, the risk of cortical cataract increased 1.1% (95% CI 0.1%-2.0% when cumulative UV-B exposure time increased every one year.Outdoor activity was an independent risk factor for cortical

  11. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.C.M., E-mail: theo.brock@wur.nl [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bas, D.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belgers, J.D.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bibbe, L. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerwinkel, M-C.; Crum, S.J.H. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Diepens, N.J. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraak, M.H.S.; Vonk, J.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roessink, I. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • In outdoor microcosms constructed with lufenuron-spiked sediment we observed that this insecticide persistent in the sediment compartment. • Sediment exposure to lufenuron caused population-level declines (insects and crustaceans) and increases (mainly oligochaete worms) of benthic invertebrates. • The direct and indirect effects observed in the microcosms were supported by results of sediment-spiked single species tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus. • The tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms recommended by the European Food Safety Authority is protective for the treatment-related responses observed in the microcosm test. - Abstract: Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79 μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79 μg a.s./g OC. The treatment

  12. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  13. Evaluation of parameters associated with UV/EB cured clearcoats degradation used in outdoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Carmen Silvia Bentivoglio

    2003-01-01

    The materials curable by ultraviolet (UV) or electron beam (EB) radiation such as inks, adhesives and coatings are reactive compounds made up of resin, monomer, photoinitiator and additives which undergo polymerization and crosslinking under irradiation producing thermoset products. This technology has been used in a great variety of industrial applications, replacing the conventional curing process in the development of new products. One of the challenging applications has been to design weatherable radiation cured coating which maintain their desirable physical properties and aesthetic appearance. This research reports information about the behavior of four UV and EB curable clear coatings -with or without light stabilizer additives- under accelerated weathering. Thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, differential photo calorimetry, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy and tensile properties were used to evaluate these formulations. Clear coating 50 mum thick films were cured with UV and EB radiation at different doses. The UV curing process was carried out at room temperature using an UV tunnel, with a medium pressure mercury lamp and a transport belt with variable speed. The ultraviolet radiation doses were in the range of 50 to 1500 mJ cm -2 . The EB curing process was performed under N 2 atmosphere, with doses in the range from 1,6 to 300 kGy using the IPEN-CNEN/SP Dynamitron electron beam accelerator with energy of 1.5 MeV. The cure degree was determined by means of the residual reaction heat of the under cured samples obtained from photo-DSC or DSC measurements. The accelerated aging tests were carried out using a Weather-Ometer chamber with exposition times in the range of 100 to 3000 hours. The experimental data obtained from the photo-aged samples were evaluated and correlated to the formulation composition, type of radiation - UV or EB, radiation dose and residence time in the aging chamber. The results have shown that the EB cured films

  14. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  15. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical and thermal performance of large-size parabolic-trough solar collectors from outdoor experiments: A test method and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Loreto; López-Martín, Rafael; Zarza, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outdoor test method to evaluate the optical and thermal performance of parabolic-trough collectors of large size (length ≥ 100 m), similar to those currently installed in solar thermal power plants. Optical performance in line-focus collectors is defined by three parameters, peak-optical efficiency and longitudinal and transversal incidence angle modifiers. In parabolic-troughs, the transversal incidence angle modifier is usually assumed equal to 1, and the incidence angle modifier is referred to the longitudinal incidence angle modifier, which is a factor less than or equal to 1 and must be quantified. These measurements are performed by operating the collector at low fluid temperatures for reducing heat losses. Thermal performance is measured during tests at various operating temperatures, which are defined within the working temperature range of the solar field, and for the condition of maximum optical response. Heat losses are measured from both the experiments performed to measure the overall efficiency and the experiments done by operating the collector to ensure that absorber pipes are not exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The set of parameters describing the performance of a parabolic-trough collector of large size has been measured following the test procedures proposed and explained in the article. - Highlights: • Outdoor test procedures of parabolic-trough solar collector (PTC) of large size working at high temperature are described. • Optical performance measured with cold fluid temperature and thermal performance measured in the complete temperature range. • Experimental data obtained in the testing of a PTC prototype are explained

  17. The "F" Word: Feminism in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…

  18. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  19. Outdoor activities and depressive symptoms in displaced older adults following natural disaster: community cohesion as mediator and moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiau-Fang

    2016-09-01

    This investigation examined whether community cohesion mediates or moderates the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms in older adults displaced by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study included 292 adults aged 65 years or older who were relocated to permanent houses after Typhoon Morakot damaged their homes on 8th August 2009. Multiple regression analysis was applied to test the role of community cohesion on the association between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. The sample of displaced older adults displayed higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than the average for community dwelling older people in Taiwan. Community cohesion fully mediated the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Community cohesion also moderated the relationship between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Community cohesion occupies a key role on the link between outdoor activities and depressive symptoms. Participation in outdoor activities was associated positively with community cohesion, while high community cohesion was related negatively to depressive symptoms. Additionally, the benefit of outdoor activities to fewer depressive symptoms only manifested in older adults with high community cohesion. Programs and services should be designed to enhance community cohesion in order to maximize the benefit of outdoor activities to the mental health of displaced older adults after natural disasters.

  20. The Effect of Chlorides on the Correlation of Accelerated Laboratory Corrosion Tests to Out-Door Exposure Tests for Ceramics-Aluminum Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    approximately 2000 psi. (G-10 fiber glass) (G-10 fiber glass) Ceramic Coupon *Courtesy : George Hawthorn of Hawaii Corrosion Lab Outdoor Exposure Procedures...agricultural, and arid). • Hawaii’s climate is one of the most spatially diverse on Earth. Kahuku* Coconut Island* – Marine environment – Marine...T6 Al Kilauea Kahuku Coconut Island Manoa Campbell Waipahu Ewanui Mauna Loa C o rr o s io n r a te s a t th e i n te rf a c e r e g io n ( g m d

  1. OPATs: Omnibus P-value association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Wei; Yang, Hsin-Chou

    2017-07-10

    Combining statistical significances (P-values) from a set of single-locus association tests in genome-wide association studies is a proof-of-principle method for identifying disease-associated genomic segments, functional genes and biological pathways. We review P-value combinations for genome-wide association studies and introduce an integrated analysis tool, Omnibus P-value Association Tests (OPATs), which provides popular analysis methods of P-value combinations. The software OPATs programmed in R and R graphical user interface features a user-friendly interface. In addition to analysis modules for data quality control and single-locus association tests, OPATs provides three types of set-based association test: window-, gene- and biopathway-based association tests. P-value combinations with or without threshold and rank truncation are provided. The significance of a set-based association test is evaluated by using resampling procedures. Performance of the set-based association tests in OPATs has been evaluated by simulation studies and real data analyses. These set-based association tests help boost the statistical power, alleviate the multiple-testing problem, reduce the impact of genetic heterogeneity, increase the replication efficiency of association tests and facilitate the interpretation of association signals by streamlining the testing procedures and integrating the genetic effects of multiple variants in genomic regions of biological relevance. In summary, P-value combinations facilitate the identification of marker sets associated with disease susceptibility and uncover missing heritability in association studies, thereby establishing a foundation for the genetic dissection of complex diseases and traits. OPATs provides an easy-to-use and statistically powerful analysis tool for P-value combinations. OPATs, examples, and user guide can be downloaded from http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/association/OPATs.htm. © The Author 2017

  2. Associations between the proportion of Salmonella seropositive slaughter pigs and the presence of herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in 34 Danish organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, D.M.; Bonde, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the association between herd level risk factors for introduction and transmission of Salmonella in farms with three different production systems: organic, outdoor (non-organic) and indoor finishing-pig farms, and the presence of seropositive animals in the herds. Potential risk...... factors for Salmonella in the three pig production systems were identified through a literature review, and management information as well as serological data were collected in 34 pig farms: 11 organic farms, 12 outdoor farms, and 11 indoor farms. There were no general differences in the proportion...

  3. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  4. Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-03-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥ 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

  6. Association of outdoor air pollution with the prevalence of asthma in children of Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Pablo; Quaranta, Nancy; Reynoso, Julieta; Balbi, Brenda; Vasquez, Julia

    2017-12-06

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between asthma prevalence and outdoor air pollution in children in Latin America and the Caribbean. We searched studies in global and regional databases: PubMed, Scopus, LILACS and SciELO. Articles following a cross-sectional design, studying children from 0 to 18 years old, and comparing the prevalence of asthma in two or more areas of LAC countries with different air pollution levels were included. The exclusion criteria comprised air pollution not related to human activities. Database searches retrieved 384 records, while 20 studies were retained for qualitative and 16 for quantitative analysis, representing 48 442 children. We found a positive association, i.e. a higher prevalence of asthma in children living in a polluted environment, with pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.17-1.54). Heterogeneity between studies was moderate (I 2 : 68.39%), while the risk of bias was intermediate or high in 14 studies. In all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses, the pooled ORs were significant and higher than those found in the general analysis Conclusions: Our results showed that living in a polluted environment is significantly associated with children having asthma in LAC. Limitations of this study include the low number of studies performed in LAC countries, differences in methodologies and the risk of bias in individual studies.

  7. The little book of maths outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This is a unique book that supports the current thinking behind outdoor learning. It features over 40 ideas for outdoor activities that support mathematics in the early years and the specific areas of learning in the revised EYFS. All the ideas are tried and tested by Terry and this book will prove to be popular in the early years and well into Key stage 1.

  8. The quality of the outdoor environment influences childrens health -- a cross-sectional study of preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, M; Boldemann, C; Sahlin, U; Mårtensson, F; Raustorp, A; Blennow, M

    2013-01-01

    To test how the quality of the outdoor environment of child day care centres (DCCs) influences children's health. The environment was assessed using the Outdoor Play Environmental Categories (OPEC) tool, time spent outdoors and physical activity as measured by pedometer. 172/253 (68%) of children aged 3.0-5.9 from nine DCCs participated in Southern Sweden. Health data collected were body mass index, waist circumference, saliva cortisol, length of night sleep during study, and symptoms and well-being which were scored (1-week diary - 121 parent responders). Also, parent-rated well-being and health of their child were scored (questionnaire, 132 parent responders). MANOVA, ANOVA and principal component analyses were performed to identify impacts of the outdoor environment on health. High-quality outdoor environment at DCCs is associated with several health aspects in children such as leaner body, longer night sleep, better well-being and higher mid-morning saliva cortisol levels. The quality of the outdoor environment at DCCs influenced the health and well-being of preschool children and should be given more attention among health care professionals and community planners. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  10. Development and validation of the attitudes toward outdoor play scales for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Bizub, Jessica; Szabo, Aniko; Heller, Beth; Kistner, Amy; Shawgo, Erin; Zetts, Corey

    2015-05-01

    The natural world has long been associated with health and described as a therapeutic landscape, and a growing body of research demonstrates the benefits of interacting with nature for mental and physical health. However, concern is growing that children have lost connection to the natural world and spend less time outdoors, despite the known health benefits of doing so. It is likely that healthy behaviors related to engagement with nature are mediated by beliefs about the value and safety of play in nature. While the literature abounds with qualitative examinations of children's attitudes toward outdoor play, there exist few instruments to quantitatively measure these attitudes. Informed by health behavior change theories, we describe the development and validation of the Attitudes toward Outdoor Play (ATOP) scales. As part of a community-academic partnership project called More Than a Pretty Place, the development of the ATOP scales unfolded in stages: (1) item generation based on a comprehensive literature review and consensus among the project team, (2) interviews with environmental educators, (3) initial pilot testing, (4) scale refinement, (5) administration during 2012 and 2013 to a sample of school children ages 9-13 (n = 362) in Milwaukee, WI, USA, and (6) quantitative psychometric evaluation. Two distinct scales emerged: ATOP-benefits (alpha = 0.79) and ATOP-fears (alpha = 0.79). Validity analyses found that both scales correlated as expected with measures of engagement in outdoor play, parental support for outdoor play, and sedentary behaviors. The ATOP scales are reliable and valid instruments for measuring attitudes toward outdoor play that may mediate children's outdoor activity in natural settings. The ATOP scales could be useful for evaluating the effects of programming, such as environmental education programming, on improving children's attitudes toward the benefits of nature and reducing their fears, and may predict more distal outcomes

  11. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  12. Dairy cow preference for different types of outdoor access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Anne-Marieke C; Weary, Daniel M; Costa, Joao H C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2018-02-01

    Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas. Ninety-six lactating pregnant cows were assigned to 8 groups of 12 animals each. After a baseline phase of 2 d in which cows were kept inside the freestall barn, cows were habituated to the outdoor areas by providing them access to each of the 2 options for 24 h. Cows were then given access, in random order by group, to either the pasture (pasture phase) or the sand pack (sand phase). As we tested the 2 outdoor options using space allowances consistent with what would be practical on commercial dairy farms, the space provided on pasture was larger (21,000 m 2 ) than that provided on the sand pack (144 m 2 ). Cows were tested at night (for 2 nights in each condition), from 2000 h until morning milking at approximately 0800 h, as preference to be outdoors is strongest at this time. During the next 3 nights cows were given access to both outside options simultaneously (choice phase). Feeding and perching behaviors were recorded when cows were indoors during the day and night periods. Lying behavior was automatically recorded by HOBO data loggers (Onset, Bourne, MA). Cows spent more time outside in the pasture phase (90.0 ± 5.9%) compared with the sand phase (44.4 ± 6.3%). When provided simultaneous access to both options, cows spent more time on pasture than on the sand pack (90.5 ± 2.6% vs. 0.8 ± 0.5%, respectively). Time spent feeding indoors during the day did not change regardless of what type of outdoor access was provided, but there was a

  13. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  14. Association of Behavior With Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Attendees of an Outdoor Music Festival: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; van Munster, J J C M; van Zanten, G A

    2018-06-01

    To date, factors associated with noise-induced hearing loss at music festivals have not yet been analyzed in a single comprehensive data set. In addition, little is known about the hearing loss-associated behavior of music festival attendees. To assess which factors are associated with the occurrence of a temporary threshold shift (TTS) after music exposure and to investigate the behavior of music festival attendees. This prospective post hoc analysis gathered data from a randomized, single-blind clinical trial conducted on September 5, 2015, at an outdoor music festival in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Adult volunteers with normal hearing were recruited via social media from August 26 through September 3, 2015. Intention to use earplugs was an exclusion criterion. Of 86 volunteers assessed, 51 were included. This post hoc analysis was performed from October 3, 2016, through February 27, 2017. Music festival visit for 4.5 hours. The primary outcome was a TTS on a standard audiogram for the frequencies 3.0- and 4.0-kHz. Multivariable linear regression was performed to determine which factors are associated with a TTS. A questionnaire on behavior, hearing, and tinnitus was distributed to the participants before and after the festival visit. A total of 51 participants were included (18 men [35%] and 33 women [65%]) with a mean (SD) age of 27 (6) years. Mean (SD) threshold change across 3.0 and 4.0 kHz was 5.4 (5.7) dB for the right ear and 4.0 (6.1) dB for the left ear. Earplug use (absolute difference in the left ear, -6.0 dB [95% CI, -8.7 to -3.2 dB]; in the right ear, -6.4 dB [95% CI, -8.8 to -4.1 dB]), quantity of alcohol use (absolute difference per unit in the left ear, 1.1 dB [95% CI, 0.5 to 1.7 dB]; in the right ear, 0.7 dB [95% CI, 0.1 to 1.4 dB]), drug use (absolute difference in the right ear, 6.0 dB [95% CI, 0.9 to 11.1 dB]), and male sex (absolute difference in the right ear, 4.1 dB [95% CI, 0.3 to 5.9 dB]) were independently associated with hearing loss

  15. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  16. For the Love of Nature: Exploring the Importance of Species Diversity and Micro-Variables Associated with Favorite Outdoor Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebella, Morgan F; Weber, Delene; Lindsey, Kiera; Daniels, Christopher B

    2017-01-01

    Although the restorative benefits of nature are widely acknowledged, there is a limited understanding of the attributes of natural environments that are fundamental to restorative experiences. Faced with growing human populations and a greater awareness of the wellbeing benefits natural environments provide, park agencies and planners are increasingly challenged with balancing human and ecological outcomes in natural areas. This study examines the physical and experiential qualities of natural environments people referred to when describing their connection to their most valued natural environments in an online questionnaire. Recruited primarily via a public radio program, respondents were asked to identify their favorite places and explain what they loved about those places. Favorite places are considered exemplars of restorative environments and were classified based on an existing park typology. Reasons people liked particular sites were classified into three domains: setting, activity, or benefit. Content analysis was used to identify the attributes most commonly associated with favorite places. These attributes were then related to the four components of restorative environments according to Attention Restoration Theory. In contrast to previous research, we found that "fascination" was the most important component of favorite places. Possible reasons for this contrast, namely, respondents' median age, and the likelihood of a high degree of ecological literacy amongst the study population are discussed. South Australians' favorite environments comprise primarily hilly, wooded nature parks, and botanical gardens, in stark contrast to the vast arid areas that dominate the state. Micro-variables such as birds, plants, wildlife, native species, and biodiversity appear particularly important elements used to explain people's love of these sites. We discuss the implications of these findings and their potential value as an anchor for marketing campaigns seeking to

  17. For the Love of Nature: Exploring the Importance of Species Diversity and Micro-Variables Associated with Favorite Outdoor Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan F. Schebella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the restorative benefits of nature are widely acknowledged, there is a limited understanding of the attributes of natural environments that are fundamental to restorative experiences. Faced with growing human populations and a greater awareness of the wellbeing benefits natural environments provide, park agencies and planners are increasingly challenged with balancing human and ecological outcomes in natural areas. This study examines the physical and experiential qualities of natural environments people referred to when describing their connection to their most valued natural environments in an online questionnaire. Recruited primarily via a public radio program, respondents were asked to identify their favorite places and explain what they loved about those places. Favorite places are considered exemplars of restorative environments and were classified based on an existing park typology. Reasons people liked particular sites were classified into three domains: setting, activity, or benefit. Content analysis was used to identify the attributes most commonly associated with favorite places. These attributes were then related to the four components of restorative environments according to Attention Restoration Theory. In contrast to previous research, we found that “fascination” was the most important component of favorite places. Possible reasons for this contrast, namely, respondents' median age, and the likelihood of a high degree of ecological literacy amongst the study population are discussed. South Australians' favorite environments comprise primarily hilly, wooded nature parks, and botanical gardens, in stark contrast to the vast arid areas that dominate the state. Micro-variables such as birds, plants, wildlife, native species, and biodiversity appear particularly important elements used to explain people's love of these sites. We discuss the implications of these findings and their potential value as an anchor for marketing

  18. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  19. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, pfood ads, those living in areas in which 30% of ads were for food would have a 2.6% increase in the probability of being obese. Conclusions There is a relationship between the percentage of outdoor food advertising and overweight/obesity. PMID:23305548

  20. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesser Lenard I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, p Conclusions There is a relationship between the percentage of outdoor food advertising and overweight/obesity.

  1. TREAT (TREe-based Association Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREAT is an R package for detecting complex joint effects in case-control studies. The test statistic is derived from a tree-structure model by recursive partitioning the data. Ultra-fast algorithm is designed to evaluate the significance of association between candidate gene and disease outcome

  2. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  3. Sequence robust association test for familial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Chaolong; Cai, Tianxi

    2017-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and next generation sequencing studies (NGSS) are often performed in family studies to improve power in identifying genetic variants that are associated with clinical phenotypes. Efficient analysis of genome-wide studies with familial data is challenging due to the difficulty in modeling shared but unmeasured genetic and/or environmental factors that cause dependencies among family members. Existing genetic association testing procedures for family studies largely rely on generalized estimating equations (GEE) or linear mixed-effects (LME) models. These procedures may fail to properly control for type I errors when the imposed model assumptions fail. In this article, we propose the Sequence Robust Association Test (SRAT), a fully rank-based, flexible approach that tests for association between a set of genetic variants and an outcome, while accounting for within-family correlation and adjusting for covariates. Comparing to existing methods, SRAT has the advantages of allowing for unknown correlation structures and weaker assumptions about the outcome distribution. We provide theoretical justifications for SRAT and show that SRAT includes the well-known Wilcoxon rank sum test as a special case. Extensive simulation studies suggest that SRAT provides better protection against type I error rate inflation, and could be much more powerful for settings with skewed outcome distribution than existing methods. For illustration, we also apply SRAT to the familial data from the Framingham Heart Study and Offspring Study to examine the association between an inflammatory marker and a few sets of genetic variants. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  4. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  5. Innovation and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Within our fast-paced, fluid society, it is arguable that outdoor education needs to be innovative to play a useful role in young people's overall educational enterprise. A critical view, however, would suggest that we must beware of accepting technological innovation for its own sake. Innovations (or improvements) in education can take the form…

  6. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  7. Health Benefits of Outdoor Recreation: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…

  8. Outdoor Recreation and Adventure Tourism: Unique but Allied Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, H. K.; Lewis, T. Grant

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and adventure tourism are overlapping industries serving similar clientele. While descriptive marketing research exists for both industries (George Washington University School of Business [GW], Adventure Travel Trade Association [ATTA], & Xola Consulting [XC], 2010; Outdoor Foundation [OF], 2014), there is no clear…

  9. Indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools in Sari, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Shabankhani, Bijan

    2013-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the distribution of particles in classrooms in primary schools located in the centre of the city of Sari, Iran and identify the relationship between indoor classroom particle levels and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. Outdoor PM2.5 and indoor PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were monitored using a real-time Micro Dust Pro monitor and a GRIMM monitor, respectively. Both monitors were calibrated by gravimetric method using filters. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that all indoor and outdoor data fitted normal distribution. Mean indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for all of the classrooms were 17.6 μg m(-3), 46.6 μg m(-3), 400.9 μg m(-3), and 36.9 μg m(-3), respectively. The highest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured at the Shahed Boys School (69.1 μg m(-3) and 115.8 μg m(-3), respectively). The Kazemi school had the lowest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (29.1 μg m(-3) and 15.5 μg m(-3), respectively). In schools located near both main and small roads, the association between indoor fine particle (PM2.5 and PM1) and outdoor PM2.5 levels was stronger than that between indoor PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 levels. Mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 were higher than the standards for PM2.5 and PM10, and there was a good correlation between indoor and outdoor fine particle concentrations.

  10. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  11. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  12. Socioeconomic position and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in Western Europe : A multi-city analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temam, Sofia; Burte, Emilie; Adam, Martin; Antó, Josep M; Basagaña, Xavier; Bousquet, Jean; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Galobardes, Bruna; Keidel, Dirk; Künzli, Nino; Le Moual, Nicole; Sanchez, Margaux; Sunyer, Jordi; Bono, Roberto; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Jarvis, Debbie; Marcon, Alessandro; Modig, Lars; Nadif, Rachel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Pin, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Stempfelet, Morgane; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and outdoor air pollution have been reported in Europe, but methodological differences prevent any direct between-study comparison. OBJECTIVES: Assess and compare the association between SEP and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

  13. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  14. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  15. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  16. Predicting Use of Outdoor Fall Prevention Strategies: Considerations for Prevention Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor falls are just as common as indoor falls, but have received less attention in research and practice. Behavioral strategies play an important role in outdoor fall prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of strategy use. Backward stepwise regression was used to study factors associated with use of outdoor fall prevention strategies among a random sample ( N = 120) of community-dwelling seniors. Significant negative predictors of strategy use included higher education levels ( p outdoor fallers and nonfallers in the use of three different types of strategies ( ps outdoor fall prevention strategies. Further study of additional factors is warranted.

  17. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  18. Built environment, parents' perception, and children's vigorous outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Grize, Leticia; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Sennhauser, Felix H; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the combined effects and relative importance of socio-cultural factors as well as parents' subjectively perceived and objectively assessed environment on time children spent vigorously playing outdoors. Cross-sectional study conducted in Berne, Biel-Bienne, and Payerne (Switzerland) during the school year 2004/2005. Included 1345 parental questionnaires from children out of three age groups (6/7, 9/10, and 13/14 years). A total of 1081 (80%) provided a home address, which could be linked to environmental data using a geographic information system (GIS). GIS-derived main street density in a buffer of 100 m around the home was inversely associated with time playing outdoors in adolescents and younger children, but only in more urbanized areas. In addition and independently of GIS-based main street density, parental concern about traffic safety was associated with less time playing outdoors in primary school children. Girls, adolescents, and children from the French speaking part of the country spent less time playing outdoors. A non-Swiss nationality and having younger siblings increased time playing vigorously outdoors in adolescents. In addition to socio-cultural factors, parents' perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors were significantly associated with the time spent vigorously playing outdoors. These associations differed by age group. Copyright (c) 2010 The Institute For Cancer Prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Terrain Mapping and Classification in Outdoor Environments Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Yukinobu Hata; Denis Fernando Wolf; Gustavo Pessin; Fernando Osório

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional terrain mapping and classification technique to allow the operation of mobile robots in outdoor environments using laser range finders. We propose the use of a multi-layer perceptron neural network to classify the terrain into navigable, partially navigable, and non-navigable. The maps generated by our approach can be used for path planning, navigation, and local obstacle avoidance. Experimental tests using an outdoor robot and a laser sensor demonstra...

  20. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, ...

  1. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  2. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless...

  3. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  4. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case–control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism......Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  5. PubMed search filters for the study of putative outdoor air pollution determinants of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. Methods We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one ‘more specific’, one ‘more sensitive’). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. Results The ‘more specific’ filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The ‘more sensitive’ filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the ‘more specific’ filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the ‘more sensitive’ one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the ‘more specific’ filter and 3.3 for the ‘more sensitive’ one. Conclusions The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. PMID:28003291

  6. PubMed search filters for the study of putative outdoor air pollution determinants of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano

    2016-12-21

    Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one 'more specific', one 'more sensitive'). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. The 'more specific' filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The 'more sensitive' filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the 'more specific' filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the 'more sensitive' one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the 'more specific' filter and 3.3 for the 'more sensitive' one. The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Cuyabano, Beatriz Castro Dias; Børglum, Anders D; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case-control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism and immunological responses, which previously have been implicated with schizophrenia based on experimental and observational studies. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  9. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  10. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  11. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN OUTDOOR PARTICULATE (PM2.5) CONCENTRATIONS AND GASEOUS CO-POLLUTANT EXPOSURE LEVELS FOR COPD AND MI COHORTS IN ATLANTA, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies indicate that daily ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations are associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions, and respiratory and cardiovascular effects. It is possible that the observed significant associations are the result of c...

  12. Using the noninformative families in family-based association tests : A powerful new testing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; DeMeo, D; Silverman, EK; Weiss, ST; Laird, NM

    2003-01-01

    For genetic association studies with multiple phenotypes, we propose a new strategy for multiple testing with family-based association tests (FBATs). The strategy increases the power by both using all available family data and reducing the number of hypotheses tested while being robust against

  13. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  14. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  15. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....

  16. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  17. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  18. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  19. Expanding & strengthening outdoor recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter S. Hopkins

    1971-01-01

    Though the Forest Service has pioneered in outdoor recreation research, the funding for recreation research has been inadequate. Specific needs for research are outlined. There is a need to define recreation and recreation research in terms that busy legislators can understand.

  20. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  1. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  2. Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center. Program Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    Describing Department of Defense Dependents Schools Europe (DODDSEUR) use of Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center, this document is directed to sponsors wishing to take groups to Hinterbrand for one or more of the five program options (outdoor education week, teacher weekend, school-designed outdoor education program, administrative faculty…

  3. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  4. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing...

  5. A variational Bayes discrete mixture test for rare variant association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Benjamin A; Dai, James Y; Auer, Paul L; Johnsen, Jill M; Ganesh, Santhi K; Smith, Nicholas L; Wilson, James G; Tracy, Russell P; Lange, Leslie A; Jiao, Shuo; Rich, Stephen S; Lettre, Guillaume; Carlson, Christopher S; Jackson, Rebecca D; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Wurfel, Mark M; Nickerson, Deborah A; Tang, Hua; Reiner, Alexander P; Kooperberg, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many statistical methods have been proposed to test for associations between rare genetic variants and complex traits. Most of these methods test for association by aggregating genetic variations within a predefined region, such as a gene. Although there is evidence that "aggregate" tests are more powerful than the single marker test, these tests generally ignore neutral variants and therefore are unable to identify specific variants driving the association with phenotype. We propose a novel aggregate rare-variant test that explicitly models a fraction of variants as neutral, tests associations at the gene-level, and infers the rare-variants driving the association. Simulations show that in the practical scenario where there are many variants within a given region of the genome with only a fraction causal our approach has greater power compared to other popular tests such as the Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT), the Weighted Sum Statistic (WSS), and the collapsing method of Morris and Zeggini (MZ). Our algorithm leverages a fast variational Bayes approximate inference methodology to scale to exome-wide analyses, a significant computational advantage over exact inference model selection methodologies. To demonstrate the efficacy of our methodology we test for associations between von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels and VWF missense rare-variants imputed from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Exome Sequencing project into 2,487 African Americans within the VWF gene. Our method suggests that a relatively small fraction (~10%) of the imputed rare missense variants within VWF are strongly associated with lower VWF levels in African Americans.

  6. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few sources. Even natural sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more ... Walks Cycling Events Donate a Car Memorial & Honor Gifts Planned Giving Christmas Seals ABOUT THE LUNG ASSOCIATION ...

  7. Older persons afraid of falling reduce physical activity to prevent outdoor falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Jong, R. de; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective.: The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the level of outdoor physical activity mediates the relationship between fear of falling and actual outdoor falls according to the Task Difficulty Homeostasis Theory. Method.: A prospective follow-up study of 10 months conducted in

  8. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of th...

  9. Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection methods and descriptive analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Clifford P; Zhang, Junfeng; Turpin, Barbara J; Morandi, Maria T; Colome, Steven; Stock, Thomas H; Spektor, Dalia M; Korn, Leo; Winer, Arthur M; Kwon, Jaymin; Meng, Qing Yu; Zhang, Lin; Harrington, Robert; Liu, Weili; Reff, Adam; Lee, Jong Hoon; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Mohan, Kishan; Shendell, Derek; Jones, Jennifer; Farrar, L; Maberti, Slivia; Fan, Tina

    2005-11-01

    of many measured VOCs and carbonyl compounds. For several measured species, personal concentrations were higher than either indoor or outdoor concentrations, indicating the presence of some sources closely related to personal activities. For some species there were no significant indoor sources in the majority of the homes; thus indoor concentrations were mainly determined by outdoor concentrations in these homes. The range of distributions of air concentrations for the measured VOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, PM2.5, and AERs were generally consistent with values reported previously in the literature. Thus associations derived from or models based on this data set that may link the influence of outdoor sources with indoor air concentrations of air toxics and PM2.5 can be relevant to other urban settings. The simultaneous measurements of indoor concentrations, outdoor concentrations, AERs, and room volumes allowed the use of a mass balance model, under the steady-state approximation, to mechanistically examine the relative contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to measured indoor concentrations on a home-by-home basis. Estimated indoor source strengths for VOCs and carbonyl compounds varied widely from home to home, consistent with the indoor-outdoor concentration patterns, as shown in scatter plots. The indoor source estimations agreed with published values for PM2.5 and with the general understanding of sources of VOCs and carbonyl compounds. The source strengths reported here, derived from hundreds of homes, are an important contribution to the literature on exposure to air toxics. For the first time for many compounds, these estimates present a cohesive set of measurements across a range of air toxics in paired indoor, outdoor, and personal samples along with AER and questionnaire results that can be used for future analyses of indoor air quality. The estimation of outdoor contributions to measured indoor concentrations provides insights about the

  10. Using deep learning to quantify the beauty of outdoor places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2017-07-01

    Beautiful outdoor locations are protected by governments and have recently been shown to be associated with better health. But what makes an outdoor space beautiful? Does a beautiful outdoor location differ from an outdoor location that is simply natural? Here, we explore whether ratings of over 200 000 images of Great Britain from the online game Scenic-Or-Not , combined with hundreds of image features extracted using the Places Convolutional Neural Network, might help us understand what beautiful outdoor spaces are composed of. We discover that, as well as natural features such as 'Coast', 'Mountain' and 'Canal Natural', man-made structures such as 'Tower', 'Castle' and 'Viaduct' lead to places being considered more scenic. Importantly, while scenes containing 'Trees' tend to rate highly, places containing more bland natural green features such as 'Grass' and 'Athletic Fields' are considered less scenic. We also find that a neural network can be trained to automatically identify scenic places, and that this network highlights both natural and built locations. Our findings demonstrate how online data combined with neural networks can provide a deeper understanding of what environments we might find beautiful and offer quantitative insights for policymakers charged with design and protection of our built and natural environments.

  11. EVALUATION OF OUTDOOR SPORTS CLOTHING BRAND PERSONALITY BY USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand personality attributed to the brand is in case the condition of human character traits. One of the areas of the brand personality is the outdoor sports clothing also knowing as “outdoor” th at working city people’s adoption of opening up to the outdoor as new way events in a growing desire. In this study, the aims are personality characteristics of the outdoor sport clothing brands and determining the harmony of these personality characterist ics with brands. The research is in form of surveying study. The research population consists of people in Turkey who sports outdoor on land. In the sampling selection simple random sampling technique is utilized with asking concerned people to participate in the survey on a voluntary basis. The obtained data are analyzed and evaluated by using SPSS packet program. The survey that has been proven reliability and validity ( α = 0904 in the pilot application has sent to the related association members in a month - long through internet and a total of 103 people were replied. It has been identified that research participants are interesting in mostly as trekking , mountaineering, camping and biking outdoor sports and they are working in the public sector. Under research, in the result of factor analysis to determine the brand personality of outd oor sports brands, it had been seen that "competence", “ traditional ” and " androgen” dimensions were come through and the dimension of “excitement” was separated into three parts.

  12. Objectively-measured outdoor time and physical and psychological function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Objective measurements of outdoor time are essential to establishing evidence about the health benefits of going outdoors among older adults. To better understanding the health benefits of going outdoors, clarification of potential mediators to connect going outdoors with health benefits is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate associations of objectively-measured outdoor time with older adults' physical and psychological function, and examine the mediating role of physical activity on these associations. Baseline data from a randomized control trial of physical activity among older adults with global cognitive impairment was used. Data from 192 participants were analyzed. Measures included steps-per-day, objectively-measured outdoor time per day using global positioning systems, physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength), psychological function (depression, well-being) and basic factors. Path analysis showed that outdoor time was significantly associated with steps-per-day (path coefficient = 0.23) and depression (path coefficient = -0.16). Outdoor time was not directly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength and well-being. However, steps-per-day was associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (path coefficient = 0.18), lower-extremity strength (path coefficient = -0.22) and well-being (path coefficient = 0.14). We found that objectively-measured outdoor time was indirectly associated with physical function, and both directly and indirectly with psychological function through physical activity among older adults. This finding indicates that going outdoors influences older adults' health outcomes, and is mainly mediated by physical activity. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1455-1462. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  14. Correlates of children's independent outdoor play: Cross-sectional analyses from the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aggio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play.Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play. Children's physical activity levels were measured using waist worn accelerometry. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between correlates and odds of independent (unsupervised outdoor play. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between independent outdoor play and objective measures of physical activity. Activity was measured as average daily moderate-to-vigorous activity, steps, and sedentary behaviour.3856 (n=29% participants were categorised as engaging in independent outdoor play. Older age, being white British, being in poverty, living in close proximity to both family friends and family, having fewer internalising problems, having more externalising conduct problems and fewer pro-social behaviours were associated with higher odds of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with >2 additional minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity (B=2.21 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.34, >330 additional steps per day (B=336.66 95% CI 209.80 to 463.51, and nearly 5min less time spent sedentary per day (B=−4.91 95% CI −7.54, −2.29Younger children, those from a higher socio-economic-status, those isolated in location from family friends and family, and those with high levels of prosocial behaviour have lower levels of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with higher levels of physical activity and less time sedentary. Future interventions to promote

  15. Health promoting outdoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Anna Ulrika Karlsson; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face......-to-face interviews followed by a self-administered questionnaire, including the SF-36, which measures eight dimensions of health and the Perceived Stress Scale, which measures self-reported stress. A total of 11,238 respondents completed the interview and returned the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed to investigate the association between distance to green space and self-perceived stress. RESULTS: Danes living more than 1 km away from the nearest green space report poorer health and health-related quality of life, i.e. lower mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of health...

  16. The effects of stress, anxiety, and outdoor temperature on the frequency and severity of Raynaud's attacks: the Raynaud's Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Middaugh, S J; Haythornthwaite, J A; Bielory, L

    2001-04-01

    It was expected that stress and anxiety would be related to Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) attack characteristics when mild outdoor temperatures produced partial or no digital vasoconstriction. Hypotheses were that in warmer temperature categories, compared to those below 40 degrees F, higher stress or anxiety would be associated with more frequent, severe, and painful attacks. The Raynaud's Treatment Study recruited 313 participants with primary RP. Outcomes were attack rate, severity, and pain. Predictors were average daily outdoor temperature, stress, anxiety, age, gender, and a stress-by-temperature or an anxiety-by-temperature interaction. Outcomes were tested separately in multiple linear regression models. Stress and anxiety were tested in separate models. Stress was not a significant predictor of RP attack characteristics. Higher anxiety was related to more frequent attacks above 60 degrees F. It was also related to greater attack severity at all temperatures, and to greater pain above 60 degrees F and between 40 degrees and 49.9 degrees F.

  17. Class association rules mining from students’ test data (Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Ventura, S.; Vasilyeva, E.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Baker, de R.S.J.; Merceron, A.; Pavlik Jr., P.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose the use of a special type of association rules mining for discovering interesting relationships from the students’ test data collected in our case with Moodle learning management system (LMS). Particularly, we apply Class Association Rule (CAR) mining to different data

  18. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  19. Thermal Perception in the Mediterranean Area: Comparing the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI to Other Outdoor Thermal Comfort Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Golasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor thermal comfort is an essential factor of people’s everyday life and deeply affects the habitability of outdoor spaces. However the indices used for its evaluation were usually developed for indoor environments assuming still air conditions and absence of solar radiation and were only later adapted to outdoor spaces. For this reason, in a previous study the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI was developed, which is an empirical index able to estimate the thermal perception of people living in the Mediterranean area. In this study it was compared numerically (by using the data obtained through a field survey with other selected thermal indices. This comparison, performed in terms of Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, association Gamma, percentage of correct predictions and cross-tabulation analysis, led to identify the MOCI as the most suitable index to examine outdoor thermal comfort in the interested area. As a matter of fact it showed a total percentage of correct predictions of 35.5%. Good performances were reported even in thermophysiological indices as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Moreover it was revealed that adaptation and acclimatization phenomena tend to have a certain influence as well.

  20. Merging weather data with materials response data during outdoor exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Anand Sanadi; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2002-01-01

    As part of an outdoor exposure protocol for a study of sealants, a full weather station was installed at the Forest Products Laboratory field test site near Madison, Wisconsin. Tem-perature, relative humidity, rainfall, ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 18 different wavelengths, and wind speed and direction are continuously measured. Using a specially designed apparatus,...

  1. Learning from Leisure: Developing Nature Connectedness in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgriff, Marg

    2011-01-01

    The "greening" of outdoor education has received increasing attention from educators in Aotearoa-New Zealand and internationally. Given contemporary global concerns about the scale of environmental issues and the associated recognition that educating for sustainability is a matter of urgency, the continuing exploration of pedagogies…

  2. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer: what now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade a substantial number of epidemiological studies suggested that outdoor air pollution and in particular respirable particulate matter (PM10 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.The most recent is a multicentre European study...

  3. PARENTS ATTITUDE ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.

  4. Going outdoors and cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults: Moderating role of physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors of cognitive impairment is essential for implementing effective prevention strategies for dementia. Previous studies have shown that the frequency of going outdoors is inversely associated with cognitive decline. Little research has examined whether the relationship between going outdoors and cognitive decline varies with physical functioning in older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between going outdoors and cognitive function in older adults with and without physical function limitations. The present study analyzed the data of 4450 individuals (aged 65 years or older) who participated in the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. The measures were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), going outdoors (at least once a week or not), self-reported physical function limitations (with or without), and demographic and health-related factors as potential confounders. Analysis of covariance and post-hoc comparisons showed that although going outdoors at least once a week was associated with higher MMSE scores among older adults with limited physical function, it was not significantly associated with the MMSE scores among older adults without limited physical function. Similarly, logistic regression analyses, stratified by physical function, showed a significant association between going outdoors and MMSE (older adults with limited physical function. The results show that going outdoors less than once a week is associated with decreased cognitive function among older adults with limited physical function, but it is not associated with cognitive function among older adults without limited physical function. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Time spent in outdoor activities in relation to myopia prevention and control: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuyu; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Naduvilath, Thomas; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng; Lv, Minzhi; He, Xiangui; Xu, Xun

    2017-09-01

    Outdoor time is considered to reduce the risk of developing myopia. The purpose is to evaluate the evidence for association between time outdoors and (1) risk of onset of myopia (incident/prevalent myopia); (2) risk of a myopic shift in refractive error and c) risk of progression in myopes only. A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis and a dose-response analysis of relevant evidence from literature was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant papers. Of the 51 articles with relevant data, 25 were included in the meta-analysis and dose-response analysis. Twenty-three of the 25 articles involved children. Risk ratio (RR) for binary variables and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous variables were conducted. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to pool the data for meta-analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 test with I 2  ≥ 50% considered to indicate high heterogeneity. Additionally, subgroup analyses (based on participant's age, prevalence of myopia and study type) and sensitivity analyses were conducted. A significant protective effect of outdoor time was found for incident myopia (clinical trials: risk ratio (RR) = 0.536, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.338 to 0.850; longitudinal cohort studies: RR = 0.574, 95% CI = 0.395 to 0.834) and prevalent myopia (cross-sectional studies: OR = 0.964, 95% CI = 0.945 to 0.982). With dose-response analysis, an inverse nonlinear relationship was found with increased time outdoors reducing the risk of incident myopia. Also, pooled results from clinical trials indicated that when outdoor time was used as an intervention, there was a reduced myopic shift of -0.30 D (in both myopes and nonmyopes) compared with the control group (WMD = -0.30, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.41) after 3 years of follow-up. However, when only myopes were considered, dose-response analysis did not find a relationship between time outdoors and myopic

  6. Motivating Students' Learning Using Word Association Test and Concept Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.

  7. Association tests and software for copy number variant data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plagnol Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have suggested that copy number variation (CNV significantly contributes to genetic predisposition to several common disorders. These findings, combined with the imperfect tagging of CNVs by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, have motivated the development of association studies directly targeting CNVs. Several assays, including comparative genomic hybridisation arrays, SNP genotyping arrays, or DNA quantification through real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, allow direct assessment of CNV status in cohorts sufficiently large to provide adequate statistical power for association studies. When analysing data provided by these assays, association tests for CNV data are not fundamentally different from SNP-based association tests. The main difference arises when the quality of the CNV assay is not sufficient to convert unequivocally the raw measurement into discrete calls -- a common issue, given the technological limitations of current CNV assays. When this is the case, association tests are more appropriately based on the raw continuous measurement provided by the CNV assay, instead of potentially inaccurate discrete calls, thus motivating the development of new statistical methods. Here, the programs available for CNV association testing for case control or family data are reviewed, using either discrete calls or raw continuous data.

  8. Functional imaging of implicit marijuana associations during performance on an Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ames, S.L.; Grenard, J.L.; Stacy, A.W.; Xiao, L.; He, Q.; Wong, S.W; Xue, G.; Wiers, R.W.; Bechara, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe

  9. Psychological mechanisms in outdoor place and weather assessment: towards a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia; Eliasson, Ingegärd; Lindberg, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The general aim has been to illuminate the psychological mechanisms involved in outdoor place and weather assessment. This reasoning was conceptualized in a model, tentatively proposing direct and indirect links of influence in an outdoor place-human relationship. The model was subsequently tested by an empirical study, performed in a Nordic city, on the impact of weather and personal factors on participants’ perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. In line with our predictions, we report significant influences of weather parameters (air temperature, wind, and cloudlessness) and personal factors (environmental attitude and age) on participants’ perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. All this is a modest, yet significant, step towards an understanding of the psychology of outdoor place and weather assessment.

  10. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  11. Quantification of Outdoor Mobility by Use of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Taraldsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures in older persons are associated with both low levels of daily physical activity and loss of outdoor mobility. The aim was to investigate if accelerometer-based measures of physical behaviour can be used to determine if people undertake outdoor walking and to provide reference values for physical behaviour outcomes related to outdoor mobility. Older persons (n=245, ≥70 years, one year after hip fracture, participated. Six objective measures of physical behaviour collected by an activity monitor were compared with self-reported outdoor mobility assessed with the Nottingham Extended ADL scale. All measures of time and length in upright periods were significantly lower in participants who reported not walking outdoors (p<0.001. A set of cut-off points for the different physical behaviour variables was generated. Maximum length of upright events discriminated best between groups, with 31 minutes as a threshold to determine if a person is more likely to report that they walk outdoors (sensitivity: 0.805, specificity: 0.704, and AUC: 0.871 or 41 minutes or more to determine if a person is more likely to report outdoor walking on their own (AUC: 0.891. Physical behaviour variables from activity monitoring can provide information about patterns of physical behaviour related to outdoor activity performance.

  12. Outdoor fungi and child asthma health service attendances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Taylor, Philip E; Katelaris, Constance H; Vicendese, Don; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan

    2014-08-01

    Asthma is a significant global public health issue. Severe asthma exacerbations can be triggered by environmental factors and require medical care from health services. Although it is known that fungal exposure may lead to allergic sensitization, little is understood about its impact on asthma exacerbations. This review aims to examine whether outdoor fungi play a significant role in child asthma exacerbations. Systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand searching for peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to 31 August 2013. Inclusion criteria were study population aged asthma, attended a health service; outdoor fungi exposure was reported. Quality and risk of bias assessments were conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. Of the 1896 articles found, 15 were eligible. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to methodological variations in exposure classifications, statistical methods and inclusion of confounders. Cross-sectional studies found no or weak associations. All but one time series studies indicated an association that varied between fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that asthmatic children are susceptible to asthma exacerbations when exposed to outdoor fungal spores. There is limited understanding of the contributions of different fungal species. Research is needed to investigate interactions of outdoor fungi with pollen, air pollutants and respiratory viruses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...... to the application in question. In this way results providing a certain level of accuracy are obtained using methods which are balanced with the accuracy of the input data. Advanced measurement techniques are looked into and suggestions for future research are made...

  14. Mobile Phones and Outdoor Advertising: Measurable Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...

  15. Test-Retest Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R.; Olson, Kristina R.

    2018-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many…

  16. HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions in sexual risk behaviours among men in Cape Town, South Africa. Lori AJ Scott-Sheldon, Michael P Carey, Kate B Carey, Demetria Cain, Leickness C Simbayi, Vuyelwa Mehlomakhulu, Seth C Kalichman ...

  17. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility and changes in sense of autonomy in participation outdoors among older people: a prospective two-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Iwarsson, Susanne; Kauppinen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to study whether perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility affect changes in sense of autonomy in participation outdoors among community-dwelling older people over a two-year period. Community-dwelling people aged 75-90 years (n = 848) in central Finland were interviewed on two occasions, face-to-face at baseline and over the telephone two years later. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility were assessed using a 15-item structured questionnaire, and the sum scores categorized into tertiles (0, 1 and 2 or more barriers). Autonomy in participation outdoors was assessed with the 'Impact on Participation and Autonomy' (IPA) questionnaire using the autonomy outdoors subscale (score range 0-20, higher scores indicating more restricted autonomy). Scores for autonomy in participation outdoors were available for 848 participants at baseline (mean 6.2, SD = 3.8) and for 748 participants at the two-year follow-up (mean 6.7, SD = 3.9). At baseline, those reporting multiple environmental barriers had the most restricted autonomy, while those reporting no environmental barriers had the least restricted autonomy (p autonomy in participation outdoors declined more among those reporting multiple environmental barriers compared to those reporting none (age- and sex-adjusted group*time β = .629, s.e. = .277, p = .023). Adjustment for cognitive functioning, education, number of chronic conditions and change in walking difficulty did not influence the association. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility accelerate the decline in autonomy in participation outdoors among older community-dwelling people. Understanding factors affecting autonomy can help in finding ways to support the sense of autonomy as people age.

  18. Residential outdoor air pollution and allergen sensitization in schoolchildren in Oslo, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oftedal, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Nystad, W.; Nafstad, P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between air pollution and atopy have found inconsistent results. Furthermore, often exposure to outdoor air pollution has had limited quality, and more individual exposure is needed. Objective To investigate the relations

  19. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Föger, Bernhard; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Kooter, Ingeborg; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Eeftens, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air

  20. Hypothermia and acute alcohol intoxication in Dutch adolescents : The relationship between core and outdoor temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Claire J.; Van Hoof, Joris J.; van der Lely, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate hypothermia and its potential association with core and outdoor temperatures in adolescents suffering from acute alcohol intoxication. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System, which monitors alcohol intoxication among all Dutch adolescents.

  1. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor ai...

  2. Aminopenicillin-associated exanthem: lymphocyte transformation testing revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, A; Seitz, C S; Stoevesandt, J; Kerstan, A

    2014-12-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) has been promoted as in-vitro test for diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity. For determination of statistical LTT sensitivity, series of patients with clinically uniform reactions followed by complete drug hypersensitivity work-up are mandatory. Assessment of LTT specificity requires control patients who tolerated exposure to the drug studied. To prospectively determine the diagnostic value of the LTT in a clinically and diagnostically well-defined series of patients. Patients with exanthematous skin eruptions after ampicillin (AMP) intake were included in this study. After exclusion or confirmation of delayed-onset allergic AMP hypersensitivity by skin and provocation testing, two independent LTTs were performed: one standard LTT and a modified LTT with additional anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody stimulation. By testing, delayed-onset allergic AMP hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 11 patients and definitely ruled out in 26. The standard LTT reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.5% while the modified LTT yielded 72.7%. However, the methodical test modification resulted in a decline of specificity from 92.3% (standard LTT) to 76.9%. In cases of AMP-associated exanthems, the diagnostic value of the LTT compared with routine allergy testing is limited. When evaluating such exanthems, provocation testing remains the gold standard. Delayed reading of intradermal skin tests remains most useful to avoid positive provocation reactions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A geometric framework for evaluating rare variant tests of association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keli; Fast, Shannon; Zawistowski, Matthew; Tintle, Nathan L

    2013-05-01

    The wave of next-generation sequencing data has arrived. However, many questions still remain about how to best analyze sequence data, particularly the contribution of rare genetic variants to human disease. Numerous statistical methods have been proposed to aggregate association signals across multiple rare variant sites in an effort to increase statistical power; however, the precise relation between the tests is often not well understood. We present a geometric representation for rare variant data in which rare allele counts in case and control samples are treated as vectors in Euclidean space. The geometric framework facilitates a rigorous classification of existing rare variant tests into two broad categories: tests for a difference in the lengths of the case and control vectors, and joint tests for a difference in either the lengths or angles of the two vectors. We demonstrate that genetic architecture of a trait, including the number and frequency of risk alleles, directly relates to the behavior of the length and joint tests. Hence, the geometric framework allows prediction of which tests will perform best under different disease models. Furthermore, the structure of the geometric framework immediately suggests additional classes and types of rare variant tests. We consider two general classes of tests which show robustness to noncausal and protective variants. The geometric framework introduces a novel and unique method to assess current rare variant methodology and provides guidelines for both applied and theoretical researchers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  5. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-22

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users' current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station's signal strength in different environments, and identified the users' current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  6. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users’ current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM communication cellular base station’s signal strength in different environments, and identified the users’ current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  7. Knowledge, behavioral practices, and experiences of outdoor fallers: Implications for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Raveis, Victoria

    2017-09-01

    Although the epidemiology and prevention of falls has been well studied, the focus has been on indoor rather than outdoor falls. Older adults' knowledge of outdoor risk factors and their outdoor fall prevention practices have not been examined. To fill this gap, and to inform the development of a prevention program, we sought to explore the experiences and fall prevention knowledge and practices of older adults who had sustained an outdoor fall. A cross-sectional study using random digit telephone dialing was used to survey community dwelling seniors (N=120) across the five boroughs of New York City. We used the Outdoor Falls Questionnaire (OFQ), a valid and reliable tool as the survey instrument. Perceived outdoor fall risks, strategies used for prevention, and outdoor fall experiences were examined. SPSS version 21 was used for descriptive analysis of participant characteristics and to determine frequencies of perceived outdoor fall risks and strategies used for prevention. Phenomenological analysis was used with the qualitative data. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed separately and a mixed methods matrix was used to interpret and integrate the findings. Analysis revealed diverse unmet education and training needs including the importance of using single vision glasses, understanding the fall risks associated with recreational areas and parking lots, safe outdoor walking strategies, safe carrying of items on level and uneven surfaces, as well as when walking up and down stairs, and safety in opening/closing doors. Study findings are informative for outdoor fall prevention programs as well as practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exact association test for small size sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joowon; Lee, Seungyeoun; Jang, Jin-Young; Park, Taesung

    2018-04-20

    Recent statistical methods for next generation sequencing (NGS) data have been successfully applied to identifying rare genetic variants associated with certain diseases. However, most commonly used methods (e.g., burden tests and variance-component tests) rely on large sample sizes. Notwithstanding, due to its-still high cost, NGS data is generally restricted to small sample sizes, that cannot be analyzed by most existing methods. In this work, we propose a new exact association test for sequencing data that does not require a large sample approximation, which is applicable to both common and rare variants. Our method, based on the Generalized Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (GCMH) statistic, was applied to NGS datasets from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) patients. IPMN is a unique pancreatic cancer subtype that can turn into an invasive and hard-to-treat metastatic disease. Application of our method to IPMN data successfully identified susceptible genes associated with progression of IPMN to pancreatic cancer. Our method is expected to identify disease-associated genetic variants more successfully, and corresponding signal pathways, improving our understanding of specific disease's etiology and prognosis.

  9. Characterization of indoor and outdoor pool fires with active calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Gill, W.; Gritzo, L.A.; Kent, L.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    A water cooled, 1 m x 1 m, vertical calorimeter panel has been used in conjunction with other fire diagnostics to characterize a 6 m x 6 m outdoor and three 3 m x 3 m indoor JP-4 pool fires. Measurements reported include calorimeter surface heat flux and surface temperatures, flame temperatures, and gas flow velocities in the fire. From the data, effective radiative absorption coefficients for various zones in the fires have been estimated. The outdoor test was conducted at Sandia's Coyote Canyon test facility, while indoor tests were conducted at the indoor SMokE Reduction Facility (SMERF) at the same location. The measurements provide data useful in calibrating simple analytic fire models intended for the analysis of packages containing hazardous materials

  10. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  11. Risk factors for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the characteristics of indoor and outdoor falls in older patients and the factors related to severe injury in the emergency department (ED). In total, 26,515 patients fell indoors and 19,581 outdoors. The general and clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups and factors associated with severe injury following the falls were evaluated. Younger males fell more frequently outdoors than indoors. The common activities during outdoor falls were sports and leisure activities. Environmental hazards lead to more outdoor falls than indoor falls. Factors associated with severe injury after indoor falls were transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility rather than individual transportation, fall from stairs rather than fell over, and a head and neck injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Factors related to severe injury after outdoor falls were male sex, transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility or by another method rather than individual transportation, state employed, fall from stairs rather than fell over, head and neck or thorax or abdomen injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility, and head and neck injury were risks for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in elderly subjects. Efforts to identify the risk factors for severe injury and for falling itself are important to prevent and reduce fall injuries in elderly subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. United States of America: outdoor recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.Ken Cordell; G.Theodore Green; V.R. Leeworthy; R. Stephens; M.J. Fly; Carter J. Betz

    2005-01-01

    the first nationwide survey of outdoor recreation in the USA was conducted in 1960 for the outdoor recreation resources review commission (ORRC, 1962; Cordell et al., 1996). since that time, seven additional national surveys have been conducted, in 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1983, 1995, and 2000/01 - summary details are presented in Table 16.1.

  13. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  14. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  15. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  16. Een toekomst voor outdoor fitness in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske

    De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen

  17. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's natural... launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative. Building on input from tens of thousands of people across... engine of growth. As part of our National Travel and Tourism Strategy, my Administration is working to...

  18. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  19. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radon parameters in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20

  1. An Adaptive Genetic Association Test Using Double Kernel Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiang; Epstein, Michael P; Ghosh, Debashis

    2015-10-01

    Recently, gene set-based approaches have become very popular in gene expression profiling studies for assessing how genetic variants are related to disease outcomes. Since most genes are not differentially expressed, existing pathway tests considering all genes within a pathway suffer from considerable noise and power loss. Moreover, for a differentially expressed pathway, it is of interest to select important genes that drive the effect of the pathway. In this article, we propose an adaptive association test using double kernel machines (DKM), which can both select important genes within the pathway as well as test for the overall genetic pathway effect. This DKM procedure first uses the garrote kernel machines (GKM) test for the purposes of subset selection and then the least squares kernel machine (LSKM) test for testing the effect of the subset of genes. An appealing feature of the kernel machine framework is that it can provide a flexible and unified method for multi-dimensional modeling of the genetic pathway effect allowing for both parametric and nonparametric components. This DKM approach is illustrated with application to simulated data as well as to data from a neuroimaging genetics study.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN IPS TERPADU BERBASIS OUTDOOR LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugraheni Rachmawati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPelaksanaan kegiatan pembelajaran tematik di SD kota Semarang belum optimal. Sebagian besar guru belum menyusun dan menggunakan perangkat pembelaja- ran IPS Terpadu berbasis outdoor learning. Tujuan penelitian ini mengembangkan, mengkaji keefektifan dan kepraktisan perangkat pembelajaran. Penelitian ini meru- pakan penelitian pengembangan yang dimodifikasi dari penelitian Borg and Gall. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas 3 SD N Jatingaleh 01-02 Kota Semarang ta- hun pelajaran 2012/2013. Spesifikasi produk yang dikembangkan adalah perangkat pembelajaran IPS terpadu berbasis outdoor learning berupa silabus, RPP, media CD Interaktif, LKS dan alat evaluasi meliputi test kognitif, lembar observasi aktivi- tas serta angket respons siswa dan guru. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan Pretest- Posttest Control Group Design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran tergolong valid. Keefektifan perangkat dilihat dari aktivitas dan hasil belajar siswa. Aktivitas siswa tergolong sangat tinggi. Hasil belajar kog- nitif siswa setelah mengikuti pembelajaran IPS Terpadu berbasis Outdoor Learning mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan serta mencapai ketuntasan belajar. Rata- rata hasil belajar kognitif siswa secara signifikan lebih besar daripada kelompok siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran in door. Saran, hendaknya dapat dikembangkan lagi keefektifanya sehingga dapat lebih menggali kemampuan siswa, tidak hanya dalam segi kognitif dan afektif tetapi juga psikomotor. AbstractImplementation of thematic learning activities in elementary school of Semarang is not opti- mal. Most of the teachers do not prepare and use integrated social science learning tools based on outdoor learning. This research is aimed to develop the tools and to review the effectiveness and practicality of integrated social science learning based on outdoor learning. This is a research and development study modified from the research developed by Borg and

  3. Objective Method for Selecting Outdoor Reporting Conditions for Photovoltaic Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maish, A.

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules and systems depends on prevailing conditions at the time of measurement. Outdoor test conditions must be relevant to device performance and readily attainable. Flat-plate, nonconcentrator PV device performance is reported with respect to fixed conditions referred to as Standard Reporting Conditions (SRC) of 1 kW/m plane of array total irradiance, 25 C device temperature, and a reference spectral distribution at air mass 1.5 under certain atmospheric conditions. We report a method of analyzing historical meteorological and irradiance data to determine the range of outdoor environmental parameters and solar irradiance components that affect solar collector performance when the SRC 1 kW/m total irradiance value occurs outdoors. We used data from the 30 year U.S. National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) , restricting irradiance conditions to within +/- 25 W/m of 1 kW/m on a solar tracking flat-plate collector. The distributions of environmental parameter values under these conditions are non-Gaussian and site dependent. Therefore the median, as opposed to the mean, of the observed distributions is chosen to represent appropriate outdoor reporting conditions. We found the average medians for the direct beam component (834 W/m), ambient temperature (24.4 C), total column water vapor (1.4 cm), and air mass (1.43) are near commonly used SRC values. Average median wind speed (4.4 m/s) and broadband aerosol optical depth (0.08) were significantly different from commonly used values

  4. Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Paul, Prateek; Stieff, Alex; Stieff, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy affected much of the US East Coast extending over 1800 km. It passed over the test location in the State of Maryland on 29 October 2012. Being 350 km away from the regions of highest intensity the storm was of lower intensity at the test location. Continuous radon monitors and passive radon monitors were used for the measurement. The test location was the basement of a single family home representing the indoor concentration. A partially opened garage of the same test home represented the outdoor radon concentration. In 24 h, the atmospheric pressure dropped from 990 to 960 mbar and the indoor radon concentration increased from 70 to 1500 Bq m(-3) and returned to the normal of 70 Bq m(-3) at the end of the storm. Throughout the storm, the outdoor radon concentration was not significantly affected. Probable reasons for such surprisingly large changes are discussed. However, the outdoor temperature dropped from 13°C to 7°C during the radon peak.

  5. Definition study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and associated test program and test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The Definition Study of a Variable Cycle Experimental Engine (VCEE) and Associated Test Program and Test Plan, was initiated to identify the most cost effective program for a follow-on to the AST Test Bed Program. The VCEE Study defined various subscale VCE's based on different available core engine components, and a full scale VCEE utilizing current technology. The cycles were selected, preliminary design accomplished and program plans and engineering costs developed for several program options. In addition to the VCEE program plans and options, a limited effort was applied to identifying programs that could logically be accomplished on the AST Test Bed Program VCE to extend the usefulness of this test hardware. Component programs were provided that could be accomplished prior to the start of a VCEE program.

  6. Cryogenic testing and analysis associated with Tevatron lower temperature operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilacker, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    An upgrade of the Tevatron cryogenic system was installed and commissioned in 1993 to allow lower temperature operation. As a result, higher energy operation of the Fermilab superconducting Tevatron accelerator is possible. Following the installation and initial commissioning, it was decided to continue the current colliding beam physics run at the previous energy of 900 GeV. This has allowed the author to perform parasitic lower temperature tests in the Tevatron over the last year and a half. This paper presents the results of operational experiences and thermal and hydraulic testing which have taken place. The primary goal of the testing is to better understand the operation of the cold compressor system, associated instrumentation, and the performance of the existing magnet system during lower temperature operation. This will lead to a tentatively scheduled higher energy test run in the fall of 1995. The test results have shown that more elaborate controlling methods are necessary in order to achieve reliable system operation. Fortunately, the new satellite refrigerator controls system is capable of the expansion necessary to reach this goal. New features are being added to the controls systems which will allow for more intelligent control and better diagnostics for component monitoring and trending

  7. Cryogenic testing and analysis associated with Tevatron lower temperature operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilacker, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    An upgrade of the Tevatron cryogenic system was installed and commissioned in 1993 to allow lower temperature operation. As a result, higher energy operation is possible. Following the installation and initial commissioning, it was decided to continue the current colliding beam physics at the previous energy of 900 GeV. This has allowed us to perform parasitic lower temperature tests in the Tevatron over the last year and a half. This paper presents the results of operational experiences and thermal and hydraulic testing which has taken place. The primary goal of the testing is to better understand the operation of the cold compressor system, associated instrumentation, and the performance of the existing magnet system during lower temperature operation. This will lead to a tentatively scheduled higher energy test run in the fall of 1995. The test results have shown that more elaborate controlling methods are necessary in order to achieve reliable system operation. Fortunately, our new satellite refrigerator controls system is capable of the expansion necessary to reach our goal. New features are being added to the control system which will allow for more intelligent control and better diagnostics for component monitoring and trending

  8. Microenvironmental air and soil monitoring of contaminants: An evaluation of indoor and outdoor levels in Chihuahua City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rios, Marcos

    -assisted extraction techniques used either concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) or aqua regia (a mixture of HNO3 and HCl, in 1:4 ratio) for elemental extraction. Statistical tools such as F-test, paired-data test, t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the analytical results between ICP-OES and XRF and the indoor/outdoor sampling study. This study concluded that no statistical differences existed between the indoor and outdoor levels in the studied households for Pb and As concentrations. The results also showed that the most important sources of PM10 and Pb in the indoor environment were the transport and resuspension of external dust. The result further indicated that the inorganic As is associated with the fine particulate matter and is for the most part naturally occurring. In general the hypothesis that the exposure to environmental particulate matter, Pb and As is the same for indoor and outdoor environments can be accepted for the majority of the sampling houses. The isotopic ratios for the indoor samples were somewhat larger than the corresponding outdoor isotopic Pb sample ratios, reaching background levels from several regions around the world. The outdoor Pb isotopic ratios are similar to those found in the polluted-zones from smelting activities. The digestion of soil using HNO3 and aqua regia did not affect the extraction of Pb and As. The analytical techniques XRF and ICP-OES produced similar results for the determination of As in soil samples. However, these techniques produced different results for Pb determinations. These differences were, more than likely, associated to the digestion/extraction methodology. XRF techniques can successfully substitute other analytical techniques such as ICP-OES in the quantification of some trace elements in soil samples.

  9. Context-specific outdoor time and physical activity among school-children across gender and age: Using accelerometers and GPS to advance methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Demant Klinker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being outdoors has a positive influence on health among children. Evidence in this area is limited and many studies have used self-reported measures. Objective context-specific assessment of physical activity patterns and correlates, such as outdoor time, may progress this field.Aims: To employ novel objective measures to assess age and gender differences in context-specific outdoor weekday behavior patterns among school-children (outdoor time and outdoor MVPA and to investigate associations between context-specific outdoor time and MVPA.Methods: A total of 170 children had at least one weekday of nine hours combined accelerometer and GPS data and were included in the analyses. The data were processed using the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System and a purpose-built PostgreSQL database resulting in context-specific measures for outdoor time, outdoor MVPA and overall daily MVPA. In addition, four domains (leisure, school, transport and home and 11 subdomains (e.g. urban green space, sports facilities were created and assessed. Multilevel analyses provided results on age and gender differences and the association between outdoor time and MVPA.Results: Girls compared to boys had fewer outdoors minutes (pConclusion:A new methodology to assess context-specific outdoor time and physical activity patterns has been developed and can be expanded to other populations. Different context-specific patterns were found for gender and age, suggesting different strategies may be needed to promote physical activity

  10. Estimating mortality derived from indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Ji

    Full Text Available Following an extensive review of the literature, we further analyze the published data to examine the health effects of indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM of outdoor origin. We obtained data on all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in outdoor PM10 or PM2.5; the infiltration factors for buildings; and estimated time spent outdoors by individuals in the United States, Europe, China, and globally. These data were combined log-linear exposure-response model to estimate the all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality of exposure to indoor PM pollution of outdoor origin. Indoor PM pollution of outdoor origin is a cause of considerable mortality, accounting for 81% to 89% of the total increase in mortality associated with exposure to outdoor PM pollution for the studied regions. The findings suggest that enhancing the capacity of buildings to protect occupants against exposure to outdoor PM pollution has significant potential to improve public health outcomes.

  11. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.

  12. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Gibbons, Rebecca; Gray, Casey; Ishikawa, Takuro; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Chabot, Guylaine; Fuselli, Pamela; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed. PMID:26062038

  13. An evolutionary framework for association testing in resequencing studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ryan King

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing technologies are becoming cheap enough to apply to large numbers of study participants and promise to provide new insights into human phenotypes by bringing to light rare and previously unknown genetic variants. We develop a new framework for the analysis of sequence data that incorporates all of the major features of previously proposed approaches, including those focused on allele counts and allele burden, but is both more general and more powerful. We harness population genetic theory to provide prior information on effect sizes and to create a pooling strategy for information from rare variants. Our method, EMMPAT (Evolutionary Mixed Model for Pooled Association Testing, generates a single test per gene (substantially reducing multiple testing concerns, facilitates graphical summaries, and improves the interpretation of results by allowing calculation of attributable variance. Simulations show that, relative to previously used approaches, our method increases the power to detect genes that affect phenotype when natural selection has kept alleles with large effect sizes rare. We demonstrate our approach on a population-based re-sequencing study of association between serum triglycerides and variation in ANGPTL4.

  14. Position-Invariant Robust Features for Long-Term Recognition of Dynamic Outdoor Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawewong, Aram; Tangruamsub, Sirinart; Hasegawa, Osamu

    A novel Position-Invariant Robust Feature, designated as PIRF, is presented to address the problem of highly dynamic scene recognition. The PIRF is obtained by identifying existing local features (i.e. SIFT) that have a wide baseline visibility within a place (one place contains more than one sequential images). These wide-baseline visible features are then represented as a single PIRF, which is computed as an average of all descriptors associated with the PIRF. Particularly, PIRFs are robust against highly dynamical changes in scene: a single PIRF can be matched correctly against many features from many dynamical images. This paper also describes an approach to using these features for scene recognition. Recognition proceeds by matching an individual PIRF to a set of features from test images, with subsequent majority voting to identify a place with the highest matched PIRF. The PIRF system is trained and tested on 2000+ outdoor omnidirectional images and on COLD datasets. Despite its simplicity, PIRF offers a markedly better rate of recognition for dynamic outdoor scenes (ca. 90%) than the use of other features. Additionally, a robot navigation system based on PIRF (PIRF-Nav) can outperform other incremental topological mapping methods in terms of time (70% less) and memory. The number of PIRFs can be reduced further to reduce the time while retaining high accuracy, which makes it suitable for long-term recognition and localization.

  15. Statistical testing of association between menstruation and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Mathias; Dahl, Fredrik A; Vetvik, Kjersti G

    2015-02-01

    To repair and refine a previously proposed method for statistical analysis of association between migraine and menstruation. Menstrually related migraine (MRM) affects about 20% of female migraineurs in the general population. The exact pathophysiological link from menstruation to migraine is hypothesized to be through fluctuations in female reproductive hormones, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the main diagnostic criterion today is concurrency of migraine attacks with menstruation. Methods aiming to exclude spurious associations are wanted, so that further research into these mechanisms can be performed on a population with a true association. The statistical method is based on a simple two-parameter null model of MRM (which allows for simulation modeling), and Fisher's exact test (with mid-p correction) applied to standard 2 × 2 contingency tables derived from the patients' headache diaries. Our method is a corrected version of a previously published flawed framework. To our best knowledge, no other published methods for establishing a menstruation-migraine association by statistical means exist today. The probabilistic methodology shows good performance when subjected to receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Quick reference cutoff values for the clinical setting were tabulated for assessing association given a patient's headache history. In this paper, we correct a proposed method for establishing association between menstruation and migraine by statistical methods. We conclude that the proposed standard of 3-cycle observations prior to setting an MRM diagnosis should be extended with at least one perimenstrual window to obtain sufficient information for statistical processing. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  16. Intentional outdoor tanning in the United States: Results from the 2015 Summer ConsumerStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Meredith L; Berkowitz, Zahava; Watson, Meg

    2017-08-01

    There is limited literature about adults in the United States who usually or always spend time outdoors for the purpose of developing a tan, defined as intentional outdoor tanning. Using data from the 2015 Summer ConsumerStyles, an online cross-sectional survey weighted to the US adult population (n=4,127), we performed unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regressions to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, behaviors, and belief factors related to skin cancer risk and intentional outdoor tanning. Nearly 10% of the study population intentionally tanned outdoors. Outdoor tanning was more prevalent among women (11.4%), non-Hispanic white individuals (11.5%), those aged 18-29years (14.1%), those without a high school diploma (12.7%), and those in the northeast United States (13.2%). The adjusted odds of outdoor tanning were significantly higher among women than men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.04); those with a history of indoor tanning or recent sunburn than those without (AOR 2.61, CI 1.94-3.51; AOR 1.96, CI 1.46-2.63, respectively); those who agreed they looked better with a tan than those who did not (AOR 6.69, CI 3.62-12.35); and those who did not try to protect their skin from the sun when outdoors than those who did (AOR 2.17, CI 1.56-3.04). Adults who engaged in other risky behaviors that expose a person to ultraviolet (UV) radiation were more likely to tan outdoors, further increasing their risk of skin cancer. These findings may guide potential interventions to reduce UV exposure from outdoor tanning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Time Spent Outdoors, Depressive Symptoms, and Variation by Race and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-09-01

    Numerous studies have explored neighborhood environmental correlates of mental illnesses, presuming that the time individuals spend in their environment can confer benefit or harm based on environmental characteristics. However, few population-based studies have directly examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and mental health, and little work has been done to explore how experiences differ by race and ethnicity. Though some have proposed "doses of outdoor time" to improve health, the absence of information about the benefits conferred by particular "doses," and expected baseline levels of outdoor time, are needed to inform the development of recommendations and interventions. This study examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression among a population-based sample of American adults, characterized current levels of time spent outdoors by race and ethnicity, and examined how the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression varies by race and ethnicity. Descriptive statistics and survey regression models were used to examine data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2009-2012. Findings provide evidence that time spent outdoors is associated with fewer depressive symptoms, but this benefit may not be equally distributed by race and ethnicity. Descriptive analyses also reveal differences in time spent outdoors among different racial and ethnic groups. Study findings support the notion that increasing time spent outdoors may result in mental health benefits. However, this study questions whether that benefit is experienced equally among different groups, particularly given differences in occupational experiences and environmental characteristics of neighborhoods. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  19. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  20. Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The

  1. Test-retest reliability and predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R; Olson, Kristina R

    2018-02-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many factors simultaneously (lag-time between testing administrations, domain, etc.), it is difficult to discern what factors may explain variability in existing test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates. Across five studies (total N = 519; ages 6- to 11-years-old), we manipulated two factors that have varied in previous developmental research-lag-time and domain. An internal meta-analysis of these studies revealed that, across three different methods of analyzing the data, mean test-retest (rs of .48, .38, and .34) and predictive validity (rs of .46, .20, and .10) effect sizes were significantly greater than zero. While lag-time did not moderate the magnitude of test-retest coefficients, whether we observed domain differences in test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates was contingent on other factors, such as how we scored the IAT or whether we included estimates from a unique sample (i.e., a sample containing gender typical and gender diverse children). Recommendations are made for developmental researchers that utilize the IAT in their research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  3. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  4. Towards Consensus on the Nature of Outdoor Education. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter; Loynes, Chris

    1997-01-01

    At a European conference in Finland, various outdoor education organizations drafted a statement of intent for the newly created European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education. Their common view of outdoor education is that it strives to stimulate personal and social development experientially through some experience of the outdoors. Discusses…

  5. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  6. Ghettoizing outdoor advertising: disadvantage and ad panel density in black neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Lee, Tammy H

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated correlates of outdoor advertising panel density in predominantly African American neighborhoods in New York City. Research shows that black neighborhoods have more outdoor advertising space than white neighborhoods, and these spaces disproportionately market alcohol and tobacco advertisements. Thus, understanding the factors associated with outdoor advertising panel density has important implications for public health. We linked 2000 census data with property data at the census block group level to investigate two neighborhood-level determinants of ad density: income level and physical decay. Results showed that block groups were exposed to an average of four ad spaces per 1,000 residents and that vacant lot square footage was a significant positive predictor of ad density. An inverse relationship between median household income and ad density did not reach significance, suggesting that relative affluence did not protect black neighborhoods from being targeted for outdoor advertisements.

  7. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  8. Construct validity of the Big Five Implicit Association Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaja Zager Kocjan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Psychology has recently seen a noticeable increase in interest for implicit measures of attitudes and personality characteristics. The far most known implicit measure is the Implicit Association Test – IAT. We adapted this test in order to assess the Big Five personality dimensions (B5 IAT. We examined B5 IAT measurement characteristics on two samples. Based on the findings of the first sample (N = 62, improvements were made in the B5 IAT, to be tested again on another sample (N = 75. The two studies have shown similar results. The reliabilities of the personality dimensions measured with the B5 IAT failed to achieve a satisfactory level in most cases. The reason probably lies in a lower adequacy of certain stimuli and in the considerable length of the test procedure. The convergent validity of the B5 IAT with explicit measures of personality was low, which may be due to different structures underlying implicit and explicit measures. Results obtained on the first sample have shown that the correlations between IAT adjectives are adequately explained by five latent dimensions. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to B5 IAT low reliabilities and small sample sizes. The second sample proved to be very unstable, thus the confirmatory factor analysis could not be conducted. Since this is the first attempt to adapt B5 IAT to Slovene language, it is hardly surprising that the results are not entirely consistent with the expectations. As implicit measures currently fail to meet relevant psychometric characteristics, they are not yet applicable in psychological practice. Nevertheless, they have great potential in exploring personality and individual differences, as they overcome many limitations of existing explicit measures.

  9. A Study of Visual Descriptors for Outdoor Navigation Using Google Street View Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis between several methods to describe outdoor panoramic images is presented. The main objective consists in studying the performance of these methods in the localization process of a mobile robot (vehicle in an outdoor environment, when a visual map that contains images acquired from different positions of the environment is available. With this aim, we make use of the database provided by Google Street View, which contains spherical panoramic images captured in urban environments and their GPS position. The main benefit of using these images resides in the fact that it permits testing any novel localization algorithm in countless outdoor environments anywhere in the world and under realistic capture conditions. The main contribution of this work consists in performing a comparative evaluation of different methods to describe images to solve the localization problem in an outdoor dense map using only visual information. We have tested our algorithms using several sets of panoramic images captured in different outdoor environments. The results obtained in the work can be useful to select an appropriate description method for visual navigation tasks in outdoor environments using the Google Street View database and taking into consideration both the accuracy in localization and the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  10. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  11. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…

  12. A discrimination-association model for decomposing component processes of the implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Luca; Robusto, Egidio; Vianello, Michelangelo; Anselmi, Pasquale

    2013-06-01

    A formal model is proposed that decomposes the implicit association test (IAT) effect into three process components: stimuli discrimination, automatic association, and termination criterion. Both response accuracy and reaction time are considered. Four independent and parallel Poisson processes, one for each of the four label categories of the IAT, are assumed. The model parameters are the rate at which information accrues on the counter of each process and the amount of information that is needed before a response is given. The aim of this study is to present the model and an illustrative application in which the process components of a Coca-Pepsi IAT are decomposed.

  13. Effects of normalization on quantitative traits in association test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative trait loci analysis assumes that the trait is normally distributed. In reality, this is often not observed and one strategy is to transform the trait. However, it is not clear how much normality is required and which transformation works best in association studies. Results We performed simulations on four types of common quantitative traits to evaluate the effects of normalization using the logarithm, Box-Cox, and rank-based transformations. The impact of sample size and genetic effects on normalization is also investigated. Our results show that rank-based transformation gives generally the best and consistent performance in identifying the causal polymorphism and ranking it highly in association tests, with a slight increase in false positive rate. Conclusion For small sample size or genetic effects, the improvement in sensitivity for rank transformation outweighs the slight increase in false positive rate. However, for large sample size and genetic effects, normalization may not be necessary since the increase in sensitivity is relatively modest. PMID:20003414

  14. Effects of normalization on quantitative traits in association test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Von Bing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait loci analysis assumes that the trait is normally distributed. In reality, this is often not observed and one strategy is to transform the trait. However, it is not clear how much normality is required and which transformation works best in association studies. Results We performed simulations on four types of common quantitative traits to evaluate the effects of normalization using the logarithm, Box-Cox, and rank-based transformations. The impact of sample size and genetic effects on normalization is also investigated. Our results show that rank-based transformation gives generally the best and consistent performance in identifying the causal polymorphism and ranking it highly in association tests, with a slight increase in false positive rate. Conclusion For small sample size or genetic effects, the improvement in sensitivity for rank transformation outweighs the slight increase in false positive rate. However, for large sample size and genetic effects, normalization may not be necessary since the increase in sensitivity is relatively modest.

  15. Dynamic modeling of temperature change in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androga, Dominic Deo; Uyar, Basar; Koku, Harun; Eroglu, Inci

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to analyze the temperature variation of tubular photobioreactors operated outdoors and the validity of the model was tested by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data. The model included the effects of convection and radiative heat exchange on the reactor temperature throughout the day. The temperatures in the reactors increased with increasing solar radiation and air temperatures, and the predicted reactor temperatures corresponded well to the measured experimental values. The heat transferred to the reactor was mainly through radiation: the radiative heat absorbed by the reactor medium, ground radiation, air radiation, and solar (direct and diffuse) radiation, while heat loss was mainly through the heat transfer to the cooling water and forced convection. The amount of heat transferred by reflected radiation and metabolic activities of the bacteria and pump work was negligible. Counter-current cooling was more effective in controlling reactor temperature than co-current cooling. The model developed identifies major heat transfer mechanisms in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors, and accurately predicts temperature changes in these systems. This is useful in determining cooling duty under transient conditions and scaling up photobioreactors. The photobioreactor design and the thermal modeling were carried out and experimental results obtained for the case study of photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus, but the approach is applicable to photobiological systems that are to be operated under outdoor conditions with significant cooling demands.

  16. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Pediatrician prescriptions for outdoor physical activity among children: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; Battista, Rebecca A; James, Joy J; Bergman, Shawn M

    2017-03-01

    Research indicates that promoting time spent in the outdoors and outdoor physical activity increases children's daily physical activity and improves health. One method showing promise is doctor prescriptions for outdoor physical activity for children; however, no empirical evidence currently exists on prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity. A pilot study was conducted at one pediatric practice in western North Carolina during 2015 to test the feasibility and potential effectiveness of conducting an outdoor physical activity prescription program for children aged 5-13 years. Three pediatricians wrote prescriptions for children ( n  = 38), discussed benefits of outdoor physical activity, and provided information packets to parents on nearby places for physical activity. Parents of patients of five pediatricians served as control ( n  = 32). Prior to seeing a pediatrician, parents completed a baseline survey that asked height and weight, assessed their views of children's physical activity, and their personal and child's physical activity/sedentary behaviors. A nurse measured children's height and weight. Parents were emailed one-month and three-month follow-up surveys that asked the questions listed above. Changes in children's physical activity, outdoor physical activity, time spent in the outdoors, and sedentary activities were not significant between intervention and control groups. About half of parents (49%) viewed prescriptions as beneficial for their children and most used the intervention materials at home (70%). A larger study is needed to assess whether prescriptions increase children's physical activity. A critical examination of the intervention, pilot study design, and suggestions for a larger future study are provided.

  18. Pediatrician prescriptions for outdoor physical activity among children: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Christiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that promoting time spent in the outdoors and outdoor physical activity increases children's daily physical activity and improves health. One method showing promise is doctor prescriptions for outdoor physical activity for children; however, no empirical evidence currently exists on prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity. A pilot study was conducted at one pediatric practice in western North Carolina during 2015 to test the feasibility and potential effectiveness of conducting an outdoor physical activity prescription program for children aged 5–13 years. Three pediatricians wrote prescriptions for children (n = 38, discussed benefits of outdoor physical activity, and provided information packets to parents on nearby places for physical activity. Parents of patients of five pediatricians served as control (n = 32. Prior to seeing a pediatrician, parents completed a baseline survey that asked height and weight, assessed their views of children's physical activity, and their personal and child's physical activity/sedentary behaviors. A nurse measured children's height and weight. Parents were emailed one-month and three-month follow-up surveys that asked the questions listed above. Changes in children's physical activity, outdoor physical activity, time spent in the outdoors, and sedentary activities were not significant between intervention and control groups. About half of parents (49% viewed prescriptions as beneficial for their children and most used the intervention materials at home (70%. A larger study is needed to assess whether prescriptions increase children's physical activity. A critical examination of the intervention, pilot study design, and suggestions for a larger future study are provided.

  19. Pengembangan Model Outdoor Learning melalui Project Berbasis Local Wisdom dalam Pembelajaran Fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah kurnia Putri Damayanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 menghasilkan model outdoor learning melalui project berbasis local wisdom yang layak digunakan dalam pembelajaran fisika, (2 mengetahui keefektifan penggunaan model outdoor learning melalui project berbasis local wisdom. Penelitian pengembangan ini menggunakan metode pengembangan R & D (Research dan Development. Pada tahap Development, peneliti mengadopsi model 4D, yaitu Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model outdoor learning melalui project berbasis local wisdom yang dikembangkan layak digunakan dari segi produk pendukung pembelajaran yang memenuhi kriteria sangat tinggi menurut para ahli, praktis menurut guru dan peserta didik. Lembar observasi yang memenuhi kriteria valid dan reliabel berdasarkan hasil ICC dan tes hasil belajar yang memenuhi kriteria valid dan reliabel berdasarkan hasil Quest. Selain itu, model outdoor learning melalui project berbasis local wisdom lebih efektif digunakan dalam pembelajaran fisika dilihat dari hasil analisis multivariate dan GLMMDs yang memperoleh nilai signifikansi 0,000 dan MD yang tinggi.   AbstractThis research was aimed to: (1 produce outdoor learning via project based suitable local wisdom model used in physics learning, (2 know the effectiveness in using outdoor learning via project based local wisdom model. This developing research used a R & D method (Research and Development. On Development step, the researcher adopted 4D model, they were Define, Design, Develop, dan Dissemination. The results showed that the developed outdoor learning via project based local wisdom model was suitable to be used in terms of learning support product that was in very high category according expert, practical according teacher and students. In addition the observation sheet was in valid criteria and reliabel based on ICC and the learning outcome test was in valid criteria and reliabel based on Quest. Besides, outdoor learning via

  20. The Relationship between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Buchner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity.

  1. The relationship between outdoor activity and health in older adults using GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Godbole, Suneeta; Neukam, Suvi; Crist, Katie; Wasilenko, Kari; Golshan, Shahrokh; Buchner, David

    2012-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity.

  2. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  4. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  5. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  6. Extending the Implicit Association Test (IAT): assessing consumer attitudes based on multi-dimensional implicit associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattol, Valentin; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-05

    The authors present a procedural extension of the popular Implicit Association Test (IAT) that allows for indirect measurement of attitudes on multiple dimensions (e.g., safe-unsafe; young-old; innovative-conventional, etc.) rather than on a single evaluative dimension only (e.g., good-bad). In two within-subjects studies, attitudes toward three automobile brands were measured on six attribute dimensions. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the methodological appropriateness of the new procedure, providing strong evidence for its reliability, validity, and sensitivity. This new procedure yields detailed information on the multifaceted nature of brand associations that can add up to a more abstract overall attitude. Just as the IAT, its multi-dimensional extension/application (dubbed md-IAT) is suited for reliably measuring attitudes consumers may not be consciously aware of, able to express, or willing to share with the researcher.

  7. Outdoor ultraviolet exposure of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.; Gibson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)

  8. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  9. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  10. Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew P; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords. In total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of "good quality" (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N=6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent. Although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity and elemental composition of particulate matter from outdoor and indoor air of elementary schools in Munich, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeder, S; Dietrich, S; Weichenmeier, I; Schober, W; Pusch, G; Jörres, R A; Schierl, R; Nowak, D; Fromme, H; Behrendt, H; Buters, J T M

    2012-04-01

    Outdoor particulate matter (PM(10)) is associated with detrimental health effects. However, individual PM(10) exposure occurs mostly indoors. We therefore compared the toxic effects of classroom, outdoor, and residential PM(10). Indoor and outdoor PM(10) was collected from six schools in Munich during teaching hours and in six homes. Particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Toxicity was evaluated in human primary keratinocytes, lung epithelial cells and after metabolic activation by several human cytochromes P450. We found that PM(10) concentrations during teaching hours were 5.6-times higher than outdoors (117 ± 48 μg/m(3) vs. 21 ± 15 μg/m(3), P particle number), organic (29%, probably originating from human skin), and Ca-carbonate particles (12%, probably originating from paper). Outdoor PM contained more Ca-sulfate particles (38%). Indoor PM at 6 μg/cm(2) (10 μg/ml) caused toxicity in keratinocytes and in cells expressing CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Toxicity by CYP2B6 was abolished with the reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine. We concluded that outdoor PM(10) and indoor PM(10) from homes were devoid of toxicity. Indoor PM(10) was elevated, chemically different and toxicologically more active than outdoor PM(10). Whether the effects translate into a significant health risk needs to be determined. Until then, we suggest better ventilation as a sensible option. Indoor air PM(10) on an equal weight base is toxicologically more active than outdoor PM(10). In addition, indoor PM(10) concentrations are about six times higher than outdoor air. Thus, ventilation of classrooms with outdoor air will improve air quality and is likely to provide a health benefit. It is also easier than cleaning PM(10) from indoor air, which has proven to be tedious. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  13. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  14. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  15. The impact of daycare attendance on outdoor free play in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsley, S; Liang, L Y; Chen, Y; Parkin, P; Maguire, J; Birken, C S

    2017-03-01

    Outdoor free play is important for healthy growth and development in early childhood. Recent studies suggest that the majority of time spent in daycare is sedentary. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an association between daycare attendance and parent-reported outdoor free play. Healthy children aged 1-5 years recruited to The Applied Research Group for Kids! (TARGet Kids!), a primary care research network, were included. Parents reported daycare use, outdoor free play and potential confounding variables. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between daycare attendance and outdoor free play, adjusted for age, sex, maternal ethnicity, maternal education, neighborhood income and season. There were 2810 children included in this study. Children aged 1 to <3 years (n = 1388) and ≥3 to 5 years (n = 1284) who attended daycare had 14.70 min less (95% CI -20.52, -8.87; P < 0.01) and 9.44 min less (95% CI -13.67, -5.20; P < 0.01) per day of outdoor free play compared with children who did not attend daycare, respectively. Children who spend more time in daycare have less parent-reported outdoor free play. Parents may be relying on daycare to provide opportunity for outdoor free play and interventions to promote increased active play opportunities outside of daycare are needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Törmäkangas, Timo; Leinonen, Raija; Heikkinen, Eino; Rantanen, Taina

    2009-04-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation. Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses. Community and research center. Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up. Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period. At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively). Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.

  17. Alcohol and tobacco marketing: evaluating compliance with outdoor advertising guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Molly M; Cohen, Deborah A; Schonlau, Matthias; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the alcohol and tobacco industries have been the biggest users of outdoor advertising. However, the 1999 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) outlawed tobacco billboards and transit furniture (e.g., bus, bench) ads, and the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) has pledged to voluntarily eliminate ads for alcohol and tobacco within 500 feet of schools, playgrounds, and churches. Outdoor advertisements were observed (2004-2005) in a sample of urban census tracts (106 in pre-Katrina southern Louisiana and 114 in Los Angeles County) to evaluate tobacco and alcohol advertisers' compliance with the MSA and the OAAA Code of Industry Principles. Data were analyzed in 2007-2008. More than one in four tobacco ads in Louisiana failed to comply with the MSA. In Los Angeles, 37% of alcohol ads and 25% of tobacco ads were located within 500 feet of a school, playground, or church; in Louisiana, roughly one in five ads promoting alcohol or tobacco fell within this distance. In Los Angeles, low-income status and the presence of a freeway in the tract were associated with 40% more alcohol and tobacco billboards near children. In Louisiana, each additional major roadway-mile was associated with 4% more tobacco ads-in violation of MSA-and 7% more small ads near schools, playgrounds, and churches; city jurisdiction accounted for 55% of MSA violations and more than 70% of the violations of OAAA guidelines. Cities must be empowered to deal locally with violations of the MSA. Legislation may be needed to force advertisers to honor their pledge to protect children from alcohol and tobacco ads.

  18. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  19. On the importance of considering the incident spectrum when measuring the outdoor performance of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalg, R.; Betts, T.R.; Infield, D.G. [Loughborough University (United Kingdom). Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology; Kearney, M.J. [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, Advanced Technology Institute

    2004-02-01

    Conventional measurement practice for the outdoor performance evaluation of solar cells does not make use of the complete spectrum, relying instead on the total irradiance as measured, say, with a pyranometer. In this paper it is shown that this can result in significant errors for solar cells having wide band gaps, in particular, for amorphous silicon solar cells. Two effects are investigated. The first relates to quantifying the typical errors associated with instantaneous measurements; what one might term the calibration of devices. The second relates to quantifying the impact of neglecting variations in the spectrum on the estimation of the annual energy production. It is observed that the fraction of the spectrum falling in the spectrally useful range for amorphous silicon can vary by as much as +10% to -15% with respect to standard test conditions at the test site used in this study, which translates directly into performance variations of similar magnitude. The relationship between changes due to spectral variations as opposed to variations in device temperature is also investigated. The results show that there is a strong case for investigating spectral effects more thoroughly, and explicitly including the measurement of the spectral distribution in all outdoor performance testing. (author)

  20. Integration of Kinect and Low-Cost Gnss for Outdoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaria, D.; Pinto, L.; Reguzzoni, M.; Rossi, L.

    2016-06-01

    Since its launch on the market, Microsoft Kinect sensor has represented a great revolution in the field of low cost navigation, especially for indoor robotic applications. In fact, this system is endowed with a depth camera, as well as a visual RGB camera, at a cost of about 200. The characteristics and the potentiality of the Kinect sensor have been widely studied for indoor applications. The second generation of this sensor has been announced to be capable of acquiring data even outdoors, under direct sunlight. The task of navigating passing from an indoor to an outdoor environment (and vice versa) is very demanding because the sensors that work properly in one environment are typically unsuitable in the other one. In this sense the Kinect could represent an interesting device allowing bridging the navigation solution between outdoor and indoor. In this work the accuracy and the field of application of the new generation of Kinect sensor have been tested outdoor, considering different lighting conditions and the reflective properties of the emitted ray on different materials. Moreover, an integrated system with a low cost GNSS receiver has been studied, with the aim of taking advantage of the GNSS positioning when the satellite visibility conditions are good enough. A kinematic test has been performed outdoor by using a Kinect sensor and a GNSS receiver and it is here presented.

  1. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  2. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects marine mammals by restricting animals and... effective natural barrier that restricts the marine mammals to the facility and restricts entry by animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.103 Section 3...

  3. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  5. Sustainability in outdoor recreation and tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Kelly Bricker; Jeremy Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and tourism represents a major service by which the public identifies with and better understands natural resources, even to the extent that it can foster environmental stewardship (for example, see Winter and Chavez 2008). Yet, myriad threats to recreation and tourism exist which need to be addressed. Addressing these threats can be...

  6. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  7. Outdoor i integrationsarbejde - et nyt EU projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt

    2014-01-01

    Beskriver opstarten af det internationale projekt, hvor omgivelserne anvendes i læreprocesser for nytilkomne. Samarbejdspartnere er Linköbing Universitet i Sverige, Novia Yrkeshøgskola i Finland, Bologna Universitet i Italien. Projektet vil udvikle læreplan til anvendelse for undervisere af nytil...... nytilkomne, hvor Outdoor learning i naturen og de kulturelle omgivelser anvendes....

  8. Establishing the Competence of Outdoor Training Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Bertie

    1997-01-01

    The United Kingdom lacks a framework of nationally recognized professional qualifications for outdoor trainers and facilitators. Various definitions of competence are examined, and suggestions are offered for improving approaches to establishing staff competence. Includes a model of personal development dimensions, and compares U.K. and U.S.…

  9. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... protecting an iconic vast public land, or by creating a community garden or an urban park. Last year, I was... leaders, students, and community groups led to a report unveiled in February, America's Great Outdoors: A Promise to Future Generations, which lays the foundation for smarter, more community-driven action to...

  10. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad

  11. Playing with Power: An Outdoor Classroom Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood-Bird, Eden

    2017-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, discovery of how preschool-aged children use play to wield their individual power in the outdoors is documented in a single classroom. Embedded as a participant-researcher and working from constructivist and critical theory orientations, the researcher seeks to understand how children use their play to construct the…

  12. Issues in Outdoor Recreation: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Clayne R., Comp.; Thorstenson, Clark T., Comp.

    This book is a compilation of selected writings on the subject of outdoor recreation. It is addressed to students specializing in recreation and resource management, and teachers, conservationists, and the public in general. Seven chapters contain articles discussing issues, facts, and concerns in the field of recreation and represent various…

  13. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  14. Learning Leadership: Becoming an Outdoor Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Elisabeth; Lynch, Pip

    2018-01-01

    Recent leadership research has demonstrated a need for better understanding the process of becominga leader because it might be qualitatively different to being a leader. If so, there is likely to be a need for pedagogies designed deliberately to support first-time outdoor leadership experiences and any such pedagogies must be informed by the…

  15. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  16. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  17. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  18. Designing interactive outdoor games for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile outdoor games for groups of children have emerged recently as a credible technological proposition and as an area of research and development that promises substantial benefits for children regarding a more active lifestyle and the development of social skills. This chapter examines

  19. Association test based on SNP set: logistic kernel machine based test vs. principal component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available GWAS has facilitated greatly the discovery of risk SNPs associated with complex diseases. Traditional methods analyze SNP individually and are limited by low power and reproducibility since correction for multiple comparisons is necessary. Several methods have been proposed based on grouping SNPs into SNP sets using biological knowledge and/or genomic features. In this article, we compare the linear kernel machine based test (LKM and principal components analysis based approach (PCA using simulated datasets under the scenarios of 0 to 3 causal SNPs, as well as simple and complex linkage disequilibrium (LD structures of the simulated regions. Our simulation study demonstrates that both LKM and PCA can control the type I error at the significance level of 0.05. If the causal SNP is in strong LD with the genotyped SNPs, both the PCA with a small number of principal components (PCs and the LKM with kernel of linear or identical-by-state function are valid tests. However, if the LD structure is complex, such as several LD blocks in the SNP set, or when the causal SNP is not in the LD block in which most of the genotyped SNPs reside, more PCs should be included to capture the information of the causal SNP. Simulation studies also demonstrate the ability of LKM and PCA to combine information from multiple causal SNPs and to provide increased power over individual SNP analysis. We also apply LKM and PCA to analyze two SNP sets extracted from an actual GWAS dataset on non-small cell lung cancer.

  20. Federal outdoor recreation trends: effects on economic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Donald B.K. English

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor recreation is a central way that people interact with the natural environment. Federal land agencies are key providers of settings, facilities, and landscapes for recreation. Outdoor recreation is also an important driver of economic activity in rural communities near recreation destinations and across the United States. Future participation in outdoor...

  1. Determination of Science Teachers' Opinions about Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Ulas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to discover what science teachers' opinions about outdoor education learning environments are. Outdoor education learning environments contribute to problem-solving, critical and creative thinking skills of students. For this reason, outdoor education learning environments are very important for students to learn by…

  2. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  3. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  4. Outdoor Education in Senior Schooling: Clarifying the Body of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Australia has a state-based educational system. In some of these states, outdoor education exists as part of the formal accredited secondary school curriculum. In this paper I analyse the content of these senior secondary school outdoor courses as a means to help delineate and describe the body of knowledge of outdoor education. I suggest outdoor…

  5. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

  6. The Perceived Life Impact of a University Outdoor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesworth, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the outdoors provides lasting educational experiences. Most students retain information best when doing an activity, and the outdoors allows for these opportunities. Outdoor education (OE) is a large, multi-disciplinary field cultivated from many roots. Since OE offers such vivid learning opportunities, it is an important area for…

  7. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was

  8. Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

  9. People participation in natural outdoors recreation activities and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the visitors believe natural outdoor recreation in the south-west of the country ... These identified benefits of Natural Outdoors Recreational in the course of the ... promotion, employment, urban aesthetic, healthy livings and improve tourism ... outdoor recreation centres to augment medical service in improving life span ...

  10. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  11. Leptospirosis Risk in Outdoor Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of infected animals such as rodents, pigs, cattle, dogs, and many wildlife species. If urine from an ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  12. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Alexandre; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Earley, Bernadette; Black, Alistair D; Campion, Deirdre P; Englishby, Tanya; Reilly, Petrina; O'Doherty, John; Sweeney, Torres

    2010-03-31

    Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P outdoor animals (P outdoor animals with elevated levels of serum pepsinogen (P outdoor animals in comparison to the indoor animals. Lower levels of copper and iodine were measured in the outdoor animals in comparison to indoor animals (P < 0.001). Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  13. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (Pbehavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  14. [Test anxiety: associations with personal and family variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Salgado, Ana; González-Pienda, Julio A; Valle, Antonio; Joly, Cristina; Bernardo, Ana

    2008-11-01

    Test anxiety is a common behavior among students facing social pressure centered on mastery. Only a few studies have analyzed the relations between test anxiety, academic procrastination, personal and family variables and math grades. This work focus on the analysis of the impact of students' social-personal variables such as parents' education level, number of siblings and under-achievement by performing ANOVAs in two samples of 533 and 796 students from junior high-school. Corroborating the findings in other studies, the data stress that test anxiety is higher in girls and decreases when students' parents have higher educational levels, with the number of courses flunked, and when students' math grades were lower. Test anxiety and procrastination correlate positive and significantly. Findings are discussed and compared with those of previous researches. The implications for teaching practice are also analyzed.

  15. MAVL wastes containers functional demonstration and associated tests program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templier, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of studies on the MAVL wastes, the CEA develops containers for middle time wastes storage. This program aims to realize a ''B wastes containers'' demonstrator. A demonstrator is a container, parts of a container or samples which must validate the tests. This document presents the state of the study in the following three chapters: functions description, base data and design choices; presentation of the functional demonstrators; demonstration tests description. (A.L.B.)

  16. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  17. Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

  18. Testing association and linkage using affected-sib-parent study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Joshua; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Conti, David V; Gauderman, W James

    2005-11-01

    We have developed a method for jointly testing linkage and association using data from affected sib pairs and their parents. We specify a conditional logistic regression model with two covariates, one that quantifies association (either direct association or indirect association via linkage disequilibrium), and a second that quantifies linkage. The latter covariate is computed based on expected identity-by-descend (ibd) sharing of marker alleles between siblings. In addition to a joint test of linkage and association, our general framework can be used to obtain a linkage test comparable to the mean test (Blackwelder and Elston [1985] Genet. Epidemiol. 2:85-97), and an association test comparable to the Family-Based Association Test (FBAT; Rabinowitz and Laird [2000] Hum. Hered. 50:211-223). We present simulation results demonstrating that our joint test can be more powerful than some standard tests of linkage or association. For example, with a relative risk of 2.7 per variant allele at a disease locus, the estimated power to detect a nearby marker with a modest level of LD was 58.1% by the mean test (linkage only), 69.8% by FBAT, and 82.5% by our joint test of linkage and association. Our model can also be used to obtain tests of linkage conditional on association and association conditional on linkage, which can be helpful in fine mapping. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Stigma associated with sexually transmissible infection testing in an online testing environment: examining the perspectives of youth in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy M; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Background Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Youth came from a diverse set of sociodemographic backgrounds and most (n=46, 65%) had previously accessed STI testing in clinic-based settings. Participants' perceptions pointed to the benefits of online testing for reducing the external stigma despite the potential persistence of internalised stigma. Notions of hegemonic masculinity and emphasised femininity were also present in the participants' descriptions of the role of gender in accessing online STI testing. Online STI testing could potentially ameliorate the experiences of participants in regards to the stigma associated with STI testing; however, participants' internalised feelings of shame and stigma around testing for STI may continue to persist. Our findings underscore the need to revisit and re-evaluate existing STI testing services to provide less anxiety-inducing testing environments for youth.

  20. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  1. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N; Mysak, Lawrence A; Damon Matthews, H

    2012-01-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada. (letter)

  2. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N.; Damon Matthews, H.; Mysak, Lawrence A.

    2012-03-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada.

  3. Injury rates from walking, gardening, weightlifting, outdoor bicycling, and aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, K E; Heath, G W; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Branche, C M

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this survey was to estimate the frequency of injuries associated with five commonly performed moderately intense activities: walking for exercise, gardening and yard work, weightlifting, aerobic dance, and outdoor bicycling. National estimates were derived from weighted responses of over 5,000 individuals contacted between April 28 and September 18, 1994, via random-digit dialing of U.S. residential telephone numbers. Self-reported participation in these five activities in the late spring and summer of 1994 was common, ranging from an estimated 14.5 +/- 1.2% of the population for aerobics (nearly 30 million people) to 73.0 +/- 1.5% for walking (about 138 million people). Among participants, the activity-specific 30-d prevalence of injury ranged from 0.9 +- 0.5% for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.4 +- 1.3% for weightlifting. The estimated number in the 30 d of people injured in the 30 d before their interview ranged from 330,000 for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.1 million for gardening or yard work. Incidence rates for injury causing reduced participation in activity were 1.1 +/- 0.5x100 participantsx30 d for walking, 1.1 +/- 0.4 for gardening, and 3.3 +/- 1.9 for weightlifting. During walking and gardening, men and women were equally likely to be injured, but younger people (18-44 yr) were more likely to be injured than older people (45 + yr). Injury rates were low, yet large numbers of people were injured because participation rates were high. Most injuries were minor, but injuries may reduce participation in these otherwise beneficial activities. Additional studies to confirm the magnitude of the problem, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to recommend methods to reduce the frequency of such injuries are needed.

  4. Association test with the principal component analysis in case ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type data provide an unprecedented opportunity for identify- ing genes underlying complex traits. When multiple markers are available, haplotype-based methods and genotype-based methods are commonly used for conducting association between complex traits and a series of possibly linked mark- ers. Owing to the ...

  5. Robustness of Visual Place Cells in Dynamic Indoor and Outdoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giovannangeli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model of visual place cells (PCs based on precise neurobiological data is presented. The robustness of the model in real indoor and outdoor environments is tested. Results show that the interplay between neurobiological modelling and robotic experiments can promote the understanding of the neural structures and the achievement of robust robot navigation algorithms. Short Term Memory (STM, soft competition and sparse coding are important for both landmark identification and computation of PC activities. The extension of the paradigm to outdoor environments has confirmed the robustness of the vision-based model and pointed to improvements in order to further foster its performance.

  6. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W.; James, J. Joy; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children’s outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children’s HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included. PMID:29152542

  7. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; James, J Joy; Battista, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children's HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included.

  8. Effects of Outdoor Housing of Piglets on Behavior, Stress Reaction and Meat Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yonezawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed housing systems are important from the viewpoint of animal welfare and improvement of meat production. In this study, we investigated the effects of outdoor housing of pigs on their behavior, cortisol levels, and meat characteristics. Two groups that were born and raised in a spacious outdoor pen (4×10 m for every two sows or a minimum-sized standard pen in a piggery (1.9×2.2 m for every sow were studied. When their behaviors at the age of 2 to 3 wk were observed, the number of rooting episodes tended to be larger (p = 0.0509 and the total time of rooting tended to be longer (p = 0.0640 in the outdoor-housed piglets although the difference was not significant. Basal salivary cortisol levels of the outdoor piglets at the age of 4 wk were significantly lower than those of the indoor piglets (5.0±0.59 ng/ml vs. 11.6±0.91 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment, although their plasma cortisol levels were similar (53.3±3.54 ng/ml vs. 59.9±4.84 ng/ml, 30 min after treatment. When the ears were pierced at weaning, plasma and salivary cortisol levels were increased in both groups, even at 15 min after piercing. However, the increase in the outdoor-housed group was significantly less than that in the indoor-housed group. Throughout their lives, body weight and daily gain of the pigs were not significantly different between the two groups. In a meat taste preference test taken by 20 panelists, saltiness, flavor, and color of the outdoor-housed pork were found to be more acceptable. Moreover, when an electronic taste-sensing device was utilized, the C00 and CPA-C00 outputs (3.78±0.07 and −0.20±0.023, which correspond to compounds of bitterness and smells, respectively, were significantly lower in the outdoor-housed pork (5.03±0.16 and −0.13±0.009. Our results demonstrate that the outdoor housing system for piglets induces natural behaviors such as rooting and suppresses the strongest stress reaction of piglets, which could be important

  9. Environmental monitoring associated with nuclear testing in French Polynesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Arnould, C.; Bory, P.; Ducousso, R.; Sarbach, J.

    2009-01-01

    The realization of the programme of nuclear experiments in French Polynesia was accompanied by the installation by a radiological monitoring device of the environment, either the physical environment or biological, continental or marine, vegetable or animal, in order to make sure of the absence of risk for the populations. This device took all its importance with the tests carried out in the atmosphere between 1966 and 1974. Its implementation required important means in hardware and manpower with the intervention of civil and military or sometimes mixed organizations. The monitoring was naturally done in a very complete way in the zones close to the sites of tests, but also on the whole of the Polynesian territory, in particular the most populated atolls. It also carried, but in a less extended way, on remote zones, like the Andean countries, because of their geographical location. The results obtained by the various involved laboratories were gathered and interpreted in order to ensure information of the persons in charge and the authorities, in particular in Polynesia and through them the population. They were each year transmitted to the scientific committee of the United Nations for the study of the effects of ionizing radiations (UNSCEAR). The surveillance device is thus described, apart from the zones close to the zones of testing, with the presentation of the various implied organizations and the various monitoring programs. (authors)

  10. The relationship between perceived health and physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and outdoors in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-11-01

    A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and public health. National survey data (n = 2,070) from Finland was analysed using structural regression analyses. Perceived general health, emotional well-being, and sleep quality were regressed on the weekly frequency of physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and in nature. Socioeconomic factors and other plausible confounders were controlled for. Emotional well-being showed the most consistent positive connection to physical activity in nature, whereas general health was positively associated with physical activity in both built and natural outdoor settings. Better sleep quality was weakly connected to frequent physical activity in nature, but the connection was outweighed by other factors. The results indicate that nature provides an added value to the known benefits of physical activity. Repeated exercise in nature is, in particular, connected to better emotional well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Managing outdoor recreation conflict on the Squamish, British Columbia Trail Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Elia Ramón Hidalgo; Howard. Harshaw

    2012-01-01

    Recreationists with high expectations of satisfaction from outdoor recreation activities are increasingly using trails networks near urban areas. But differences in expectations, behaviors and values of trail users may create conflicts resulting in unsatisfactory experiences. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of management practices that may reduce...

  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Funding for HIV Testing Associated With Higher State Percentage of Persons Tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Samah; Dietz, Patricia M; Van Handel, Michelle; Zhang, Jun; Shrestha, Ram K; Huang, Ya-Lin A; Wan, Choi; Mermin, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between state per capita allocations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for HIV testing and the percentage of persons tested for HIV. We examined data from 2 sources: 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2010-2011 State HIV Budget Allocations Reports. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were used to estimate the percentage of persons aged 18 to 64 years who had reported testing for HIV in the last 2 years in the United States by state. State HIV Budget Allocations Reports were used to calculate the state mean annual per capita allocations for CDC-funded HIV testing reported by state and local health departments in the United States. The association between the state fixed-effect per capita allocations for CDC-funded HIV testing and self-reported HIV testing in the last 2 years among persons aged 18 to 64 years was assessed with a hierarchical logistic regression model adjusting for individual-level characteristics. The percentage of persons tested for HIV in the last 2 years. In 2011, 18.7% (95% confidence interval = 18.4-19.0) of persons reported being tested for HIV in last 2 years (state range, 9.7%-28.2%). During 2010-2011, the state mean annual per capita allocation for CDC-funded HIV testing was $0.34 (state range, $0.04-$1.04). A $0.30 increase in per capita allocation for CDC-funded HIV testing was associated with an increase of 2.4 percentage points (14.0% vs 16.4%) in the percentage of persons tested for HIV per state. Providing HIV testing resources to health departments was associated with an increased percentage of state residents tested for HIV.

  13. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  14. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  15. Testing of valves and associated systems in large scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M.

    1985-01-01

    The system examples dealt with are selected so that they cover a wide spectrum of technical tasks and limits. Therefore the flowing medium varies from pure steam flow via a mixed flow of steam and water to pure water flow. The valves concerned include those whose main function is opening, and also those whose main function is the secure closing. There is a certain limitation in that the examples are taken from Boiling Water Reactor technology. The main procedure in valve and system testing described is, of course, not limited to the selected examples, but applies generally in powerstation and process technology. (orig./HAG) [de

  16. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  17. Obstacole in implementarea activitatilor de tip outdoor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    2013-01-01

    It is never easy to implement new ways of teaching, and during this process the changing agent will often face a number of different barriers. Which kind of barriers depends of course what kind of changes we are talking about. There are a number of countries where teachers have tried to implement...... outdoor learning, and some of these experiences will be described in this article....

  18. Marketingová komunikace Outdoor Training Clubu

    OpenAIRE

    Soukeníková, Karla

    2017-01-01

    Title: Outdoor Training Club's Marketing Communication Goals: The aim of the thesis is to evaluate current club's marketing communication and come up with the suggestions of how to improve marketing communication, which would be benefit for the club and it helps acquire new potential customers. Methods: Electronic and written questionnaire, informal semi-structured interviews, document analysis. Results: Based on research and interview with the owner, I found that the current marketing commun...

  19. Slam estimation in dynamic outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheyuan; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi; コ, シンテイ; ウチムラ, ケイイチ; 胡, 振程; 内村, 圭一

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different approaches to estimate simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in dynamic outdoor environments. SLAM has been intensively researched in recent years in the field of robotics and intelligent vehicles, many approaches have been proposed including occupancy grid mapping method (Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer and Fuzzy Logic), Localization estimation method (edge or point features based direct scan matching techniques, probabilistic likelihood, EK...

  20. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness. PMID:26062039

  1. Effect of outdoor activity on myopia onset and progression in school-aged children in northeast china: the sujiatun eye care study

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Ju-Xiang; Hua, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Ji-Wen; Gao, Guo-Peng; Fang, Yun; Pei, Chen-Lu; Wang, Song; Zhang, Jie-Zheng; Tao, Li-Ming; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to its high prevalence and associated sight-threatening pathologies, myopia has emerged as a major health issue in East Asia. The purpose was to test the impact on myopia development of a school-based intervention program aimed at increasing the time student spent outdoors. Methods A total of 3051 students of two primary (grades 1-5, aged 6-11) and two junior high schools (grades 7-8, aged 12-14) in both urban and rural Northeast China were enrolled. The intervention group (n?=...

  2. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant.

  3. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Childhood leukemias associated with fallout from nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.L.; Klauber, M.R.; Gardner, J.W.; Udall, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Continuing concern over the possible carcinogenic effects of low-level radiation prompted us to study the population of Utah because of its exposure to fallout from 26 nuclear tests between 1951 and 1958. Certain rural counties (high-level counties) received most of the fallout during that period. We reviewed all deaths from childhood (under 15 years of age) cancers occurring in the entire state between 1944 and 1975 and assigned them to a cohort of either high or low exposure, depending on whether 15 between 1951 and 1958. For reasons unknown, leukemia mortality among the low-exposure cohort in the high-fallout counties was about half that of the United States and the remainder of the state. Mortality increased by 2.44 times (95 per cent confidence, 1.18 to 5.02) to just slightly above that of the United States in the high-exposure cohort residing in the high-fallout counties, and was greatest in 10- to 14-year-old children. For other childhood cancers, no consistent pattern was found in relation to fallout exposure. The increase in leukemia deaths could be due to fallout or to some other unexplained factor

  5. Development of a versatile experimental setup for the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of construction materials under realistic outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, S; Portela, R; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Sánchez, B

    2014-10-01

    The interest on outdoor photocatalytic materials is growing in the last years. Nevertheless, most of the experimental devices designed for the assessment of their performance operate at controlled laboratory conditions, i.e., pollutant concentration, temperature, UV irradiation, and water vapor contents, far from those of real outdoor environments. The aim of the present study was the design and development of an experimental device for the continuous test of photocatalytic outdoor materials under sun irradiation using real outdoor air as feed, with the concomitant fluctuation of pollutant concentration, temperature, and water vapor content. A three-port measurement system based on two UV-transparent chambers was designed and built. A test chamber contained the photoactive element and a reference chamber to place the substrate without the photoactive element were employed. The third sampling point, placed outdoors, allowed the characterization of the surrounding air, which feeds the test chambers. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and UV-A irradiance were monitored at each sampling point with specific sensors. NO x concentration was measured by a chemiluminescence NO x analyzer. Three automatic valves allowed the consecutive analysis of the concentration at the three points at fixed time intervals. The reliability of the analytical system was demonstrated by comparing the NO x concentration data with those obtained at the nearest weather station to the experimental device location. The use of a chamber-based reaction system leads to an attenuation of NO x and atmospheric parameter profiles, but maintaining the general trends. The air characterization results showed the wide operating window under which the photoactive materials should work outdoors, depending on the traffic intensity and the season, which are reproduced inside the test chambers. The designed system allows the measurement of the photoactivity of outdoor materials or the comparison of several

  6. Rare variant testing across methods and thresholds using the multi-kernel sequence kernel association test (MK-SKAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Eugene; Lee, Seunggeun; Maity, Arnab; Zhao, Ni; Shen, Judong; Li, Yun; Wu, Michael C

    Analysis of rare genetic variants has focused on region-based analysis wherein a subset of the variants within a genomic region is tested for association with a complex trait. Two important practical challenges have emerged. First, it is difficult to choose which test to use. Second, it is unclear which group of variants within a region should be tested. Both depend on the unknown true state of nature. Therefore, we develop the Multi-Kernel SKAT (MK-SKAT) which tests across a range of rare variant tests and groupings. Specifically, we demonstrate that several popular rare variant tests are special cases of the sequence kernel association test which compares pair-wise similarity in trait value to similarity in the rare variant genotypes between subjects as measured through a kernel function. Choosing a particular test is equivalent to choosing a kernel. Similarly, choosing which group of variants to test also reduces to choosing a kernel. Thus, MK-SKAT uses perturbation to test across a range of kernels. Simulations and real data analyses show that our framework controls type I error while maintaining high power across settings: MK-SKAT loses power when compared to the kernel for a particular scenario but has much greater power than poor choices.

  7. Greater power and computational efficiency for kernel-based association testing of sets of genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Christoph; Xiang, Jing; Horta, Danilo; Widmer, Christian; Kadie, Carl; Heckerman, David; Listgarten, Jennifer

    2014-11-15

    Set-based variance component tests have been identified as a way to increase power in association studies by aggregating weak individual effects. However, the choice of test statistic has been largely ignored even though it may play an important role in obtaining optimal power. We compared a standard statistical test-a score test-with a recently developed likelihood ratio (LR) test. Further, when correction for hidden structure is needed, or gene-gene interactions are sought, state-of-the art algorithms for both the score and LR tests can be computationally impractical. Thus we develop new computationally efficient methods. After reviewing theoretical differences in performance between the score and LR tests, we find empirically on real data that the LR test generally has more power. In particular, on 15 of 17 real datasets, the LR test yielded at least as many associations as the score test-up to 23 more associations-whereas the score test yielded at most one more association than the LR test in the two remaining datasets. On synthetic data, we find that the LR test yielded up to 12% more associations, consistent with our results on real data, but also observe a regime of extremely small signal where the score test yielded up to 25% more associations than the LR test, consistent with theory. Finally, our computational speedups now enable (i) efficient LR testing when the background kernel is full rank, and (ii) efficient score testing when the background kernel changes with each test, as for gene-gene interaction tests. The latter yielded a factor of 2000 speedup on a cohort of size 13 500. Software available at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/projects/MSCompBio/Fastlmm/. heckerma@microsoft.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  9. Factors associated with delayed tuberculosis test-seeking behavior in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carolyn M; Bayer, Angela M; Gilman, Robert H; Onifade, Dami; Acosta, Colleen; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Carlos; Evans, Carlton A

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the psychosocial factors associated with delayed test-seeking among tuberculosis patients. The duration of symptoms before seeking medical care was assessed by interview for 108 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the city of Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon, which has high tuberculosis incidence. Beliefs associated with test-seeking behavior and delay was assessed in these patients. The median delay from symptom onset to seeking diagnostic testing was 61 days (inter-quartile range 30-91 days). The belief that tuberculosis is curable was associated with a 100% longer test-seeking delay; the perception that tuberculosis was common was associated with a 57% longer delay; male gender was associated with a 48% longer delay; and education less than complete secondary schooling was associated with a 44% longer delay. In conclusion, current health promotion activities that emphasize tuberculosis curability and high prevalence may paradoxically increase test-seeking delay and therefore require prospective evaluation.

  10. Outdoor recreational fires: a review of 329 adult and pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaman, Keith C; Do, Viet H; Olenzek, Emily K; Baca, Marissa; Ford, Ronald D; Wilcox, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor recreational fires are a frequent occurrence during the summer months and can be associated with burns resulting in significant morbidity. Both pediatric and adult populations can be affected, and their mechanism of injury is often different. Understanding these mechanisms is important when designing prevention programs. It is the goal of this study to review our experience with outdoor recreational fires. All patients who presented to Spectrum Health Blodgett Regional Burn Unit for burns secondary to an outdoor recreational fire over an 8-year period were reviewed. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, body area involved, TBSA burned, treatments undertaken, and subsequent complications were recorded. Pediatric patients (aged 16 years and younger) were analyzed independently, and risk factors were determined. A total of 329 patients suffered burns secondary to outdoor recreational fires over the length of the study. More than 35% required inpatient treatment, with an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Hands were the most frequently affected body part, with the mean TBSA involved being 3.5%. Ninety-four patients (28.6%) required split-thickness skin grafting. The most common mechanism of injury in both adult and pediatric populations was falling into an ongoing fire. Wound infection was the most common complication. Alcohol intoxication was associated with a higher burn severity and complication rate. Pediatric patients represented 39.8% of the sample. Burns secondary to outdoor recreational fires are associated with significant morbidity. Adult prevention programs should target awareness with respect to alcohol consumption and campfires secondary to the morbidity associated with these injuries. Pediatric patients are particularly susceptible, and parents should remain diligent about campfire safety and be educated about the inherent dangers of both active and extinguished fires.

  11. Pengaruh Outdoor Learning Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Matematis Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Cristi Crismono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah Outdoor Learning berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Mengacu pada teori perkembangan kognitifnya penggunaan Outdoor Learning dengan memanfaatkan lingkungan sekitar pada media pembelajaran dan semua aktifitas belajar yang dilakukan oleh siswa di bawah pengawasan dan bimbingan guru. Penggunaan sumber belajar yang bersifat kontektual mampu mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Data penelitian dapat diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes yang terdiri dari seperangkat soal uraian untuk mengukur dan mengetahui  kemampuan  awal  matematika  berupa  kemampuan  berpikir  kritis siswa. Hasil analisis pengaruh penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa yang telah dilakukan diketahui bahwa terdapat pengaruh positif penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Kesimpulan dari peneitian ini adalah metode Outdoor learning berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa.

  12. Residual strength of repaired graphite/epoxy laminates after 5 years of outdoor exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Jerry W.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has sponsored research to develop generic repair techniques and processes for advanced graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) composites applicable to secondary structures for commercial transport aircraft. The long-term durability of such repairs is being addressed in a 10-year outdoor exposure program at the Langley Research Center. Details of the program and results of residual strength tests after 5 years of outdoor exposure are presented. Four repair methods are being evaluated. These include: (1) externally bolted aluminum-plus adhesive; (2) precured, bonded external Gr/Ep; (3) cure-in-place external Gr/Ep; and (4) cure-in-place flush Gr/Ep. Repaired specimens as well as undamaged and damaged unrepaired controls are being exposed outdoors for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years. The residual tensile strength of stressed, unstressed, and fatigue specimens from each group is reported and compared with the tensile strength of baseline specimens which received no outdoor exposure. Identification of the commercial products and companies is used to describe adequately the test materials. The identification of these commercial products does not constitute endorsement, expressed or implied, of such products by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. The frequency of outdoor play for preschool age children cared for at home-based child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Zhou, Chuan; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Given that more than 34% of U.S. children are cared for in home-based child care settings and outdoor play is associated with physical activity and other health benefits, we sought to characterize the outdoor play frequency of preschoolers cared for at home-based child care settings and factors associated with outdoor play. Cross-sectional study of 1900 preschoolers (representing approximately 862,800 children) cared for in home-based child care settings (including relative and nonrelative care) using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Only 50% of home-based child care providers reported taking the child outside to walk or play at least once/day. More than one-third of all children did not go outside to play daily with either their parent(s) or home-based child care provider. There were increased odds of going outside daily for children cared for by nonrelatives in the child's home compared with care from a relative. Children with ≥3 regular playmates had greater odds of being taken outdoors by either the parents or child care provider. We did not find statistically significant associations between other child level (age, sex, screen-time), family level (highest education in household, mother's race, employment, exercise frequency), and child care level (hours in care, provider's educational attainment, perception of neighborhood safety) factors and frequency of outdoor play. At a national level, the frequency of outdoor play for preschoolers cared for in home-based child care settings is suboptimal. Further study and efforts to increase outdoor playtime for children in home-based child care settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Home outdoor models for traffic-related air pollutants do not represent personal exposure measurements in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducret-Stich, R; Gemperli, A; Ineichen, A; Phuleria, H C; Delfino, R J; Tjoa, T; Wu, J; Liu, L-J S

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have used measurements or estimates of traffic-related air pollutants at home or school locations to link associations between exposure and health. However, little is known about the validity of these outdoor concentrations as an estimate for personal exposure to traffic. This paper compares modelled outdoor concentrations at home with personal exposure to traffic air pollution of 63 children in two areas in Los Angeles in 2003/2004. Exposure monitoring consisted of sixteen 10-day monitoring runs, with each run monitoring 4 subjects concurrently with the active personal DataRAM for particulate matter 25 ), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). One child per run had concurrent indoor/outdoor home monitoring. Measurements at central sites (24-hr PM 25 , EC, OC) were taken daily and concentrations of PM 25 , EC, and OC from traffic sources were calculated using the CALINE4 model for individual residences. We modelled outdoor concentrations of PM 2 5 , EC and OC with multilinear regression including GIS and meteorological parameters and adjusted for auto-correlation between repeated measurements. The model fit (R 2 ) for home outdoor estimates was 0.94, 0.74 and 0.80 for PM 25 , EC and OC, respectively. Comparisons between these outdoor estimates and the personal measurements showed a good agreement for PM 25 (R 2 =0.65-0.70) with a mean bias of -0.7±11.8|ag for the smog receptor area, and 18.9±16.2|ag for the traffic impacted area. However the outdoor estimates were not related to personal exposure for EC (R 2 =0.01-0.29) and OC (R 2 =0.03- 0.14). Conclusions: Predictions of outdoor concentrations can be used as approximations of personal exposure to PM 25 . However, they are not appropriate for estimating personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants including EC and OC in studies of acute exposure-response relationships.

  15. Outdoor time, physical activity and sedentary time among young children: The 2012-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Garriguet, Didier; Tremblay, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that children who spend more time outdoors are more active and spend less time sedentary, but these studies were limited by the use of small convenience samples. We examined the relationship between outdoor time and measures of physical activity (PA), screen time and sedentary time in a nationally-representative sample of young children. Parental reports of outdoor time were obtained for 594 children aged 3-6 years (47.8% girls) who participated in the 2012-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Participants were asked to wear an Actical accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Outdoor time and screen time were assessed by parent reports. The relationships between outdoor time and measures of PA, screen time and sedentary time were examined with linear regression models. Adherence to PA guidelines was estimated based on a betabinomial distribution, and adherence with the screen time guidelines was assessed through logistic regression models. All analyses were stratified by age group (3-4 and 5-6 year olds) and adjusted for sex, parental education and household income. Among 5-6 year olds, each additional hour spent outdoors was associated with an additional 10 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (95% CI: 6-14), 27,455 more accelerometer counts/day (95% CI: 11,929-42,980) and an increased likelihood of meeting the PA guidelines (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.68-3.82). No significant relationships were observed among 3-4 year olds. Outdoor time has a large effect on PA among 5-6 year olds at a population level. Future studies should examine the correlates of outdoor time to inform novel PA promotion interventions.

  16. Outdoor time, physical activity, sedentary time, and health indicators at ages 7 to 14: 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Garriguet, Didier; Gunnell, Katie E; Goldfield, Gary S; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-09-21

    International data show that the majority of children and youth are not sufficiently active. According to recent research, children who spend more time outdoors accumulate more daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and engage in less sedentary behaviour. However, the generalizability of these findings is uncertain, and few studies investigated whether outdoor time is associated with other physical and psychosocial health indicators. This study examined associations between outdoor time and measures of physical activity, sedentary time, and physical and psychosocial health in a nationally representative sample of 7-to-14-year-olds (n = 1,159) who participated in the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured with Actical accelerometers. Direct measures of height, weight, waist circumference, grip strength, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glycohemoglobin were obtained. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial health. Relationships between outdoor time and physical health measures were examined with multi-variable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, parental education, and household income. Logistic regression models controlling for the same variables were used for psychosocial health. Each additional hour spent outdoors per day was associated with 7.0 more minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, 762 more steps, and 13 fewer minutes of sedentary time. As well, each hour outdoors was associated with lower odds of negative psychosocial outcomes (specifically, peer relationship problems and total difficulties score). Outdoor time was not associated with any of the measures of physical health. Children reporting more time outdoors are more active, less sedentary, and less likely to have peer relationship problems, compared with those who spend less time outdoors.

  17. Outdoor Education Course - The New Product of a Company Offer

    OpenAIRE

    Beránek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    and Key Words Title: Outdoor Education Course- The New Product of a Company Offer Aim: Analysis and evaluation of needs and attitudes of the present company clients of Firma na zážitky, s.r.o. company in the outdoor education field to frame a pilot project of an outdoor course programme. Method: Method of questionnare was used to analyse and evaluate needs and attitudes ofthe company clients. Results: A project of outdoor course programme was created according to results of realized research....

  18. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  19. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  20. The Outdoor Classroom: School Camping as Education in NSW 1890-1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    At all levels of education in New South Wales outdoor experiences and outdoor education are a prominent part of the curriculum. This emphasis on the outdoors begins early. Outdoor activities are an important part of most primary schools whether they are public or private. Likewise at secondary level and at university outdoor education is still an…

  1. A Guide to Outdoor Education Resources and Programs for the Handicapped. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

    The resource guide is designed to assist educators, park resource persons, and parents of disabled children in locating and identifying sources of information for developing, implementing, and evaluating outdoor education programs for all disabled children and youth. The guide has two main parts. The first part contains an annotated bibliography…

  2. A prevalence-based association test for case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Jiang, Lan; Li, Chun; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Haines, Jonathan L; Williams, Scott M

    2008-11-01

    Genetic association is often determined in case-control studies by the differential distribution of alleles or genotypes. Recent work has demonstrated that association can also be assessed by deviations from the expected distributions of alleles or genotypes. Specifically, multiple methods motivated by the principles of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) have been developed. However, these methods do not take into account many of the assumptions of HWE. Therefore, we have developed a prevalence-based association test (PRAT) as an alternative method for detecting association in case-control studies. This method, also motivated by the principles of HWE, uses an estimated population allele frequency to generate expected genotype frequencies instead of using the case and control frequencies separately. Our method often has greater power, under a wide variety of genetic models, to detect association than genotypic, allelic or Cochran-Armitage trend association tests. Therefore, we propose PRAT as a powerful alternative method of testing for association.

  3. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  4. LightSavers : accelerating advanced outdoor lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, B.; Pickering, M.

    2010-01-15

    This paper provided an update to the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) LightSavers program. The program was designed to accelerate market transformation for light emitting diode (LED) and advanced lighting management systems in outdoor lighting applications. It is expected that the program will result in significant electricity savings and emissions reductions within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and other Ontario municipalities. The first phase of the program established advanced outdoor lighting pilot programs in parking lots, garages, and pathway lighting applications that were guided by a common monitoring protocol to ensure useful and reliable assessment of the pilot programs. The TAF has since developed a strategy to strengthen public understanding and support for the use of advanced lighting, and continues to address policy issues that may impact the future of LED lighting programs. The TAF has also activated an electronic newsletter, delivered public workshops, and has been represented at several conferences. A working partnership has been established with Toronto Hydro Energy Services. Five pilot sites have been installed and have begun to provide monitoring data. Details of the pilot programs were provided. 16 figs.

  5. Indoor versus outdoor time in preschoolers at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Zhou, Chuan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2013-01-01

    Being outdoors may have health benefits including being more physically active. Understanding the relationship between outdoor time and health is hampered by the difficulty of measuring outdoor time. To examine the accuracy and validity of light-sensor and GPS methods for quantifying outdoor time among those aged 3-5 years at child care. A total of 45 children (mean age 4.5 years, 64% boys) from five child care centers wore portable accelerometers with built-in light sensors and a separate GPS device around their waists during child care, providing 80,648 episodes (15 seconds each) for analysis. Direct observation (gold standard) of children being outdoors versus indoors was conducted for 2 days at each center. GPS signal-to-noise ratios, processed through the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System were used to define indoor versus outdoor locations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to determine thresholds for defining being indoors versus outdoors. Data were collected in Fall 2011, analyzed in 2012. Mean observed outdoor time was 63 [±44; range: 18-152] minutes/day. Mean light-sensor levels were significantly higher outdoors. The area under the ROC curve for location based on light sensor for all weather conditions was 0.82 (range: 0.70 on partly cloudy days to 0.97 on sunny days); for GPS, it was 0.89. The light sensor had a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 86%. GPS had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 88%. A light sensor and a GPS device both distinguish indoor from outdoor time for preschoolers with moderate to high levels of accuracy. These devices can increase the feasibility and lower the cost of measuring outdoor time in studies of preschool children. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is outdoor vector control needed for malaria elimination? An individual-based modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Müller, Günter C; Marshall, John M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Qualls, Whitney A; Hlaing, WayWay M; Schlein, Yosef; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Beier, John C

    2017-07-03

    Residual malaria transmission has been reported in many areas even with adequate indoor vector control coverage, such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The increased insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes has resulted in reduced efficacy of the widely used indoor tools and has been linked with an increase in outdoor malaria transmission. There are considerations of incorporating outdoor interventions into integrated vector management (IVM) to achieve malaria elimination; however, more information on the combination of tools for effective control is needed to determine their utilization. A spatial individual-based model was modified to simulate the environment and malaria transmission activities in a hypothetical, isolated African village setting. LLINs and outdoor attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) stations were used as examples of indoor and outdoor interventions, respectively. Different interventions and lengths of efficacy periods were tested. Simulations continued for 420 days, and each simulation scenario was repeated 50 times. Mosquito populations, entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs), probabilities of local mosquito extinction, and proportion of time when the annual EIR was reduced below one were compared between different intervention types and efficacy periods. In the village setting with clustered houses, the combinational intervention of 50% LLINs plus outdoor ATSBs significantly reduced mosquito population and EIR in short term, increased the probability of local mosquito extinction, and increased the time when annual EIR is less than one per person compared to 50% LLINs alone; outdoor ATSBs alone significantly reduced mosquito population in short term, increased the probability of mosquito extinction, and increased the time when annual EIR is less than one compared to 50% LLINs alone, but there was no significant difference in EIR in short term between 50% LLINs and outdoor ATSBs. In the village setting with dispersed houses, the

  7. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building.

  8. Relationship Between Air Quality and Outdoor Exercise Behavior in China: a Novel Mobile-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Zhu, Li; Xu, Yaping; Lyu, Jiaying; Imm, Kellie; Yang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Based on data collected from an exercise app, the study aims to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between air quality and patterns of outdoor exercise in China. Objective outdoor exercise data spanning 160 days were collected from 153 users of an exercise app, Tulipsport in China. Each exercise mode (running, biking, and walking, respectively) was organized into five air quality categories based on Air Quality Index (AQI): excellent, good, mild pollution, moderate pollution, and serious pollution. Key parameters of each app user were calculated and analyzed: the total number of exercise bouts, the average duration, and the average distance of each exercise mode in each air quality category. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that the users were less likely to participate in outdoor running, biking, and walking (F = 24.16, p air pollution increased. However, there is no difference in terms of average distance and duration of exercise across different air pollution categories. People's participation in outdoor exercise is impeded by air pollution severity, but they stick to their exercise routines once exercise is initiated. Although people should protect themselves from health damages caused by exercising under pollution, the decreases in physical activity associated with air pollution may also pose an indirect risk to public health. The interactive relationship between air quality, exercise, and health warrants more empirical and interdisciplinary explorations.

  9. THERMAL ADAPTATION, CAMPUS GREENING AND OUTDOOR USE IN LAUTECH CAMPUS, OGBOMOSO, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Adeniran ADEDEJI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The interwoven relationship between the use of indoors and outdoors in the tropics as means of thermal adaptation has long been recognized. In the case of outdoors, this is achieved by green intervention of shading trees as adaptive mechanisms through behavioural thermoregulation. Unfortunately, the indoor academic spaces of LAUTECH campus was not provided with necessary outdoor academic learning environment in the general site planning of the campus for use at peak indoor thermal dissatisfaction period considering the tropical climatic setting of the university. The students’ departmental and faculty associations tried to provide parks for themselves as alternatives which on casual observation are of substandard quality and poorly maintained because of lack of institutional coordination and low funding. This study examined the quality and use of these parks for thermal comfort through behavioral adjustment from subjective field evidence with the goal of improvement. To achieve this, twelve parks were selected within the campus. Questionnaires containing use and quality variables were administered randomly upon 160 users of these parks. The data obtained was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Results show that the quality of the parks, weather condition, period of the day, and personal psychological reasons of users has great influence on the use of the parks. The study concludes with policy recommendations on improvement of the quality of the parks and the campus outdoors and greenery in general.

  10. The adverse pathophysiological effects of outdoor air pollution on the body tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Perčič

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are many published studies about the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in response of the body tissues to outdoor air pollution exposure. The aim of our review was to investigate the problem of outdoor air pollution and health effects of pathological mechanisms, with specific goal to point out public health intervention strategies based upon a clearer understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of outdoor air pollution. A systematic literature review was carried out in two bibliographic databases, Science Direct and PubMed, in the period from January 1995 to December 2015. We conducted a systematic analysis of 95 studies, 43 of them being review studies and 52 original studies. The systematic analysis was done in three steps, for each body tissue separately (respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurologic diseases and diabetes mellitus. This insight into literature review may help foster more effective preventive measures at the public health level as well as potential intervention strategies based upon a clearer understanding of the involved pathways.

  11. A gender perspective on factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjögren Katarina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is part of a healthy lifestyle and prevents many chronic health problems, in addition to promoting mental health. PA performed outdoors has been found particularly good for promoting one's well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which outdoor recreational PA was carried out during 1 year, and the factors influencing such activities from a gender perspective among persons ≥ 60 years of age. Methods This study included 999 individuals 60-96 years of age living in the south eastern part of Sweden. Data collection was carried out during the years of 2001-2003. We measured the amount of regular light and/or intense outdoor recreational PA performed during the last year and determined the probability of performing PA as a function of 10 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Our results suggest that being independent physically and healthy enough to manage one's personal hygiene and having access to areas for country walks were the most important factors associated with the probability of engaging in outdoor recreational PA for both men and women. Despite the level of performance being almost equal for the sexes as two-thirds of both had performed outdoor recreational PA during the preceding year more factors, i.e., living alone, being unable to cover an unexpected cost, fear of being violated, and fear of falling, were associated with the possibilities of engaging in outdoor recreational PA among women. Also increasing age seems to affect activities among women negatively to a higher extent than men. Conclusion Men and women seem to have different opportunities and needs with respect to performing PA. These considerations do not seem to be sufficiently taken into account today and improvements could be made concerning e.g., health-promoting activities suggested to the elderly by healthcare personnel and spatial planning within society. Promoting outdoor

  12. Parenthood and factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Eva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A physically active life promotes both physical and mental health, increasing well-being and quality of life. Physical activity (PA performed outdoors has been found to be particularly good for promoting well-being. However, participation in PA can change during the course of a lifetime. Parenthood has been found to be a life event associated with decreased PA, especially among women, although studies in the field are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate participation in outdoor recreational PA, and factors influencing participation among parents-to-be, with and without previous children, from a gender perspective. Methods This study included baseline data from parents-to-be, 224 women and 208 men, from the municipality of Karlskrona in south-east Sweden. Data collection was carried out during 2008-2009. We measured the self-reported amount of outdoor recreational PA undertaken during the last year and analysed the probability of participating in this PA using 25 variables covering individual and socioeconomic factors. Results Seventy-six per cent of the women and 65% of the men had participated in outdoor recreational PA, varying from several times per month to every day, over a 12-month period prior to one month before pregnancy. Participation in PA indoors and owning a dog or a horse emerged as the most important factors associated with the probability of participation in outdoor recreational PA. Men were affected by a greater number of factors than women, for example men who had a family situation that permitted outdoor recreational PA participated in activities to a greater extent than men without such a family situation. The physical aspect, i.e. improved physical condition, staying power and vigour, also played a significant role with regard to participation among men. Conclusions Becoming a parent is a life-changing event that affects participation in PA. By offering family-oriented PA choices that involve

  13. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  14. An Examination of the Extent to Which School Outdoor Activities Could Enhance Senior Secondary Two Students' Achievement in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Amadu, Samuel O.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which school outdoor activities could enhance senior secondary (SS) two students' achievement in ecology. Non randomized pre test post test control group Quasi-experimental design was adopted. A sample of 160 SS II students from 4 co-educational schools in Jalingo metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria was used. A 40…

  15. RPA Assessment of Outdoor Recreation: Past, Current, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the outdoor recreation sections of the Renewable Resource Planning Act (RPA) Assessments conducted to date are reviewed. Current policy and mangement applications of the outsdoor recreation results published in 1989 Assessment are discussed also. The paper concludes with suggestions for the assemssment of outdoor recreation in future RPA Assessements...

  16. Characteristics of wilderness users in outdoor recreation assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann

    1989-01-01

    Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel...

  17. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  18. Perspectives of Elementary School Teachers on Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan, Ozcan; Cicek, Volkan; Atabay, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor education stands out as one of the methods to deliver the desired educational outcomes taking the needs of the students, teachers and the curricular objectives into consideration. Outdoor education focuses on experimental, hands-on learning in real-life environments through senses, e.g., through visual, auditory, and tactile means,…

  19. Developing Approaches to Outdoor Education that Promote Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Social, economic, and environmental issues facing 21st century societies compel a transformative shift towards sustainability in all spheres of life, including education. The challenges this holds for outdoor education programs and practices is significant. If outdoor education theory and practice is to make a greater contribution to…

  20. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  1. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  2. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  3. Is Outdoor Education a Discipline? Provocations and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; Potter, Tom G.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is often undervalued. As such, we believe there is merit in critiquing the field and focusing more attention on its value and importance. This paper seeks to offer a critical exploration of "if" and "how" outdoor education is a discipline. The paper begins with a brief overview of the literature that seeks to…

  4. Outdoor Education Academic Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brent J.; Seaman, Jayson; Trauntvein, Nate

    2017-01-01

    The growth of outdoor adventure programs developed, in part, from the Outward Bound movement in the 1970s (MacArthur, 1979; Outward Bound, 1968), which created a demand for specialized collegiate training. Since the inaugural conference on outdoor pursuits in higher education at Appalachian State University in 1974 (Smathers, 1974), approximately…

  5. Outdoor skaber særlig professionel identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt; Lybæk-Hansen, Esper

    2015-01-01

    På pædagoguddannelsen i Horsens tilbydes årligt en toning af pædagoguddannelsen i Outdoor - en beskrivelse......På pædagoguddannelsen i Horsens tilbydes årligt en toning af pædagoguddannelsen i Outdoor - en beskrivelse...

  6. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  7. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  8. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  9. Motivations, attitudes, preferences, and satisfactions among outdoor recreationists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is presented in two sections. The first by Bright and Tarrant describes visitor preferences and examines users' perceptions of encountering other visitors in outdoor recreation settings. The second by Tarrant and others reviews visitor preferences for, and satisfactions with, outdoor recreation experiences.

  10. Getting the Most Out of Journaling: Strategies for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor educators often ask students to write journals without training them in journal writing. A workshop in journal writing for university students in outdoor education courses covers how to write entries related to specific content areas; an understanding of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Thinking and how it applies to journal writing; and…

  11. Affordances of outdoor settings for children in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    were observed during times for ‘free play’ in their usual outdoor settings: traditional playground and forest (12 visits, respectively). Modified classes of outdoor features are suggested along with new practical class names: open ground, sloping terrain, shielded places, rigid fixtures, moving...

  12. Infusing Outdoor Field Experiences into the Secondary Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ginny

    1984-01-01

    To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…

  13. The ODELIA Study on Noise Limits for Outdoor Machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Carletti, E.; Spellerberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the ODELIA study for the European Commission an assessment of the outdoor equipment noise directive 2000/14/EC and its amendment 2005/88/EC has been performed. The directive requires noise marking for 57 types of equipment used outdoors, and sets noise limits for 22 of these. Since the limits

  14. Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortill, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

  15. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  16. Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

    2013-01-01

    This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

  17. The Implementation of Mobile Learning in Outdoor Education: Application of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  18. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Mehu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 'Hygiene, Health and Environment' of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, 'runoff' and 'stagnation', and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO 2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials

  19. Revision of the Word Association Test for assessing associations of patients reporting satanic ritual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, F; Labott, S M

    1998-11-01

    A growing number of psychiatric patients report satanic ritual abuse, prompting research into this controversial area. In the current study, the Word Association Test (WAT) was modified to assess experience with satanic abuse. Pilot work resulted in norms for two domains: normative and satanic. Female psychiatric patients were compared on their associations in two studies. Based on a sexual history, they were grouped into those reporting sexual abuse, those reporting satanic ritual abuse (SRA), and those without a history of sexual abuse (controls). In both studies, SRA patients gave significantly more total associations, significantly fewer normative associations, and significantly more satanic associations than did the other two groups. These results suggest that an experience base is shared by individuals reporting SRA that is not found in individuals who do not report satanic abuse (even if they do report sexual abuse). The implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of arguments advanced by advocates and critics of SRA.

  20. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  1. Powerful Tests for Multi-Marker Association Analysis Using Ensemble Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Padhukasahasram

    Full Text Available Multi-marker approaches have received a lot of attention recently in genome wide association studies and can enhance power to detect new associations under certain conditions. Gene-, gene-set- and pathway-based association tests are increasingly being viewed as useful supplements to the more widely used single marker association analysis which have successfully uncovered numerous disease variants. A major drawback of single-marker based methods is that they do not look at the joint effects of multiple genetic variants which individually may have weak or moderate signals. Here, we describe novel tests for multi-marker association analyses that are based on phenotype predictions obtained from machine learning algorithms. Instead of assuming a linear or logistic regression model, we propose the use of ensembles of diverse machine learning algorithms for prediction. We show that phenotype predictions obtained from ensemble learning algorithms provide a new framework for multi-marker association analysis. They can be used for constructing tests for the joint association of multiple variants, adjusting for covariates and testing for the presence of interactions. To demonstrate the power and utility of this new approach, we first apply our method to simulated SNP datasets. We show that the proposed method has the correct Type-1 error rates and can be considerably more powerful than alternative approaches in some situations. Then, we apply our method to previously studied asthma-related genes in 2 independent asthma cohorts to conduct association tests.

  2. Test of Association Between 10 SNPs in the Oxytocin Receptor Gene and Conduct Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Stallings, Michael C.; McQueen, Matthew; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian; Hoft, Nicole R.; Ehringer, Marissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal and human studies have implicated oxytocin (OXT) in affiliative and prosocial behaviors. We tested whether genetic variation in the OXT receptor (OXTR) gene is associated with conduct disorder (CD).

  3. A comprehensive air quality investigation at an aquatic centre: Indoor/outdoor comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, Evangelos I; Panaras, Giorgos; Bartzis, John G

    2018-06-01

    Air quality and comfort parameters in a naturally ventilated aquatic centre were studied in relation to the outdoor pollution levels. Simultaneous measurements of PM 2.5, as well as of volatile organic compounds, were carried out for the indoor and outdoor environment of the aquatic centre. The chemical analysis of ionic species and trace elements associated with particulate matter was also performed. In addition, automated analyzer for NO 2 and O 3 was used in order to record the indoor and outdoor levels of these pollutants. Analysis of diurnal variation of the pollutants' concentration was applied to the collected data, allowing the identification of potential variation on the sources affecting the indoor air quality. PM 2.5 concentration was almost two times higher indoors than outdoors with average values of 13.96 and 6.78 μg/m 3 , respectively. Concerning the ion fraction of PM 2.5, SO 4 2- and Ca 2+ were the ions with higher concentration indoors with values of 1.06 and 0.93 μg/m 3 , respectively, while the percentage of Cl - to the PM 2.5 fraction of the indoor atmosphere (9%) was too high than outdoor ones (1%). These results showed that indoor air of swimming pool concerning PM 2.5 and ionic species is mainly affected by the chlorination process along with the comfort conditions (high relative humidity) created during the operation of the facility. The common volatile organic compound concentrations at indoor air are generally in higher levels, compared to the outdoor air with p,m-xylene and toluene to be the substances with the higher concentration for indoor and outdoor area, respectively (7.80 and 1.57 μg/m 3 ); nevertheless, values were rather low compared with the findings of other studies. Also, they clearly demonstrate a diurnal variation as a result of poor ventilation during night. As it was expected, chloroform showed the highest concentration compared to the other volatile organic compounds with values ranging from 3.35 to 135.89 μg/m 3

  4. Monitoring an outdoor smoking area by means of PM2.5 measurement and vegetal biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Fleck, Alan; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Barbosa, Fernando; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão; Amantea, Sergio Luis; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2016-11-01

    The extension of pollutant accumulation in plant leaves associated with its genotoxicity is a common approach to predict the quality of outdoor environments. However, this approach has not been used to evaluate the environmental quality of outdoor smoking areas. This study aims to evaluate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by assessing particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) levels, the pollen abortion assay, and trace elements accumulated in plant leaves in an outdoor smoking area of a hospital. For this, PM 2.5 was measured by active monitoring with a real time aerosol monitor for 10 days. Eugenia uniflora trees were used for pollen abortion and accumulated element assays. Accumulated elements were also assessed in Tradescantia pallida leaves. The median concentration of PM 2.5 in the smoking area in all days of monitoring was 66 versus 34 μg/m 3 in the control area (P Eugenia uniflora were in higher concentration in the smoking area when compared to control area. Smoking area also showed higher rate of aborted grains (26.1 ± 10.7 %) compared with control (17.6 ± 4.5 %) (P = 0.003). Under the study conditions, vegetal biomonitoring proved to be an effective tool for assessing ETS exposure in outdoor areas. Therefore, vegetal biomonitoring of ETS could be a complement to conventional analyses and also proved to be a cheap and easy-handling tool to assess the risk of ETS exposure in outdoor areas.

  5. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor lighting is an essential service for modern life. However, the high influence of this type of facility on energy consumption makes it necessary to take extra care in the design phase. Therefore, this manuscript describes an algorithm to help light designers to get, in an easy way, the best configuration parameters and to improve energy efficiency, while ensuring a minimum level of overall uniformity. To make this possible, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. These algorithms are well established, and are simple and effective to solve optimization problems. To take into account the most influential parameters on lighting and energy efficiency, 500 simulations were performed using DIALux software (4.10.0.2, DIAL, Ludenscheid, Germany. Next, the relation between these parameters was studied using to data mining software. Subsequently, we conducted two experiments for setting parameters that enabled the best configuration algorithm in order to improve efficiency in the proposed process optimization.

  7. Determining the Association between Language and Cognitive Tests in Poststroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie J. Wall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIndividuals with aphasia are often excluded from studies exploring poststroke cognition because so many of the standard cognitive assessments rely on language ability. Our primary objective was to examine the association between performance on cognitive tests and performance on comprehension and naming tests in poststroke aphasia. Second, we aimed to determine the association between language performance and a real-life measure of cognition (Kettle Test. Third, we explored the feasibility of administering cognitive tests in aphasia.MethodsThirty-six participants with poststroke aphasia and 32 controls were assessed on a battery of pen-and-paper cognitive tests recommended in stroke. Auditory comprehension was measured using the Comprehensive Aphasia Test and naming was measured using the Boston Naming Test. Twenty-two community dwelling participants with aphasia and controls were also asked to complete the Kettle Test. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between language performance and performance on the cognitive tests. Feasibility was determined by quantifying missing data.ResultsThe cognitive tests with the highest variance accounted for by auditory comprehension and naming were animal fluency (R2 = 0.67, R2 = 0.78 and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (recognition discrimination index (R2 = 0.65, R2 = 0.78. All cognitive tests were significantly associated with auditory comprehension and naming, except for the Star Cancellation Test and the Kettle Test. Thirty-three percent of participants with aphasia were unable to complete all the cognitive tests.ConclusionLanguage and non-linguistic cognitive processes are often interrelated. Most pen-and-paper cognitive tests were significantly associated with both auditory comprehension and naming, even in tests that do not require a verbal response. Language performance was not significantly associated with a real-life cognitive performance measure. Task

  8. Let's Walk Outdoors! Self-Paced Walking Outdoors Improves Future Intention to Exercise in Women With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinski, Kleverton; Machado, Daniel G S; Lirani, Luciana S; DaSilva, Sergio G; Costa, Eduardo C; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Elsangedy, Hassan M

    2017-04-01

    In order to examine whether environmental settings influence psychological and physiological responses of women with obesity during self-paced walking, 38 women performed two exercise sessions (treadmill and outdoors) for 30 min, where oxygen uptake, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, affect, attentional focus, enjoyment, and future intentions to walk were analyzed. Physiological responses were similar during both sessions. However, during outdoor exercise, participants displayed higher externally focused attention, positive affect, and lower ratings of perceived exertion, followed by greater enjoyment and future intention to participate in outdoor walking. The more externally focused attention predicted greater future intentions to participate in walking. Therefore, women with obesity self-selected an appropriate exercise intensity to improve fitness and health in both environmental settings. Also, self-paced outdoor walking presented improved psychological responses. Health care professionals should consider promoting outdoor forms of exercise to maximize psychological benefits and promote long-term adherence to a physically active lifestyle.

  9. Reader reaction on the generalized Kruskal-Wallis test for genetic association studies incorporating group uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baolin; Guan, Weihua

    2015-06-01

    Acar and Sun (2013, Biometrics 69, 427-435) presented a generalized Kruskal-Wallis (GKW) test for genetic association studies that incorporated the genotype uncertainty and showed its robust and competitive performance compared to existing methods. We present another interesting way to derive the GKW test via a rank linear model. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Reader Reaction On the generalized Kruskal-Wallis test for genetic association studies incorporating group uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Baolin; Guan, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Acar and Sun (2013, Biometrics, 69, 427-435) presented a generalized Kruskal-Wallis (GKW) test for genetic association studies that incorporated the genotype uncertainty and showed its robust and competitive performance compared to existing methods. We present another interesting way to derive the GKW test via a rank linear model.

  11. Is Cognitive Test-Taking Anxiety Associated With Academic Performance Among Nursing Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duty, Susan M; Christian, Ladonna; Loftus, Jocelyn; Zappi, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive component of test anxiety was correlated with academic performance among nursing students. Modest but statistically significant lower examination grade T scores were observed for students with high compared with low levels of cognitive test anxiety (CTA). High levels of CTA were associated with reduced academic performance.

  12. A multivariate family-based association test using generalized estimating equations : FBAT-GEE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; Silverman, SK; Xu, [No Value; Weiss, ST; Laird, NM

    In this paper we propose a multivariate extension of family-based association tests based on generalized estimating equations. The test can be applied to multiple phenotypes and to phenotypic data obtained in longitudinal studies without making any distributional assumptions for the phenotypic

  13. The home electronic media environment and parental safety concerns: relationships with outdoor time after school and over the weekend among 9-11 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2018-04-05

    Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The odds of spending > 1 h outdoors after school, and > 2 h outdoors on a weekend were computed, according to demographic variables, screen-based behaviours, media access, and parental safety concerns. Interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES) were explored. Boys, low SES participants, and children who played on their computer for  1 h outside after school than girls, high SES children and those playing on a computer for ≥2 h, respectively. Counterintuitive results were found for access to media devices and crime-related safety concerns as both of these were positively associated with time spent outdoors after school. A significant interaction for traffic-related concerns*sex was found; higher road safety concerns were associated with lower odds of outdoor time after school in boys only. Age was associated with weekend outdoor time, which interacted with sex and SES; older children were more likely to spend > 2 h outside on weekends but this was only significant among girls and high SES participants. Our results suggest that specific groups of children are less likely to spend their free time outside, and it would seem that only prolonged recreational computer use has a negative association with children's outdoor time after school. Further research is needed to explore potential underlying mechanisms, and parental safety concerns in more detail.

  14. Assessing autobiographical memory : The web-based autobiographical Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    By assessing the association strength with TRUE and FALSE, the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) [Sartori, G., Agosta, S., Zogmaister, C., Ferrara, S. D., & Castiello, U. (2008). How to accurately detect autobiographical events. Psychological Science, 19, 772–780.

  15. Does the Name-Race Implicit Association Test measure racial prejudice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenzwaaij, D.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Research using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) has shown that names labeled as Caucasian elicit more positive associations than names labeled as non-Caucasian. One interpretation of this result is that the IAT measures latent racial prejudice. An alternative explanation is that the result is due

  16. 21 CFR 866.6010 - Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Class II (special controls). Tumor markers must comply with the following special controls: (1) A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen...

  17. British Nuclear Test Veterans' Association. Radiation exposure and subsequent health history of veterans and their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquhart, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present study of veterans' health carried out in association with Tyne Tees Television presents new and disturbing evidence of significant health effects in both veterans and their children, based on the health records of 1,454 members of the British Nuclear Test Veterans' Association, of whom 1,147 were fathers. (orig./MG)

  18. A Generalized Kruskal-Wallis Test Incorporating Group Uncertainty with Application to Genetic Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Elif F.; Sun, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by genetic association studies of SNPs with genotype uncertainty, we propose a generalization of the Kruskal-Wallis test that incorporates group uncertainty when comparing k samples. The extended test statistic is based on probability-weighted rank-sums and follows an asymptotic chi-square distribution with k-1 degrees of freedom under the null hypothesis. Simulation studies confirm the validity and robustness of the proposed test in finite samples. Application to a genome-wide asso...

  19. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  20. Does the environmental background (intensive v. outdoor systems) influence the behaviour of piglets at weaning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y Y W; Pluske, J R; Fleming, P A

    2015-08-01

    Under intensive pig husbandry, outdoor systems offer a more complex physical and social environment compared with indoor systems (farrowing sheds). As the rearing environment affects behavioural development, it can, therefore, influence behavioural responses of pigs to stressful environments in later stages of production. We tested how the rearing environment influenced behavioural responses to a novel arena test in piglets on the day that they were weaned and mixed into large groups. We recorded video footage and compared the behavioural responses of 30 outdoor-raised and 30 farrowing shed-raised piglets tested in an experimental arena and sequentially exposed to four challenges (each for 5 min) on the day of weaning. Quantitative and qualitative behavioural measures were recorded using time budgets and scoring demeanour or 'qualitative behavioural expression' (using Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA)). When held in isolation (challenge 1), both groups were scored as more 'scared/worried', while outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating and jumping against the arena walls. Both groups interacted with a plastic ball (challenge 2: exposure to a novel object) during which they were scored as more 'playful/curious' than other challenges. When a food bowl was introduced (challenge 3), farrowing shed-raised piglets were more interested in playing with the food bowl itself, whereas outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating the feed. Finally, there were no significant differences in social behaviour (challenge 4: introduction of another piglet) between the two groups in terms of the latency to contact each other, amount of time recorded engaged in aggressive/non-aggressive social interactions or QBA scores. Although piglets spent 30% of their time interacting with the other piglet, and half of this time (47%) was engaged in negative interactions (pushing, biting), the levels of aggression were not different between the two groups. Overall, outdoor

  1. Gene-based testing of interactions in association studies of quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    Full Text Available Various methods have been developed for identifying gene-gene interactions in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. However, most methods focus on individual markers as the testing unit, and the large number of such tests drastically erodes statistical power. In this study, we propose novel interaction tests of quantitative traits that are gene-based and that confer advantage in both statistical power and biological interpretation. The framework of gene-based gene-gene interaction (GGG tests combine marker-based interaction tests between all pairs of markers in two genes to produce a gene-level test for interaction between the two. The tests are based on an analytical formula we derive for the correlation between marker-based interaction tests due to linkage disequilibrium. We propose four GGG tests that extend the following P value combining methods: minimum P value, extended Simes procedure, truncated tail strength, and truncated P value product. Extensive simulations point to correct type I error rates of all tests and show that the two truncated tests are more powerful than the other tests in cases of markers involved in the underlying interaction not being directly genotyped and in cases of multiple underlying interactions. We applied our tests to pairs of genes that exhibit a protein-protein interaction to test for gene-level interactions underlying lipid levels using genotype data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We identified five novel interactions that are not evident from marker-based interaction testing and successfully replicated one of these interactions, between SMAD3 and NEDD9, in an independent sample from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We conclude that our GGG tests show improved power to identify gene-level interactions in existing, as well as emerging, association studies.

  2. Individual- and contextual-level factors associated with client-initiated HIV testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Renata dos Santos Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Knowing the reasons for seeking HIV testing is central for HIV prevention. Despite the availability of free HIV counseling and testing in Brazil, coverage remains lacking. Methods: Survey of 4,760 respondents from urban areas was analyzed. Individual-level variables included sociodemographic characteristics; sexual and reproductive health; HIV/AIDS treatment knowledge and beliefs; being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS; and holding discriminatory ideas about people living with HIV. Contextual-level variables included the Human Development Index (HDI of the municipality; prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and availability of local HIV counseling and testing (CT services. The dependent variable was client-initiated testing. Multilevel Poisson regression models with random intercepts were used to assess associated factors. Results: Common individual-level variables among men and women included being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS and age; whereas discordant variables included those related to sexual and reproductive health and experiencing sexual violence. Among contextual-level factors, availability of CT services was variable associated with client-initiated testing among women only. The contextual-level variable “HDI of the municipality” was associated with client-initiated testing among women. Conclusion: Thus, marked gender differences in HIV testing were found, with a lack of HIV testing among married women and heterosexual men, groups that do not spontaneously seek testing.

  3. Sixth national outdoor action conference on aquifer restoration, ground water monitoring and geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Outdoor Action Conference was comprised of three days of technical presentations, workshops, demonstrations, and an exhibition. The sessions were devoted to the following topics: Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Monitoring Technology; Ground Water Sampling Technology; Soil and Ground Water Remediation; and Surface and Borehole Geophysics. The meeting was sponsored by the National Ground Water Association. These papers were published exactly as submitted, without technical and grammatical editing or peer review

  4. Investigation of Mountaineering and Outdoor Sports Clubs with Activity Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak GÜRER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current study aims to identify activity areas of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs in Turkey that organize activities regularly. Universe of the study was composed of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs that were active between the dates of 11 March 2012 and 5 January 2013. This study and the sample included 49 active outdoor sports clubs that could be reached in the region. Data were collected via surveys. Obtained data were analyzed and interpreted with the help of statistical package program (SPSS 16.0. Frequencies and percentage distributions were provided. Criteria for the provision of outdoor sports activities in clubs include requests from members and geographical conditions of the area. It is observed that those clubs provide outdoor walks approximately for 21-40 members. There are clubs without trainers. Clubs provide mountaineering and rock climbing activities the most. Aegean and Marmara Regions are more active compared to other regions. In general, most of the clubs are active in areas such as mountaineering, rock climbing and outdoor walks. It is suggested that local administrations and federations support outdoor sports clubs

  5. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  6. A robust TDT-type association test under informative parental missingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H; Cheng, K F

    2011-02-10

    Many family-based association tests rely on the random transmission of alleles from parents to offspring. Among them, the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) may be considered to be the most popular statistical test. The TDT statistic and its variations were proposed to evaluate nonrandom transmission of alleles from parents to the diseased children. However, in family studies, parental genotypes may be missing due to parental death, loss, divorce, or other reasons. Under some missingness conditions, nonrandom transmission of alleles may still occur even when the gene and disease are not associated. As a consequence, the usual TDT-type tests would produce excessive false positive conclusions in association studies. In this paper, we propose a novel TDT-type association test which is not only simple in computation but also robust to the joint effect of population stratification and informative parental missingness. Our test is model-free and allows for different mechanisms of parental missingness across subpopulations. We use a simulation study to compare the performance of the new test with TDT and point out the advantage of the new method. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Myopic shift and outdoor activity among primary school children: one-year follow-up study in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess whether a change in myopia related oculometric parameters of primary school children in Beijing was associated with indoors and outdoors activity. METHODS: The longitudinal school-based study included school children who were examined in 2011 and who were re-examined in 2012. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including ocular biometry by optical low-coherence reflectometry and non-cycloplegic refractometry. Parents and children had a detailed interview including questions on time spent indoors and outdoors. RESULTS: Out of 681 students examined at baseline, 643 (94.4% returned for follow-up examination. Within the one-year period, mean time spent daily outdoors increased by 0.4±0.9 hours, mean axial length by 0.26±0.49 mm, the ratio of axial length divided by anterior corneal curvature (AL/CC by 0.03±0.06, and myopic refractive error by -0.06±0.89 diopters. In multivariate analysis, elongation of axial length was significantly associated with less total time spent outdoors (P = 0.02; standardized coefficient beta -0.12 and more time spent indoors with studying (P = 0.007; beta: 0.14 after adjustment for maternal myopia (P = 0.02; beta: 0.12. An increase in AL/CC was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors (P = 0.01; beta:-0.12 after adjustment for paternal myopia (P = 0.003; beta: 0.15 and if region of habitation was excludedors for leisure (P = 0.006; beta:-0.13, with less total time spent outdoors (P = 0.04; beta:-0.10, or with more time spent i. An increase in myopic refractive error, after adjustment for age, was significantly associated with less time spent outdo ndoors with studying (P = 0.005; beta: 0.13. CONCLUSIONS: A change in oculometric parameters indicating an increase in myopia was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors and more time spent indoors in school children in Greater Beijing within a study period of one year. Our

  8. Television, sleep, outdoor play and BMI in young children: the GECKO Drenthe cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Koller, Marjory; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the interplay between screen time, sleep duration, outdoor play, having a television in the bedroom and the number of televisions at home and their association with body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. All participants, 3-4 years of age (n = 759), were part of the Groningen expert center for kids with obesity (GECKO) Drenthe birth cohort. Weight and height were measured. Total screen time, number of televisions at home, a television in the bedroom, sleep duration and time of outdoor play were self-reported by parents in a questionnaire. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression-based path analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects on BMI in mediation models. A television in the bedroom or more televisions at home gave a higher screen time, which were associated with decreased sleep duration and resulted in higher BMI (indirect effect = 0.0115, 95% bootstrap interval = 0.0016; 0.0368 and indirect effect = 0.0026, 95% bootstrap interval = 0.0004; 0.0078, respectively). In contrast to the direct effect of screen time, sleep duration and a television in the bedroom on BMI, no direct effect was found for outdoor play and number or televisions at home on BMI. Short sleep duration, long screen time and a television in the bedroom were associated with the presence of overweight in preschool children.

  9. Outdoor physical activity for older people-the senior exercise park: Current research, challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Sales, Myrla; Polman, Remco; Haines, Terry; Dow, Briony; Biddle, Stuart J H; Duque, Gustavo; Hill, Keith D

    2018-03-14

    Exercising outdoors provide beneficial effect on mental and physical health for all ages. However, few older people exercise outdoors other than walking. While outdoor gyms have become increasingly common in Australia, limited outdoor exercise equipment specifically designed for older people is available in public spaces. We have set up and evaluated a unique purpose-built outdoor exercise park for older people in the community setting and demonstrated positive physical and well-being outcomes associated with the provision of this unique exercise mode and social programme. This study is a reflective narrative describing this innovative exercise approach and reports challenges associated with establishment of the exercise park, conducting the randomised trial, strategies adopted to address these challenges and recommendations for future implementation of this approach in the community. Many challenges were encountered, including securing appropriate land to locate the exercise park, control of environmental factors for safety (non-slippery ground and equipment) as well as logistics in running the exercise programme itself. Several adjustments in the equipment were also required to ensure safe use by older people. The inclusion of outdoor equipment for older people in public spaces or urban parks is important and careful consideration needs to be taken by local/public authorities to provide access, amenities and safety for all as well as activities to suit all ages. SO WHAT?: Seniors' exercise parks can be installed in public places and may provide an enjoyable and effective approach to engage older individuals in a more active and healthier lifestyle. © 2018 The Authors. Health Promotion Journal of Australia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Health Promotion Association.

  10. Behavioural repertoire of free-range laying hens indoors and outdoors, and in relation to distance from the shed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy Diep, A; Larsen, H; Rault, J-L

    2018-04-01

    Access to an outdoor area is believed to allow free-range hens to express a greater behavioural repertoire. However, very little research has been done in this area. We hypothesised that the type and frequency of behaviours would differ between areas that vary in their characteristics and distance from the shed. This preliminary study investigated the behaviour of free-range laying hens in indoor and outdoor areas on one commercial free-range farm, through video recordings and scan sampling of focal hens, with the aim of determining their behavioural repertoire and time budget. While ranging, hens spent most of their time foraging. Indoors, hens preened and rested. Behaviour in the wintergarden showed similarities to both the indoor and outdoor areas, with preening, resting and foraging behaviours. Differences were not in the main behavioural repertoire, but rather in terms of time budget, with access to the range and wintergarden encouraging exploration. There was no difference in the types of behaviours that hens performed in the outdoor range compared with inside the shed, but access to a wintergarden and the outdoor range were favoured by the hens for foraging. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Association between positive patch tests to epoxy resin and fragrance mix I ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Vølund, Aage

    2009-01-01

    and possibly reproduce this association with the use of TRUE((R)) test data and supplementary tests with fragrance mix ingredients from the Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six thousand one hundred and fifteen consecutive eczema patients tested from 1995 to 2007......BACKGROUND: Both epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and fragrance mix I are included in the European baseline series of contact allergens. A significant association between positive reactions to epoxy resin and fragrance mix has been reported by others. OBJECTIVE: To investigate...... were included, and test results from all patients tested with fragrance mix ingredients were analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-five (2.4%) were positive to epoxy resin and 282 (4.6%) were positive to fragrance mix I. Nineteen were positive to both giving an odds ratio of 3.3, which...

  12. Development and Validation of a Food-Associated Olfactory Test (FAOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Yvonne; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Freiherr, Jessica; Thuerauf, Norbert; Kornhuber, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory tests are an important tool in human nutritional research for studying food preferences, yet comprehensive tests dedicated solely to food odors are currently lacking. Therefore, within this study, an innovative food-associated olfactory test (FAOT) system was developed. The FAOT comprises 16 odorant pens that contain representative food odors relating to different macronutrient classes. The test underwent a sensory validation based on identification rate, intensity, hedonic value, and food association scores. The accuracy of the test was further compared to the accuracy of the established Sniffin' Sticks identification test. The identification rates and intensities of this new FAOT were found to be comparable to the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory identification test. The odorant pens were also assessed chemo-analytically and were found to be chemically stable for at least 24 weeks. Overall, this new identification test for use in assessing olfaction in a food-associated context is valid both in terms of its use in sensory perception studies and its chemical stability. The FOAT is particularly suited to examinations of the sense of smell regarding food odors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Childcare outdoor renovation as a built environment health promotion strategy: evaluating the preventing obesity by design intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Nilda G; Moore, Robin C; Smith, William R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Preventing Obesity by Design (POD), a childcare center outdoor renovation intervention. Pre-post intervention evaluation. North Carolina licensed childcare centers (N = 27). Preschool children. Outdoor renovation, teacher training. Behavior mapping, Preschool Outdoor Environment Measurement Scale (POEMS), center director interview. Descriptive statistics, ordinary least squares and logistic regressions calculated to assess levels of association between environmental change, children's physical activity (PA), social behaviors, and environmental quality. Qualitative interview data analyzed to help understand intervention impact. Behavior mapping showed that site layout attributes, such as the form (i.e., "single loop" and "double loop") of pathways (functioning as circulation routes and wheeled toy settings), are associated with higher levels of PA. Teacher interaction was associated with decreased children's PA. Absence of teacher or lack of child/child interaction was associated with increased PA. POEMS assessment of environmental quality was higher after renovation. POEMS domains (Physical Space and Teacher/Caregiver Roles) were positively associated with PA. After renovation, 68% of center directors reported positive changes in children's behavior and 40% mentioned edible plant installations as greatest success. Built environment renovation of childcare center outdoors, including looped pathways installation, coupled with teacher training, may support increased PA. Renovation, including food gardens, may be a key to success for preschool health promotion and support change in childcare policy.

  14. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  15. Testing for genetic association taking into account phenotypic information of relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uh, Hae-Won; Wijk, Henk Jan van der; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J

    2009-12-15

    We investigated efficient case-control association analysis using family data. The outcome of interest was coronary heart disease. We employed existing and new methods that take into account the correlations among related individuals to obtain the proper type I error rates. The methods considered for autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms were: 1) generalized estimating equations-based methods, 2) variance-modified Cochran-Armitage (MCA) trend test incorporating kinship coefficients, and 3) genotypic modified quasi-likelihood score test. Additionally, for X-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms we proposed a two-degrees-of-freedom test. Performance of these methods was tested using Framingham Heart Study 500 k array data.

  16. A fast multilocus test with adaptive SNP selection for large-scale genetic-association studies

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Han

    2013-09-11

    As increasing evidence suggests that multiple correlated genetic variants could jointly influence the outcome, a multilocus test that aggregates association evidence across multiple genetic markers in a considered gene or a genomic region may be more powerful than a single-marker test for detecting susceptibility loci. We propose a multilocus test, AdaJoint, which adopts a variable selection procedure to identify a subset of genetic markers that jointly show the strongest association signal, and defines the test statistic based on the selected genetic markers. The P-value from the AdaJoint test is evaluated by a computationally efficient algorithm that effectively adjusts for multiple-comparison, and is hundreds of times faster than the standard permutation method. Simulation studies demonstrate that AdaJoint has the most robust performance among several commonly used multilocus tests. We perform multilocus analysis of over 26,000 genes/regions on two genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer. Compared with its competitors, AdaJoint identifies a much stronger association between the gene CLPTM1L and pancreatic cancer risk (6.0 × 10(-8)), with the signal optimally captured by two correlated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Finally, we show AdaJoint as a powerful tool for mapping cis-regulating methylation quantitative trait loci on normal breast tissues, and find many CpG sites whose methylation levels are jointly regulated by multiple SNPs nearby.

  17. Community-Based Policies and Support for Free Drinking Water Access in Outdoor Areas and Building Standards in U.S. Municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Wilking, Cara; Cradock, Angie

    2018-04-01

    We examined community-level characteristics associated with free drinking water access policies in U.S. municipalities using data from a nationally representative survey of city managers/officials from 2,029 local governments in 2014. Outcomes were 4 free drinking water access policies. Explanatory measures were population size, rural/urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education, and racial/ethnic composition. We used multivariable logistic regression to test differences and presented only significant findings. Many (56.3%) local governments had at least one community plan with a written objective to provide free drinking water in outdoor areas; municipalities in the Northeast and South regions and municipalities with ≤ 50% of non-Hispanic whites were less likely and municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have a plan. About 59% had polices/budget provisions for free drinking water in parks/outdoor recreation areas; municipalities in the Northeast and South regions were less likely and municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have it. Only 9.3% provided development incentives for placing drinking fountains in outdoor, publicly accessible areas; municipalities with larger population size were more likely to have it. Only 7.7% had a municipal plumbing code with a drinking fountain standard that differed from the statewide plumbing code; municipalities with a lower proportion of non-Hispanic whites were more likely to have it. In conclusion, over half of municipalities had written plans or a provision for providing free drinking water in parks, but providing development incentives or having a local plumbing code provision were rare.

  18. The association between methacholine challenge test and respiratory symptoms: a study on 146 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Asthma is a life-threatening disease that can cause death due to bronchospasm. In addition to clinical symptoms such as wheezing, acute paroxysmal dyspnea, chronic cough after exposure to cold air or cough after exercise, spirometry is also necessary for the diagnosis of asthma. The association between respiratory symptoms and a positive methacholine challenge test (MCT is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the association between methacholine test results and respiratory symptoms and allergy."n "nMethods: One hundred and forty-six patients with respiratory symptoms and normal baseline pulmonary function tests were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their positive or negative response to MCT. The association between MCT and the clinical symptoms and allergy was later evaluated statistically."n "nResults: Out of 146 participants of the study 59 (40.4% were female and 87 (59.6% were male. The mean age of the participants was 33.8±13.8 years. Sixty-one patients (41.8% had positive results for the test. There was an association between a history of allergy, wheezing and age with positive MCT results. The other clinical signs had no association with the test."n "nConclusion: Methacholine challenge test is the best diagnostic test for ruling out asthma in patients with normal pulmonary function tests in whom we cannot definitely rule out asthma based solely on clinical symptoms. Nevertheless, in adults with a history of allergy, wheezing and also in patients below 30, the probability for a positive MCT is high.

  19. Cognitive factors associated with the willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrong; Yang, Liu; Kong, Jinwang

    2014-01-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the worldwide trend is not contained effectively. The pregnant women infected HIV seriously in the high HIV epidemic areas in China. The transmission of HIV to child may be cut off if HIV positive mother was found early by HIV testing. Pregnant women mandatorily received the HIV counseling and testing services. Most of them did not know the knowledge about HIV prevention and were not willing to receive HIV testing actively. Willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women was investigated, which can help to promote them to take up HIV testing actively. This study assessed the prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing and cognitive factors associated with it. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to 500 pregnant women via face-to-face interviews with anonymous structured questionnaire guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM). The prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing was 58.60%. Perceived higher susceptibility to HIV (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (ORm) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-5.06), more knowledge for HIV (ORm = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11-3.87) and perceived less social stigma (ORm = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.34-0.91) were associated with higher willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women. To prevent HIV mother to children transmission, it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV, change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.

  20. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: tests of association with apolipoprotein E and elastin genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbeck Laura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein E (APOE and elastin (ELN are plausible candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of stroke. We tested for association of variants in APOE and ELN with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in a population-based study. We genotyped 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on APOE and 10 SNPs on ELN in a sample of 309 Caucasian individuals, of whom 107 are SAH cases and 202 are age-, race-, and gender-matched controls from the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region. Associations were tested at genotype, allele, and haplotype levels. A genomic control analysis was performed to check for spurious associations resulting from population substructure. Results At the APOE locus, no individual SNP was associated with SAH after correction for multiple comparisons. Haplotype analysis revealed significant association of the major haplotype (Hap1 in APOE with SAH (p = 0.001. The association stemmed from both the 5' promoter and the 3' region of the APOE gene. APOE ε2 and ε 4 were not significantly associated with SAH. No association was observed for ELN at genotype, allele, or haplotype level and our study failed to confirm previous reports of ELN association with aneurysmal SAH. Conclusion This study suggests a role of the APOE gene in the etiology of aneurysmal SAH.

  1. Acid aerosol measurement method intercomparisons: An outdoor smog chamber study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellestad, T.G.; Barnes, H.M.; Kamens, R.M.; McDow, S.R.; Sickles, J.E. II; Hodson, L.L.; Waldman, J.M.; Randtke, S.J.; Lane, D.D.; Springston, S.R.; Koutrakis, P.; Thurston, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on the measurement of acid aerosols indicated that the sampling methods in use had not been intercompared. Following two laboratory pilot studies, EPA sponsored tests in an outdoor smog chamber with a variety of test aerosols, including sulfuric acid only, photochemical smog with added sulfuric acid, photo-chemical smog with added sulfuric acid and dust, and dust followed by photochemical smog with added sulfuric acid. Two experiments of each type were conducted. Six groups, several of which were active in ambient acid aerosol measurements, participated by operating duplicate samplers for each experiment. Five groups employed a similar method, in which ammonia is removed from the sample stream by diffusion, particles are removed by Teflon filter, and hydrogen ion on the Teflon filter is determined by pH electrode. However, differences existed in the method's implementation among groups in physical design, flow rate, procedures, and analysis. The sixth group's method did not use a diffusion denuder for ammonia and had several other important differences. Besides hydrogen ion, seven other species were reported by most of the groups, including particle phase sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, and gas phase sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitric acid, and nitrous acid. Results of the inter-comparison will be presented

  2. Outdoor Urban Propagation Experiment of a Handset MIMO Antenna with a Human Phantom located in a Browsing Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Hayashi, Toshiteru; Ogawa, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor radio propagation experiments are presented at 2.4 GHz, using a handset MIMO antenna with two monopoles and two planar inverted-F antennas (PIFAs), adjacent to a human phantom in browsing stance. The propagation test was performed in an urban area of a city, which resulted in non lineof...

  3. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  4. Untrodden Paths: A Critical Conversation about Wilder Places in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Jo; Potter, Tom G.; Irwin, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks, what is the outdoors, and challenges conceptions of the role the outdoors play in education. It critically examines why a better understanding of the outdoors is important to outdoor education, how wilder places are essential to education, and how learning generated from these places can be translated into sustainable thinking and…

  5. Australian Outdoor (and) Environmental Education Research: Senses of "Place" in Two Constituencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The Outdoor Council of Australia's renaming of "Australian Journal of Outdoor Education" ("AJOE") as "Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education" ("JOEE") follows deliberations among Australian and international stakeholders in outdoor education about the future of publishing in the field and raises a…

  6. Achieving Next Generation Science Standards through Agricultural Contexts: A Delphi Study of Outdoor Education Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Anthony; Washburn, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    A Delphi survey was conducted with 30 outdoor education experts in Kansas. Participant responses helped frame a Kansas definition of outdoor education and identified essential educational goals and outcomes, critical components for effective outdoor education programming, and barriers facing outdoor education in Kansas. The study highlights…

  7. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  8. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  9. A generalized Kruskal-Wallis test incorporating group uncertainty with application to genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Elif F; Sun, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by genetic association studies of SNPs with genotype uncertainty, we propose a generalization of the Kruskal-Wallis test that incorporates group uncertainty when comparing k samples. The extended test statistic is based on probability-weighted rank-sums and follows an asymptotic chi-square distribution with k - 1 degrees of freedom under the null hypothesis. Simulation studies confirm the validity and robustness of the proposed test in finite samples. Application to a genome-wide association study of type 1 diabetic complications further demonstrates the utilities of this generalized Kruskal-Wallis test for studies with group uncertainty. The method has been implemented as an open-resource R program, GKW. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Performance Test for Neutron Detector and Associated System using Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seongwoo; Park, Sung Jae; Cho, Man Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Se Hyun [USERS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ho Cheol [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    SPND (Self-Powered Neutron Detector) has been developed to extend its lifespan. ENFMS (Ex-Core Flux Monitoring System) of pressurized water reactor has been also improved. After the development and improvement, their performance must be verified under the neutron irradiation environment. We used a research reactor for the performance verification of neutron detector and associated system because the research reactor can meet the neutron flux level of commercial nuclear reactor. In this paper, we report the performance verification method and result for the SPND and ENFMS using the research reactor. The performance tests for the SPND and ENFMS were conducted using UCI TRIGA reactor. The test environment of commercial reactor’s neutron flux level must be required. However, it is difficult to perform the test in the commercial rector due to the constraint of time and space. The research reactor can be good alternative neutron source for the test of neutron detectors and associated system.

  11. Detecting a Weak Association by Testing its Multiple Perturbations: a Data Mining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Min-Tzu; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-05-01

    Many risk factors/interventions in epidemiologic/biomedical studies are of minuscule effects. To detect such weak associations, one needs a study with a very large sample size (the number of subjects, n). The n of a study can be increased but unfortunately only to an extent. Here, we propose a novel method which hinges on increasing sample size in a different direction-the total number of variables (p). We construct a p-based `multiple perturbation test', and conduct power calculations and computer simulations to show that it can achieve a very high power to detect weak associations when p can be made very large. As a demonstration, we apply the method to analyze a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration and identify two novel genetic variants that are significantly associated with the disease. The p-based method may set a stage for a new paradigm of statistical tests.

  12. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Marcela, E-mail: arivera@creal.ca [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Zechmeister, Harald [University of Vienna, Faculty of Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Foraster, Maria [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Bouso, Laura [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Moreno, Teresa [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael [Research Unit, Family Medicine, Girona, Jordi Gol Institute for Primary Care Research (IDIAP Jordi Gol), Catalan Institute of Health, Catalunya (Spain); Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Girona (Spain); Koellensperger, Gunda [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Deltell, Alexandre [Polytechnic School, GREFEMA, University of Girona (Spain); Vizcaya, David [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology CREAL, Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO{sub 2} was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO{sub 2} and showed higher spatial variation than NO{sub 2}. Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO{sub 2} variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO{sub 2} given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: > Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. > Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO{sub 2} concentrations. > Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO{sub 2}. > Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. > Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  13. Monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in home outdoor air using moss bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Marcela; Zechmeister, Harald; Medina-Ramon, Mercedes; Basagana, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Bouso, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Solanas, Pascual; Ramos, Rafael; Koellensperger, Gunda; Deltell, Alexandre; Vizcaya, David

    2011-01-01

    One monitoring station is insufficient to characterize the high spatial variation of traffic-related heavy metals within cities. We tested moss bags (Hylocomium splendens), deployed in a dense network, for the monitoring of metals in outdoor air and characterized metals' long-term spatial distribution and its determinants in Girona, Spain. Mosses were exposed outside 23 homes for two months; NO 2 was monitored for comparison. Metals were not highly correlated with NO 2 and showed higher spatial variation than NO 2 . Regression models explained 61-85% of Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn and 72% of NO 2 variability. Metals were strongly associated with the number of bus lines in the nearest street. Heavy metals are an alternative traffic-marker to NO 2 given their toxicological relevance, stronger association with local traffic and higher spatial variability. Monitoring heavy metals with mosses is appealing, particularly for long-term exposure assessment, as mosses can remain on site many months without maintenance. - Research highlights: → Moss bags can be used to measure the metal's long-term spatial distribution within cities. → Heavy metals in mosses are not highly correlated with ambient NO 2 concentrations. → Heavy metals show higher spatial variation and association with traffic than NO 2 . → Bus lines in the nearest street explain 75-85% of Mo, Cr, Sb, Sn and Cu variability. → Moss bags are useful for long-term at home exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. - The long-term spatial distribution of heavy metals, measured with moss bags, is mainly determined by proximity to bus lines.

  14. Exploring the Association of Deliberate Self-Harm With Emotional Relief Using a Novel Implicit Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Tull, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing consensus that negative reinforcement in the form of emotional relief plays a key role in the maintenance of deliberate self-harm (DSH), most of the research in this area has relied exclusively on self-report measures of the perceived motives for and emotional consequences of DSH. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to extend extant research on the role of emotional relief in DSH by examining the strength of the association of DSH with emotional relief using a novel version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The strength of the DSH-relief association among both participants with (vs. without) DSH and self-harming participants with (vs. without) BPD, as well as its associations with relevant clinical constructs (including DSH characteristics, self-reported motives for DSH, BPD pathology, and emotion dysregulation and avoidance) were examined in a community sample of young adults (113 with recent recurrent DSH; 135 without DSH). As hypothesized, results revealed stronger associations between DSH and relief among participants with versus without DSH, as well as among DSH participants with versus without BPD. Moreover, the strength of the DSH-relief association was positively associated with DSH frequency and versatility (both lifetime and at 6-month follow-up), BPD pathology, emotion dysregulation, experiential avoidance, and self-reported emotion relief motives for DSH. Findings provide support for theories emphasizing the role of emotional relief in DSH (particularly among individuals with BPD), as well as the construct validity, predictive utility, and incremental validity (relative to self-reported emotion relief motives) of this IAT. PMID:26147069

  15. Detection of Leptospira DNA in urine and presence of specific antibodies in outdoor cats in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Sonia; Rettinger, Anna; Bergmann, Michele; Llewellyn, Julia R; Pantchev, Nikola; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Hartmann, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Clinical manifestation of infection with Leptospira species in cats is rare. Nevertheless, cats can develop specific antibodies against the spirochetes after infection. In Canada, Taiwan and the USA it was recently demonstrated that naturally infected cats can also shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine, but the zoonotic potential of infected cats is still unclear. The objective of this study was to demonstrate if outdoor cats in Germany shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species in their urine. As a second aim, antibody prevalence was determined. Methods Two hundred and fifteen outdoor cats were prospectively recruited. Urine samples were tested by real-time PCR targeting the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira species. Antibody titres against eight serovars (Australis, Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Saxkoebing) belonging to seven serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Sejroe) were determined by microscopic agglutination test. Results Urine samples from 7/215 cats (3.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-5.7) were PCR-positive. Specific antibodies were detected in 35/195 cats (17.9%; 95% CI: 12.5-23.3) with titres ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Australis, Bratislava and Grippotyphosa were the most common serovars. Conclusions and relevance Outdoor cats in Germany can shed DNA from pathogenic Leptospira species. Therefore, outdoor cats should be considered as a possible source of infection for dogs or humans. Further studies are needed to determine the role of Leptospira species as a cause of disease in cats.

  16. Test Methods and Protocols for Environmental and Safety Hazards Associated with Home Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cautley, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Viner, J. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Lord, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Pearce, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    A number of health hazards and hazards to the durability of homes may be associated with energy retrofitting and home renovation projects. Among the hazards associated with energy retrofit work, exposure to radon is thought to cause more than 15,000 deaths per year in the U.S., while carbon monoxide poisoning results in about 20,000 injuries and 450 deaths per year. Testing procedures have been developed for identifying and quantifying hazards during retrofitting. These procedures commonly include a battery of tests to screen combustion appliances for safe operation, including worst case depressurization measurement, backdrafting (spillage) under depressurized or normal conditions, and carbon monoxide production.

  17. The Generalized Higher Criticism for Testing SNP-Set Effects in Genetic Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ian; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Lin, Xihong

    2017-01-01

    It is of substantial interest to study the effects of genes, genetic pathways, and networks on the risk of complex diseases. These genetic constructs each contain multiple SNPs, which are often correlated and function jointly, and might be large in number. However, only a sparse subset of SNPs in a genetic construct is generally associated with the disease of interest. In this article, we propose the generalized higher criticism (GHC) to test for the association between an SNP set and a disease outcome. The higher criticism is a test traditionally used in high-dimensional signal detection settings when marginal test statistics are independent and the number of parameters is very large. However, these assumptions do not always hold in genetic association studies, due to linkage disequilibrium among SNPs and the finite number of SNPs in an SNP set in each genetic construct. The proposed GHC overcomes the limitations of the higher criticism by allowing for arbitrary correlation structures among the SNPs in an SNP-set, while performing accurate analytic p-value calculations for any finite number of SNPs in the SNP-set. We obtain the detection boundary of the GHC test. We compared empirically using simulations the power of the GHC method with existing SNP-set tests over a range of genetic regions with varied correlation structures and signal sparsity. We apply the proposed methods to analyze the CGEM breast cancer genome-wide association study. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:28736464

  18. PedGenie: meta genetic association testing in mixed family and case-control designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen-Brady Kristina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- PedGenie software, introduced in 2006, includes genetic association testing of cases and controls that may be independent or related (nuclear families or extended pedigrees or mixtures thereof using Monte Carlo significance testing. Our aim is to demonstrate that PedGenie, a unique and flexible analysis tool freely available in Genie 2.4 software, is significantly enhanced by incorporating meta statistics for detecting genetic association with disease using data across multiple study groups. Methods- Meta statistics (chi-squared tests, odds ratios, and confidence intervals were calculated using formal Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel techniques. Simulated data from unrelated individuals and individuals in families were used to illustrate meta tests and their empirically-derived p-values and confidence intervals are accurate, precise, and for independent designs match those provided by standard statistical software. Results- PedGenie yields accurate Monte Carlo p-values for meta analysis of data across multiple studies, based on validation testing using pedigree, nuclear family, and case-control data simulated under both the null and alternative hypotheses of a genotype-phenotype association. Conclusion- PedGenie allows valid combined analysis of data from mixtures of pedigree-based and case-control resources. Added meta capabilities provide new avenues for association analysis, including pedigree resources from large consortia and multi-center studies.

  19. PCA-based bootstrap confidence interval tests for gene-disease association involving multiple SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fuzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic association study is currently the primary vehicle for identification and characterization of disease-predisposing variant(s which usually involves multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs available. However, SNP-wise association tests raise concerns over multiple testing. Haplotype-based methods have the advantage of being able to account for correlations between neighbouring SNPs, yet assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and potentially large number degrees of freedom can harm its statistical power and robustness. Approaches based on principal component analysis (PCA are preferable in this regard but their performance varies with methods of extracting principal components (PCs. Results PCA-based bootstrap confidence interval test (PCA-BCIT, which directly uses the PC scores to assess gene-disease association, was developed and evaluated for three ways of extracting PCs, i.e., cases only(CAES, controls only(COES and cases and controls combined(CES. Extraction of PCs with COES is preferred to that with CAES and CES. Performance of the test was examined via simulations as well as analyses on data of rheumatoid arthritis and heroin addiction, which maintains nominal level under null hypothesis and showed comparable performance with permutation test. Conclusions PCA-BCIT is a valid and powerful method for assessing gene-disease association involving multiple SNPs.

  20. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Ib Schou

    2014-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  1. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  2. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals.

  3. Enhancing integrated indoor/outdoor mobility in a smart campus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sospedra, Joaquín; Avariento, Joan; Rambla Risueño, David; Montoliu Colás, Raúl; Casteleyn, Sven; Benedito Bordonau, Mauri; Gould Carlson, Michael; Huerta Guijarro, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A Smart City relies on six key factors: Smart Governance, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart Mobility. This paper focuses on Smart Mobility by improving one of its key components: positioning. We developed and deployed a novel indoor positioning system (IPS) that is combined with an outdoor positioning system to support seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and wayfinding. The positioning system is implemented as a service in our broader cartography-based ...

  4. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Suk; Min, Byungrok; Oh, Sang-Hyon

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals. PMID:28728401

  5. The effect of an outdoor setting on the transfer of earth science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jerry Marvin

    The ability of students to transfer concepts learned in school to future learning and employment settings is critical to their academic and career success. Concept transfer can best be studied by defining it as a process rather than an isolated event. Preparation for future learning (PFL) is a process definition of transfer which recognizes the student's ability to draw from past experiences, make assumptions, and generate potential questions and strategies for problem resolution. The purpose of this study was to use the PFL definition of concept transfer to examine whether a knowledge-rich outdoor setting better prepares students for future learning of science concepts than the classroom setting alone does. The research hypothesis was that sixth-grade students experiencing a geology-rich outdoor setting would be better prepared to learn advanced earth science concepts than students experiencing classroom learning only. A quasi-experimental research design was used for this study on two non-equivalent, self-contained sixth-grade rural public school classes. After a pretest was given on prior geology knowledge, the outdoor treatment group was taken on a geology-rich field excursion which introduced them to the concepts of mineral formation and mining. The indoor treatment group received exposure to the same concepts in the classroom setting via color slides and identification of mineral specimens. Subsequently, both groups received direct instruction on advanced concepts about mineral formation and mining. They were then given a posttest, which presented the students with a problem-solving scenario and questions related to concepts covered in the direct instruction. A t-test done on pretest data revealed that the indoor treatment group had previously learned classroom geology material significantly better than the outdoor treatment group had. Therefore an analysis of covariance was performed on posttest data which showed that the outdoor treatment group was better

  6. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings. Objective: To assess the validity of commonly used temperature devices at various body sites during outdoor exercise in the heat. Design: Observational field study. Setting: Outdoor athletic facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen men and 10 women (age = 26.5 ± 5.3 years, height = 174.3 ± 11.1 cm, mass = 72.73 ± 15.95 kg, body fat = 16.2 ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): We simultaneously tested inexpensive and expensive devices orally and in the axillary region, along with measures of aural, gastrointestinal, forehead, temporal, and rectal temperatures. Temporal temperature was measured according to the instruction manual and a modified method observed in medical tents at local road races. We also measured forehead temperatures directly on the athletic field (other measures occurred in a covered pavilion) where solar radiation was greater. Rectal temperature was the criterion standard used to assess the validity of all other devices. Subjects' temperatures were measured before exercise, every 60 minutes during 180 minutes of exercise, and every 20 minutes for 60 minutes of postexercise recovery. Temperature devices were considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal temperature and device temperature) was greater than ±0.27°C (±0.5°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Temperature from each device at each site and time point. Results: Mean bias for the following temperatures was greater than the allowed limit of ±0.27°C (±0.5°F): temperature obtained via expensive oral device (−1.20°C [−2.17°F]), inexpensive oral device (−1.67°C [−3.00°F]), expensive axillary device (−2.58°C [−4

  7. Revealing Students' Cognitive Structure about Physical and Chemical Change: Use of a Word Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirir, Hasene Esra; Demirkol, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed at examining the utility of a word association test in revealing students' cognitive structure in a specific chemistry topic through a word association test. The participants were 153 6th graders in a western Turkish city. The results revealed that the word association test serves a useful purpose in exploring the students'…

  8. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  9. Developing an audit checklist to assess outdoor falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group.

  10. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps. Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  11. Estimated of associated uncertainties of the linearity test of dose calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Carlos H.S.; Peixoto, Jose G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Activimeters determine the activity of radioactive samples and them are validated by performance tests. This research determined the expanded uncertainties associated to the linearity test. Were used three dose calibrators and three sources of 99 Tc m for testing using recommended protocol by the IAEA, which considered the decay of radioactive samples. The expanded uncertainties evaluated were not correlated with each other and their analysis considered a rectangular probability distribution. The results are also presented in graphical form by the function of normalized activity measured in terms of conventional true value. (author)

  12. Fatigue testing of a carbon fibre composite wind turbine blade with associated material characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, G A; Richardson, D J [Univ. of the West of England, Faculty of Engineering, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    Within the EC project JOULE 2, the University of the West of England (UWE) tested a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy (CFRE) full scale wind turbine blade together with an associated material test coupon programme. All the work was closely linked with the manufacturer Polymarine BV of the Netherlands, who designed and manufactured the blade and provided test specimens, the UWE carried out the research into the validation of the design calculations together with a check of the strength and fatigue life of the blade. (au)

  13. Factors associated with HIV testing and condom use in Mozambique: implications for programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sohail

    2012-09-05

    To identify predictors of HIV testing and condom use in Mozambique. Nationally representative survey data collected in Mozambique in 2009 was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used for two outcomes: HIV testing and condom use. Women at a higher risk of HIV were less likely to be tested for HIV than women at a lower risk: compared to married women, HIV testing was lower among never married women (OR = 0.37, CI: 0.25-0.54); compared to women with one lifetime partner, HIV testing was lower among women with four or more lifetime partners (OR = 0.62, CI: 0.47-0.83). Large wealth differentials were observed: compared to the poorest women, HIV testing was higher among the wealthiest women (OR = 3.03, CI: 1.96-4.68). Perceived quality of health services was an important predictor of HIV testing: HIV testing was higher among women who rated health services as being of very good quality (OR = 2.12, CI: 1.49-3.00). Type of sexual partner was the strongest predictor of condom use: condom use was higher among men who reported last sex with a girlfriend (OR = 9.75, CI: 6.81-13.97) or a casual partner (OR = 11.05, CI: 7.21-16.94). Being tested for HIV during the last two years was the only programmatic variable that predicted condom use. Interestingly, being tested for HIV more than two years ago was not associated with condom use. Frequent mass media exposure was neither associated with HIV testing nor with condom use. The focus of HIV testing should shift from married women (routinely tested during antenatal care visits) to unmarried women and women with multiple sexual partners. Financial barriers to HIV testing appear to be substantial. Since HIV testing is done without a fee being charged, these barriers are presumably related to the cost of transportation to static health facilities. Mechanisms should be developed to cover the cost of transportation to health facilities. Substantially increasing community-based counseling is one way of reducing the cost of

  14. Factors associated with HIV testing and condom use in Mozambique: implications for programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agha Sohail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify predictors of HIV testing and condom use in Mozambique. Methods Nationally representative survey data collected in Mozambique in 2009 was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used for two outcomes: HIV testing and condom use. Results Women at a higher risk of HIV were less likely to be tested for HIV than women at a lower risk: compared to married women, HIV testing was lower among never married women (OR = 0.37, CI: 0.25-0.54; compared to women with one lifetime partner, HIV testing was lower among women with four or more lifetime partners (OR = 0.62, CI: 0.47-0.83. Large wealth differentials were observed: compared to the poorest women, HIV testing was higher among the wealthiest women (OR = 3.03, CI: 1.96-4.68. Perceived quality of health services was an important predictor of HIV testing: HIV testing was higher among women who rated health services as being of very good quality (OR = 2.12, CI: 1.49-3.00. Type of sexual partner was the strongest predictor of condom use: condom use was higher among men who reported last sex with a girlfriend (OR = 9.75, CI: 6.81-13.97 or a casual partner (OR = 11.05, CI: 7.21-16.94. Being tested for HIV during the last two years was the only programmatic variable that predicted condom use. Interestingly, being tested for HIV more than two years ago was not associated with condom use. Frequent mass media exposure was neither associated with HIV testing nor with condom use. Conclusions The focus of HIV testing should shift from married women (routinely tested during antenatal care visits to unmarried women and women with multiple sexual partners. Financial barriers to HIV testing appear to be substantial. Since HIV testing is done without a fee being charged, these barriers are presumably related to the cost of transportation to static health facilities. Mechanisms should be developed to cover the cost of transportation to health facilities

  15. Association between the gait pattern characteristics of older people and their two-step test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Toru

    2018-04-27

    The Two-Step test is one of three official tests authorized by the Japanese Orthopedic Association to evaluate the risk of locomotive syndrome (a condition of reduced mobility caused by an impairment of the locomotive organs). It has been reported that the Two-Step test score has a good correlation with one's walking ability; however, its association with the gait pattern of older people during normal walking is still unknown. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the associations between the gait patterns of older people observed during normal walking and their Two-Step test scores. We analyzed the whole waveforms obtained from the lower-extremity joint angles and joint moments of 26 older people in various stages of locomotive syndrome using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA was conducted using a 260 × 2424 input matrix constructed from the participants' time-normalized pelvic and right-lower-limb-joint angles along three axes (ten trials of 26 participants, 101 time points, 4 angles, 3 axes, and 2 variable types per trial). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the scores of the principal component vectors (PCVs) and the scores of the Two-Step test revealed that only one PCV (PCV 2) among the 61 obtained relevant PCVs is significantly related to the score of the Two-Step test. We therefore concluded that the joint angles and joint moments related to PCV 2-ankle plantar-flexion, ankle plantar-flexor moments during the late stance phase, ranges of motion and moments on the hip, knee, and ankle joints in the sagittal plane during the entire stance phase-are the motions associated with the Two-Step test.

  16. Factors Associated With Natriuretic Peptide Testing in Patients Presenting to Emergency Departments With Suspected Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrvand, Nariman; Bakal, Jeffrey A; Lin, Meng; McAlister, Finlay; Wesenberg, James C; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2016-08-01

    Testing for natriuretic peptides (NPs) such as brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the emergency department (ED) assists in the evaluation of patients with acute heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to investigate factors related to the use of NP testing in the ED in a large population-based sample in Canada. This was a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data from Alberta in 2012. Patients were included if they had testing for an NP in the ED; a comparator group with HF but without NP testing was also included. Of the 16,223 patients in the cohort, 5793 were patients with HF (n = 3148 tested and n = 2645 not tested for NPs) and 10,430 were patients without HF but who were tested for NPs. Patients without HF who were tested for NPs had respiratory disease (34%), non-HF cardiovascular diseases (13%), and other conditions (52%). Patients with HF who were tested had a higher rate of hospital admission from the ED (78.4% vs 62.2%; P < 0.001) and lower 7-day and 90-day repeated ED visit rates compared with those who were not tested. Among patients with HF, male sex, being an urban resident, being seen by an emergency medicine or cardiology specialist, and being seen in hospitals with medium ED visit volumes were associated with increased likelihood of testing for NPs. Several factors, including the type of provider and ED clinical volume, influenced the use of NP testing in routine ED practice. Standardization of an NP testing strategy in clinical practice would be useful for health care systems. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A note on the relationship between outdoor and indoor exposure integrals for air pollution of outdoor origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoerup, H.L.; Roed, J.

    1980-05-01

    Beryllium-7 created by cosmic radiation has been used as a tracer in preliminary measurements designed to enable an estimation of the ratio between outdoor and indoor exposure integrals for aerosols of outdoor origin, with special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during reactor accidents. Earlier investigations relevant to this problem are reviewed. It is concluded that the reduction is inhalation dose offered by an average Danish house is roughly one order of magnitude. (author)

  18. Clinical, social and ethical issues associated with non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Blanche; Edwards, Samantha; Chitty, Lyn S; Lewis, Celine

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), based on analysis of cell-free foetal DNA, is rapidly becoming a preferred method to screen for chromosomal aneuploidy with the technology now available in over 90 countries. This review provides an up-to-date discussion of the key clinical, social and ethical implications associated with this revolutionary technology. Stakeholders are positive about a test that is highly accurate, safe, can be perfomed early in pregnancy, identifies affected pregnancies that might otherwise have been missed and reduces the need for invasive testing. Nevertheless, professional societies currently recommend it as an advanced screening test due to the low false positive rate (FPR). Despite the practical and psychological benefits, a number of concerns have been raised which warrant attention. These include the potential for routinisation of testing and subsequent impact on informed decision-making, an "easy" blood test inadvertently contributing to women feeling pressured to take the test, fears NIPT will lead to less tolerance and support for those living with Down syndrome and the heightened expectation of having "perfect babies". These issues can be addressed to some extent through clinician education, patient information and establishing national and international consensus in the development of comprehensive and regularly updated guidelines. As the number of conditions we are able to test for non-invasively expands it will be increasingly important to ensure pre-test counselling can be delivered effectively supported by knowledgeable healthcare professionals.

  19. Major therapeutic effect of pentoxifylline-tocopherol association in the superficial radioinduced fibrosis: phase II test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delanian, S.; Balla-Mekias, S.; Maylin, C.; Lefaix, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The association of pentoxifylline-tocopherol seems efficient in the reduction of the superficial human radioinduced fibrosis. This phase II invites to realize a randomized test and to a comparison with the results got with the dismutase superoxide. (N.C.)

  20. "CONGENTIAL PANHYPOPITUITARISM ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED LIVER FUNCTION TESTS AND CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Khalili-Matinzadeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The term congenital hypopituitarism defines deficiency of all of the pituitary hormones. Hypoglycemia and microphallus (in males are common findings, and some infants have shown evidence of the neonatal hepatitis syndrome. We report a case of congenital panhypopituitarism with deficiency of six major hormones and association with severe hypoglycemia, impaired liver function tests and congenital heart disease.

  1. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  2. Impairment of Self-control and its manifestations in Continuous Word Association Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marhevská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work is to find out how self–control influences word associations. The research presented herein provides new insight into manifestations of self–control. Experimental study is based on the Strength model (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998, which assumes that self–control relies on limited resources of ego which become depleted with increased exercising of self–control (Ego depletion. The aim of this experiment was to verify in an empirical manner that the impairment of self–control can be manifested in word association tests. Continuous word association test (Kondáš, 1979 was used in this experiment. Distinct indicators of continuous word associations were divided into the following 4 categories; verbal dynamics, abnormalities in association, errors in the reproduction of association reactions and the overall number of mistakes. Parallel task and “e letter” crossing out exercises were used in order to impair ego resource.One–Way ANOVA was used in the analysis. The results of the study indicate that impaired self–control, induced by the “e letter” crossing out task, increased verbal dynamics. According to the obtained results, Continuous word association test provoke automatic processes. Further important indicators of impaired self–control were increased perseverations of potentially conflicting word ′control′, erroneous reproductions of potentially conflicting word ′explosions′ and the overall indicator of mistakes in conflict word‚ explosions and control‘. The experiment results show an increase in the number of mistakes of word association production when self–control is impaired.

  3. Laboratory versus outdoor cycling conditions: differences in pedaling biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, William; Grappe, Frederic; Groslambert, Alain

    2007-05-01

    The aim of our study was to compare crank torque profile and perceived exertion between the Monark ergometer (818 E) and two outdoor cycling conditions: level ground and uphill road cycling. Seven male cyclists performed seven tests in seated position at different pedaling cadences: (a) in the laboratory at 60, 80, and 100 rpm; (b) on level terrain at 80 and 100 rpm; and (c) on uphill terrain (9.25% grade) at 60 and 80 rpm. The cyclists exercised for 1 min at their maximal aerobic power. The Monark ergometer and the bicycle were equipped with the SRM Training System (Schoberer, Germany) for the measurement of power output (W), torque (Nxm), pedaling cadence (rpm), and cycling velocity (kmxh-1). The most important findings of this study indicate that at maximal aerobic power the crank torque profiles in the Monark ergometer (818 E) were significantly different (especially on dead points of the crank cycle) and generate a higher perceived exertion compared with road cycling conditions.

  4. Reconnaissance On Chi-Square Test Procedure For Determining Two Species Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Hanifa

    2008-01-01

    Determining the assosiation of two species by using chi-square test has been published. Utility of this procedure to plants species at certain location, shows that the procedure could not find "ecologically" association. Tens sampling units have been made to record some weeds species in Indralaya, South Sumatera. Chi square test; Xt2 = N[|(ad)-(bc)|-(N/2)]2/mnrs (Eq:1) on two species (Cleome sp and Eleusine indica) of the weeds shows positive assosiation; while ecologically in nature, there is no relationship between them. Some alternatives are proposed to this problem; simplified chi-square test steps, make further study to find out ecologically association, or at last, ignore it.

  5. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  6. PERMANOVA-S: association test for microbial community composition that accommodates confounders and multiple distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Zheng; Chen, Guanhua; Alekseyenko, Alexander V

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology have made it possible to obtain high-throughput data on the composition of microbial communities and to study the effects of dysbiosis on the human host. Analysis of pairwise intersample distances quantifies the association between the microbiome diversity and covariates of interest (e.g. environmental factors, clinical outcomes, treatment groups). In the design of these analyses, multiple choices for distance metrics are available. Most distance-based methods, however, use a single distance and are underpowered if the distance is poorly chosen. In addition, distance-based tests cannot flexibly handle confounding variables, which can result in excessive false-positive findings. We derive presence-weighted UniFrac to complement the existing UniFrac distances for more powerful detection of the variation in species richness. We develop PERMANOVA-S, a new distance-based method that tests the association of microbiome composition with any covariates of interest. PERMANOVA-S improves the commonly-used Permutation Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA) test by allowing flexible confounder adjustments and ensembling multiple distances. We conducted extensive simulation studies to evaluate the performance of different distances under various patterns of association. Our simulation studies demonstrate that the power of the test relies on how well the selected distance captures the nature of the association. The PERMANOVA-S unified test combines multiple distances and achieves good power regardless of the patterns of the underlying association. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by reanalyzing several real microbiome datasets. miProfile software is freely available at https://medschool.vanderbilt.edu/tang-lab/software/miProfile z.tang@vanderbilt.edu or g.chen@vanderbilt.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Color-Image Classification Using MRFs for an Outdoor Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Alencastre-Miranda

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest to use color-image classification (in several phases using Markov Random Fields (MRFs in order to understand natural images from outdoor environment's scenes for a mobile robot. We skip preprocessing phase having same results and better performance. In segmentation phase, we implement a color segmentation method considering I3 color space measure average in little image's cells obtained from a single split step. In classification phase, a MRF was used to identify regions as one of three selected classes; here, we consider at the same time the intrinsic color features of the image and the neighborhood system between image's cells. Finally, we use region growing and contextual information to correct misclassification errors. We have implemented and tested those phases with several images taken at our campus' gardens. We include some results in off-line processing mode and in on-line execution mode on an outdoor mobile robot. The vision system has been used for reactive exploration in an outdoor environment.

  8. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  9. On approximate reasoning and minimal models for the development of robust outdoor vehicle navigation schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-11-01

    Outdoor sensor-based operation of autonomous robots has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. Two basic principles, or philosophies, and their associated methodologies are proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. The first principle is based on the concept of ``minimal model`` for accomplishing given tasks and proposes to utilize only the minimum level of information and precision necessary to accomplish elemental functions of complex tasks. This approach diverges completely from the direction taken by most artificial vision studies which conventionally call for crisp and detailed analysis of every available component in the perception data. The paper will first review the basic concepts of this approach and will discuss its pragmatic feasibility when embodied in a behaviorist framework. The second principle which is proposed deals with implicit representation of uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and approximate reasoning, rather than explicit (crisp) representation through calculation and conventional propagation techniques. A framework which merges these principles and approaches is presented, and its application to the problem of sensor-based outdoor navigation of a mobile robot is discussed. Results of navigation experiments with a real car in actual outdoor environments are also discussed to illustrate the feasibility of the overall concept.

  10. Characterization of Indoor and Outdoor Aerosols in a Suburban Area of Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolik, J.; Dohanyosova, P.; Schwarz, J.; Zdimal, V.; Lazaridis, M.

    2008-01-01

    The mass, ionic and elemental size distributions of particulate matter (PM) measured indoors and outdoors in an apartment situated in a north-westward suburb of Prague are presented. The PM samples were collected by two Berner type low pressure impactors separating particles into 10 size fractions from 26 nm to 10 μm and were further analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Temperature, pressure and relative humidity were measured both indoors and outdoors parallel to PM sampling. The indoor and outdoor PM dynamics were recorded by two scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). Finally, the ventilation rate was determined by a radon technique. Ion chromatography showed that the major inorganic components of the fine particle mode are sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium with very low indoor nitrate concentration. Crustal elements (Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) were associated with the coarse aerosol mode. The presence of people increased the mass concentration of coarse particles, whereas cooking, smoking, and burning of incense and candles contributed predominantly to the fine particle mode. Smoking and the burning of incense also increased the concentration of potassium, bromine and chlorine content in fine particles

  11. On approximate reasoning and minimal models for the development of robust outdoor vehicle navigation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor sensor-based operation of autonomous robots has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. Two basic principles, or philosophies, and their associated methodologies are proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. The first principle is based on the concept of ''minimal model'' for accomplishing given tasks and proposes to utilize only the minimum level of information and precision necessary to accomplish elemental functions of complex tasks. This approach diverges completely from the direction taken by most artificial vision studies which conventionally call for crisp and detailed analysis of every available component in the perception data. The paper will first review the basic concepts of this approach and will discuss its pragmatic feasibility when embodied in a behaviorist framework. The second principle which is proposed deals with implicit representation of uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and approximate reasoning, rather than explicit (crisp) representation through calculation and conventional propagation techniques. A framework which merges these principles and approaches is presented, and its application to the problem of sensor-based outdoor navigation of a mobile robot is discussed. Results of navigation experiments with a real car in actual outdoor environments are also discussed to illustrate the feasibility of the overall concept

  12. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E; Drach, P; Broede, P

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  13. Measurements of environmental radon - 222 concentrations in indoors and outdoors in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, M.A.; Morsey, A.A.; Kotb, M.A.; Osman, A.; El-Haag, A.

    1990-01-01

    The major contribution to population exposure from natural radiation arises from the inhalation of the decay products of radon. Substantial surveys are being conducted by several investigators to estimate the indoor and outdoor exposure nationally and to discover regional variations. In this work, radon concentration in the indoors and outdoor air was determined using the can technique and employing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector for lengthy exposures. The range of radon - 222 activity in this survey was 54 -299 PCi.m -3 in Cairo, 22 - 171 PCi.m -3 in Alexandria and 89 - 370 PCi.m -3 in Asiut. Measurements carried out in Aswan and Sinai ranged between 98 - 411 PCi.m -3 . Values of indoors and outdoors radon concentrations were found to vary with time of day, geographic location, season and height above ground. Further work is going on to study the different parameters affecting the levels of the environmental radon. The national survey and associated studies is expected to yield data that may correlate radon activity with some respiratory diseases, particularly lung cancer. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  14. Using GPS, accelerometry and heart rate to predict outdoor graded walking energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Müllenheim, P-Y; Chaudru, S; Emily, M; Gernigon, M; Mahé, G; Bickert, S; Prioux, J; Noury-Desvaux, B; Le Faucheur, A

    2018-02-01

    To determine the best method and combination of methods among global positioning system (GPS), accelerometry, and heart rate (HR) for estimating energy expenditure (EE) during level and graded outdoor walking. Thirty adults completed 6-min outdoor walks at speeds of 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0kmh -1 during three randomized outdoor walking sessions: one level walking session and two graded (uphill and downhill) walking sessions on a 3.4% and a 10.4% grade. EE was measured using a portable metabolic system (K4b 2 ). Participants wore a GlobalSat ® DG100 GPS receiver, an ActiGraph™ wGT3X+ accelerometer, and a Polar ® HR monitor. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were tested for EE predictions based on GPS speed and grade, accelerometer counts or HR-related parameters (alone and combined). Root-mean-square error (RMSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the models. Published speed/grade-, count-, and HR-based equations were also cross-validated. According to the LMMs, GPS was as accurate as accelerometry (RMSE=0.89-0.90kcalmin -1 ) and more accurate than HR (RMSE=1.20kcalmin -1 ) for estimating EE during level walking; GPS was the most accurate method for estimating EE during both level and uphill (RMSE=1.34kcalmin -1 )/downhill (RMSE=0.84kcalmin -1 ) walking; combining methods did not increase the accuracy reached using GPS (or accelerometry for level walking). The cross-validation results were in accordance with the LMMs, except for downhill walking. Our study provides useful information regarding the best method(s) for estimating EE with appropriate equations during level and graded outdoor walking. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Substitution of PFAS chemistry in outdoor apparel and the impact on repellency performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philippa J; Taylor, Mark; Goswami, Parikshit; Blackburn, Richard S

    2017-08-01

    Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions. Herein, complexities between required functionality, legislation and sustainability within outdoor apparel are discussed, and fundamental technical performance of commercially available long-chain (C8) PFASs, shorter-chain (C6) PFASs, and non-fluorinated repellent chemistries finishes are evaluated comparatively. Non-fluorinated finishes provided no oil repellency, and were clearly inferior in this property to PFAS-finished fabrics that demonstrated good oil-resistance. However, water repellency ratings were similar across the range of all finished fabrics tested, all demonstrating a high level of resistance to wetting, and several non-fluorinated repellent fabrics provide similar water repellency to long-chain (C8) PFAS or shorter-chain (C6) PFAS finished fabrics. The primary repellency function required in outdoor apparel is water repellency, and we would propose that the use of PFAS chemistry for such garments is over-engineering, providing oil repellency that is in excess of user requirements. Accordingly, significant environmental and toxicological benefits could be achieved by switching outdoor apparel to non-fluorinated finishes without a significant reduction in garment water-repellency performance. These conclusions are being supported by further research into the effect of laundering, abrasion and ageing of these fabrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Effective Risk Minimization Strategy Applied to an Outdoor Music Festival: A Multi-Agency Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Matt; Gardiner, Fergus; Lenson, Shane; Caldicott, David; Harris, Ryan; Sabet, Ryan; Malloy, Mark; Perkins, Jo

    2018-04-01

    Specific Event Identifiers a. Event type: Outdoor music festival. b. Event onset date: December 3, 2016. c. Location of event: Regatta Point, Commonwealth Park. d. Geographical coordinates: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia (-35.289002, 149.131957, 600m). e. Dates and times of observation in latitude, longitude, and elevation: December 3, 2016, 11:00-23:00. f. Response type: Event medical support. Abstract Introduction Young adult patrons are vulnerable to risk-taking behavior, including drug taking, at outdoor music festivals. Therefore, the aim of this field report is to discuss the on-site medical response during a music festival, and subsequently highlight observed strategies aimed at minimizing substance abuse harm. The observed outdoor music festival was held in Canberra (Australian Capital Territory [ACT], Australia) during the early summer of 2016, with an attendance of 23,008 patrons. First aid and on-site medical treatment data were gained from the relevant treatment area and service. The integrated first aid service provided support to 292 patients. Final analysis consisted of 286 patients' records, with 119 (41.6%) males and 167 (58.4%) females. Results from this report indicated that drug intoxication was an observed event issue, with 15 (5.1%) treated on site and 13 emergency department (ED) presentations, primarily related to trauma or medical conditions requiring further diagnostics. This report details an important public health need, which could be met by providing a coordinated approach, including a robust on-site medical service, accepting intrinsic risk-taking behavior. This may include on-site drug-checking, providing reliable information on drug content with associated education. Luther M , Gardiner F , Lenson S , Caldicott D , Harris R , Sabet R , Malloy M , Perkins J . An effective risk minimization strategy applied to an outdoor music festival: a multi-agency approach. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):220-224.

  17. The commercial food landscape: outdoor food advertising around primary schools in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Cretikos, Michelle; Rogers, Kris; King, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    Food marketing is linked to childhood obesity through its influence on children's food preferences, purchase requests and food consumption. We aimed to describe the volume and nature of outdoor food advertisements and factors associated with outdoor food advertising in the area surrounding Australian primary schools. Forty primary schools in Sydney and Wollongong were selected using random sampling within population density and socio-economic strata. The area within a 500 m radius of each school was scanned and advertisements coded according to pre-defined criteria, including: food or non-food product advertisement, distance from the school, size and location. Food advertisements were further categorised as core foods, non-core foods and miscellaneous drinks (tea and coffee). The number of advertisements identified was 9,151, of which 2,286 (25%) were for food. The number of non-core food advertisements was 1,834, this accounted for 80% of food advertisements. Soft drinks and alcoholic beverages were the food products most commonly advertised around primary schools (24% and 22% of food advertisements, respectively). Non-core food products were twice as likely to be advertised close to a primary school (95 non-core food advertisements per km(2) within 250 m vs. 46 advertisements per km(2) within 250-500 m). The density of non-core food advertisements within 500 m of primary schools, and the potential for repeated exposure of children to soft drink and alcoholic beverage advertisements in particular, highlights the need for outdoor food marketing policy intervention. Outdoor advertising is an important food marketing tool that should be considered in future debates on regulation of food marketing to children.

  18. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  19. Excess cases of prostate cancer and estimated overdiagnosis associated with PSA testing in East Anglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Powles, J; Brown, C; Duffy, S W

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the extent of ‘overdiagnosis' of prostate cancer attributable to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the Cambridge area between 1996 and 2002. Overdiagnosis was defined conceptually as detection of prostate cancer through PSA testing that otherwise would not have been diagnosed within the patient's lifetime. Records of PSA tests in Addenbrookes Hospital were linked to prostate cancer registrations by NHS number. Differences in prostate cancer registration rates between those receiving and not receiving prediagnosis PSA tests were calculated. The proportion of men aged 40 years or over with a prediagnosis PSA test increased from 1.4 to 5.2% from 1996 to 2002. The rate of diagnosis of prostate cancer was 45% higher (rate ratios (RR)=1.45, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02–2.07) in men with a history of prediagnosis PSA testing. Assuming average lead times of 5 to 10 years, 40–64% of the PSA-detected cases were estimated to be overdiagnosed. In East Anglia, from 1996 to 2000, a 1.6% excess of cases was associated with PSA testing (around a quarter of the 5.3% excess incidence cases observed in East Anglia from 1996 to 2000). Further quantification of the overdiagnosis will result from continued surveillance and from linkage of incidence to testing in other hospitals. PMID:16832417

  20. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  1. Facility-level association of preoperative stress testing and postoperative adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Javier A; Graham, Laura; Thiruvoipati, Thejasvi; Grunwald, Gary; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Maddox, Thomas M; Hawn, Mary T; Bradley, Steven M

    2018-06-22

    Despite limited indications, preoperative stress testing is often used prior to non-cardiac surgery. Patient-level analyses of stress testing and outcomes are limited by case mix and selection bias. Therefore, we sought to describe facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing for non-cardiac surgery, and to determine the association between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We identified patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery within 2 years of percutaneous coronary intervention in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, from 2004 to 2011, facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE (death, myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularisation within 30 days). We determined risk-standardised facility-level rates of stress testing and postoperative MACE, and the relationship between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE. Among 29 937 patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery at 131 VA facilities, the median facility rate of preoperative stress testing was 13.2% (IQR 9.7%-15.9%; range 6.0%-21.5%), and 30-day postoperative MACE was 4.0% (IQR 2.4%-5.4%). After risk standardisation, the median facility-level rate of stress testing was 12.7% (IQR 8.4%-17.4%) and postoperative MACE was 3.8% (IQR 2.3%-5.6%). There was no correlation between risk-standardised stress testing and composite MACE at the facility level (r=0.022, p=0.81), or with individual outcomes of death, MI or revascularisation. In a national cohort of veterans undergoing non-cardiac surgery, we observed substantial variation in facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing. Facilities with higher rates of preoperative stress testing were not associated with better postoperative outcomes. These findings suggest an opportunity to reduce variation in preoperative stress testing without sacrificing patient outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  2. Does knowledge make a difference? The association between knowledge about genes and attitudes toward gene tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jallinoja, P; Aro, A R

    2000-01-01

    that genetic testing will have positive consequences, but many also had worries related to the development of gene tests. We showed that there was an association between knowledge and attitudes, but better knowledge did not simply lead to unambiguous acceptance. Among those with the highest level of knowledge...... there was in many respects both more enthusiasm and more skepticism than among those with the lowest level of knowledge. Those with a low level of knowledge had more difficulties in taking a stance toward attitude statements. In general, steps should be taken, first, to increase citizens' capabilities to seek......A survey was conducted (n = 1,216) to evaluate the level of knowledge about basic facts of genetics and attitudes toward gene tests among the Finnish population. Our results show that a majority of the Finnish population generally approved of gene tests. Well over half of the respondents believed...

  3. The Prevalence of Harmful Content on Outdoor Advertising in Los Angeles: Land Use, Community Characteristics, and the Spatial Inequality of a Public Health Nuisance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. Methods. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. Results. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy. PMID:24524512

  4. The prevalence of harmful content on outdoor advertising in Los Angeles: land use, community characteristics, and the spatial inequality of a public health nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Bryce C; Sloane, David C

    2014-04-01

    Our study sought to examine associations between the content of outdoor advertising and neighborhood ethnic/racial and socioeconomic composition to see whether particular communities disproportionately host harmful content. We constructed a spatial database of photographs taken from June 2012 until December 2012 in 7 identically zoned communities in Los Angeles, California, to compare outdoor advertising area and content. We selected communities to contrast by ethnicity/race, income, education, and youth population. At-risk communities and communities of color hosted more outdoor advertising depicting harmful content than other communities. Among included neighborhoods, harmful content and the proportion of outdoor advertising overall were most prevalent in communities of Asian Americans and Latino Americans. In all communities, harmful content represented at least 24% of outdoor advertising space. This study provides evidence of the potential for land-use decisions to result in spatially inequitable health impacts. Although dictating the placement of outdoor advertising through zoning may seem sensible, such a decision might have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging the well-being of local communities. Neighborhood factors require more contextually nuanced public health and land-use policy.

  5. Individual differences in aversion to ambiguity regarding medical tests and treatments: association with cancer screening cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul K J; Williams, Andrew E; Haskins, Amy; Gutheil, Caitlin; Lucas, F Lee; Klein, William M P; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2014-12-01

    Aversion to "ambiguity"-uncertainty about the reliability, credibility, or adequacy of information-about medical tests and treatments is an important psychological response that varies among individuals, but little is known about its nature and extent. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual-level ambiguity aversion relates to important health cognitions related to different cancer screening tests. A survey of 1,074 adults, ages 40 to 70 years, was conducted in four integrated U.S. healthcare systems. The Ambiguity Aversion in Medicine (AA-Med) scale, a measure of individual differences in aversion to ambiguity (AA) about medical tests and treatments, was administered along with measures of several cancer screening-related cognitions: perceived benefits and harms of colonoscopy, mammography, and PSA screening, and ambivalence and future intentions regarding these tests. Multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the associations between AA-Med scores and cancer screening cognitions. Individual-level AA as assessed by the AA-Med scale was significantly associated (P ambiguity. Individual-level AA constitutes a measurable, wide-ranging cognitive bias against medical intervention, and more research is needed to elucidate its mechanisms and effects. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. An exponential combination procedure for set-based association tests in sequencing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin S; Hsu, Li; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Nicolae, Dan L

    2012-12-07

    State-of-the-art next-generation-sequencing technologies can facilitate in-depth explorations of the human genome by investigating both common and rare variants. For the identification of genetic factors that are associated with disease risk or other complex phenotypes, methods have been proposed for jointly analyzing variants in a set (e.g., all coding SNPs in a gene). Variants in a properly defined set could be associated with risk or phenotype in a concerted fashion, and by accumulating information from them, one can improve power to detect genetic risk factors. Many set-based methods in the literature are based on statistics that can be written as the summation of variant statistics. Here, we propose taking the summation of the exponential of variant statistics as the set summary for association testing. From both Bayesian and frequentist perspectives, we provide theoretical justification for taking the sum of the exponential of variant statistics because it is particularly powerful for sparse alternatives-that is, compared with the large number of variants being tested in a set, only relatively few variants are associated with disease risk-a distinctive feature of genetic data. We applied the exponential combination gene-based test to a sequencing study in anticancer pharmacogenomics and uncovered mechanistic insights into genes and pathways related to chemotherapeutic susceptibility for an important class of oncologic drugs. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Testing multiple statistical hypotheses resulted in spurious associations: a study of astrological signs and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Hux, Janet E

    2006-09-01

    To illustrate how multiple hypotheses testing can produce associations with no clinical plausibility. We conducted a study of all 10,674,945 residents of Ontario aged between 18 and 100 years in 2000. Residents were randomly assigned to equally sized derivation and validation cohorts and classified according to their astrological sign. Using the derivation cohort, we searched through 223 of the most common diagnoses for hospitalization until we identified two for which subjects born under one astrological sign had a significantly higher probability of hospitalization compared to subjects born under the remaining signs combined (P<0.05). We tested these 24 associations in the independent validation cohort. Residents born under Leo had a higher probability of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (P=0.0447), while Sagittarians had a higher probability of humerus fracture (P=0.0123) compared to all other signs combined. After adjusting the significance level to account for multiple comparisons, none of the identified associations remained significant in either the derivation or validation cohort. Our analyses illustrate how the testing of multiple, non-prespecified hypotheses increases the likelihood of detecting implausible associations. Our findings have important implications for the analysis and interpretation of clinical studies.

  8. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulfate is associated with increased positive patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitulla, J; Brasch, J; Löffler, H; Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W

    2014-07-01

    As previous observations have indicated an inter-relationship between irritant and allergic skin reactions we analysed data of synchronous allergen and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch tests in terms of a relationship between SLS responsiveness and allergic patch test reactions. To analyse differences in terms of allergen-specific and overall reaction profiles between patients with vs. those without an irritant reaction to SLS. Clinical data of 26 879 patients patch tested from 2008 to 2011 by members of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology were analysed. After descriptive analyses, including the MOAHLFA index, the positivity ratio and the reaction index, a negative binomial hurdle model was adopted to investigate the correlation between SLS reactivity and positive patch test reactions. Men, patients aged ≥ 40 years and patients with an occupational dermatitis background were over-represented in the SLS-reactive group. Patients with an irritant reaction to SLS showed a higher proportion of weak positive reactions, as well as more questionable and irritant reactions to contact allergens than patients not reactive to SLS. The risk of an additional positive patch test reaction increased by 22% for SLS-reactive patients compared with those who were SLS negative. The marked association between SLS reactivity and the number of positive reactions in patch test patients may be due to nonspecific increased skin reactivity at the moment of patch testing only. However, increased SLS reactivity could also be due to longer-lasting enhanced skin irritability, which may have promoted (poly-)sensitization. Further studies, for example with longitudinal data on patients repeatedly patch tested with SLS and contact allergens, are necessary. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Salameh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country. Objective: To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. Methods: A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered. Results: Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73–3.80 and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13–3.17; older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55–2.39; lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21–1.72; living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31– 2.89 and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07–2.45; and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.43 were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39–0.85. A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source. Conclusion: Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  10. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.

    2012-06-25

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of

  11. Factors Associated with Vitamin D Testing, Deficiency, Intake, and Supplementation in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Manasi; Vanlint, Simon; Moseley, G Lorimer; Mittinty, Murthy N; Stocks, Nigel

    2017-11-02

    Vitamin D deficiency is a public health issue, with reports of six- to twenty-five-fold rise in vitamin D testing. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to many chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, depression, and chronic pain. Identifying factors associated with risk of deficiency in individuals with chronic pain will help minimize time and cost. This study aims to examine the factors associated with vitamin D testing, intake, and physician-advised supplementation in individuals with chronic pain. Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected from 465 individuals with chronic pain. These data were analyzed using penalized logistic regression with the LASSO technique. Fifty-seven percent reported being tested for vitamin D, about 40% reported being diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency, and of those who had been tested, 60% reported taking vitamin D supplementation. The findings suggest older age (OR 3.12, CI [1.02, 9.50]) and higher mean pain intensity score (OR 2.02, CI [1.13, 3.59]) increased an individual's chance of being vitamin D deficient. Unemployment or on leave due to pain (OR 1.79, [CI 1.03, 3.11]), part-time employment (OR 1.86, CI [1.02, 3.39]), and being a resident of Australia (OR 2.32, CI [1.13, 4.72]) increased chances of being tested for vitamin D. Being diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency (OR 6.67, CI [2.75, 16.19]), unemployed or on leave due to pain (OR 3.71, CI [1.25, 11.00]), and in part-time employment (OR 2.69, CI [0.86, 8.38]) were associated with physician-advised vitamin D supplementation. Our results may have practical implications, as identifying pretest risk factors may assist in identifying who is at risk of vitamin D deficiency, whom to test, and when to treat.

  12. VIGOR TESTS ASSOCIATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR PRECISE AND EFFICIENT ASSESSMENT OF MAIZE SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ALTOMANI NEVES DIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to associate two concepts of seed vigor testing, the aging and seedling growth using image analysis, providing a feasible and time-saving way to evaluate maize seed vigor in large scale. For this purpose, five seed lots with different vigor levels from two single hybrids were used. The seeds were characterized by moisture content, germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, accelerated aging and cold tests. The treatments were composed by varying the accelerated aging periods (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96h and seedling growth periods (48 and 72h, before submitting the seedlings to image analysis for seedling root length measurement. Considering the results obtained, the adaptation of accelerated aging test by reducing the aging duration from 96h to 48h, and the replacement of the germination test by seedling root length measurement using image analysis could be considered a potential tool for maize seed vigor assessment. The treatments composed of 48h of seed aging followed by seedlings root length measurements using image analysis provided reliable data, compared to traditional vigor tests and it could be considered an efficient and timesaving approach, associating two different concepts of seed vigor analysis.

  13. Can Implicit Associations Distinguish True and False Eyewitness Memory? Development and Preliminary Testing of the IATe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca K; Ceci, Stephen J; Burd, Kayla A

    2016-11-01

    Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face. We also show that implicit associations between negative attributions such as guilt and eyewitnesses' final pick from a line-up can help to distinguish between true and false memory (especially where the witness has been subject to the suggestive nature of a prior blank line-up). Specifically, the more a witness implicitly associates an individual face with a particular crime, the more likely it is that a memory they have for that person committing the crime is false. These findings are consistent with existing findings in the memory and neuroscience literature showing that false memories can be caused by implicit associations that are outside conscious awareness. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A Simple Test of Class-Level Genetic Association Can Reveal Novel Cardiometabolic Trait Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qian

    Full Text Available Characterizing the genetic determinants of complex diseases can be further augmented by incorporating knowledge of underlying structure or classifications of the genome, such as newly developed mappings of protein-coding genes, epigenetic marks, enhancer elements and non-coding RNAs.We apply a simple class-level testing framework, termed Genetic Class Association Testing (GenCAT, to identify protein-coding gene association with 14 cardiometabolic (CMD related traits across 6 publicly available genome wide association (GWA meta-analysis data resources. GenCAT uses SNP-level meta-analysis test statistics across all SNPs within a class of elements, as well as the size of the class and its unique correlation structure, to determine if the class is statistically meaningful. The novelty of findings is evaluated through investigation of regional signals. A subset of findings are validated using recently updated, larger meta-analysis resources. A simulation study is presented to characterize overall performance with respect to power, control of family-wise error and computational efficiency. All analysis is performed using the GenCAT package, R version 3.2.1.We demonstrate that class-level testing complements the common first stage minP approach that involves individual SNP-level testing followed by post-hoc ascribing of statistically significant SNPs to genes and loci. GenCAT suggests 54 protein-coding genes at 41 distinct loci for the 13 CMD traits investigated in the discovery analysis, that are beyond the discoveries of minP alone. An additional application to biological pathways demonstrates flexibility in defining genetic classes.We conclude that it would be prudent to include class-level testing as standard practice in GWA analysis. GenCAT, for example, can be used as a simple, complementary and efficient strategy for class-level testing that leverages existing data resources, requires only summary level data in the form of test statistics, and

  15. Brief implicit association test: Validity and utility in prediction of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Maša D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed the Brief Implicit Association Test (a recently developed short version of IAT to measure implicit political attitudes toward four political parties running for Serbian parliament. To test its criterion validity, we measured voting intention and actual voting behavior. In addition, we introduced political involvement as a potential moderator of the BIAT’s predictive and incremental validity. The BIAT demonstrated good internal and predictive validity, but lacked incremental validity over self-report measures. Predictive power of the BIAT was moderated by political involvement - the BIAT scores were stronger predictors of voting intention and behavior among voters highly involved in politics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  16. Time-of-day effects of exposure to solar radiation on thermoregulation during outdoor exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hidenori; Goto, Takayuki; Goto, Heita; Shirato, Minayuki

    2017-01-01

    High solar radiation has been recognised as a contributing factor to exertional heat-related illness in individuals exercising outdoors in the heat. Although solar radiation intensity has been known to have similar time-of-day variation as body temperature, the relationship between fluctuations in solar radiation associated with diurnal change in the angle of sunlight and thermoregulatory responses in individuals exercising outdoors in a hot environment remains largely unknown. The present study therefore investigated the time-of-day effects of variations in solar radiation associated with changing solar elevation angle on thermoregulatory responses during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat of summer. Eight healthy, high school baseball players, heat-acclimatised male volunteers completed a 3-h outdoor baseball trainings under the clear sky in the heat. The trainings were commenced at 0900 h in AM trial and at 1600 h in PM trial each on a separate day. Solar radiation and solar elevation angle during exercise continued to increase in AM (672-1107 W/m 2 and 44-69°) and decrease in PM (717-0 W/m 2 and 34-0°) and were higher on AM than on PM (both P  0.05). Tympanic temperature measured by an infrared tympanic thermometer and mean skin temperature were higher in AM than PM at 120 and 180 min (P  0.05). The current study demonstrates a greater thermoregulatory strain in the morning than in the afternoon resulting from a higher body temperature and heart rate in relation to an increase in environmental heat stress with rising solar radiation and solar elevation angle during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat. This response is associated with a lesser net heat loss at the skin and a greater body heat gain from the sun in the morning compared with the afternoon.

  17. Early Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Diagnosed with Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Molecular Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, a low grade B-cell lymphoma, arises in the lung it is referred to as bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT lymphoma. We describe a patient with a history of Sjögren’s syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis with dyspnea and imaging consistent with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP. However, while histology and immunohistochemistry lacked definitive features of a lymphoma, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH polymerase chain reaction testing demonstrated B-cell monoclonality, consistent with an early BALT lymphoma.

  18. Planning for outdoor play: Government and family decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, Julia J; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bundy, Anita C; Froude, Elspeth; Villeneuve, Michelle A

    2018-03-08

    Despite indisputable developmental benefits of outdoor play, children with disabilities can experience play inequity. Play decisions are multifactorial; influenced by children's skills and their familial and community environments. Government agencies have responsibilities for equity and inclusion of people with disabilities; including in play. This multiple-perspective case study aimed to understand outdoor play decision-making for children with disabilities from the perspectives and interactions of: local government and families of primary school-aged children with disabilities. Five mothers, four local government employees, and two not-for-profit organization representatives participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive and iterative analyzes involved first understanding perspectives of individuals, then stakeholders (local government and families), and finally similarities and differences through cross-case analysis. Local government focused more on physical access, than social inclusion. Local government met only minimal requirements and had little engagement with families. This resulted in poor understanding and action around family needs and preferences when designing public outdoor play spaces. To increase meaningful choice and participation in outdoor play, government understanding of family values and agency around engagement with local government needs to improve. Supporting familial collective capabilities requires understanding interactions between individuals, play, disability, and outdoor play environments.

  19. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

  20. Application of Item Response Theory to Tests of Substance-related Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Yusuke; Grenard, Jerry L.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    A substance-related word association test (WAT) is one of the commonly used indirect tests of substance-related implicit associative memory and has been shown to predict substance use. This study applied an item response theory (IRT) modeling approach to evaluate psychometric properties of the alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs and their items among 775 ethnically diverse at-risk adolescents. After examining the IRT assumptions, item fit, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender and age groups, the original 18 WAT items were reduced to 14- and 15-items in the alcohol- and marijuana-related WAT, respectively. Thereafter, unidimensional one- and two-parameter logistic models (1PL and 2PL models) were fitted to the revised WAT items. The results demonstrated that both alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs have good psychometric properties. These results were discussed in light of the framework of a unified concept of construct validity (Messick, 1975, 1989, 1995). PMID:25134051