WorldWideScience

Sample records for outdoor thermal environment

  1. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

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    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  2. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  3. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  4. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin

    2013-01-01

    the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses...... of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation....... The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect...

  5. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

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    Yoshihito Kurazumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach.

  6. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

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    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  7. Outdoor thermal comfort.

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    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  8. Proposition of Regression Equations to Determine Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Tropical and Humid Environment

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    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is about field experimentation in order to construct regression equations of perception of thermalcomfort for outdoor activities under hot and humid environment. Relationships between thermal-comfort perceptions, micro climate variables (temperatures and humidity and body parameters (activity, clothing, body measure have been observed and analyzed. 180 adults, men, and women participated as samples/respondents. This study is limited for situation where wind velocity is about 1 m/s, which touch the body of the respondents/samples. From questionnaires and field measurements, three regression equations have been developed, each for activity of normal walking, brisk walking, and sitting.

  9. Long-term perceptions of outdoor thermal environments in an elementary school in a hot-humid climate

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    Shih, Wen-Mei; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Tan, Ning-Xin; Liu, Mu-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on thermal comfort in school environments have focused more on indoor thermal environments than outdoor ones, thus providing a limited understanding of occupants' long-term thermal perceptions. Taiwan is located in a subtropical region, where it can be stiflingly hot outside in summer. This highlights the need to ensure proper thermal comfort on campus. In the present study, thermal environment parameters were measured and collected in several outdoor spaces of an elementary school in southern Taiwan. In addition, a questionnaire was used to explore occupants' long-term thermal perceptions of these spaces. During summer months, the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) of these outdoor spaces in over 60% of the daytime in summer between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. was higher than 38 °C PET, indicating high heat stress. The results of occupants' long-term perceptions of the thermal comfort of these spaces suggested that dissatisfaction with thermal comfort was associated more with solar radiation than with wind speed. Finally, this study simulated a campus environment where more trees are planted and compared the thermal comfort indices before and after the simulation. The results indicated that this solution contributed to a decrease in the PET of these environments, thereby alleviating high heat stress. This study can inform the improvement of microclimates and thermal comfort during campus layout planning. Planting trees judiciously across a campus increases outdoor shades and creates outdoor spaces that are more comfortable and adaptable to hot weather conditions, thereby ensuring frequent use of these spaces.

  10. Effects of a Green Space Layout on the Outdoor Thermal Environment at the Neighborhood Level

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    Chi-Ming Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to address the existing urban design needs and computer-aided thermal engineering and explore the optimal green space layout to obtain an acceptable thermal environment at the neighborhood scale through a series of building energy and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The building-energy analysis software eQUEST and weather database TMY2 were adopted to analyze the electric energy consumed by air conditioners and the analysis results were incorporated to derive the heat dissipated from air conditioners. Then, the PHOENICS CFD software was used to analyze how the green space layout influences outdoor thermal environment based on the heat dissipated from air conditioners and the solar heat reemitted from the built surfaces. The results show that a green space located in the center of this investigated area and at the far side of the downstream of a summer monsoon is the recommended layout. The layouts, with green space in the center, can decrease the highest temperature by 0.36 °C.

  11. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

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    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  12. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

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    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-07-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  13. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

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    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF 0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  14. Dynamic modeling of human thermal comfort after the transition from an indoor to an outdoor hot environment.

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    Katavoutas, George; Flocas, Helena A; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Thermal comfort under non-steady-state conditions primarily deals with rapid environmental transients and significant alterations of the meteorological conditions, activity, or clothing pattern within the time scale of some minutes. In such cases, thermal history plays an important role in respect to time, and thus, a dynamic approach is appropriate. The present study aims to investigate the dynamic thermal adaptation process of a human individual, after his transition from a typical indoor climate to an outdoor hot environment. Three scenarios of thermal transients have been considered for a range of hot outdoor environmental conditions, employing the dynamic two-node IMEM model. The differences among them concern the radiation field, the activity level, and the body position. The temporal pattern of body temperatures as well as the range of skin wettedness and of water loss have been investigated and compared among the scenarios and the environmental conditions considered. The structure and the temporal course of human energy fluxes as well as the identification of the contribution of body temperatures to energy fluxes have also been studied and compared. In general, the simulation results indicate that the response of a person, coming from the same neutral indoor climate, varies depending on the scenario followed by the individual while being outdoors. The combination of radiation field (shade or not) with the kind of activity (sitting or walking) and the outdoor conditions differentiates significantly the thermal state of the human body. Therefore, 75% of the skin wettedness values do not exceed the thermal comfort limit at rest for a sitting individual under the shade. This percentage decreases dramatically, less than 25%, under direct solar radiation and exceeds 75% for a walking person under direct solar radiation.

  15. Changes in Sunlight and Outdoor Thermal Environment Conditions Based on the Layout Plan of Flat Type Apartment Houses

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    Sukjin Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growths lead to population increases in large cities. This has brought about the growing necessity for apartment housing which has resulted in higher density populations living in high-rise apartment complexes. Therefore, the urban microclimate is aggravated due to the increasing ratio of artificial coverage and substandard daylight availability. To achieve a comfortable living environment and improve urban microclimates, a process considering the daylight availability and the outdoor thermal environment is required when designing apartment housing complexes. This study selected a total of 27 valid cases using an orthogonal array, L27(313 design of experiments (DOE. As a result of significance probability obtained in DOE analysis, the design factors that have an effect on the outdoor thermal environment and daylight availability were found to be building coverage ratio, distance between buildings, and azimuth. The rankings of the effect of design factors were shown to be in the order of azimuth > building coverage ratio > distance between buildings > floor area ratio > width/depth ratio. The surface temperature of the whole building decreased by 0.3 °C and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT decreased by 1.1 °C as a result of applying the greenery coverage ratio to apartment complexes. Heat Island Potential (HIP also showed a decrease of 5.4 °C (at noon.

  16. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in an Outdoor Urban Arid Environment: A Case Study

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    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect humans from heat stress risks, thermal comfort and heat stress potential were evaluated under arid environment, which had never been made for such climate. The thermal indices THI, WBGT, PET, and UTCI were used to evaluate thermal comfort and heat stress. RayMan software model was used to estimate the PET, and the UTCI calculator was used for UTCI. Dry and wet bulb temperatures (Td, Tw, natural wet bulb temperature (Tnw, and globe temperature (Tg were measured in a summer day to be used in the calculation. The results showed the following. (i The thermal sensation and heat stress levels can be evaluated by either the PET or UTCI scales, and both are valid for extremely high temperature in the arid environment. (ii In the comfort zone, around 75% of individuals would be satisfied with the surrounding environment and feel comfortable during the whole day. (iii Persons are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel uncomfortable most of the daytime in summer. (iv Heat fatigue is expected with prolonged exposure to sun light and activity. (v During the daytime, humans should schedule their activities according to the highest permissible values of the WBGT to avoid thermal shock.

  17. Design of outdoor urban spaces for thermal comfort

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    Harriet J. Plumley

    1977-01-01

    Microclimates in outdoor urban spaces may be modified by controlling the wind and radiant environments in these spaces. Design guidelines were developed to specify how radiant environments may be selected or modified to provide conditions for thermal comfort. Fanger's human-thermal-comfort model was used to determine comfortable levels of radiant-heat exchange for...

  18. Thermal Perception in the Mediterranean Area: Comparing the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI to Other Outdoor Thermal Comfort Indices

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    Iacopo Golasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor thermal comfort is an essential factor of people’s everyday life and deeply affects the habitability of outdoor spaces. However the indices used for its evaluation were usually developed for indoor environments assuming still air conditions and absence of solar radiation and were only later adapted to outdoor spaces. For this reason, in a previous study the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI was developed, which is an empirical index able to estimate the thermal perception of people living in the Mediterranean area. In this study it was compared numerically (by using the data obtained through a field survey with other selected thermal indices. This comparison, performed in terms of Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, association Gamma, percentage of correct predictions and cross-tabulation analysis, led to identify the MOCI as the most suitable index to examine outdoor thermal comfort in the interested area. As a matter of fact it showed a total percentage of correct predictions of 35.5%. Good performances were reported even in thermophysiological indices as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Moreover it was revealed that adaptation and acclimatization phenomena tend to have a certain influence as well.

  19. Changes in Sunlight and Outdoor Thermal Environment Conditions Based on the Layout Plan of Flat Type Apartment Houses

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    Jung, Sukjin; Yoon, Seonghwan

    2015-01-01

    Economic growths lead to population increases in large cities. This has brought about the growing necessity for apartment housing which has resulted in higher density populations living in high-rise apartment complexes. Therefore, the urban microclimate is aggravated due to the increasing ratio of artificial coverage and substandard daylight availability. To achieve a comfortable living environment and improve urban microclimates, a process considering the daylight availability and the outdo...

  20. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

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    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  1. Slam estimation in dynamic outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheyuan; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi; コ, シンテイ; ウチムラ, ケイイチ; 胡, 振程; 内村, 圭一

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different approaches to estimate simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in dynamic outdoor environments. SLAM has been intensively researched in recent years in the field of robotics and intelligent vehicles, many approaches have been proposed including occupancy grid mapping method (Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer and Fuzzy Logic), Localization estimation method (edge or point features based direct scan matching techniques, probabilistic likelihood, EK...

  2. Outdoor thermal comfort and behaviour in urban area

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    Inavonna, I.; Hardiman, G.; Purnomo, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor comfort is important due to the public spaces functions. Open spaces provide thermal comfort and a pleasant experience to improve the city life quality effectively. The influence of thermal comfort in outdoor activities is a complex problem. This paper presents a literature review and discussion of aspects of physical, psychology, and social behaviour toward outdoor thermal comfort. The valuation is determined not only by the “physical state” but also by the “state of mind”. The assessment is static and objective (i.e., physical and physiological characteristics) that it should be measured. Furthermore, an effective model to provide the knowledge of climatic conditions, as well as the dynamic and subjective aspects (i.e., psychological and social characteristics and behaviour), requires a comprehensive interview and observation. The model will be examined to describe the behaviour that is a reflection of perception and behaviour toward the environment. The adaptation process will constantly evolve so that it becomes a continuous cause between human behaviour and the spatial setting of the formation, which is eventually known as places and not just spaces. This evolutionary process is a civic art form.

  3. Refuge behaviour from outdoor thermal environmental stress and seasonal differences of thermal sense in tropical urban climate

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    Kurazumi, Y.; Ishii, J.; Fukagawa, K.; Kondo, E.; Aruninta, A.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal sensation affects body temperature regulation. As a starting point for behavioral body temperature regulation taken to improve from a poor thermal environment to a more pleasant environment, thermal sense of thermal environment stimulus is important. The poupose of this sutudy is to use the outdoor thermal environment evaluation index ETFe to quantify effects on thermal sensations of the human body of a tropical region climate with small annual temperature differences, and to examine seasonal differences in thermal sensation. It was found temperature preferences were lower in the winter season than in the dry season, and that a tolerance for higher temperatures in the dry season than in the winter season. It was found effects of seasonal differences of the thermal environment appear in quantitative changes in thermal sensations. It was found that effects of seasonal differences of the thermal environment do not greatly affect quantitative changes in thermal comfort.

  4. Outdoor human thermal perception in various climates: A comprehensive review of approaches, methods and quantification.

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    Potchter, Oded; Cohen, Pninit; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-08-01

    Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain. A comprehensive literature review identified 110 peer-reviewed articles which investigated in-situ thermal conditions versus subjective thermal perception during 2001-2017. It seems that out of 165 human thermal indices that have been developed, only 4 (PET, PMV, UTCI, SET*) are widely in use for outdoor thermal perception studies. Examination of the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions for selective indices in different climatic zones shows that the range of the thermal comfort or dis-comfort is affected by the outdoor thermal environment. For the PET index, the "neutral" range for hot climates of 24-26°C is agreed by 95% of the studies where for cold climate, the "neutral" range of 15-20°C is agreed by 89% of the studies. For the UTCI, the "no thermal stress" category is common to all climates. The "no stress category" of 16-23°C is agreed by 80% of the case studies, while 100% of the case studies agreed that the range is between 18 and 23°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

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    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  6. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

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    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  7. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  8. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

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    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  9. Outdoor thermal comfort in public space in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Arroyo, Ivette; Bengs, Christer

    2018-03-01

    The thermal environment outdoors affects human comfort and health. Mental and physical performance is reduced at high levels of air temperature being a problem especially in tropical climates. This paper deals with human comfort in the warm-humid city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The main aim was to examine the influence of urban micrometeorological conditions on people's subjective thermal perception and to compare it with two thermal comfort indices: the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the standard effective temperature (SET*). The outdoor thermal comfort was assessed through micrometeorological measurements of air temperature, humidity, mean radiant temperature and wind speed together with a questionnaire survey consisting of 544 interviews conducted in five public places of the city during both the dry and rainy seasons. The neutral and preferred values as well as the upper comfort limits of PET and SET* were determined. For both indices, the neutral values and upper thermal comfort limits were lower during the rainy season, whereas the preferred values were higher during the rainy season. Regardless of season, the neutral values of PET and SET* are above the theoretical neutral value of each index. The results show that local people accept thermal conditions which are above acceptable comfort limits in temperate climates and that the subjective thermal perception varies within a wide range. It is clear, however, that the majority of the people in Guayaquil experience the outdoor thermal environment during daytime as too warm, and therefore, it is important to promote an urban design which creates shade and ventilation.

  10. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  11. Terrain Mapping and Classification in Outdoor Environments Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Yukinobu Hata; Denis Fernando Wolf; Gustavo Pessin; Fernando Osório

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional terrain mapping and classification technique to allow the operation of mobile robots in outdoor environments using laser range finders. We propose the use of a multi-layer perceptron neural network to classify the terrain into navigable, partially navigable, and non-navigable. The maps generated by our approach can be used for path planning, navigation, and local obstacle avoidance. Experimental tests using an outdoor robot and a laser sensor demonstra...

  12. Human thermal comfort in urban outdoor spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee P. Herrington; J. S. Vittum

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the physical environment of urban open spaces in Syracuse, New York, were used to compute the physiological responses of human users of the spaces. These calculations were then used to determine what environmental variables were both important to human comfort and susceptible to control by site design. Although air temperature and humidity are important...

  13. Outdoor thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Current and future investors in photovoltaic systems are interested in how well the system performs, and how predictable this is over the expected lifetime. To do so, models have been developed and measurements of photovoltaic systems have been done. This dissertation presents the outdoor measurement set-up that has been developed for thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems, aimed at measuring transient effects and changes. The main design decisions and ...

  14. Built environment, parents' perception, and children's vigorous outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Grize, Leticia; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Sennhauser, Felix H; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the combined effects and relative importance of socio-cultural factors as well as parents' subjectively perceived and objectively assessed environment on time children spent vigorously playing outdoors. Cross-sectional study conducted in Berne, Biel-Bienne, and Payerne (Switzerland) during the school year 2004/2005. Included 1345 parental questionnaires from children out of three age groups (6/7, 9/10, and 13/14 years). A total of 1081 (80%) provided a home address, which could be linked to environmental data using a geographic information system (GIS). GIS-derived main street density in a buffer of 100 m around the home was inversely associated with time playing outdoors in adolescents and younger children, but only in more urbanized areas. In addition and independently of GIS-based main street density, parental concern about traffic safety was associated with less time playing outdoors in primary school children. Girls, adolescents, and children from the French speaking part of the country spent less time playing outdoors. A non-Swiss nationality and having younger siblings increased time playing vigorously outdoors in adolescents. In addition to socio-cultural factors, parents' perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors were significantly associated with the time spent vigorously playing outdoors. These associations differed by age group. Copyright (c) 2010 The Institute For Cancer Prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  16. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E; Drach, P; Broede, P

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  17. THERMAL ADAPTATION, CAMPUS GREENING AND OUTDOOR USE IN LAUTECH CAMPUS, OGBOMOSO, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Adeniran ADEDEJI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The interwoven relationship between the use of indoors and outdoors in the tropics as means of thermal adaptation has long been recognized. In the case of outdoors, this is achieved by green intervention of shading trees as adaptive mechanisms through behavioural thermoregulation. Unfortunately, the indoor academic spaces of LAUTECH campus was not provided with necessary outdoor academic learning environment in the general site planning of the campus for use at peak indoor thermal dissatisfaction period considering the tropical climatic setting of the university. The students’ departmental and faculty associations tried to provide parks for themselves as alternatives which on casual observation are of substandard quality and poorly maintained because of lack of institutional coordination and low funding. This study examined the quality and use of these parks for thermal comfort through behavioral adjustment from subjective field evidence with the goal of improvement. To achieve this, twelve parks were selected within the campus. Questionnaires containing use and quality variables were administered randomly upon 160 users of these parks. The data obtained was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Results show that the quality of the parks, weather condition, period of the day, and personal psychological reasons of users has great influence on the use of the parks. The study concludes with policy recommendations on improvement of the quality of the parks and the campus outdoors and greenery in general.

  18. Planetariums as a Source of Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyma, Aksu; Umdu Topsakal, Ünsal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to study the effect of using planetariums as an outdoor learning environment regarding students' opinions. Therefore, descriptive qualitative research was used. The participants were from a school in Istanbul. Ten students, 4 male and 6 female, participated in a planetarium visit to a museum. The data of the study were…

  19. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  20. Radon concentration in outdoor occupational environments in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sakurai, N.; Inaba, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration in outdoor workplaces were measured in Aomori Prefecture, Japan as a part of a program on measurement of natural radiation background dose to people in the prefecture where Japan's first nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction. 222 Rn concentrations were measured in 116 outdoor workplaces by passive Rn detectors for 10 months, which represented agricultural, forestry, fishery and construction/transportation workplaces. The 222 Rn concentrations in outdoor workplaces were generally lower than those in indoor environments. The dose to workers was estimated by using the results of the passive detectors as well as diurnal variation of 222 Rn and equilibrium factor measured with active-type detectors. The average dose from 222 Rn and its progenies to people in Aomori Prefecture was estimated as 0.39 mSv x y -1 based on the obtained results and results in indoor environments. The contribution of 222 Rn in outdoor workplaces to the total dose was 3.3% because of low occupancy ratio. (author)

  1. Screening the working environment in outdoor pig systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Q; Torén, A; Salomon, E

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated how well organic growing-fattening pig systems provided a safe and healthy working environment and identified areas where improvements are needed. The study formed part of a larger project aimed at identifying strategies for creating a good animal and working environment and resource-efficient nutrient management in outdoor pig systems. Field studies were carried out at six Swedish farms in two types of outdoor pig systems (mobile and stationary). A method known as WEST (Work Environment Screening Tool) and a modified version of WEST, called WEST-agriculture (WEST-AG), were utilized for screening. Together, the two methods covered six factors of the working environment. The results were expressed in WEST-AG points and WEST points, an economic measure of the risk of impacts on health and productivity expressed as Swedish Krona (SEK) per thousand working hours. The results demonstrated that the risk of injury and ergonomic load during manual feeding and watering was much higher than during semi-automatic feeding and watering at farms with the mobile system. The study also identified other health-risk areas and provided valuable information for further improvement of the working environment in different outdoor pig systems.

  2. Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    2010-07-01

    In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.

  3. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar

    2015-05-01

    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration.

  4. Air ion concentrations in various urban outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xuan; Jayaratne, Rohan; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-06-01

    Atmospheric ions are produced by many natural and anthropogenic sources and their concentrations vary widely between different environments. There is very little information on their concentrations in different types of urban environments, how they compare across these environments and their dominant sources. In this study, we measured airborne concentrations of small ions, particles and net particle charge at 32 different outdoor sites in and around a major city in Australia and identified the main ion sources. Sites were classified into seven groups as follows: park, woodland, city centre, residential, freeway, power lines and power substation. Generally, parks were situated away from ion sources and represented the urban background value of about 270 ions cm -3. Median concentrations at all other groups were significantly higher than in the parks. We show that motor vehicles and power transmission systems are two major ion sources in urban areas. Power lines and substations constituted strong unipolar sources, while motor vehicle exhaust constituted strong bipolar sources. The small ion concentration in urban residential areas was about 960 cm -3. At sites where ion sources were co-located with particle sources, ion concentrations were inhibited due to the ion-particle attachment process. These results improved our understanding on air ion distribution and its interaction with particles in the urban outdoor environment.

  5. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sandboxes, Loose Parts, and Playground Equipment: A Descriptive Exploration of Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather; Smith, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine outdoor environments to understand whether or not young children had access to play materials and loose parts to enhance their playful experiences. This study sought to gather the availability of SAFE and quality play opportunities in early childhood outdoor environments. The study took place in one state of…

  7. Does spending time outdoors reduce stress? A review of real-time stress response to outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Sara F. Jacoby; Eugenia C. South

    2018-01-01

    Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review...

  8. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  9. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  10. Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Lenzholzer, S.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine

  11. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Nazhatulzalkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.

  12. Prediction and reduction of aircraft noise in outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Bao N.

    absorption mechanism due to the source's motion. To help mitigate the noise that propagates to the ground, multi-layered acoustic treatments can be applied to provide good performance over a wide range of frequencies. An accurate representation of material properties for each of the constituent layers is needed in the design of such treatments. The parameter of interest is the specific acoustic impedance, which can be obtained via inversion of acoustic transfer function measurements. However, several different impedance values can correspond to the same sound field predictions. The boundary loss factor F (associated with spherical wave reflection) is the source of this ambiguity. A method for identifying the family of solutions and selecting the physically meaningful branch is proposed to resolve this non-uniqueness issue. Accurate deduction of the acoustic impedance depends on precise measurements of the acoustic transfer function. However, measurement uncertainties exists in both the magnitude and the phase of the acoustic transfer function. The ASA/ANSI S1.18 standard impedance deduction method uses phase information, which can be unreliable in many outdoor environments. An improved technique which only relies on magnitude information is developed in this dissertation. A selection of optimal geometries become necessary to reduce the sensitivity of the deduced impedance to small variations in the measured data. A graphical approach is provided which offers greater insight into the optimization problem. A downhill simplex algorithm has been implemented to automate the impedance deduction procedure. Physical constraints are applied to limit the search region and to eliminate rogue solutions. Several case studies consisting of both indoor and outdoor acoustical measurements are presented to validate the proposed technique. The current analysis is limited to locally reacting materials where the acoustic impedance does not depend on the incidence angle of the reflected wave.

  13. The quality of the outdoor environment influences childrens health -- a cross-sectional study of preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, M; Boldemann, C; Sahlin, U; Mårtensson, F; Raustorp, A; Blennow, M

    2013-01-01

    To test how the quality of the outdoor environment of child day care centres (DCCs) influences children's health. The environment was assessed using the Outdoor Play Environmental Categories (OPEC) tool, time spent outdoors and physical activity as measured by pedometer. 172/253 (68%) of children aged 3.0-5.9 from nine DCCs participated in Southern Sweden. Health data collected were body mass index, waist circumference, saliva cortisol, length of night sleep during study, and symptoms and well-being which were scored (1-week diary - 121 parent responders). Also, parent-rated well-being and health of their child were scored (questionnaire, 132 parent responders). MANOVA, ANOVA and principal component analyses were performed to identify impacts of the outdoor environment on health. High-quality outdoor environment at DCCs is associated with several health aspects in children such as leaner body, longer night sleep, better well-being and higher mid-morning saliva cortisol levels. The quality of the outdoor environment at DCCs influenced the health and well-being of preschool children and should be given more attention among health care professionals and community planners. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Occupant Time Period of Thermal Adaption to Change of Outdoor Air Temperature in Naturally Ventilated Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Wargocki, Pawel; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present work proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption of occupants in naturally ventilated building, based on the relationship between their neutral temperatures and running mean outdoor air temperature. Based on the data of the field investigation, the subjects’ time...

  15. Outdoor thermal physiology along human pathways: a study using a wearable measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayoshi, Makoto; Kanda, Manabu; Shi, Rui; de Dear, Richard

    2015-05-01

    An outdoor summer study on thermal physiology along subjects' pathways was conducted in a Japanese city using a unique wearable measurement system that measures all the relevant thermal variables: ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed ( U) and short/long-wave radiation ( S and L), along with some physio-psychological parameters: skin temperature ( T skin), pulse rate, subjective thermal sensation and state of body motion. U, S and L were measured using a globe anemo-radiometer adapted use with pedestrian subjects. The subjects were 26 healthy Japanese adults (14 males, 12 females) ranging from 23 to 74 years in age. Each subject wore a set of instruments that recorded individual microclimate and physiological responses along a designated pedestrian route that traversed various urban textures. The subjects experienced varying thermal environments that could not be represented by fixed-point routine observational data. S fluctuated significantly reflecting the mixture of sunlit/shade distributions within complex urban morphology. U was generally low within urban canyons due to drag by urban obstacles such as buildings but the subjects' movements enhanced convective heat exchanges with the atmosphere, leading to a drop in T skin. The amount of sweating increased as standard effective temperature (SET*) increased. A clear dependence of sweating on gender and body size was found; males sweated more than females; overweight subjects sweated more than standard/underweight subjects. T skin had a linear relationship with SET* and a similarly clear dependence on gender and body size differences. T skin of the higher-sweating groups was lower than that of the lower-sweating groups, reflecting differences in evaporative cooling by perspiration.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation on thermal management of an outdoor battery cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X.Z.; Lu, Z.; Jin, L.W.; Zhang, L.Y.; Hu, W.Y.; Wei, L.C.; Chai, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of electronic equipment such as battery packs and telecom equipment must be stored in harsh outdoor environment. It is essential that these facilities be protected from a wide range of ambient temperatures and solar radiation. Temperature extremes greatly reduce lead-acid based battery performance and shorten battery life. Therefore, it is important to maintain the cabinet temperature within the optimal values between 20 °C and 30 °C to ensure battery stability and to extend battery lifespan. To this end, cabinet enclosures with proper thermal management have been developed to house such electronic equipment in a highly weather tight manner, especially for battery cabinet. In this paper, the flow field and temperature distribution inside an outdoor cabinet are studied experimentally and numerically. The battery cabinets house 24 batteries in two configurations namely, two-layer configuration and six-layer configuration respectively. The cabinet walls are maintained at a constant temperature by a refrigeration system. The cabinet's ability to protect the batteries from an ambient temperature as high as 50 °C is studied. An experimental facility is developed to measure the battery surface temperatures and to validate the numerical simulations. The differences between the experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) results are within 5%. - Highlights: • Battery placement has significant effect on temperature field in battery cabinet. • The six-layer configuration achieves better temperature uniformity. • Internal air circulation depends on battery configuration. • Natural convection could be an effective solution satisfying safety concerns.

  17. Effect of long-term acclimatization on summer thermal comfort in outdoor spaces: a comparative study between Melbourne and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun

    2018-04-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is an index for assessing outdoor thermal environment which aims to be applicable universally to different climates. However, the scale of UTCI thermal stress classification can be interpreted depending on the context. Previous studies validated the UTCI in individual cities, but comparative studies between different cities are scarce. This study examines the differences in thermal perception and clothing choices between residents from two climate zones over similar UTCI ranges in summer. We compared summer thermal comfort survey data from Melbourne (n = 2162, January-February 2014) and Hong Kong (n = 414, July-August 2007). We calculated the UTCI from outdoor weather station data and used t tests to compare the differences in thermal sensation and clothing between Hong Kong and Melbourne residents. When the UTCI was between 23.0 and 45.9 °C, Melbourne residents wore significantly more clothing (0.1 clo) than Hong Kong residents. Hong Kong residents reported neutral to warm sensation at a higher UTCI range compared with the dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. Moreover, Melbourne residents reported warm and hot sensation at a higher UTCI range than the DTS model. Respondents in Melbourne also exhibited different responses to the mean radiant temperature under shaded and sunny conditions, while such a trend was not observed in Hong Kong. It would be advisable to define different thermal sensation thresholds for the UTCI scale according to different climate zones for better prediction of the outdoor thermal comfort of different urban populations.

  18. Dataset on daytime outdoor thermal comfort for Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Simone Queiroz da Silveira; Assis, Eleonora Sad de; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2016-12-01

    This dataset describe microclimatic parameters of two urban open public spaces in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil; physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index values and the related subjective responses of interviewees regarding thermal sensation perception and preference and thermal comfort evaluation. Individuals and behavioral characteristics of respondents were also presented. Data were collected at daytime, in summer and winter, 2013. Statistical treatment of this data was firstly presented in a PhD Thesis ("Percepção sonora e térmica e avaliação de conforto em espaços urbanos abertos do município de Belo Horizonte - MG, Brasil" (Hirashima, 2014) [1]), providing relevant information on thermal conditions in these locations and on thermal comfort assessment. Up to now, this data was also explored in the article "Daytime Thermal Comfort in Urban Spaces: A Field Study in Brazil" (Hirashima et al., in press) [2]. These references are recommended for further interpretation and discussion.

  19. The relationship between perceived health and physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and outdoors in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-11-01

    A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and public health. National survey data (n = 2,070) from Finland was analysed using structural regression analyses. Perceived general health, emotional well-being, and sleep quality were regressed on the weekly frequency of physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and in nature. Socioeconomic factors and other plausible confounders were controlled for. Emotional well-being showed the most consistent positive connection to physical activity in nature, whereas general health was positively associated with physical activity in both built and natural outdoor settings. Better sleep quality was weakly connected to frequent physical activity in nature, but the connection was outweighed by other factors. The results indicate that nature provides an added value to the known benefits of physical activity. Repeated exercise in nature is, in particular, connected to better emotional well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  20. Natural radioactivity in the Dutch outdoor environment. The explanation of uncomprehended variations in the background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands and many other countries research in the field of natural radioactivity is focused on the prevention of radon in the indoor environment. However, also the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the outdoor environment is an interesting subject to be studied. The natural background radiation in the outdoor environment, in particular its variations, hinders the verification of radiation level standards, caused by human activities. An analysis of the data of the Dutch National Monitoring Network for Radioactivity (LMR) provided more insight into those variations. This article is a summary of the authors' thesis on the subject. 5 figs., 8 refs

  1. Application of computational fluid dynamics in building performance simulation for the outdoor environment: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Stathopoulos, T.; Carmeliet, J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the application of CFD in building performance simulation for the outdoor environment, focused on four topics: (1) pedestrian wind environment around buildings, (2) wind-driven rain on building facades, (3) convective heat transfer coefficients at exterior building

  2. OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS AT CRISIS SHELTERS: User Needs and Preferences with Respect to Design and Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Lygum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify implications for the design of outdoor environments at crisis shelters for women and children survivors of domestic violence. To address this aim, landscape analyses and interviews with staff were conducted at three Danish cases. The findings are presented in descriptions of the three cases in terms of the number of residents, context, building type and the characteristics of outdoor environments. Furthermore, a thematic content analysis of the interviews resulted in five categories that offer a nuanced insight into how the different types of outdoor environments support crisis shelter functions. The categories are: Protection against perpetrators of violence and helping residents to feel safe; Accessibility in the design, straightforward activities and staff guidance; Being outside and the positive distractions of nature; Space for all; Room to play and relieve children’s feelings. Finally, the findings were summarized to give an overview of implications for design.

  3. Robustness of Visual Place Cells in Dynamic Indoor and Outdoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giovannangeli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model of visual place cells (PCs based on precise neurobiological data is presented. The robustness of the model in real indoor and outdoor environments is tested. Results show that the interplay between neurobiological modelling and robotic experiments can promote the understanding of the neural structures and the achievement of robust robot navigation algorithms. Short Term Memory (STM, soft competition and sparse coding are important for both landmark identification and computation of PC activities. The extension of the paradigm to outdoor environments has confirmed the robustness of the vision-based model and pointed to improvements in order to further foster its performance.

  4. Outdoor-indoor air pollution in urban environment: Challenges and opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Y.C. eLeung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continual improvement in our quality of life, indoor air quality has become an important area of concern in the 21st century. Indoor air quality is affected by many factors including the type and running conditions of indoor pollution sources, ventilation conditions, as well as indoor activities. Studies revealed that the outdoor environment is also an important factor that cannot be neglected for indoor air quality studies. In this review, the indoor and outdoor air pollution relationships obtained from different studies are discussed in order to identify the key factors affecting the indoor air quality. As climate change is recognized as imposing impacts on the environment, how it affects the indoor air quality and the health impacts to the occupants will be evaluated in this paper. The major challenges and opportunities in indoor/outdoor air pollution studies will be highlighted.

  5. Effect of urban design on microclimate and thermal comfort outdoors in warm-humid Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Johansson, Erik; Thorsson, Sofia; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Maria Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Due to the complexity of built environment, urban design patterns considerably affect the microclimate and outdoor thermal comfort in a given urban morphology. Variables such as building heights and orientations, spaces between buildings, plot coverage alter solar access, wind speed and direction at street level. To improve microclimate and comfort conditions urban design elements including vegetation and shading devices can be used. In warm-humid Dar es Salaam, the climate consideration in urban design has received little attention although the urban planning authorities try to develop the quality of planning and design. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between urban design, urban microclimate, and outdoor comfort in four built-up areas with different morphologies including low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. The study mainly concentrates on the warm season but a comparison with the thermal comfort conditions in the cool season is made for one of the areas. Air temperature, wind speed, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) are simulated using ENVI-met to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the existing urban design. An analysis of the distribution of MRT in the areas showed that the area with low-rise buildings had the highest frequency of high MRTs and the lowest frequency of low MRTs. The study illustrates that areas with low-rise buildings lead to more stressful urban spaces than areas with high-rise buildings. It is also shown that the use of dense trees helps to enhance the thermal comfort conditions, i.e., reduce heat stress. However, vegetation might negatively affect the wind ventilation. Nevertheless, a sensitivity analysis shows that the provision of shade is a more efficient way to reduce PET than increases in wind speed, given the prevailing sun and wind conditions in Dar es Salaam. To mitigate heat stress in Dar es Salaam, a set of recommendations and guidelines on

  6. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  7. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  8. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort—a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  9. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort-a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  10. Clinical use of sensory gardens and outdoor environments in norwegian nursing homes: a cross-sectional e-mail survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Kirkevold, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Gardens and outdoor environments offer multiple therapeutic possibilities for the residents in nursing homes. Web-based questionnaires were sent to 488 nursing home leaders and 121 leaders responded. The clinical impressions of the leaders and staff regarding the benefits of sensory gardens (SGs) to the residents were consistent with previous research. SGs facilitated taking residents outdoors, offered convenient topics for communication and facilitated social privacy for relatives. For improved clinical use of SGs and outdoor environments, systematic assessment of residents' interests, performance and experiences when outdoors, implementation of seasonal clinical programmes and educational programmes for leaders and staff are recommended.

  11. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Boev, Blazo [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Zunic, Zora S. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' ' Vinca' ' , Belgrade (Serbia); Ivanova, Kremena; Tsenova, Martina [National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ristova, Mimoza [University in Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematic, Institute of Physics, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Ajka, Sorsa [Croatian Geological Survey, Zagreb (Croatia); Bossew, Peter [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m{sup 3} for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported. (orig.)

  12. The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Brown, Daniel K; Wood, Carly; Sandercock, Gavin R; Barton, Jo L

    2013-01-03

    The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review considers the declining levels of physical activity, particularly in the Western world, and how the environment may help motivate and facilitate physical activity. It also addresses the additional physiological and mental health benefits that appear to occur when exercise is performed in an outdoor environment. However, people's connectedness to nature appears to be changing and this has important implications as to how humans are now interacting with nature. Barriers exist, and it is important that these are considered when discussing how to make exercise in the outdoors accessible and beneficial for all. The synergistic combination of exercise and exposure to nature and thus the 'great outdoors' could be used as a powerful tool to help fight the growing incidence of both physical inactivity and non-communicable disease.

  13. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  14. Implications of climate and outdoor thermal comfort on tourism: the case of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Ferdinando; Golasi, Iacopo; Proietti, Riccardo; de Lieto Vollaro, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Whether a journey is pleasant or not usually depends on the climatic conditions which permit to perform outdoor activities. The perception of climatic conditions, determined by physiological and psychological factors, can vary according to different adaptation phenomena related to the person involved and the weather conditions of the place where they live. Studying the bioclimatology of a country characterized by a high flux of tourism, as e.g. Italy, can provide some important information about where and when is it better to visit a place. Some differences have to be specified though, like the local tourism, which is used to that type of climate, and international tourism, which is formed by people coming from countries with different types of climates. Therefore this paper examined the climatic conditions and outdoor thermal comfort through the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI) for local tourism and through the predicted mean vote (PMV) for international tourism. The cities examined were three (Venice, Rome and Palermo located in the North, Centre and South of Italy, respectively), where average information were collected every week for an entire year. Finally, a map of the entire Italian territory reporting the seasonal average values of these indexes was also reported.

  15. Implications of climate and outdoor thermal comfort on tourism: the case of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Ferdinando; Golasi, Iacopo; Proietti, Riccardo; de Lieto Vollaro, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Whether a journey is pleasant or not usually depends on the climatic conditions which permit to perform outdoor activities. The perception of climatic conditions, determined by physiological and psychological factors, can vary according to different adaptation phenomena related to the person involved and the weather conditions of the place where they live. Studying the bioclimatology of a country characterized by a high flux of tourism, as e.g. Italy, can provide some important information about where and when is it better to visit a place. Some differences have to be specified though, like the local tourism, which is used to that type of climate, and international tourism, which is formed by people coming from countries with different types of climates. Therefore this paper examined the climatic conditions and outdoor thermal comfort through the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI) for local tourism and through the predicted mean vote (PMV) for international tourism. The cities examined were three (Venice, Rome and Palermo located in the North, Centre and South of Italy, respectively), where average information were collected every week for an entire year. Finally, a map of the entire Italian territory reporting the seasonal average values of these indexes was also reported.

  16. Effect of long-term acclimatization on summer thermal comfort in outdoor spaces: a comparative study between Melbourne and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun

    2018-04-12

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is an index for assessing outdoor thermal environment which aims to be applicable universally to different climates. However, the scale of UTCI thermal stress classification can be interpreted depending on the context. Previous studies validated the UTCI in individual cities, but comparative studies between different cities are scarce. This study examines the differences in thermal perception and clothing choices between residents from two climate zones over similar UTCI ranges in summer. We compared summer thermal comfort survey data from Melbourne (n = 2162, January-February 2014) and Hong Kong (n = 414, July-August 2007). We calculated the UTCI from outdoor weather station data and used t tests to compare the differences in thermal sensation and clothing between Hong Kong and Melbourne residents. When the UTCI was between 23.0 and 45.9 °C, Melbourne residents wore significantly more clothing (0.1 clo) than Hong Kong residents. Hong Kong residents reported neutral to warm sensation at a higher UTCI range compared with the dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. Moreover, Melbourne residents reported warm and hot sensation at a higher UTCI range than the DTS model. Respondents in Melbourne also exhibited different responses to the mean radiant temperature under shaded and sunny conditions, while such a trend was not observed in Hong Kong. It would be advisable to define different thermal sensation thresholds for the UTCI scale according to different climate zones for better prediction of the outdoor thermal comfort of different urban populations.

  17. Monitoring and assessment of the outdoor thermal comfort in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Ciobotaru, Ana-Maria; Andronache, Ion; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Bucharest is one of the European cities most at risk of being affected by meteorological hazards. Heat or cold waves, extreme temperature events, heavy rains or prolonged precipitation deficits are all-season phenomena, triggering damages, discomfort or even casualties. Temperature hazards may occur annually and challenge equally the public, local business and administration to find adequate solutions for securing the thermal comfort in the outdoor environment of the city. The accurate and fine resolution monitoring of the air temperature pledges for the comprehensive assessment of the thermal comfort in order to capture as much as possible the urban influence. This study uses sub-hourly temperature data (10-min temporal resolution) retrieved over the period November 2014 - November 2016 collected from nine sensors placed either in plain urban conditions or within the three meteorological stations of the national network which are currently monitoring the climate of Bucharest (Băneasa, Filaret, Afumați). The relative humidity was estimated based on the data available at the three stations placed in WMO standard conditions, and the 10-min values of 8 Thermal Comfort Indices were computed, namely: Heat Index, Humidex, Relative Strain Index, Scharlau, Summer Simmer Index, Physiological Equivalent Index, Temperature-Humidity Index, Thom Discomfort Index. The indices were analysed statistically, both individually and combined. Despite the short range of the available data, this study emphasizes clear spatial differentiations of the thermal comfort, in a very good agreement with the land cover and built zones of the city, while important variations were found in the temporal regime, due to large variations of the temperature values (e.g. >4 centigrade between consecutive hours or >15 centigrade between consecutive days). Ultimately, this study has revealed that the continuous monitoring of the urban climate, at fine temporal and spatial resolution, may deliver

  18. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  19. Resolving the influential parameters of thermal comfort perception amidst indoor-outdoor spatial transitions: Case study in a lecture room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.T.H.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Mishra, A.K.; Kort, H.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Indoor to outdoor transitions have an undeniable impact on thermal perception of occupants and can impact their evaluation of a building. These aspects are often overlooked in thermal comfort standards. We address this gap using a mixed methods study, with students in undergraduate level classrooms

  20. Adapting Speech Recognition in Augmented Reality for Mobile Devices in Outdoor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Pascoal, Rui; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Batista, Fernando; de Almeida, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the process of integrating automatic speech recognition (ASR) into a mobile application and explores the benefits and challenges of integrating speech with augmented reality (AR) in outdoor environments. The augmented reality allows end-users to interact with the information displayed and perform tasks, while increasing the user’s perception about the real world by adding virtual information to it. Speech is the most natural way of communication: it allows hands-free inte...

  1. Concept mapping applied to the intersection between older adults' outdoor walking and the built and social environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heather M; Schiller, Claire; Winters, Meghan; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Clarke, Philippa; Curran, Eileen; Donaldson, Meghan G; Pitman, Beverley; Scott, Vicky; McKay, Heather A; Ashe, Maureen C

    2013-12-01

    For older adults, the ability to navigate walking routes in the outdoor environment allows them to remain active and socially engaged, facilitating community participation and independence. In order to enhance outdoor walking, it is important to understand the interaction of older adults within their local environments and the influence of broader stakeholder priorities that impact these environments. Thus, we aimed to synthesize perspectives from stakeholders to identify elements of the built and social environments that influence older adults' ability to walk outdoors. We applied a concept mapping approach with the input of diverse stakeholders (N=75) from British Columbia, Canada in 2012. A seven-cluster map best represented areas that influence older adults' outdoor walking. Priority areas identified included sidewalks, crosswalks, and neighborhood features. Individual perceptions and elements of the built and social environments intersect to influence walking behaviors, although targeted studies that address this area are needed. © 2013.

  2. Dynamic simulation and thermo-economic analysis of a PhotoVoltaic/Thermal collector heating system for an indoor–outdoor swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; De Luca, Giuseppina; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV/T heating system for indoor–outdoor swimming pools is proposed. • A comparison among some thermal pool models available in literature is carried out. • Dynamic simulations of the thermal behavior of the swimming-pools are performed. • PV/T thermal energy is used to heat the swimming pool and for DHW production. • Energy and economic parametric analyses of the proposed system are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of an innovative renewable energy plant serving an existing indoor/outdoor swimming pool located in Naples. The proposed solar hybrid system is designed in order to balance the remarkable energy demand of the swimming pool facility and to ensure suitable comfort conditions for swimmers. With the aim to accomplish such goals, the dynamic thermal behavior of the swimming pool was analyzed as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the indoor space and on the meteorological conditions of the pool site. In order to properly design and size the proposed renewable energy system, different thermal pool loss formulations for the calculation of the swimming pool thermal balance, in indoor and outdoor regimes, are adopted. The solar hybrid system consists of a water cooled photovoltaic/thermal collectors plant (PV/T), designed to meet a part of the facility demands of electricity and heat. Electricity is completely utilized by the facility, while the produced thermal energy is primarily used to meet the pool thermal demand and secondarily for sanitary hot water scopes. In order to carry out dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses, the system performance is designed and dynamically simulated in TRNSYS environment. The developed simulation model enables the calculation of both the indoor and outdoor swimming pool thermal losses and the overall energy and economic system performance. Such results are obtained as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the environment, of the occupants and the

  3. Comparison of Methods of Sampling for Toxocara Species and Fecal Coliforms in an Outdoor Day Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carabin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare three sampling methods and to pretest methods for the determination of fecal coliform (FC counts and Toxocara species from sand in the day care outdoor environment.

  4. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  5. An Influence of Outdoor Recreation Participants’ Perceived Restorative Environment on Wellness Effect, Satisfaction and Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jin-OK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years in Korea, the participants in outdoor recreation have significantly increased, and relevant industries have also shown a great growth. This phenomenon is to pursue outdoor recreation based on nature as a way of maintaining healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to explore how perceived restorative environment influences wellness, satisfaction, and loyalty by researching climbers in the National Park. The data were collected at four times only on weekends from 12th July to 20th July 2014 at the entrance of Mt. Dobong in Mt. Bukhand National Park in Seoul. Researchers selected every 5th visitors with systematic sampling. Out of 420 collected questionnaires, except from 20 questionnaires which include unanswered items, 400 questionnaires were used for empirical analysis. The result of the analysis by using SEM shows that perceived restorative environment has a critical influence on wellness, and this wellness also affects satisfaction and loyalty. This result of the research provides a useful insight into how policy makers and practitioners in the National Parks, urban parks and Ministry of Health and Welfare develop the places for outdoor recreation based on nature in order to pursue wellness as a way of the improvement of the public health.

  6. Localization of Outdoor Mobile Robots Using Curb Features in Urban Road Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsuk Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban road environments that have pavement and curb are characterized as semistructured road environments. In semistructured road environments, the curb provides useful information for robot navigation. In this paper, we present a practical localization method for outdoor mobile robots using the curb features in semistructured road environments. The curb features are especially useful in urban environment, where the GPS failures take place frequently. A curb extraction is conducted on the basis of the Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA to minimize false detection. We adopt the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF to combine the curb information with odometry and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS. The uncertainty models for the sensors are quantitatively analyzed to provide a practical solution.

  7. Examining the interaction between food outlets and outdoor food advertisements with primary school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Pearce, Jamie; Day, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Schools are commonly seen as a site of intervention to improve children's nutrition, and prevent excess weight gain. Schools may have limited influence over children's diets; however, with home and community environments also exerting an influence within schools. This study considered the environment of food outlets and outdoor food advertisements surrounding four case study primary schools in New Zealand, and the impact of that external environment on within-school food environments. The shortest travel route between school and home addresses, and the number of food outlets and advertisements passed on that route, was calculated for each student. Interviews with school management were conducted. The schools with a higher percentage of students passing food outlets and advertisements considered that their presence impacted on efforts within schools to improve the food environment. Limiting students' exposure to food outlets and outdoor food adverts through travel route planning, reducing advertising, or limiting the location of food outlets surrounding schools could be explored as intervention options to support schools in promoting nutrition.

  8. Evaluation of outdoor human thermal sensation of local climate zones based on long-term database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, János; Skarbit, Nóra; Gál, Tamás

    2018-02-01

    This study gives a comprehensive picture on the diurnal and seasonal general outdoor human thermal sensation levels in different urban quarters based on long-term (almost 3 years) data series from urban and rural areas of Szeged, Hungary. It is supplemented with a case study dealing with an extreme heat wave period which is more and more frequent in the last decades in the study area. The intra-urban comparison is based on a thermal aspect classification of the surface, namely, the local climate zone (LCZ) system, on an urban meteorological station network and on the utilization of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) comfort index with categories calibrated to the local population. The selected stations represent sunlit areas well inside the LCZ areas. The results show that the seasonal and annual average magnitudes of the thermal load exerted by LCZs in the afternoon and evening follow their LCZ numbers. It is perfectly in line with the LCZ concept originally concentrating only on air temperature ( T air) differences between the zones. Our results justified the subdivision of urban areas into LCZs and give significant support to the application possibilities of the LCZ concept as a broader term covering different thermal phenomena.

  9. Approaches to Outdoor Thermal Comfort Thresholds through Public Space Design: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Santos Nouri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Köppen Geiger (KG classification system, this review article examines existing studies and projects that have endeavoured to address local outdoor thermal comfort thresholds through Public Space Design (PSD. The review is divided into two sequential stages, whereby (1 overall existing approaches to pedestrian thermal comfort thresholds are reviewed within both quantitative and qualitative spectrums; and (2 the different techniques and measures are reviewed and framed into four Measure Review Frameworks (MRFs, in which each type of PSD measure is presented alongside its respective local scale urban specificities/conditions and their resulting thermal attenuation outcomes. The result of this review article is the assessment of how current practices of PSD within three specific subcategories of the KG ‘Temperate’ group have addressed microclimatic aggravations such as elevated urban temperatures and Urban Heat Island (UHI effects. Based upon a bottom-up approach, the interdisciplinary practice of PSD is hence approached as a means to address existing and future thermal risk factors within the urban public realm in an era of potential climate change.

  10. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  12. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  13. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Rinaldi, Kévin; Briki, Walid; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions. Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol) beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature) (28.7°C±0. 5°C), Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C) or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C). Trial time, core temperature (Tco), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were assessed. Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol. A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone). Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE) between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  14. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  15. Restorative green outdoor environments at acute care hospitals - case studies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Shukor, Shureen Faris Binti

    The PhD thesis is based on research which was conducted between 2009 and 2012. It deals with green outdoor environments (GOEs) at acute care hospitals in the capital region of Denmark. The aim of this PhD study is to gain deeper knowledge about the design and use of GOEs which supports mental...... the buildings. The majority of users are satisfied with the existing GOEs and the results gained from the PRS indicate that they regard the GOEs as having potential for mental restoration. The important contributions of this PhD study are that it highlights the importance of having GOE at acute care hospitals...

  16. Outdoor air pollution, family and neighborhood environment, and asthma in LA FANS children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Qian, Lei; Ritz, Beate

    2009-03-01

    We examined associations between outdoor air pollution and childhood asthma, using measures of SES, neighborhood quality, and social support from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LA FANS). We linked residential census tracts for 3114 children to government air monitoring stations and estimated average pollutant concentrations for the year before interview. CO and NO(2) levels increased and O(3) levels decreased as neighborhood quality decreased, yet correlations were low. Pollutant levels were not correlated with neighborhood support. Even after adjustment for social environment characteristics, LA FANS children living in high O(3), PM(10), and CO areas appeared to have worse asthma morbidity.

  17. Estimated work ability in warm outdoor environments depends on the chosen heat stress assessment metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Fiala, Dusan; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2018-03-01

    With a view to occupational effects of climate change, we performed a simulation study on the influence of different heat stress assessment metrics on estimated workability (WA) of labour in warm outdoor environments. Whole-day shifts with varying workloads were simulated using as input meteorological records for the hottest month from four cities with prevailing hot (Dallas, New Delhi) or warm-humid conditions (Managua, Osaka), respectively. In addition, we considered the effects of adaptive strategies like shielding against solar radiation and different work-rest schedules assuming an acclimated person wearing light work clothes (0.6 clo). We assessed WA according to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) by means of an empirical relation of worker performance from field studies (Hothaps), and as allowed work hours using safety threshold limits proposed by the corresponding standards. Using the physiological models Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)-Fiala, we calculated WA as the percentage of working hours with body core temperature and cumulated sweat loss below standard limits (38 °C and 7.5% of body weight, respectively) recommended by ISO 7933 and below conservative (38 °C; 3%) and liberal (38.2 °C; 7.5%) limits in comparison. ANOVA results showed that the different metrics, workload, time of day and climate type determined the largest part of WA variance. WBGT-based metrics were highly correlated and indicated slightly more constrained WA for moderate workload, but were less restrictive with high workload and for afternoon work hours compared to PHS and UTCI-Fiala. Though PHS showed unrealistic dynamic responses to rest from work compared to UTCI-Fiala, differences in WA assessed by the physiological models largely depended on the applied limit criteria. In conclusion, our study showed that the choice of the heat stress assessment metric impacts notably on the estimated WA. Whereas PHS and UTCI-Fiala can account for

  18. Estimated work ability in warm outdoor environments depends on the chosen heat stress assessment metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Fiala, Dusan; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2018-03-01

    With a view to occupational effects of climate change, we performed a simulation study on the influence of different heat stress assessment metrics on estimated workability (WA) of labour in warm outdoor environments. Whole-day shifts with varying workloads were simulated using as input meteorological records for the hottest month from four cities with prevailing hot (Dallas, New Delhi) or warm-humid conditions (Managua, Osaka), respectively. In addition, we considered the effects of adaptive strategies like shielding against solar radiation and different work-rest schedules assuming an acclimated person wearing light work clothes (0.6 clo). We assessed WA according to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) by means of an empirical relation of worker performance from field studies (Hothaps), and as allowed work hours using safety threshold limits proposed by the corresponding standards. Using the physiological models Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)-Fiala, we calculated WA as the percentage of working hours with body core temperature and cumulated sweat loss below standard limits (38 °C and 7.5% of body weight, respectively) recommended by ISO 7933 and below conservative (38 °C; 3%) and liberal (38.2 °C; 7.5%) limits in comparison. ANOVA results showed that the different metrics, workload, time of day and climate type determined the largest part of WA variance. WBGT-based metrics were highly correlated and indicated slightly more constrained WA for moderate workload, but were less restrictive with high workload and for afternoon work hours compared to PHS and UTCI-Fiala. Though PHS showed unrealistic dynamic responses to rest from work compared to UTCI-Fiala, differences in WA assessed by the physiological models largely depended on the applied limit criteria. In conclusion, our study showed that the choice of the heat stress assessment metric impacts notably on the estimated WA. Whereas PHS and UTCI-Fiala can account for

  19. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate Vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden......More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor......, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment....

  20. ROBUST PERSON TRACKING WITH MULTIPLE NON-OVERLAPPING CAMERAS IN AN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hellwig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is to combine multiple cameras for a robust tracking of persons in an outdoor environment. Although surveillance is a well established field, many algorithms apply various constraints like overlapping fields of view or precise calibration of the cameras to improve results. An application of these developed systems in a realistic outdoor environment is often difficult. Our aim is to be widely independent from the camera setup and the observed scene, in order to use existing cameras. Thereby our algorithm needs to be capable to work with both overlapping and non-overlapping fields of views. We propose an algorithm that allows flexible combination of different static cameras with varying properties. Another requirement of a practical application is that the algorithm is able to work online. Our system is able to process the data during runtime and to provide results immediately. In addition to seeking flexibility in the camera setup, we present a specific approach that combines state of the art algorithms in order to be robust to environment influences. We present results that indicate a good performance of our introduced algorithm in different scenarios. We show its robustness to different types of image artifacts. In addition we demonstrate that our algorithm is able to match persons between cameras in a non-overlapping scenario.

  1. Preschool outdoor play environment may combine promotion of children´s physical activity and sun protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldemann, Cecilia; Dal, Henrik; Mårtensson, Fredrika

    2011-01-01

    -exposure lower, 26% vs. 43% of available UV during outdoor stay. In Raleigh, step count/minute was 12.3 and UV-exposure of available UV 27% during outdoor stay. Conclusions.—Step count/minute was lower in Raleigh than in Malmö, but in Malmö children at low-scored environments ran a higher risk of sunburn than...

  2. A Robust Method for Detecting Parking Areas in Both Indoor and Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Zong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an automatic parking system has been installed in many vehicles recently, it is still hard for the system to confirm by itself whether a vacant parking area truly exists or not. In this paper, we introduced a robust vision-based vacancy parking area detecting method for both indoor and outdoor environments. The main contribution of this paper is given as follows. First, an automatic image stitching method is proposed. Secondly, the problem of environment illuminating change and line color difference is considered and solved. Thirdly, the proposed algorithm is insensitive to the shadow and scene diversity, which means the detecting result satisfies most of the environment. Finally, a vehicle model is considered for tracking and reconfirming the detecting results to eliminate most of the false positives.

  3. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (Pbehavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  4. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments (3–5 years old children)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments, and assesses the respective risks for 3–5-years old children. Eighteen gaseous and particulate (PM_1 and PM_2_._5) PAHs were collected indoors and outdoors during 63 days at preschools in Portugal. Gaseous PAHs accounted for 94–98% of total concentration (Σ_P_A_H_s). PAHs with 5–6 rings were predominantly found in PM_1 (54–74% particulate Σ_P_A_H_s). Lighter PAHs originated mainly from indoor sources whereas congeners with 4–6 rings resulted mostly from outdoor emissions penetration (motor vehicle, fuel burning). Total cancer risks of children were negligible according to USEPA, but exceeded (8–13 times) WHO health-based guideline. Carcinogenic risks due to indoor exposure were higher than for outdoors (4–18 times). - Highlights: • Lighter PAHs originate from indoor sources, 4–6 rings PAHs result from outdoors. • Gaseous PAHs account for the majority of PAH content in indoor air of preschools. • Lifetime lung cancer risk values exceed WHO health-based guideline level of 10"−"5. • Carcinogenic risks due to preschool indoor exposure are higher than for outdoors. - This work fills gap providing information on levels, phase distribution (gas, PM_1, PM_2_._5) and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool settings.

  5. A comparison between the IAEA Safety Series 6 thermal environment and a proposed alternative thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present regulations for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials, IAEA Safety Series No. 6; 1985, establish specific criteria for the thermal environment of a hypothetical accident. The regulation states: The scope of this paper is to examine the effects on modeling that result with the Fry proposed thermal boundary conditions. The examination is accomplished by comparing thermal model results using the current IAEA specified thermal environment and the Fry proposed thermal boundary conditions

  6. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velt, K.B.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to investigate thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) in changing environments. Therefore, 10 subjects stayed in a 30 °C, 50% relative humidity for 30 min in summer clothes and then moved to a 20 °C room where they remained seated for 30 min (Hot to Reference

  7. Quantum Two Player Game in Thermal Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dajka

    Full Text Available A two-player quantum game is considered in the presence of thermal decoherence. It is shown how the thermal environment modeled in terms of rigorous Davies approach affects payoffs of the players. The conditions for either beneficial or pernicious effect of decoherence are identified. The general considerations are exemplified by the quantum version of Prisoner Dilemma.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2009-08-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (athletic park), named "Serafeio Athletic and Cultural Centre," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  9. The occurrence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in organic pigs and their outdoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and species distribution of thermophilic Campylobacter was investigated in organic outdoor pigs. An increased exposure of outdoor pigs to C jejuni from the environment may cause a shift from a normal dominance of C coli to more C jejuni, which may imply a concern of reduced food...... (0.3-46%). C. jejuni and C coli were isolated from 10% and 29% of the environmental samples, respectively, while crow-birds and rats harboured C. jejuni. Individual pigs hosted several strains (up to nine serotypes). The paddock environment was contaminated with C. coli serotypes similar to pig...... isolates, while most of the C. jejuni serotypes differed. C. jejuni isolates of different origin comprised few similar serotypes, just one identical genotype was common between pigs, environment and birds. In conclusion, the occurrence of C jejuni varied considerably between the three groups of outdoor...

  10. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Influence of the Characteristics of Mathematical Outdoor Activities in Mobile Environments on Students' Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research attempted to find out how the characteristics of outdoor activities carried out with the mobile phone influence students' emotions. The research findings point at the following components related to the activity as influencing students' emotions: The activity novelty, the activity theme (related to everyday life, related to a new subject related to the students themselves or to an issue or a subject that the students like to do, etc., the activity conditions (its physical part is easy/uneasy to perform, resources are available, etc., the outer environment conditions (hot, warm, cold, etc., the roles which the activity enables (these roles may or may not satisfy a student, the learning method enabled in the activity (exploring mathematical ideas independently, exploring mathematics collaboratively, etc., the challenge or competition associated with the activity (it needs persistence, attention, etc.. These components show that taking care of students' leaning emotions in outdoor mathematical activities can be achieved through paying attention to different aspects of the activity which are outlined above.

  12. Thermal Flow Sensors for Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vivekananthan; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Dao, Dzung Viet; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2017-09-08

    Flow sensing in hostile environments is of increasing interest for applications in the automotive, aerospace, and chemical and resource industries. There are thermal and non-thermal approaches for high-temperature flow measurement. Compared to their non-thermal counterparts, thermal flow sensors have recently attracted a great deal of interest due to the ease of fabrication, lack of moving parts and higher sensitivity. In recent years, various thermal flow sensors have been developed to operate at temperatures above 500 °C. Microelectronic technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI), and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) have been used to make thermal flow sensors. Thermal sensors with various heating and sensing materials such as metals, semiconductors, polymers and ceramics can be selected according to the targeted working temperature. The performance of these thermal flow sensors is evaluated based on parameters such as thermal response time, flow sensitivity. The data from thermal flow sensors reviewed in this paper indicate that the sensing principle is suitable for the operation under harsh environments. Finally, the paper discusses the packaging of the sensor, which is the most important aspect of any high-temperature sensing application. Other than the conventional wire-bonding, various novel packaging techniques have been developed for high-temperature application.

  13. Thermal Flow Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekananthan Balakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flow sensing in hostile environments is of increasing interest for applications in the automotive, aerospace, and chemical and resource industries. There are thermal and non-thermal approaches for high-temperature flow measurement. Compared to their non-thermal counterparts, thermal flow sensors have recently attracted a great deal of interest due to the ease of fabrication, lack of moving parts and higher sensitivity. In recent years, various thermal flow sensors have been developed to operate at temperatures above 500 °C. Microelectronic technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI, and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS have been used to make thermal flow sensors. Thermal sensors with various heating and sensing materials such as metals, semiconductors, polymers and ceramics can be selected according to the targeted working temperature. The performance of these thermal flow sensors is evaluated based on parameters such as thermal response time, flow sensitivity. The data from thermal flow sensors reviewed in this paper indicate that the sensing principle is suitable for the operation under harsh environments. Finally, the paper discusses the packaging of the sensor, which is the most important aspect of any high-temperature sensing application. Other than the conventional wire-bonding, various novel packaging techniques have been developed for high-temperature application.

  14. [The community succession of sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Meng-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Lai, Yue; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2014-06-01

    To explore the growing development and community succession of main sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area and to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). From early May to August in 2013, in Forensic Medical Examination Center of Shenzhen Public Security Bureau, the main insect species and the decomposition process were observed in two adult pig carcasses of simulative indoor and outdoor environment. The different decomposition stages and the community succession of insects were recorded. The indoor and outdoor pig carcasses showed skeleton 412.5 and 325 hours after death, respectively. The main species of flies on pig carcasses were Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya chani. The main species of beetles were Crecphilus maxillosus, Necrobia ruficollis, Saprinus splendens and Dermestes maculatu. The dominant species of flies in the outdoor pig carcasses obviously produced the second generations due to the effect of mass rainfall, nor in the indoor pig carcasses. There are regular patterns on the community succession of insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area. The activity patterns of seven typical insects and their larva show important value for estimating PMI.

  15. Classification of soft-shell materials for leisure outdoor jackets by clo defined from thermal properties testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesinova, P.; Steklova, P.; Duchacova, T.

    2017-10-01

    Materials for outdoor activities are produced in various combinations and lamination helps to combine two or more components for gaining high comfort properties and lighten the structure. Producers can choose exact suitable material for construction of part or set of so called layered clothing for expected activity. Decreasing the weight of materials when preserving of high quality of water-vapour permeability, wind resistivity and hydrostatic resistivity and other comfort and usage properties is a big task nowadays. This paper is focused on thermal properties as an important parameter for being comfort during outdoor activities. Softshell materials were chosen for testing and computation of clo. Results compared with standardised clo table helps us to classify thermal insulation of the set of fabrics when defining proper clothing category.

  16. Integrated multi-sensor fusion for mapping and localization in outdoor environments for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Thomas; Petereit, Janko

    2014-05-01

    An integrated multi-sensor fusion framework for localization and mapping for autonomous navigation in unstructured outdoor environments based on extended Kalman filters (EKF) is presented. The sensors for localization include an inertial measurement unit, a GPS, a fiber optic gyroscope, and wheel odometry. Additionally a 3D LIDAR is used for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). A 3D map is built while concurrently a localization in a so far established 2D map is estimated with the current scan of the LIDAR. Despite of longer run-time of the SLAM algorithm compared to the EKF update, a high update rate is still guaranteed by sophisticatedly joining and synchronizing two parallel localization estimators.

  17. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hoshiba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  18. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    2017-01-01

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators. PMID:29099790

  19. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Kumon, Makoto; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G

    2017-11-03

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  20. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David

    2015-01-07

    All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.

  1. Thermal power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Recent versions of the air quality models which are reviewed and approved from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analysed in favour of their application in simple and complex terrain, different meteorological conditions and modifications in the sources of pollutant emissions. Improvement of the standard methods for analysis of the risks affecting the environment from different energy sources has been carried out. The application of the newly introduced model enabled (lead to performing) risk analysis of the coal power plants compared to other types of energy sources. Detailed investigation of the risk assessment and perception from coal power plants, has been performed and applied to the Macedonian coal power plants. Introducing the concept of 'psychological pollution', a modification of the standard models and programs for risk assessment from various energy sources has been suggested (proposed). The model has been applied to REK Bitola, where statistically relevant differences in relation to the control groups have been obtained. (Original)

  2. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper.

  3. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Sikora, Andrzej; Marks, Michał

    2016-09-14

    Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station) and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper.

  4. Prediction of Thermal Environment in a Large Space Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the thermal environment of large space buildings such as stadiums can vary depending on the location of the stands, it is important to divide them into different zones and evaluate their thermal environment separately. The thermal environment can be evaluated using physical values measured with the sensors, but the occupant density of the stadium stands is high, which limits the locations available to install the sensors. As a method to resolve the limitations of installing the sensors, we propose a method to predict the thermal environment of each zone in a large space. We set six key thermal factors affecting the thermal environment in a large space to be predicted factors (indoor air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and clothing and the fixed factors (air velocity, metabolic rate, and relative humidity. Using artificial neural network (ANN models and the outdoor air temperature and the surface temperature of the interior walls around the stands as input data, we developed a method to predict the three thermal factors. Learning and verification datasets were established using STAR CCM+ (2016.10, Siemens PLM software, Plano, TX, USA. An analysis of each model’s prediction results showed that the prediction accuracy increased with the number of learning data points. The thermal environment evaluation process developed in this study can be used to control heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC facilities in each zone in a large space building with sufficient learning by ANN models at the building testing or the evaluation stage.

  5. Thermal (dis)comfort experienced from physiological movements across indoor, transitional and outdoor spaces in Singapore: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Heng, Su; Chow, Winston

    2017-04-01

    Human thermal comfort research is important as climate discomfort can adversely affect both health and work productivity in cities; however, such biometeorological work in low-latitude urban areas is still relatively unstudied hitherto. In the tropical metropolis of Singapore, a suite of policies have been implemented aimed at improving environmental sustainability via increasing car-free commutes and pedestrian movement during work/school journeys, with the consequence that individuals will likely have increased personal exposure through a variety of spaces (and climates) during typical daily activities. As such, research into exploring the thermal (dis)comfort experienced during pedestrian movements across these indoor, outdoor and transitional (semi-outdoor) spaces would yield interesting applied biometerological insights. This pilot study thus investigates how pedestrian thermal comfort varies spatially across a university campus, and how the physical intensity of pedestrian travel affects thermal comfort across these spaces. Over a 10-week period, we profiled six students for both their objective and subjective pedestrian thermal comfort during traverses across different spaces. Data were obtained through use of (a.) of a heat stress sensor, (b.) a fitness tracker, and (b.) a questionnaire survey to record traverse measurements of the microclimate, their physiological data, and their perceived microclimate comfort respectively. Measured climate and physiological data were used to derive commonly-used thermal comfort indices like wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and physiological equivalent temperature (PET). Further, interviews were conducted with all six subjects at the end of the fieldwork period to ascertain details on individual acclimatization behavior and adaptation strategies. The results indicate that (a.) more than 50% of the microclimatic conditions within each indoor, semi-outdoor, and outdoor space exceeded heat stress thresholds of both PET and

  6. Testing and evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Stephen; Russler, Pat; Clipp, Brian; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Bennett, Matthew; Mauger, Jennifer; Church, William; Towles, Herman; MacCabe, Stephen; Webb, Jeffrey; Lupo, Jasper; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Dunn, Enrique; Leslie, Christopher; Welch, Greg

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes performance evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments. Applied Research Associates (ARA), as prime integrator on the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program, is developing a soldier-worn system to provide intuitive `heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a novel pose estimation capability, a helmet-mounted see-through display, and a wearable processing unit to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (e.g., navigation waypoints, sensor points of interest, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. We achieve accurate pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, terrain data, and computer-vision inputs. We leverage a helmet-mounted camera and custom computer vision algorithms to provide terrain-based measurements of absolute orientation (i.e., orientation of the helmet with respect to the earth). These orientation measurements, which leverage mountainous terrain horizon geometry and mission planning landmarks, enable our system to operate robustly in the presence of external and body-worn magnetic disturbances. Current field testing activities across a variety of mountainous environments indicate that we can achieve high icon geo-registration accuracy (<10mrad) using these vision-based methods.

  7. Incorporating a Wheeled Vehicle Model in a New Monocular Visual Odometry Algorithm for Dynamic Outdoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhua; Xiong, Guangming; Chen, Huiyan; Lee, Dah-Jye

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments. PMID:25256109

  8. Incorporating a Wheeled Vehicle Model in a New Monocular Visual Odometry Algorithm for Dynamic Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments.

  9. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  10. Childcare outdoor renovation as a built environment health promotion strategy: evaluating the preventing obesity by design intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Nilda G; Moore, Robin C; Smith, William R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Preventing Obesity by Design (POD), a childcare center outdoor renovation intervention. Pre-post intervention evaluation. North Carolina licensed childcare centers (N = 27). Preschool children. Outdoor renovation, teacher training. Behavior mapping, Preschool Outdoor Environment Measurement Scale (POEMS), center director interview. Descriptive statistics, ordinary least squares and logistic regressions calculated to assess levels of association between environmental change, children's physical activity (PA), social behaviors, and environmental quality. Qualitative interview data analyzed to help understand intervention impact. Behavior mapping showed that site layout attributes, such as the form (i.e., "single loop" and "double loop") of pathways (functioning as circulation routes and wheeled toy settings), are associated with higher levels of PA. Teacher interaction was associated with decreased children's PA. Absence of teacher or lack of child/child interaction was associated with increased PA. POEMS assessment of environmental quality was higher after renovation. POEMS domains (Physical Space and Teacher/Caregiver Roles) were positively associated with PA. After renovation, 68% of center directors reported positive changes in children's behavior and 40% mentioned edible plant installations as greatest success. Built environment renovation of childcare center outdoors, including looped pathways installation, coupled with teacher training, may support increased PA. Renovation, including food gardens, may be a key to success for preschool health promotion and support change in childcare policy.

  11. The Relationship between Perceived Health and Physical Activity Indoors, Outdoors in Built Environments, and Outdoors in Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and publi...

  12. Thermal Environment evaluation in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    as commercial kitchens? There is therefore a need to study the indoor environment in commercial kitchens and to establish standardized methods and procedures for setting criteria that have to be met for the design and operation of kitchens. The present paper introduces a data collection protocol based......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence the thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., complicate further an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are expressed in international standards such as ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN7730. But are these standardised methods applicable for such environments...

  13. Natural outdoor environments and mental health: Stress as a possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Valentín, Antònia; Martínez, David; Smith, Graham; Hurst, Gemma; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Masterson, Daniel; van den Berg, Magdalena; Ambròs, Albert; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Dedele, Audrius; Ellis, Naomi; Grazulevicius, Tomas; Voorsmit, Martin; Cirach, Marta; Cirac-Claveras, Judith; Swart, Wim; Clasquin, Eddy; Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Maas, Jolanda; Jerret, Michael; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher J; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    Better mental health has been associated with exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE). However, comprehensive studies including several indicators of exposure and outcomes, potential effect modifiers and mediators are scarce. We used novel, objective measures to explore the relationships between exposure to NOE (i.e. residential availability and contact) and different indicators of mental health, and possible modifiers and mediators. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in: Barcelona, Spain; Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom; Doetinchem, Netherlands; Kaunas, Lithuania. Participants' exposure to NOE (including both surrounding greenness and green and/or blue spaces) was measured in terms of (a) amount in their residential environment (using Geographical Information Systems) and (b) their contact with NOE (using smartphone data collected over seven days). Self-reported information was collected for mental health (psychological wellbeing, sleep quality, vitality, and somatisation), and potential effect modifiers (gender, age, education level, and city) and mediators (perceived stress and social contacts), with additional objective NOE physical activity (potential mediator) derived from smartphone accelerometers. Analysis of data from 406 participants showed no statistically significant associations linking mental health and residential NOE exposure. However, NOE contact, especially surrounding greenness, was statistically significantly tied to better mental health. There were indications that these relationships were stronger for males, younger people, low-medium educated, and Doetinchem residents. Perceived stress was a mediator of most associations, and physical activity and social contacts were not. Our findings indicate that contact with NOE benefits mental health. Our results also suggest that having contact with NOE that can facilitate stress reduction could be particularly beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Applying a novel extra-low temperature dedicated outdoor air system in office buildings for energy efficiency and thermal comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Han; Lee, W.L.; Jia, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dedicated outdoor air system was proposed and investigated. • The proposed system adopts extra-low temperature outdoor air for space cooling. • The extra-low temperature air was generated by a multi-stage direct expansion coil. • Heat pipe was added to the proposed system to recover the waste cooling energy. • Energy and exergy analysis as well as thermal comfort analysis were conducted. - Abstract: A novel dedicated outdoor air system consisting of a multi-stage direct expansion coil and a zero-energy heat pipe to generate extra-low temperature outdoor air to avoid moisture-related problems was proposed in this study. The proposed system’s performance in achieving the desirable air conditions and better energy efficiency objectives is compared with a conventional direct expansion system for air-conditioning of a typical office building in Hong Kong based on simulation investigations. The simulations were carried out using equipment performance data of a pilot study, and realistic building and system characteristics. It was found that the proposed system, as compared to the conventional system, could reduce the annual indoor discomfort hours by 69.4%. An energy and exergy analysis was also conducted. It was revealed that the proposed system could reduce the annual air-conditioning energy use by 15.6% and the system exergy loss rate by 13.6%. The associated overall exergy efficiency was also found 18.6% higher. The findings of this study confirm that the proposed system is better than the conventional system in terms of both energy and exergy efficiency and the desirable air conditions.

  15. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    and a backup system. All the components of the system are connected to the IrLaW software through an IP network. The monitoring system is fully autonomous since August 2013 and provides data at 0. Hz sampling frequency. First results obtained by data post-processing is addressed. Finally, discussion on experimental feedback and main outcomes of several month of measurement in outdoor conditions will be presented. REFERENCES [1]Proto M. et al., , 2010. Transport infrastructure surveillance and monitoring by electromagnetic sensing: the ISTIMES project. Sensors, 10,10620-10639, doi: 10.3390/s101210620. [2]J. Dumoulin, R. Averty ".Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", in Proc of 11th International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed Thermography, Naples Italy, 2012. [3]J. Dumoulin, A. Crinière, R. Averty ," Detection and thermal characterization of the inner structure of the "Musmeci" bridge deck by infrared thermography monitoring ",Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 10, Number 2, November 2013, IOP Science, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/10/6/064003. [4]I. Catapano, R. Di Napoli, F. Soldovieri1, M. Bavusi, A. Loperte and J. Dumoulin, "Structural monitoring via microwave tomography-enhanced GPR: the Montagnole test site", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 9, Number 4, August 2012, pp 100-107, IOP Science, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/9/4/S100.

  16. Contrasts in spatial and temporal variability of oxidative capacity and elemental composition in moxibustion, indoor and outdoor environments in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jian; Lim, Min Yee; Hwang, Chaxi; Zhao, Baixiao; Shao, Longyi

    2015-01-01

    Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy that burns moxa floss which produces a substantial amount of PM 10 into the environment, thus spawning safety concerns about health impacts of the smoke. We compared the oxidative capacity and elemental composition of moxibustion-derived and ambient PM 10 in summer and winter to provide a source-, spatial- and temporal-comparison of PM 10 biological responses. The PM 10 oxidative capacity was 2.04 and 1.45 fold lower, and dose-dependent slope gradient was 2.36 and 1.76 fold lower in moxibustion environment than indoor or outdoor. Oxidative damage was highly correlated with iron, cesium, aluminum and cobalt in indoor, but moxibustion environment displayed low associations. The total elemental concentration was also lower in moxibustion environment than indoor (2.28 fold) or outdoor (2.79 fold). The source-to-dose modeling and slope gradient analysis in this study can be used as a model for future source-, spatial- and temporal-related moxibustion safety evaluation studies. - Highlights: • Source-, spatial- and temporal-comparisons of PM 10 of moxa smoke and ambient air. • Moxibustion environment had the lowest oxidative capacity temporally and spatially. • Total elemental concentration was also lowest in moxibustion environment. • Low correlations between metals and oxidative damage in moxibustion environment. • Moxibustion-derived PM 10 may not be as injurious to human health as thought. - Moxibustion-derived PM 10 had the lowest oxidative capacity and total elemental concentration when compared with indoor and outdoor environments

  17. A survey on distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus flavus from indoor and outdoor hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Asghar; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Allameh, Abdolamir; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Jamali, Mojdeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, genetic diversity and mycotoxin profiles of Aspergillus flavus isolated from air (indoors and outdoors), levels (surfaces), and soils of five hospitals in Southwest Iran were examined. From a total of 146 Aspergillus colonies, 63 isolates were finally identified as A. flavus by a combination of colony morphology, microscopic criteria, and mycotoxin profiles. No Aspergillus parasiticus was isolated from examined samples. Chromatographic analyses of A. flavus isolates cultured on yeast extract-sucrose broth by tip culture method showed that approximately 10% and 45% of the isolates were able to produce aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), respectively. Around 40% of the isolates produced sclerotia on Czapek-Dox agar. The isolates were classified into four chemotypes based on the ability to produce AF and CPA that majority of them (55.5%) belonged to chemotype IV comprising non-mycotoxigenic isolates. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated by a combination of four selected primers were used to assess genetic relatedness of 16 selected toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates. The resulting dendrogram demonstrated the formation of two separate clusters for the A. flavus comprised both mycotoxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates in a random distribution. The obtained results in this study showed that RAPD profiling is a promising and efficient tool to determine intra-specific genetic variation among A. flavus populations from hospital environments. A. flavus isolates, either toxigenic or non-toxigenic, should be considered as potential threats for hospitalized patients due to their obvious role in the etiology of nosocomial aspergillosis.

  18. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.

  19. Structures that Include a Semi-Outdoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papachristou, C.; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment of buildings with a second "skin" and semi-outdoor space is examined in the present study. A literature review was conducted on similar structures and only a few studies were found focusing on the thermal environment. Two different building case studies were chosen with di...

  20. THE IMPACT OF CONSTRUCTION AND GENTRIFICATION ON AN OUTDOOR TRANS SEX WORK ENVIRONMENT: VIOLENCE, DISPLACEMENT AND POLICING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tara; Krüsi, Andrea; Pierre, Leslie; Small, Will; Shannon, Kate

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how environmental and structural changes to a trans outdoor work environment impacted sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. The issue of changes to the work area arose during qualitative interviews with 33 trans sex workers. In response, ethnographic walks that incorporated photography were undertaken with trans sex workers. Changes to the work environment were found to increase vulnerabilities to client violence, displace trans sex workers, and affect policing practices. Within a criminalized context, construction and gentrification enhanced vulnerabilities to violence and harassment from police and residents.

  1. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  2. Influence of user behavior on unsatisfactory indoor thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Biao; Long, Enshen; Meng, Xi; Zhang, Yuanze; Hou, Dongqi; Du, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The methodology of numerical simulation of 3D heat-flux visualization is proposed. • A full-scale model of prototype office for each influential factor was set up. • The simulation results were compared with the indoor occupant comfort levels. • The contrast of average temperature increase due to user behavior was presented. - Abstract: In areas of China that have hot summers and cold winters, the overall performance of HVAC systems in the poorly-insulated existing office buildings is generally not satisfactory, especially in extreme weather conditions. The reasons for the unsatisfactory indoor thermal environment were deduced, and to validate the findings, a methodology of numerical simulation for 3D heat-flux visualization was proposed. A full-scale model of a prototype office room was created, with representative working conditions for the characteristics of particular building. The results of the heat-flux visualization and temperature distribution showed that the overall effect was resulted from merged reasons, and that significance ranking of each reason varied when the outside environmental conditions changed. The simulation results were compared with the indoor occupant comfort levels of the volunteers who worked in the target room. Models of possible influential factors such as the outdoor temperature, opening or closing windows, and the effect of window shading devices (WSD) were set up. The influence of user behavior on indoor temperature in opening window, or not using WSD was proven to be significant in causing unfavorable indoor conditions. According to the visualized evaluation and analysis of the various factors, corresponding methods for both improving indoor thermal conditions and saving energy are proposed

  3. Free range hens use the range more when the outdoor environment is enriched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, T A D; Glatz, P C

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown). Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000-6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07) for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55%) were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30%) while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (prange (43% vs. 24%) and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt areas than the control areas, with slightly

  4. The COURAGE Built Environment Outdoor Checklist: an objective built environment instrument to investigate the impact of the environment on health and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Bucciarelli, Paola; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Chatterji, Somnath; Galas, Aleksander; Meriläinen-Porras, Satu; Frisoni, Giovanni; Russo, Emanuela; Minicuci, Nadia; Power, Mick; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    A tool to assess the built environment, which takes into account issues of disability, accessibility and the need for data comparable across countries and populations, is much needed. The Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) in Europe Built Environment Outdoor Checklist (CBE-OUT) helps us to understand when features of the neighbourhood environment have either a positive or negative impact on the accessibility of neighbourhoods for healthy ageing. The CBE-OUT is composed of 128 items that can be recorded when present in the evaluated environment. Audits were performed in households randomly selected from each cluster of the sample for Finland, Poland and Spain, following precise rules defined by experts. Global scores were computed both section by section and in the overall checklist, rescaling the resulting scores from 0 (negative environment) to 100 (positive). The total number of completed CBE-OUT checklists was 2452 (Finland, 245; Poland, 972; and Spain, 1235). Mean global score for our sample is 49.3, suggesting an environment composed both of facilitating and hindering features. Significant differences were observed in the built environment features of the three countries and in particular between Finland and the other two. The assessment of features of built environment is crucial when thinking about ageing and enhanced participation. The COURAGE in Europe project developed this tool to collect information on built environment in an objective evaluation of environmental features and is a recommended methodology for future studies. The CBE-OUT checklist is an objective evaluation of the built environment and is centred on technical measurement of features present in the environment and has its foundations in the concepts of disability and accessibility operating in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model. The CBE-OUT checklist can be analysed using both the total score and the single section score

  5. Thermal analysis of polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation composites under outdoor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the influence of the clay in the degradation process of the HMSPP.The polypropylene (PP) was irradiated under acetylene atmosphere in gamma irradiation source ( 60 Co) to obtain the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene). Composites of HMSPP were processed in twin-screw extruder with clay Cloisite 20A and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The obtained composites were exposed under outdoor conditions for 6 months. The ageing effects were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA). Chemical oxidation was evaluated by Carbonyl Index (IC) through infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed correlation between carbonyl index and ageing time. (author)

  6. Thermal analysis of polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation composites under outdoor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the influence of the clay in the degradation process of the HMSPP.The polypropylene (PP) was irradiated under acetylene atmosphere in gamma irradiation source ({sup 60}Co) to obtain the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene). Composites of HMSPP were processed in twin-screw extruder with clay Cloisite 20A and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The obtained composites were exposed under outdoor conditions for 6 months. The ageing effects were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA). Chemical oxidation was evaluated by Carbonyl Index (IC) through infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed correlation between carbonyl index and ageing time. (author)

  7. Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.

  8. EFFECTS OF PAVEMENT SURFACE TEMPERATURE ON THE MODIFICATION OF URBAN THERMAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARAT, Adebayo-Aminu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban centres continue to experience escalating average summer temperature over the last fifty years. Temperature in the urban core cites have been rising due to rapid growth of urbanization in the latter half of the twentieth century (Akbari et al., 1989. Outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different movement of materials on the urban thermal environment. Meteorological conditions such as air temperature, pavement surface temperature, Relative humidity and wind velocity were recorded to determine temperature differences among Asphalt/concrete, interlocking bricks and grass surfaces.

  9. Free Range Hens Use the Range More When the Outdoor Environment Is Enriched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. D. Nagle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown. Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000–6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07 for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55% were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30% while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05 higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24% and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt

  10. Microbial Air Contamination in Indoor and Outdoor Environment of Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring a good air quality in pig farms is important for the health of animals and human workers. The aim of this study was the assessment of the microbiological quality of the air inside the pig houses and outside of these. The study was accomplished in two pig-fattening farms in Cluj County. The microbiological air quality was assessed in the cold and warm season, by determination of the total counts of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The bacterial and fungal counts varied in the air of the investigated farms. In relation to the season the mean counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher (P 0.05 were found between the values of the parameters determined from the indoor air and those obtained outside, from a distance of 5 m from the pig houses. The numbers of the bacteria and fungi in the outdoor air lowered as the distance from the farms increased, the differences being significant at 25 and 50 m (P < 0.05. The results of the study show a high bacterial contamination of the indoor and outdoor air of the pig farms.

  11. Thermal environment evaluation. Evaluation de l'ambiance thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, B

    1988-01-01

    This document describes interior thermal environment analysis and the techniques involved at three applicable stages of evaluation. They range from the study of plans and archives to physical measurement with sophisticated instrumentation. Environmental factors that influence the thermal state of the building occupant are measured. The occupant's perception of the thermal environment may also be investigated. One of the most important building functions is to isolate the occupants from adverse exterior thermal conditions and provide a productive and healthy interior environment. The thermal environment is determined by clothing level, activity level, air velocity, ambient air temperature, mean radiant temperature and moisture level. Since an optimal thermal environment may not be optimal in terms of the building's energy efficiency, the evaluation process will have to draw upon expertise in energy use and other disciplines at the stage where solutions are recommended. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Brown, Daniel K; Wood, Carly; Sandercock, Gavin R; Barton, Jo L

    2013-01-01

    The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review considers the declining levels of physical activity, particularly in the Western world, and how the environment may help motivate and faci...

  13. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O.; Pilatowsky, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco, s/n, Colonia Centro, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Ruiz, V. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla, Espana (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design

  14. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behavior of solar domestic water heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Valladares, O.; Pilatowsky, I.; Ruiz, V.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of the market, the generation of new promotion programs, fiscal incentives and many other factors are to be considered for the massive application of solar domestic water heating systems (SDWHS) mainly of the compact thermosiphon type, makes it necessary to choose simple and inexpensive procedure tests that permit to know their characteristic thermal behaviors without an official standard being necessary. Moreover, it allows the comparison among systems and offers enough and reliable information to consumers and manufacturers. In most developing countries, an official national standard for SDWHS is not available, therefore it is necessary to adopt an international test procedure in which the cost and time of implementation is very important. In this work, a simple and inexpensive test method to determine the thermal behavior of SDWHS is proposed. Even though these procedure tests do not have an official standard structure they permit, by comparing different solar systems under identical solar, ambient, and initial conditions, the experimental determination of: (a) the maximum available volume of water for solar heating; (b) water temperature increment and available thermal energy at the end of the day; (c) temperature profiles (stratification) and the average temperature in the storage tank after it is homogenized; (d) the average global thermal efficiency; (e) water temperature decrement and energy lost overnight; and (f) the relationship between hot water volume and solar collector area as function of the average heating temperature. An additional proposed test permits to know the heat losses caused by the reverse flow in the collector loop. These tests will be carried out independently of the configuration between the solar collector and the storage tank, the way the fluid circulates and the type of thermal exchange. The results of this procedure test can be very useful, firstly, for the local solar manufacturers' equipment in order to design and

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Outdoor Thermal Comfort and Health in Tropical Wet and Hot Zone (Douala, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose:Climate change has an important role on the health and productivity of the occupant of the building. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of climate change on thermal comfort in hot and wet areas, as in the case of the city of Douala. Materials and Methods:The general circulation model (CSMK3 Model, Scenario B1 was adopted for this purpose.Outdoor daily parameters of temperature, sunshine, and precipitation of last 40 years were analyzed and allowed us to make forecast on this area. The past (1990-2000, the present (2001-2011, and the future (2012-2022 were considered in the hypotheses. Results:It has been found that Douala like some large cities of Africa is already and will be severely hit of advantage by climate change if anything is not going to slow. By 2033, it is expected to have an increase of more than 0.21° C of temperature thus, a decrease of precipitation. Conclusion:In 2023, total discomfort will reign in the dry season, especially in January where humidex could reach 42.9. On the other hand, in the rainy season, humidex will increase of 0.91 compared to year 2013. This effect will have an increase of temperature. When we maintain relative humidity, and we increase temperature, humidex varies enormously and displays a maximum value, with maximum temperature.

  16. Detection, Location and Grasping Objects Using a Stereo Sensor on UAV in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramon Soria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position. This feature-based model was proved to be robust to both occlusions and the presence of outliers. The use of stereo cameras improves the learning stage, providing 3D information and helping to filter features in the online stage. An experimental system was derived using a rotary-wing UAV and a small manipulator for final proof of concept. The robotic arm is designed with three degrees of freedom and is lightweight due to payload limitations of the UAV. The system has been validated with different objects, both indoors and outdoors.

  17. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  18. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.; Andrusaityte, S.; Anto, J.M.; Basagana, X.; Cirach, M.; Dadvand, P.; Danileviciute, A.; Donaire-Gonzalez, D.; Garcia, J.; Jerrett, M.; Jones, M.; Julvez, J.; van Kempen, E.; van Kamp, I.; Maas, J.; Seto, E.; Smith, G.; Triguero, M.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Wright, J.; Zufferey, J.; van den Hazel, P.J.; Lawrence, R.; Grazuleviciene, R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in

  19. The impact of mass transfer limitations on size distributions of particle associated SVOCs in outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Yinping [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Weschler, Charles J., E-mail: weschlch@rwjms.rutgers.edu [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); International Center for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-11-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition between the gas phase and airborne particles. The size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs impacts their fate in outdoor and indoor environments, as well as human exposure to these compounds and subsequent health risks. Allen et al. (1996) previously proposed that the rate of mass transfer can impact polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) partitioning among different sized particles, especially for time scales relevant to urban aerosols. The present study quantitatively builds on this idea, presenting a model that incorporates dynamic SVOC/particle interaction and applying this model to typical outdoor and indoor scenarios. The model indicates that the impact of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of a particle-associated SVOC can be evaluated by the ratio of the time to achieve gas–particle equilibrium relative to the residence time of particles. The higher this ratio, the greater the influence of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs. The influence of such constraints is largest on the fraction of particle-associated SVOCs in the coarse mode (> 2 μm). Predictions from the model have been found to be in reasonable agreement with size distributions measured for PAHs at roadside and suburban locations in Japan. The model also quantitatively explains shifts in the size distributions of particle associated SVOCs compared to those for particle mass, and the manner in which these shifts vary with temperature and an SVOC's molecular weight. - Highlights: • Rate of mass transfer can impact SVOC partitioning among different sized particles. • Model was developed that incorporates dynamic SVOC/particle sorption. • Key parameters: mass-transfer coefficients, partition coefficient, residence time • Model explains observed SVOC size distribution shifts with temperature and MW. • Largest impact of mass transfer constraints: SVOC sorption to coarse

  20. Using narrative-based design scaffolds within a mobile learning environment to support learning outdoors with young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Brian J.

    This study aims to advance learning outdoors with mobile devices. As part of the ongoing Tree Investigators design-based research study, this research investigated a mobile application to support observation, identification, and explanation of the tree life cycle within an authentic, outdoor setting. Recognizing the scientific and conceptual complexity of this topic for young children, the design incorporated technological and design scaffolds within a narrative-based learning environment. In an effort to support learning, 14 participants (aged 5-9) were guided through the mobile app on tree life cycles by a comic-strip pedagogical agent, "Nutty the Squirrel", as they looked to explore and understand through guided observational practices and artifact creation tasks. In comparison to previous iterations of this DBR study, the overall patterns of talk found in this study were similar, with perceptual and conceptual talk being the first and second most frequently coded categories, respectively. However, this study coded considerably more instances of affective talk. This finding of the higher frequency of affective talk could possibly be explained by the relatively younger age of this iteration's participants, in conjunction with the introduced pedagogical agent, who elicited playfulness and delight from the children. The results also indicated a significant improvement when comparing the pretest results (mean score of .86) with the posttest results (mean score of 4.07, out of 5). Learners were not only able to recall the phases of a tree life cycle, but list them in the correct order. The comparison reports a significant increase, showing evidence of increased knowledge and appropriation of scientific vocabulary. The finding suggests the narrative was effective in structuring the complex material into a story for sense making. Future research with narratives should consider a design to promote learner agency through more interactions with the pedagogical agent and a

  1. Specimen environments in thermal neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This report is an attempt to collect into one place outline information concerning the techniques used and basic design of sample environment apparatus employed in neutron scattering experiments. Preliminary recommendations for the specimen environment programme of the SNS are presented. The general conclusion reached is that effort should be devoted towards improving reliability and efficiency of operation of specimen environment apparatus and developing systems which are robust and easy to use, rather than achieving performance at the limits of technology. (author)

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor and outdoor environments – A review on occurrence and human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) constitute an important group of brominated flame retardants that have been massively produced and extensively used in numerous everyday products, providing longer escape times in case of fire and thus saving lives, as well as reducing the damage of property. In recent years, PBDEs have been recognized as significant pollutants of the indoor environment. This article provides a synthesis and critical evaluation of the state of the knowledge about the occurrence of PBDEs in the indoor environment (air and dust in homes, workplaces and cars) in different countries in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, as well as about the human exposure via indoor air inhalation and dust ingestion in comparison to outdoor air inhalation and dietary intake. - Although dietary intake is major human exposure route to PBDEs, there is sufficient body of evidence for the ubiquitous presence of these compounds in indoor air and dust, therefore for the potential for significant exposure at work, at home, as well as in closed means of transport.

  3. The roles of the outdoors and occupants in contributing to a potential pan-microbiome of the built environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marcus H Y; Lee, Patrick K H

    2016-05-24

    Recent high-throughput sequencing technology has led to an expansion of knowledge regarding the microbial communities (microbiome) across various built environments (BEs). The microbiome of the BE is dependent upon building factors and conditions that govern how outdoor microbes enter and persist in the BE. Additionally, occupants are crucial in shaping the microbiome of the BE by releasing human-associated microorganisms and resuspending microbes on floors and surfaces. Therefore, both the outdoors and occupants act as major sources of microorganisms found in the BE. However, most characterizations of the microbiome of the BE have been conducted in the Western world. Notably, outdoor locations and population groups present geographical variations in outdoor and human microbiomes, respectively. Given the influences of the outdoor and human microbiomes on BE microbiology, and the geographical variations in outdoor and human microbiomes, it is likely that the microbiomes of BEs also vary by location. The summation of microbiomes between BEs contribute to a potential BE pan-microbiome, which will both consist of microbes that are ubiquitous in indoor environments around the world, and microbes that appear to be endemic to particular geographical locations. Importantly, the BE pan-microbiome can potentially question the global application of our current views on indoor microbiology. In this review, we first provide an assessment on the roles of building and occupant properties on shaping the microbiome of the BE. This is then followed by a description of geographical variations in the microbiomes of the outdoors and humans, the two main sources of microbes in BEs. We present evidence of differences in microbiomes of BEs around the world, demonstrating the existence of a global pan-microbiome of the BE that is larger than the microbiome of any single indoor environment. Finally, we discuss the significance of understanding the BE pan-microbiome and identifying universal

  4. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  5. The mediating effects of values on the relationship between outdoor recreation participation and pro-environment behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan D. Bright; Susan C. Barro

    2000-01-01

    Environmental awareness has increased in the past two decades. One factor believed to influence this awareness is outdoor recreation participation. We examined whether participation in outdoor recreation predicts pro-environmental behavior and whether environmental values mediate the relationship. A survey of residents of Washington state measured (a) participation in...

  6. Assessment of the thermal environment in an aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingers, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    equivalent temperature, up to 5.8°C, was identified in the outer seats. The results reveal that in an aircraft cabin, passengers in the outer seats may be exposed to thermal asymmetry and draught and may not find the thermal environment acceptable if the ventilation air is not properly supplied....

  7. Survival and transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in an outdoor organic pig farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Stockmarr, Anders

    2006-01-01

    It was investigated how organic rearing conditions influence the Salmonella enterica infection dynamics in pigs and whether Salmonella persists in the paddock environment. Pigs inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were grouped with Salmonella-negative tracer pigs. Bacteriological...... the seroprevalence. Salmonella persisted in the paddock environment, as Salmonella was isolated from 46% of soil and water samples (n = 294). After removal of pigs, Salmonella was found in soil samples for up to. 5 weeks and in shelter huts during the entire test period (7 weeks). Subsequent introduction...... of Salmonella-negative pigs into four naturally Salmonella-contaminated paddocks caused Salmonella infections of pigs in two paddocks. In one of these paddocks, all tracer pigs (n = 10) became infected, coinciding with a previous high Salmonella infection rate and high Salmonella excretion level. Our results...

  8. The great outdoors? Exploring the mental health benefits of natural environments

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, David G.; Craig, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that exposure to natural environments can be associated with mental health benefits. Proximity to greenspace has been associated with lower levels of stress (Thompson et al., 2012) and reduced symptomology for depression and anxiety (Beyer et al., 2014), while interacting with nature can improve cognition for children with attention deficits (Taylor and Kuo, 2009) and individuals with depression (Berman et al., 2012). A recent epidemiological study has sho...

  9. Indoor Thermal Environment of Temporary Mobile Energy Shelter Houses (MeSHs in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Gook Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporary housing must be developed to support the long-term residence needs of disaster victims. The present study assesses a temporary housing unit, the so-called Mobile Energy Shelter House (MeSH, incorporating the “Korean Dwelling Insulation Standard” in order to reduce energy usage for cooling and heating. To assess energy performance, the characteristics of the indoor thermal environment were measured during the winter and summer seasons. In summer, at maximum insolation, the outdoor temperature was 37.6 °C and the indoor temperature of the MeSH ranged from 18 to 24 °C when the cooling system was not used. Conversely, during winter, the average outdoor temperature was −11.3 °C and the indoor temperature ranged from 16.09 to 20.63 °C when a temperature-controlled floor-heating was installed. Furthermore, the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV was adopted to determine whether the ISO 7730 comfort criterion (i.e., PMV range from −0.5 to +0.5 was achieved. Based on the calculations presented here, PMV in summer ranged from −1.21 to +1.07 and that in winter ranged from −0.08 to −0.85, suggesting that the thermal environment is not always comfortable for occupants in either summer or winter. Nevertheless, the ISO comfort criterion can be achieved through varying air velocity in summer and changing clothing characteristics in winter. A comparison between yearly energy demand of existing characteristic temporary housing (Shelter House and the MeSH modules used in this study was performed. The simulation results show a 60% difference in energy demand between MeSH and existing temporary housing shelter houses.

  10. Measurements of indoor thermal environment and energy analysis in a large space building in typical seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen; Zou, Zhijun; Li, Meiling; Wang, Xin; Huang, Wugang; Yang, Jiangang [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Wei; Xiao, Xueqin [Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium is the selected object for site-measurement. The site-measurements have been carried out during summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Their indoor thermal environments were controlled by continuous air-conditioning, intermittent air-conditioning and natural ventilation, respectively. The site-measurement includes outdoor environment (the weather conditions and peripheral hallway), indoor air temperature distribution (the occupant zone temperature, radial temperature near upper openings and the vertical temperature distributions, etc.), and the heat balance of air-conditioning system, etc. It is found that temperature stratification in winter with air-conditioning is most obvious. The maximum difference of vertical temperature is 15{sup o}C in winter. The second largest one is 12{sup o}C in summer, and less than 2{sup o}C in the transitional season. The results of measurements indicate that it is different in the characteristics on energy saving of upper openings during the different seasons. With heat balance measurements, it is discovered that the roof load and ventilated and infiltrated load account for larger percentages in terms of cooling and heating load. In this paper, many discussions on the results of site measurements show some characteristics and regulations of indoor thermal environment in large space building. (author)

  11. Effects of climate change on the persistence and dispersal of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the outdoor environment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Rosalee S; Chu, Eric

    2016-08-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Over the coming century, warming trends such as increased duration and frequency of heat waves and hot extremes are expected in some areas, as well as increased intensity of some storm systems. Climate-induced trends will impact the persistence and dispersal of foodborne pathogens in myriad ways, especially for environmentally ubiquitous and/or zoonotic microorganisms. Animal hosts of foodborne pathogens are also expected to be impacted by climate change through the introduction of increased physiological stress and, in some cases, altered geographic ranges and seasonality. This review article examines the effects of climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, drought and wind, on the environmental dispersal and persistence of bacterial foodborne pathogens, namely, Bacillus cereus, Brucella, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica. These relationships are then used to predict how future climatic changes will impact the activity of these microorganisms in the outdoor environment and associated food safety issues. The development of predictive models that quantify these complex relationships will also be discussed, as well as the potential impacts of climate change on transmission of foodborne disease from animal hosts.

  12. Radio thermal sounding of natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Martin; Lomukhin, Yuriy

    2017-11-01

    At the moment, methods of sounding a status of soil, plant, forest and aquatic environments using radiometry and radar methods are intensively used. The main source of information using radar sounding is the back reflection ratio. The radiometric method is used for detection of the brightness temperature. In this paper, a communication between the back reflection ratio and the brightness temperature is described. This communication is proportional.

  13. Aerosol transport simulations in indoor and outdoor environments using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazuri, Andrea C.

    This dissertation focuses on aerosol transport modeling in occupational environments and mining sites in Arizona using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The impacts of human exposure in both environments are explored with the emphasis on turbulence, wind speed, wind direction and particle sizes. Final emissions simulations involved the digitalization process of available elevation contour plots of one of the mining sites to account for realistic topographical features. The digital elevation map (DEM) of one of the sites was imported to COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSRTM for subsequent turbulence and particle simulations. Simulation results that include realistic topography show considerable deviations of wind direction. Inter-element correlation results using metal and metalloid size resolved concentration data using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) under given wind speeds and directions provided guidance on groups of metals that coexist throughout mining activities. Groups between Fe-Mg, Cr-Fe, Al-Sc, Sc-Fe, and Mg-Al are strongly correlated for unrestricted wind directions and speeds, suggesting that the source may be of soil origin (e.g. ore and tailings); also, groups of elements where Cu is present, in the coarse fraction range, may come from mechanical action mining activities and saltation phenomenon. Besides, MOUDI data under low wind speeds (Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used as a source apportionment tool to identify areas that have an effect over specific sampling points and susceptible regions under certain meteorological conditions, and these conclusions can be supported with inter-element correlation matrices and lead isotope analysis, especially since there is limited access to the mining sites. Additional results concluded that grid adaption is a powerful tool that allows to refine specific regions that require lots of detail and therefore better resolve flow detail, provides higher number of locations with monotonic convergence than the

  14. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 2: Metagenomics applied to urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-06-01

    The air we breathe contains microscopic biological particles such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and pollen, some of them with relevant clinic importance. These organisms and/or their propagules have been traditionally studied by different disciplines and diverse methodologies like culture and microscopy. These techniques require time, expertise and also have some important biases. As a consequence, our knowledge on the total diversity and the relationships between the different biological entities present in the air is far from being complete. Currently, metagenomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) may resolve this shortage of information and have been recently applied to metropolitan areas. Although the procedures and methods are not totally standardized yet, the first studies from urban air samples confirm the previous results obtained by culture and microscopy regarding abundance and variation of these biological particles. However, DNA-sequence analyses call into question some preceding ideas and also provide new interesting insights into diversity and their spatial distribution inside the cities. Here, we review the procedures, results and perspectives of the recent works that apply NGS to study the main biological particles present in the air of urban environments. [Int Microbiol 19(2):69-80(2016)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  15. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  16. THERMAL TRANSFERS IN WET HYPERBARIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara STANCIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat losses of human body are greater in underwater environment than in dry, normal atmosphere, due to the great heat capacity of water. Body temperature of divers in immersion was studied taking into account the pressure the divers are subjected to. The theoretic equation that describes the total heat transfer- at both levels: skin and respiratory system- was established, considering conduction, convection and respiratory gas heating and humidification. The body temperature of the divers was measured in a series of dives at different depths of immersion, conducted in the wet simulator of the Diving Center, in Constanta. The experimental results were in good accordance with the temperature predicted by the mathematical model.

  17. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Triguero-Mas

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii the possible mechanisms explaining these effects.People (n = 26 with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park, blue (Castelldefels beach and urban (Eixample neighbourhood environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD, attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task, stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF, high frequency power (HF, ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF, and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF. We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience.When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79 points difference], and salivary cortisol [-0.21 (-0

  18. Health promoting outdoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Anna Ulrika Karlsson; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face......-to-face interviews followed by a self-administered questionnaire, including the SF-36, which measures eight dimensions of health and the Perceived Stress Scale, which measures self-reported stress. A total of 11,238 respondents completed the interview and returned the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed to investigate the association between distance to green space and self-perceived stress. RESULTS: Danes living more than 1 km away from the nearest green space report poorer health and health-related quality of life, i.e. lower mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of health...

  19. Impact of thermal discharge on marine environment - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, A.G.; Rameshwari, S.; Sukumaran, N.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal pollution has been used to indicate the detrimental effects of heated effluents discharged by power plants and other industries. It denotes the impairment of quality and deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial environment through heated effluent and fly ash. Various industrial plants like thermal, atomic, nuclear, coal fired plants, oil field generators, factories and mills utilize water for cooling purposes. In India, there are about 60 thermal power plants, which produce 30 million tonnes of fly ash every year. The heated effluents from power plants is discharged at a temperature, which is 8-10 degC higher than that of intake marine water. The adverse effect of thermal discharge are visible in microorganism, fish, biotic life and the over all ecosystems. The discharge of heated effluents actually affects the fish respiration, metabolism and other physiological activities of marine organisms, which ultimately leads to death. This could be due to synergism because of toxic chemical such as copper, nickel, chromium and chlorine, which are used to remove slimes in the pipelines. The major waste material from thermal power station is the fly ash that creates enormous pollution problem to air, water and soil environment. Fly ash possess large amounts of lead, cobalt, chromium, cadmium etc. When this fly ash is released out through water carriage system it leads to turbidity, over deposition and flood also. Tuticorin Thermal Power Station (TTPS) has installed five power generation units each of 250 MW capacities. About 1.35 lakhs m 3 /hr water is drawn from the sea, utilized for cooling and then the heated effluent is discharged into the same environment. Therefore, this paper deals with various impacts associated with thermal discharge on marine environment. (author)

  20. Optical and thermal performance of large-size parabolic-trough solar collectors from outdoor experiments: A test method and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Loreto; López-Martín, Rafael; Zarza, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outdoor test method to evaluate the optical and thermal performance of parabolic-trough collectors of large size (length ≥ 100 m), similar to those currently installed in solar thermal power plants. Optical performance in line-focus collectors is defined by three parameters, peak-optical efficiency and longitudinal and transversal incidence angle modifiers. In parabolic-troughs, the transversal incidence angle modifier is usually assumed equal to 1, and the incidence angle modifier is referred to the longitudinal incidence angle modifier, which is a factor less than or equal to 1 and must be quantified. These measurements are performed by operating the collector at low fluid temperatures for reducing heat losses. Thermal performance is measured during tests at various operating temperatures, which are defined within the working temperature range of the solar field, and for the condition of maximum optical response. Heat losses are measured from both the experiments performed to measure the overall efficiency and the experiments done by operating the collector to ensure that absorber pipes are not exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The set of parameters describing the performance of a parabolic-trough collector of large size has been measured following the test procedures proposed and explained in the article. - Highlights: • Outdoor test procedures of parabolic-trough solar collector (PTC) of large size working at high temperature are described. • Optical performance measured with cold fluid temperature and thermal performance measured in the complete temperature range. • Experimental data obtained in the testing of a PTC prototype are explained

  1. Solar Probe Plus MAG Sensor Thermal Design for Low Heater Power and Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The heater power available for the Solar Probe Plus FIELDS MAG sensor is less than half of the heritage value for other missions. Nominally the MAG sensors are in the spacecraft's umbra. In the worst hot case, approximately 200 spacecraft communication downlinks, up to 10 hours each, are required at 0.7 AU. These downlinks require the spacecraft to slew 45 deg. about the Y-axis, exposing the MAG sensors and boom to sunlight. This paper presents the thermal design to meet the MAG sensor thermal requirements in the extreme thermal environment and with low heater power. A thermal balance test on the MAG sensor engineering model has verified the thermal design and correlated the thermal model for flight temperature predictions.

  2. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1 ~ 0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement. PMID:24311976

  4. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1 measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2 implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people’s environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3 constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV, two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  5. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  6. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Antó, Josep Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

    2014-04-16

    Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas.

  7. Parametric studies and evaluations of indoor thermal environment in wet season using a field survey and PMV-PPD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shengxian [College of Physics and Electric Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Li, Ming [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Lin, Wenxian [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technique and Preparation for Renewable Energy Materials, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); School of Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia); Sun, Yanlin [College of Physics and Electric Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Fanger's PMV-PPD is the most famous thermal sensation indices but it is too complex to be applied in practice. To obtain simple and applicable correlations, taking Qujing of Yunnan province, China, as example, a wet season (six-month) field measurement was conducted in a naturally ventilated residential room. Based on collected data, PMV indices were calculated by using Newton's iterative method. It is shown that the PMV values approximately vary from -1.0 to +1.0 and the indoor thermal environment is basically comfortable. Relationships of the parameters (indoor and outdoor air temperatures, mean radiant temperature, PMV and PPD) and indoor air temperature gradients (vertical and horizontal) were also studied by means of the linear regression and the quadratic polynomial fit techniques. Numerous correlations with high relativities have been developed. Moreover, the vertical and horizontal air temperature gradients range from 0.1 K/m to 0.85 K/m and from -0.208 K/m to 0.063 K/m in wet season. It is convenient to use these results to evaluate and assess the indoor thermal environment under similar climatic conditions. The results of this work enrich and develop the basic theory of the indoor thermal environment design and control. (author)

  8. Passive thermal management system for downhole electronics in harsh thermal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Bofeng; Ma, Yupu; Hu, Run; Yuan, Chao; Hu, Jinyan; Luo, Xiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A passive thermal management system is proposed for downhole electronics. • Electronics temperature can be maintained within 125 °C for six-hour operating time. • The result shows potential application for the logging tool in oil and gas industry. - Abstract: The performance and reliability of downhole electronics will degrade in high temperature environments. Various active cooling techniques have been proposed for thermal management of such systems. However, these techniques require additional power input, cooling liquids and other moving components which complicate the system. This study presents a passive Thermal Management System (TMS) for downhole electronics. The TMS includes a vacuum flask, Phase Change Material (PCM) and heat pipes. The thermal characteristics of the TMS is evaluated experimentally. The results show that the system maintains equipment temperatures below 125 °C for a six-hour operating period in a 200 °C downhole environment, which will effectively protect the downhole electronics.

  9. Outdoor performance analysis of a 1090× point-focus Fresnel high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal system with triple-junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ning; Ji, Jie; Sun, Wei; Han, Lisheng; Chen, Haifei; Jin, Zhuling

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, respectively. Experimental results show that direct irradiation affects the electrical performance of the system dominantly. Fitting results of electrical performance offer simple and reliable methods to analyze the system performance. - Highlights: • A point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic/thermal system is proposed and studied. • The system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28%. • The system has a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%. • Direct irradiation has the dominant effect on the electrical performance. • Fitting results offer simple and reliable methods to analyze system performances. - Abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, which means the overall efficiency of the system can be more than 80%. A mathematical model for calculating cell temperature is proposed to solve difficult measurement of cell temperature in a system. Moreover, characteristics of electrical performance under various direct

  10. Thermal-Acoustic Fatigue of a Multilayer Thermal Protection System in Combined Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure integrity of thermal protection system (TPS structure for hypersonic vehicles exposed to severe operating environments, a study is undertaken to investigate the response and thermal-acoustic fatigue damage of a representative multilayer TPS structure under combined thermal and acoustic loads. An unsteady-state flight of a hypersonic vehicle is composed of a series of steady-state snapshots, and for each snapshot an acoustic load is imposed to a static steady-state TPS structure. A multistep thermal-acoustic fatigue damage intensity analysis procedure is given and consists of a heat transfer analysis, a nonlinear thermoelastic analysis, and a random response analysis under a combined loading environment and the fatigue damage intensity has been evaluated with two fatigue analysis techniques. The effects of thermally induced deterministic stress and nondeterministic dynamic stress due to the acoustic loading have been considered in the damage intensity estimation with a maximum stress fatigue model. The results show that the given thermal-acoustic fatigue intensity estimation procedure is a viable approach for life prediction of TPS structures under a typical mission cycle with combined loadings characterized by largely different time-scales. A discussion of the effects of the thermal load, the acoustic load, and fatigue analysis methodology on the fatigue damage intensity has been provided.

  11. The thermal environment and occupant perceptions in European office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J L [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2002-02-01

    The results from a large field study of thermal comfort in European office buildings are reported. Environmental conditions and occupant perceptions were collected over fourteen months from twenty-six different office buildings located in France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the UK. This thesis focuses on the thermal measurements and occupant perceptions; however, some of the additional variables with strong connections to thermal sensation are also examined. A summary of human comfort is presented to help place this thesis in appropriate context. The summary presents thermal comfort issues within a broad framework of environmental comfort including physical, physiological, behavioural, psychological and other variables. A more narrowly focused overview of current thermal comfort research is also included. The work attempts to show relationships and produce useful information from the data set by using rather simple statistics and graphical methods. The objective is to quite literally use the data set to illustrate the actual thermal conditions in European office buildings and the occupant perceptions of those conditions. The data are examined in some detail with key relationships identified and explored. Significant differences between countries, both for the physical conditions and the perceptions of those conditions are identified. In addition, the variation over the course of the year for each country is explored. The variations occur in complex ways, which make simple, all encompassing explanations impossible. The nature and size of the variations make the application of simple Europe wide models of thermal comfort questionable. It appears that individuals in different European countries have different expectations for their indoor office thermal environment. This data set will be further explored in a more complete study, which will examine the other measured variables.

  12. The physical environment and occupant thermal perceptions in office buildings. An evaluation of sampled data from five European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J L [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2002-02-01

    The results from a large field study of thermal comfort in European office buildings are reported. Measurements of physical environmental conditions and occupant perceptions were collected over sixteen months from twenty-six different office buildings located in France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the UK. This thesis focuses on the physical environmental measurements and occupant thermal perceptions; however, additional variables with connections to environmental satisfaction are also examined. An overview of human comfort theory is presented to help place this thesis in appropriate context. The overview presents thermal comfort issues within a broad framework of human response to the environment including physical, physiological. behavioural, psychological and other variables. A more narrowly focused overview of current thermal comfort research is also included. The work attempts to show relationships and produce useful information from the data set using graphical methods, especially lowess, a locally weighted regression based scatter plot smoothing technique. The objective of using this approach is to literally show the relationships visually. This approach allows the data set itself to illustrate the actual thermal conditions in European office buildings and the occupant perceptions of those conditions along with illustrating relationships. The data is examined in some detail with key relationships identified and explored. Significant differences between countries, both for the physical conditions and the perceptions of those conditions are identified. In addition, the variation over the course of the year for each country is explored. The relationship of daily average outdoor temperatures to indoor temperatures and indoor temperature perceptions is found to be critically important. The relationships, which appear to drive perceptions of thermal comfort, occur in complex ways, making simple, all encompassing explanations impossible. The nature and size of the

  13. The Social Construction of Place Meaning: Exploring Multiple Meanings of Place as an Outdoor Teaching and Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gkoutis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    This investigation explores the meanings primary school teachers who apply outdoor learning and teaching methods associate withthe places that encompass their teaching practices. A symbolic interactionist framework coupled with a social constructionistorientation was employed to analyze data collected from semi-structured interviews and photo elicitation techniques. The findingsillustrated that meaning ascribed to place derived from the interactional processes between the study’s respondents ...

  14. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  15. Super thermal power plants and environment: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible impact on the environment by the particulate matters, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, trace metals and solid/liquid wastes, which are emitted during the combustion of coal in the super thermal power plants of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The coal consumed by these plants have sufficient sulphur content and ash. Of all the mineral in coal, pyrite is one of the most deleterious in combustion and a major source of oxide of sulphur pollution of the atmosphere. The impact of these on the terrestrial and aquatic environment in and around power plants and on region have been discussed. To arresting such contaminants, some remedial measures are suggested. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes. PMID:25177718

  17. Thermal Environment Evaluation in Commercial Kitchens of United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions and on th......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions...... of defining the values of thermal comfort parameters in kitchens. It can also help to evaluate if the standardized methods are applicable for such non-uniform environment, like commercial kitchens. By using an established method and procedure for evaluating the indoor thermal comfort in commercial kitchens...... more than 100 kitchens environments in the United States were investigated in summer and winter. Results show the influence due to type of kitchen (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic region. Physical measurement confirmed that communally the workers are exposed to a warm or hot environment...

  18. Mapping Thermal Habitat of Ectotherms Based on Behavioral Thermoregulation in a Controlled Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Thermal environment is especially important to ectotherm because a lot of physiological functions rely on the body temperature such as thermoregulation. The so-called behavioural thermoregulation function made use of the heterogeneity of the thermal properties within an individual's habitat to sustain the animal's physiological processes. This function links the spatial utilization and distribution of individual ectotherm with the thermal properties of habitat (thermal habitat). In this study we modelled the relationship between the two by a spatial explicit model that simulates the movements of a lizard in a controlled environment. The model incorporates a lizard's transient body temperatures with a cellular automaton algorithm as a way to link the physiology knowledge of the animal with the spatial utilization of its microhabitat. On a larger spatial scale, 'thermal roughness' of the habitat was defined and used to predict the habitat occupancy of the target species. The results showed the habitat occupancy can be modelled by the cellular automaton based algorithm at a smaller scale, and can be modelled by the thermal roughness index at a larger scale.

  19. Predicting micro thermal habitat of lizards in a dynamic thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding behavioural thermoregulation and its consequences is a central topic in ecology. In this study, a spatial explicit model was developed to simulate the movement and thermal habitat use of lizards in a controlled environment. The model incorporates a lizard's transient body temperatures

  20. Outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8–25 percent). The activity projected to...

  1. Optimized Radiator Geometries for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The optimum radiator configuration in hot lunar thermal environments is one in which the radiator is parallel to the ground and has no view to the hot lunar surface. However, typical spacecraft configurations have limited real estate available for top-mounted radiators, resulting in a desire to use the spacecraft's vertically oriented sides. Vertically oriented, flat panel radiators will have a large view factor to the lunar surface, and thus will be subjected to significant incident lunar infrared heat. Consequently, radiator fluid temperatures will need to exceed approximately 325 K (assuming standard spacecraft radiator optical properties) in order to provide positive heat rejection at lunar noon. Such temperatures are too high for crewed spacecraft applications in which a heat pump is to be avoided. A recent study of vertically oriented radiator configurations subjected to lunar noon thermal environments led to the discovery of a novel radiator concept that yielded positive heat rejection at lower fluid temperatures. This radiator configuration, called the Intense Thermal Infrared Reflector (ITIR), has exhibited superior performance to all previously analyzed concepts in terms of heat rejection in the lunar noon thermal environment. A key benefit of ITIR is the absence of louvers or other moving parts and its simple geometry (no parabolic shapes). ITIR consists of a specularly reflective shielding surface and a diffuse radiating surface joined to form a horizontally oriented V-shape (shielding surface on top). The point of intersection of these surfaces is defined by two angles, those which define the tilt of each surface with respect to the local horizontal. The optimum set of these angles is determined on a case-by-case basis. The idea assumes minimal conductive heat transfer between shielding and radiating surfaces, and a practical design would likely stack sets of these surfaces on top of one another to reduce radiator thickness.

  2. CFD simulation of a cabin thermal environment with and without human body - thermal comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danca, Paul; Bode, Florin; Nastase, Ilinca; Meslem, Amina

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, thermal comfort became one of the criteria in choosing a vehicle. In last decades time spent by people in vehicles had risen substantially. During each trip, thermal comfort must to be ensured for a good psychological and physical state of the passengers. Also, a comfortable environment leads to a higher power concentration of the driver thereby to a safe trip for vehicle occupants and for all traffic participants. The present study numerically investigated the effect of human body sited in the driver's place, over the air velocity distribution and over the thermal comfort in a passenger compartment. CFD simulations were made with different angles of the left inlet grill, in both cases, with and without driver presence. In majority of the actual vehicles environment studies, are made without consideration of human body geometry, in this case, the results precision can be affected. The results show that the presence of human body, lead to global changing of the whole flow pattern inside the vehicular cabin. Also, the locations of the maximum velocities are changing with the angle of the guiding vanes. The thermal comfort PMV/PPD indexes were calculated for each case. The presence of human body leads to a more comfortable environment.

  3. Indoor thermal environment of bedroom during sleep in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Mori, Ikue

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the indoor thermal environment and sleep of occupants in bedrooms where air conditioners (ACs) are preferentially installed. Field measurements and questionnaires were conducted for 22 houses, with a total of 28 occupants, located in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. The participants were requested to wear a wrist actigraphy on the non-dominant hand for three consecutive days, except while bathing or washing hands in order to evaluate sleep by the activity of the actigraphy. The average air temperatures in the bedrooms were 22.6-28.9 °C and 28.1-32.2 °C with and without AC, respectively. The observed lowest air temperature was below 21 °C in a bedroom with AC. Such low air temperatures are not considered appropriate in terms of energy consumption and the occupants' physiological condition during sleep. The wind velocity of fresh air coming through the open window was found as well as when the use of a fan. From the relations among the factors of thermal environment, increased wind velocity seems to compensate for increased air temperature and increased relative humidity. The sleep efficiency index (SEI) looks decreased in accordance with increased air temperature, increased air velocity, and increased relative humidity. However, no statistical significances were found in those relationships. New effective temperature (SET*) was calculated from measured thermal factors and relation was examined with SEI.

  4. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz; Husam Abdulrasool Hasan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Abdul Amir H. Kadhum; Tayser Sumer Gaaz; Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar ce...

  5. Thermal System Upgrade of the Space Environment Simulation Test Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ashok B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the refurbishing and upgrade of the thermal system for the existing thermal vacuum test facility, the Space Environment Simulator, at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The chamber is the largest such facility at the center. This upgrade is the third phase of the long range upgrade of the chamber that has been underway for last few years. The first phase dealt with its vacuum system, the second phase involved the GHe subsystem. The paper describes the considerations of design philosophy options for the thermal system; approaches taken and methodology applied, in the evaluation of the remaining "life" in the chamber shrouds and related equipment by conducting special tests and studies; feasibility and extent of automation, using computer interfaces and Programmable Logic Controllers in the control system and finally, matching the old components to the new ones into an integrated, highly reliable and cost effective thermal system for the facility. This is a multi-year project just started and the paper deals mainly with the plans and approaches to implement the project successfully within schedule and costs.

  6. Thermal responses and its relation with the building outdoor conditions; Respuestas termicas y su relacion con la envolvente del edificio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincic, Irene [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Isalgue, Antoni [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In order to understand and to control the indoor thermal behavior in buildings, it is necessary to know the origin of the energies coming into and outside the building, identifying the geometric factors and physical properties, that can modify the thermal balance of the system. In this work, we analyze the thermal behavior of a building experimentally, related with its exterior conditions. Specifically, we analyze the thermal response indoors at different distances from the building envelope, which implies different thermal insulation situations. Supported on temperature measurements in a residential building, which is representative of local construction styles (adjacent other buildings), we analyze the thermal response effects depending on the distances between the considered points and the envelope and on the insulation between both. Applying a methodology based on experimental transfer functions of buildings, the thermal behavior in the temporary and frequency domains is evaluated. With this methodology, it is possible to visualize certain phenomena and to obtain thermal parameters that characterize the dynamic aspects of the thermal response. The main scope is to extract information from the building analysis, in order to extrapolate the behavior conclusions to a proper thermal design of similar constructions. From the thermal responses analysis at different spatial localization, we conclude that the distance from the building envelope (and also its properties) has a great influence on thermal inertia effects, which can modify importantly the thermal response. This phenomena has a parallelism with the skin effect of the magnetic fields penetration in conductors. The spatial localization implies a certain thermal mass involved in each case, which controls the penetration of exterior thermal oscillation. [Spanish] Para poder entender y controlar los comportamientos termicos en el interior de los edificios, es necesario conocer el origen de las energias que

  7. Understanding the impact of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act on hospitality establishments' outdoor environments: a survey of restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Mutti, Seema; Dubray, Jolene; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-04-01

    The Smoke-Free Ontario Act (SFOA) came into effect in May 2006 and included restrictions to outdoor hospitality areas by only permitting smoking on a patio if the area had no roof. (1) To assess the impact of the SFOA on the prevalence of smoke-free patios in Ontario and (2) to determine the proportion of venues where structural alterations were made rather than going smoke-free in order to achieve compliance with the SFOA. A telephone survey of 403 hospitality sector operators/owners in four clustered samples of Ontario, Canada. Based on completed surveys, the SFOA resulted in an increase in prevalence of smoke-free patios, from 5% (n=21) to 25% (n=99). Of the patios where smoking was permitted before the SFOA (n=382), 42% (n=161) had physical structures that would make smoking not permissible under the new act. Operators of half of these venues (n=80) made their patios smoke-free, with most indicating they had no choice given the costs or physical limitations to changing their outdoor environment. The other half (n=81) reported making physical changes, including removing roof structures to achieve compliance. The SFOA resulted in greater protection from outdoor secondhand smoke; however, most patios still permitted smoking. Half of the venues that complied with the SFOA by going smoke-free did so involuntarily because of structural and/or financial limitations. The majority of venue operators preferred to permit smoking on their patios, and only made their patios smoke-free when they were required to do so by law.

  8. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure levels in different European outdoor urban environments in comparison with regulatory limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Joseph, Wout; Huss, Anke; Verloock, Leen; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Röösli, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Concerns of the general public about potential adverse health effects caused by radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) led authorities to introduce precautionary exposure limits, which vary considerably between regions. It may be speculated that precautionary limits affect the base station network in a manner that mean population exposure unintentionally increases. The objectives of this multicentre study were to compare mean exposure levels in outdoor areas across four different European cities and to compare with regulatory RF-EMF exposure levels in the corresponding areas. We performed measurements in the cities of Amsterdam (the Netherlands, regulatory limits for mobile phone base station frequency bands: 41-61 V/m), Basel (Switzerland, 4-6 V/m), Ghent (Belgium, 3-4.5 V/m) and Brussels (Belgium, 2.9-4.3 V/m) using a portable measurement device. Measurements were conducted in three different types of outdoor areas (central and non-central residential areas and downtown), between 2011 and 2012 at 12 different days. On each day, measurements were taken every 4s for approximately 15 to 30 min per area. Measurements per urban environment were repeated 12 times during 1 year. Arithmetic mean values for mobile phone base station exposure ranged between 0.22 V/m (Basel) and 0.41 V/m (Amsterdam) in all outdoor areas combined. The 95th percentile for total RF-EMF exposure varied between 0.46 V/m (Basel) and 0.82 V/m (Amsterdam) and the 99th percentile between 0.81 V/m (Basel) and 1.20 V/m (Brussels). All exposure levels were far below international reference levels proposed by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection). Our study did not find indications that lowering the regulatory limit results in higher mobile phone base station exposure levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Sánchez, Miguel

    2009-08-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10(-4)) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10(-4)). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  10. Electrical stimulation vs thermal effects in a complex electromagnetic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, Jesus M.; Rufo, Montana; Jimenez, Antonio; Antolin, Alicia; Sanchez, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Studies linking exposure to low levels of radiofrequencies with adverse health effects, notwithstanding their present apparent inconsistency, have contributed to a steady improvement in the quality of evaluating that exposure. In complex electromagnetic environments, with a multitude of emissions of different frequencies acting simultaneously, knowledge of the spectral content is fundamental to evaluating human exposure to non-ionizing radiation. In the present work, we quantify the most significant spectral components in the frequency band 0.5-2200 MHz in an urban area. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyzer and monopole, biconical, and log-periodic antennas. Power density levels were calculated separately for the medium wave, short wave, and frequency modulation radio broadcasting bands, and for the television and GSM, DCS, and UMTS mobile telephony bands. The measured levels were compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for exposure to multiple frequency sources for thermal effects and electrical stimulation. The results showed the criterion limiting exposure on the basis of preventing electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves and muscles to be stricter (exposure quotient 24.7 10 -4 ) than that based on thermal considerations (exposure quotient 0.16 10 -4 ). The bands that contribute most to the latter are short wave, with 46.2%, and mobile telephony with 32.6% of the total exposure. In a complex electromagnetic environment, knowledge of the radiofrequency spectrum is essential in order to quantify the contribution of each type of emission to the public's exposure. It is also necessary to evaluate the electrical effects as well as the thermal effects because the criterion to limit exposure on the basis of the effect of the electrical stimulation of tissues is stricter than that based on thermal effects.

  11. The perceived temperature - a versatile index for the assessment of the human thermal environment. Part A: scientific basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Henning; Laschewski, Gudrun; Grätz, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The Perceived Temperature (PT) is an equivalent temperature based on a complete heat budget model of the human body. It has proved its suitability for numerous applications across a wide variety of scales from micro to global and is successfully used both in daily forecasts and climatological studies. PT is designed for staying outdoors and is defined as the air temperature of a reference environment in which the thermal perception would be the same as in the actual environment. The calculation is performed for a reference subject with an internal heat production of 135 W m-2 (who is walking at 4 km h-1 on flat ground). In the reference environment, the mean radiant temperature equals the air temperature and wind velocity is reduced to a slight draught. The water vapour pressure remains unchanged. Under warm/humid conditions, however, it is implicitly related to a relative humidity of 50%. Clothing is adapted in order to achieve thermal comfort. If this is impossible, cold or heat stress will occur, respectively. The assessment of thermal perception by means of PT is based on Fanger's Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) together with additional model extensions taking account of stronger deviations from thermal neutrality. This is performed using a parameterisation based on a two-node model. In the cold, it allows the mean skin temperature to drop below the comfort value. In the heat, it assesses additionally the enthalpy of sweat-moistened skin and of wet clothes. PT has the advantages of being self-explanatory due to its deviation from air temperature and being—via PMV—directly linked to a thermo-physiologically-based scale of thermal perception that is widely used and has stood the test of time. This paper explains in detail the basic equations of the human heat budget and the coefficients of the parameterisations.

  12. Rover Low Gain Antenna Qualification for Deep Space Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Amaro, Luis R.; Brown, Paula R.; Usiskin, Robert; Prater, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    A method to qualify the Rover Low Gain Antenna (RLGA) for use during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has been devised. The RLGA antenna must survive all ground operations, plus the nominal 670 Martian sol mission that includes the summer and winter seasons of the Mars thermal environment. This qualification effort was performed to verify that the RLGA design, its bonding, and packaging processes are adequate. The qualification test was designed to demonstrate a survival life of three times more than all expected ground testing, plus a nominal 670 Martian sol missions. Baseline RF tests and a visual inspection were performed on the RLGA hardware before the start of the qualification test. Functional intermittent RF tests were performed during thermal chamber breaks over the course of the complete qualification test. For the return loss measurements, the RLGA antenna was moved to a test area. A vector network analyzer was calibrated over the operational frequency range of the antenna. For the RLGA, a simple return loss measurement was performed. A total of 2,010 (3 670 or 3 times mission thermal cycles) thermal cycles was performed. Visual inspection of the RLGA hardware did not show any anomalies due to the thermal cycling. The return loss measurement results of the RLGA antenna after the PQV (Package Qualification and Verification) test did not show any anomalies. The antenna pattern data taken before and after the PQV test at the uplink and downlink frequencies were unchanged. Therefore, the developed design of RLGA is qualified for a long-duration MSL mission.

  13. Preterm infant thermal care: differing thermal environments produced by air versus skin servo-control incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K A; Burr, R

    1999-06-01

    Incubator thermal environments produced by skin versus air servo-control were compared. Infant abdominal skin and incubator air temperatures were recorded from 18 infants in skin servo-control and 14 infants in air servo-control (26- to 29-week gestational age, 14 +/- 2 days postnatal age) for 24 hours. Differences in incubator and infant temperature, neutral thermal environment (NTE) maintenance, and infant and incubator circadian rhythm were examined using analysis of variance and scatterplots. Skin servo-control resulted in more variable air temperature, yet more stable infant temperature, and more time within the NTE. Circadian rhythm of both infant and incubator temperature differed by control mode and the relationship between incubator and infant temperature rhythms was a function of control mode. The differences between incubator control modes extend beyond temperature stability and maintenance of NTE. Circadian rhythm of incubator and infant temperatures is influenced by incubator control.

  14. On thermal properties of hard rocks as a host environment of an underground thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, L.; Hladky, R.; Broz, M.; Novak, P.; Lachman, V.; Sosna, K.; Zaruba, J.; Metelkova, Z.; Najser, J.

    2013-12-01

    With increasing focus on environmentally friendly technologies waste heat recycling became an important issue. Under certain circumstances subsurface environment could be utilized to accommodate relatively large quantity of heat. Industrial waste heat produced during warm months can be stored in an underground thermal energy storage (UTES) and used when needed. It is however a complex task to set up a sustainable UTES for industrial scale. Number of parameters has to be studied and evaluated by means of thermohydromechanical and chemical coupling (THMC) before any UTES construction. Thermal characteristics of various rocks and its stability under thermal loading are amongst the most essential. In the Czech Republic study two complementary projects THMC processes during an UTES operation. The RESEN project (www.resen.cz) employs laboratory tests and experiments to characterise thermal properties of hard rocks in the Bohemian Massif. Aim of the project is to point out the most suitable rock environment in the Bohemian Massif for moderate to ultra-high temperature UTES construction (Sanyal, 2005). The VITA project (www.geology.cz/mokrsko) studies THM coupling in non-electrical temperature UTES using long term in-situ experiment. In both projects thermal properties of rocks were studied. Thermal conductivity and capacity were measured on rock samples. In addition an influence of increasing temperature and moisture content was considered. Ten hard rocks were investigated. The set included two sandstones, two ignibrites, a melaphyr, a syenite, two granites, a gneiss and a serpentinite. For each rock there were measured thermal conductivity and capacity of at least 54 dried samples. Subsequently, the samples were heated up to 380°C in 8 hours and left to cool down. Thermal characteristics were measured during the heating period and after the sample reached room temperature. Heating and cooling cycle was repeated 7 to 10 times to evaluate possible UTES-like degradation of

  15. Assessment of Accrued Damage and Remaining Useful Life in Leadfree Electronics Subjected to Multiple Thermal Environments of Thermal Aging and Thermal Cycling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method has been developed for prognostication of accrued prior damage in electronics subjected to overlapping sequential environments of thermal aging and thermal...

  16. Determination of Science Teachers' Opinions about Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Ulas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to discover what science teachers' opinions about outdoor education learning environments are. Outdoor education learning environments contribute to problem-solving, critical and creative thinking skills of students. For this reason, outdoor education learning environments are very important for students to learn by…

  17. Entanglement of two distant qubits driven by thermal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, Víctor; Eremeev, Vitalie; Orszag, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    A model of entanglement generation of two initially disentangled qubits, each coupled to a separate cavity with the cavities connected by a fiber, is considered. The creation and evolution of the atomic entanglement are studied in the framework of the microscopic master equation capable of describing an open quantum system. The cavities and fiber are coupled to their own thermal environment. In these conditions, we compute the concurrence as a measure of the atomic entanglement and study the contribution of the environments at finite temperature to the dynamics of entanglement. As a result, one finds interesting effects where the thermal baths stimulate the generation of the entanglement in a given range of temperatures and the effect could be seen especially at some stage of the entanglement evolution. The range of temperatures at which entanglement increases is limited by some optimal values, depending on the physical characteristics of the system, such as operating cavity/fiber frequencies, atom-field detuning and couplings, and loss rates.

  18. Differences in lateral gene transfer in hypersaline versus thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew E; Spear, John R; Oren, Aharon; House, Christopher H

    2011-07-08

    The role of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of microorganisms is only beginning to be understood. While most LGT events occur between closely related individuals, inter-phylum and inter-domain LGT events are not uncommon. These distant transfer events offer potentially greater fitness advantages and it is for this reason that these "long distance" LGT events may have significantly impacted the evolution of microbes. One mechanism driving distant LGT events is microbial transformation. Theoretically, transformative events can occur between any two species provided that the DNA of one enters the habitat of the other. Two categories of microorganisms that are well-known for LGT are the thermophiles and halophiles. We identified potential inter-class LGT events into both a thermophilic class of Archaea (Thermoprotei) and a halophilic class of Archaea (Halobacteria). We then categorized these LGT genes as originating in thermophiles and halophiles respectively. While more than 68% of transfer events into Thermoprotei taxa originated in other thermophiles, less than 11% of transfer events into Halobacteria taxa originated in other halophiles. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental difference between LGT in thermophiles and halophiles. We theorize that the difference lies in the different natures of the environments. While DNA degrades rapidly in thermal environments due to temperature-driven denaturization, hypersaline environments are adept at preserving DNA. Furthermore, most hypersaline environments, as topographical minima, are natural collectors of cellular debris. Thus halophiles would in theory be exposed to a greater diversity and quantity of extracellular DNA than thermophiles.

  19. Teaching in the Field: What Teacher Professional Life Histories Tell About How They Learn to Teach in the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feille, Kelly K.

    2017-06-01

    This research investigates the professional life histories of upper elementary science teachers who were identified as effective both within the classroom and in the outdoor learning environment (OLE). The narratives of five teachers, collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews, provided the data for the study. Professional life histories were constructed for each teacher participant and an analysis of the teacher narratives identified the themes of teacher development across the voices of the participants. Narrative reasoning was used to unify those themes into a hypothetical professional life history as reported in this manuscript. Implications of this research can be realized for stakeholders in the preparation of pre-service teachers as well as the development of in-service teachers. Future research regarding the early induction years of new teachers, impacts of inclusion of the OLE in pre-service teacher instruction, and teacher experiences regarding professional development relating to efforts to include the OLE in formal education should be investigated.

  20. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Hasan, Husam Abdulrasool; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar cells. The electrical efficiency and power output are directly correlated with the mass flow rate. The results show that electrical efficiency was improved by 7% when using CPC and jet impingement cooling in a PVT solar collector at 1:00 p.m. (solar irradiance of 1050 W/m² and an ambient temperature of 33.5 °C). It can also be seen that the power output improved by 36% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 20% without CPC in the photovoltaic (PV) module at 1:30 p.m. The short-circuit current I SC of the PV module experienced an improvement of ~28% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 11.7% without CPC. The output of the PV module was enhanced by 31% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 16% without CPC.

  1. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar cells. The electrical efficiency and power output are directly correlated with the mass flow rate. The results show that electrical efficiency was improved by 7% when using CPC and jet impingement cooling in a PVT solar collector at 1:00 p.m. (solar irradiance of 1050 W/m2 and an ambient temperature of 33.5 °C. It can also be seen that the power output improved by 36% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 20% without CPC in the photovoltaic (PV module at 1:30 p.m. The short-circuit current ISC of the PV module experienced an improvement of ~28% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 11.7% without CPC. The output of the PV module was enhanced by 31% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 16% without CPC.

  2. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K; Ono, S [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Integrated Software Environment for Pressurized Thermal Shock Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Araneo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the main features and an application to a real Nuclear Power Plant (NPP of an Integrated Software Environment (in the following referred to as “platform” developed at University of Pisa (UNIPI to perform Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS analysis. The platform is written in Java for the portability and it implements all the steps foreseen in the methodology developed at UNIPI for the deterministic analysis of PTS scenarios. The methodology starts with the thermal hydraulic analysis of the NPP with a system code (such as Relap5-3D and Cathare2, during a selected transient scenario. The results so obtained are then processed to provide boundary conditions for the next step, that is, a CFD calculation. Once the system pressure and the RPV wall temperature are known, the stresses inside the RPV wall can be calculated by mean a Finite Element (FE code. The last step of the methodology is the Fracture Mechanics (FM analysis, using weight functions, aimed at evaluating the stress intensity factor (KI at crack tip to be compared with the critical stress intensity factor KIc. The platform automates all these steps foreseen in the methodology once the user specifies a number of boundary conditions at the beginning of the simulation.

  4. Differences in lateral gene transfer in hypersaline versus thermal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    House Christopher H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of lateral gene transfer (LGT in the evolution of microorganisms is only beginning to be understood. While most LGT events occur between closely related individuals, inter-phylum and inter-domain LGT events are not uncommon. These distant transfer events offer potentially greater fitness advantages and it is for this reason that these "long distance" LGT events may have significantly impacted the evolution of microbes. One mechanism driving distant LGT events is microbial transformation. Theoretically, transformative events can occur between any two species provided that the DNA of one enters the habitat of the other. Two categories of microorganisms that are well-known for LGT are the thermophiles and halophiles. Results We identified potential inter-class LGT events into both a thermophilic class of Archaea (Thermoprotei and a halophilic class of Archaea (Halobacteria. We then categorized these LGT genes as originating in thermophiles and halophiles respectively. While more than 68% of transfer events into Thermoprotei taxa originated in other thermophiles, less than 11% of transfer events into Halobacteria taxa originated in other halophiles. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is a fundamental difference between LGT in thermophiles and halophiles. We theorize that the difference lies in the different natures of the environments. While DNA degrades rapidly in thermal environments due to temperature-driven denaturization, hypersaline environments are adept at preserving DNA. Furthermore, most hypersaline environments, as topographical minima, are natural collectors of cellular debris. Thus halophiles would in theory be exposed to a greater diversity and quantity of extracellular DNA than thermophiles.

  5. Effect of phase change materials on indoor thermal environment under different weather conditions and over a long time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Haoshu; Chen, Chao; Wei, Shen; Guan, Yong; Ma, Caiwen; Xie, Guangya; Li, Na; Chen, Ziguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Indicators evaluating the performance of PCMs in greenhouses are introduced. • Real equivalent specific heat capacity of PCMs is embedded in a numerical model. • Real behaviour of PCMs has been monitored over a long time. • Efficiency of PCMs walls are compared for sunny and cloudy days. • Heat storage and release amounts of PCMs walls have been calculated. - Abstract: To evaluate the effect of phase change materials (PCMs) on the indoor thermal environment of greenhouses under different weather conditions and over a long time in the heating season, a study was carried out using both experimental method and numerical method. The study was conducted in a typical greenhouse located in Beijing, China, and important parameters have been monitored continuously for 61 days, including indoor air temperature, outdoor air temperature, solar radiation, surface temperature of greenhouse envelopes and soil temperature. Based on these parameters, a number of indicators, namely, operative temperature, daily effective accumulative temperature, irradiated surface temperature of the north wall, average temperature of PCMs, and daily heat storage and release, have been used to evaluate the performance of PCMs in greenhouses. All indicators have provided consistent results that confirm the positive effect of PCMs on improving the indoor thermal environment of greenhouses over a long time. Additionally, the paper has demonstrated that a sunny weather could help to promote the efficiency of PCMs, comparing to a cloudy weather

  6. Activity size distributions of some naturally occurring radionuclides 7Be, 40K and 212Pb in indoor and outdoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.

    2005-01-01

    The activity size distributions of natural radionuclides 7 Be and 40 K were measured outdoor in El-Minia city, Egypt by means of gamma spectroscopy. A low-pressure Berner cascade impactor was used as a sampling device. The activity size distribution of both 7 Be and 40 K was described by one log-normal distribution, which was represented by the accumulation mode. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 7 Be and 40 K was determined to be 530 and 1550nm with a relative geometric standard deviation (δ, which was defined as the dispersion of the peak) of 2.4 and 2, respectively. The same sampling device (Berner impactor) and a screen diffusion battery were used to measure the activity size distribution, activity concentration and unattached fraction (f P ) of 212 Pb in indoor air of El-Minia City, Egypt. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of the accumulation mode for attached 212 Pb was determined to be 250nm with a mean geometric standard deviation (δ) of 2.6. The mean value of the specific concentration of 212 Pb associated with that mode was determined to be 460+/-20mBqm -3 . The activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) of unattached 212 Pb was determined to be 1.25nm with δ of 1.4. A mean unattached fraction (f p ) of 0.13+/-0.02 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 1.8x10 3 cm -3 . The mean activity concentration of unattached 212 Pb was found to be 19+/-3mBqm -3 . It was found that the aerosol concentration played an important role in varying the unattached, attached activity concentration and unattached fraction (f P )

  7. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  8. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  9. Low Thermal Conductivity, High Durability Thermal Barrier Coatings for IGCC Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Eric [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Gell, Maurice [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are crucial to improved energy efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. The use of traditional topcoat materials, e.g. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), is limited at elevated temperatures due to (1) the accelerated undesirable phase transformations and (2) corrosive attacks by calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) deposits and moisture. The first goal of this project is to use the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) process to further reduce the thermal conductivity of YSZ TBCs by introducing a unique microstructural feature of layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries (IPBs). Extensive process optimization accompanied with hundreds of spray trials as well as associated SEM cross-section and laser-flash measurements, yielded a thermal conductivity as low as 0.62 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹ in SPPS YSZ TBCs, approximately 50% reduction of APS TBCs; while other engine critical properties, such as cyclic durability, erosion resistance and sintering resistance, were characterized to be equivalent or better than APS baselines. In addition, modifications were introduced to SPPS TBCs so as to enhance their resistance to CMAS under harsh IGCC environments. Several mitigation approaches were explored, including doping the coatings with Al₂O₃ and TiO₂, applying a CMAS infiltration-inhibiting surface layer, and filling topcoat cracks with blocking substances. The efficacy of all these modifications was assessed with a set of novel CMAS-TBC interaction tests, and the moisture resistance was tested in a custom-built high-temperature moisture rig. In the end, the optimal low thermal conductivity TBC system was selected based on all evaluation tests and its processing conditions were documented. The optimal coating consisted on a thick inner layer of YSZ coating made by the SPPS process having a thermal conductivity 50% lower than standard YSZ coatings topped with a high temperature tolerant CMAS resistant gadolinium

  10. [Research progress and development trend of quantitative assessment techniques for urban thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tie Gang; Xiao, Rong Bo; Cai, Yun Nan; Wang, Yao Wu; Wu, Chang Guang

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative assessment of urban thermal environment has become a focus for urban climate and environmental science since the concept of urban heat island has been proposed. With the continual development of space information and computer simulation technology, substantial progresses have been made on quantitative assessment techniques and methods of urban thermal environment. The quantitative assessment techniques have been developed to dynamics simulation and forecast of thermal environment at various scales based on statistical analysis of thermal environment on urban-scale using the historical data of weather stations. This study reviewed the development progress of ground meteorological observation, thermal infrared remote sensing and numerical simulation. Moreover, the potential advantages and disadvantages, applicability and the development trends of these techniques were also summarized, aiming to add fundamental knowledge of understanding the urban thermal environment assessment and optimization.

  11. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  12. Real-Time fusion of visual images and laser data images for safe navigation in outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    García-Alegre Sánchez, María C.; Martín, David; Guinea García-Alegre, Domingo M.; Guinea Díaz, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    [EN]In recent years, two dimensional laser range finders mounted on vehicles is becoming a fruitful solution to achieve safety and environment recognition requirements (Keicher & Seufert, 2000), (Stentz et al., 2002), (DARPA, 2007). They provide real-time accurate range measurements in large angular fields at a fixed height above the ground plane, and enable robots and vehicles to perform more confidently a variety of tasks by fusing images from visual cameras with range data (...

  13. WildSense: Monitoring Interactions among Wild Deer in Harsh Outdoor Environments Using a Delay-Tolerant WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologists and ecologists often monitor the spread of disease among deer in the wild by using tracking systems that record their movement patterns, locations, and interaction behavior. The existing commercial systems for monitoring wild deer utilize collars with GPS sensors, deployed on captured and rereleased deer. The GPS sensors record location data every few hours, enabling researchers to approximate the interaction behavior of tracked deer with their GPS locations. However, the coarse granularity of periodically recorded GPS location data provides only limited precision for determining deer interaction behavior. We have designed a novel system to monitor wild deer interaction behavior more precisely in harsh wilderness environments. Our system combines the functionalities of both GPS and RF-radio sensors with low-cost and minimal-resource motes. We designed and built our system to be able to operate robustly for a period of up to several months for continual tracking and monitoring of the locations and interaction behaviors of wild deer in harsh environments. We successfully deployed six deer collars on six wild deer that were captured and rereleased in the Soapstone Prairie Natural Area of northern Colorado over a one-month period. In this paper, we describe how we designed and built this system and evaluate its successful operation in a wilderness area.

  14. LEVELS OF EXTREMELY LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM OVERHEAD POWER LINES IN THE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT OF RAMALLAH CITY-PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuasbi, Falastine; Lahham, Adnan; Abdel-Raziq, Issam Rashid

    2018-05-01

    In this study, levels of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields originated from overhead power lines were investigated in the outdoor environment in Ramallah city, Palestine. Spot measurements were applied to record fields intensities over 6-min period. The Spectrum Analyzer NF-5035 was used to perform measurements at 1 m above ground level and directly underneath 40 randomly selected power lines distributed fairly within the city. Levels of electric fields varied depending on the line's category (power line, transformer or distributor), a minimum mean electric field of 3.9 V/m was found under a distributor line, and a maximum of 769.4 V/m under a high-voltage power line (66 kV). However, results of electric fields showed a log-normal distribution with the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of 35.9 and 2.8 V/m, respectively. Magnetic fields measured at power lines, on contrast, were not log-normally distributed; the minimum and maximum mean magnetic fields under power lines were 0.89 and 3.5 μT, respectively. As a result, none of the measured fields exceeded the ICNIRP's guidelines recommended for general public exposures to extremely low-frequency fields.

  15. Thermal dynamic simulation of wall for building energy efficiency under varied climate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejin; Zhang, Yujin; Hong, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at different kind of walls in five cities of different zoning for thermal design, using thermal instantaneous response factors method, the author develops software to calculation air conditioning cooling load temperature, thermal response factors, and periodic response factors. On the basis of the data, the author gives the net work analysis about the influence of dynamic thermal of wall on air-conditioning load and thermal environment in building of different zoning for thermal design regional, and put forward the strategy how to design thermal insulation and heat preservation wall base on dynamic thermal characteristic of wall under different zoning for thermal design regional. And then provide the theory basis and the technical references for the further study on the heat preservation with the insulation are in the service of energy saving wall design. All-year thermal dynamic load simulating and energy consumption analysis for new energy-saving building is very important in building environment. This software will provide the referable scientific foundation for all-year new thermal dynamic load simulation, energy consumption analysis, building environment systems control, carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy -saving walls building. Based on which, we will not only expediently design system of building energy, but also analyze building energy consumption and carry through scientific energy management. The study will provide the referable scientific foundation for carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy saving walls building.

  16. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  17. Responses on indoor thermal environment in selected dwellings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of a thermal comfort study conducted recently on 12 subjects in the hot season in Ibadan, located in the hot humid climate. A statistical sample was carried out on these subjects casting their thermal comfort votes at half-hourly basis in four major areas of the city between February and April.

  18. Federal outdoor recreation trends: effects on economic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Donald B.K. English

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor recreation is a central way that people interact with the natural environment. Federal land agencies are key providers of settings, facilities, and landscapes for recreation. Outdoor recreation is also an important driver of economic activity in rural communities near recreation destinations and across the United States. Future participation in outdoor...

  19. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    indoor environment. For the energy consumption of the HVAC system, air-to-brine heat pump, mixing station and controller of the radiant floor, and the air handling unit were considered. The measurements were analyzed based on the achieved indoor environment category (according to EN 15251...... the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar...

  20. The home electronic media environment and parental safety concerns: relationships with outdoor time after school and over the weekend among 9-11 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2018-04-05

    Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The odds of spending > 1 h outdoors after school, and > 2 h outdoors on a weekend were computed, according to demographic variables, screen-based behaviours, media access, and parental safety concerns. Interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES) were explored. Boys, low SES participants, and children who played on their computer for  1 h outside after school than girls, high SES children and those playing on a computer for ≥2 h, respectively. Counterintuitive results were found for access to media devices and crime-related safety concerns as both of these were positively associated with time spent outdoors after school. A significant interaction for traffic-related concerns*sex was found; higher road safety concerns were associated with lower odds of outdoor time after school in boys only. Age was associated with weekend outdoor time, which interacted with sex and SES; older children were more likely to spend > 2 h outside on weekends but this was only significant among girls and high SES participants. Our results suggest that specific groups of children are less likely to spend their free time outside, and it would seem that only prolonged recreational computer use has a negative association with children's outdoor time after school. Further research is needed to explore potential underlying mechanisms, and parental safety concerns in more detail.

  1. Prevalence, persistence, and phenotypic variation of Aspergillus fumigatus in the outdoor environment in Manchester, UK, over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshareef, Fadwa; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients, is considered to be the world's most dangerous mould. It is widely distributed in the environment, and airborne asexual conidia serve as the main mode of transport for pulmonary lung infection. It is important to monitor seasonal airborne conidia levels when assessing the risk of acquiring this infection. In this study, air was sampled for total viable fungal spores and viable A. fumigatus conidia monthly over a 2-year period (2009 and 2010) close to Manchester, UK, city center. Total viable airborne fungal counts varied seasonally, peaking in the summer and autumn for both years and reaching levels of approximately 1100-1400 colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3); counts were strongly positively correlated to mean temperature (R(2) = 0.697). By contrast, A. fumigatus viable airborne counts were not seasonally associated; persistent low levels were between 3 and 20 CFU/m(3) and were not correlated with mean temperature (R(2) = 0.018). A total of 220 isolates of A. fumigatus were recovered on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 45°C, and internal transcribed spacer sequencing and restriction digestion of a partial polymerase chain reaction amplicon of the β-tubulin gene (benA) of 34 randomly selected isolates were used to confirm the isolates as A. fumigatus. When the colony radial growth rates (Kr) were determined, the highest rates were observed on PDA, followed by Vogel's medium supplemented with phosphatidylcholine and Vogel's medium alone. Clinical isolates had a significantly higher mean colony Kr on PDA compared with environmental isolates.

  2. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  3. Study on indoor thermal environment in winter for rural residences in Yulin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanjun, Li; Weixiao, Han

    2018-02-01

    Yulin region is located in the northern part of Shaanxi Province, China. The winter here is very cold and it has a long duration. In this paper, a rural residence which was located in Yulin region was taken as a study object. Indoor thermal environment of the rural residence were tested, including indoor air temperature and air relative humidity. Then, test data were analyzed. It was summarized that indoor thermal environment of test room can not fully meet human thermal comfort needs, and some tactics of regulation building thermal environment were proposed. This research contributes to improvement of indoor thermal environment for local rural residences and it provides reference for rural residences in other cold regions.

  4. Characterization factors for thermal pollution in freshwater aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Hanafiah, Marlia Mohd; Pfister, Stephan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Pelletier, Gregory J; Koehler, Annette

    2010-12-15

    To date the impact of thermal emissions has not been addressed in life cycle assessment despite the narrow thermal tolerance of most aquatic species. A method to derive characterization factors for the impact of cooling water discharges on aquatic ecosystems was developed which uses space and time explicit integration of fate and effects of water temperature changes. The fate factor is calculated with a 1-dimensional steady-state model and reflects the residence time of heat emissions in the river. The effect factor specifies the loss of species diversity per unit of temperature increase and is based on a species sensitivity distribution of temperature tolerance intervals for various aquatic species. As an example, time explicit characterization factors were calculated for the cooling water discharge of a nuclear power plant in Switzerland, quantifying the impact on aquatic ecosystems of the rivers Aare and Rhine. The relative importance of the impact of these cooling water discharges was compared with other impacts in life cycle assessment. We found that thermal emissions are relevant for aquatic ecosystems compared to other stressors, such as chemicals and nutrients. For the case of nuclear electricity investigated, thermal emissions contribute between 3% and over 90% to Ecosystem Quality damage.

  5. Several aspects of the effect of nuclear power engineering and thermal power engineering on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malenchenko, A F

    1979-01-01

    A survey is made of the comparative effect of nuclear power engineering and thermal power engineering on environment and man. The most significant approaches to solution of radio-ecological problems of APS are found.

  6. Thermal environment in a simulated double office room with convective and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Rezgals, Lauris

    2017-01-01

    anddraught rate was calculated. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by using two thermal manikins. CCMV provided slightly more uniform thermal environment and the least sensitive to different workstation layouts than the other systems. CB provided a bit higher draught rate levels than...

  7. Thermal Analysis--Human Comfort--Indoor Environments. NBS Special Publication 491.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Billy W., Ed.; Hill, James E., Ed.

    Included in these proceedings are 11 formal papers presented by leading researchers in the field of thermal comfort and heat stress at a symposium held for the purpose of exploring new aspects of indoor thermal environments, caused primarily by the impact of energy conservation in new and existing buildings. The contributed papers were from…

  8. Breathing thermal manikin for indoor environment assessment: Important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    Recently breathing thermal manikins have been developed and used for indoor environment measurement, evaluation and optimization as well as validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of airflow around a human body. Advances in the assessment of occupants¿ thermal comfort...... and shape of body segments, control mode, breathing simulation, etc. are discussed and specified in this paper....

  9. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale

    OpenAIRE

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-01-01

    Background: The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. ...

  10. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further

  11. CALORSTOCK'94. Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, M.T.; Lund, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    This publication is the first volume of the proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the sixth international conference on thermal energy storage held in Espoo, Finland on August 22-25, 1994. This volume contains 58 presentations from the following six sessions: Aquifer storage, integration into energy systems, Simulation models and design tools, IEA energy conservation through energy storage programme workshop, Earth coupled storage, District heating and utilities

  12. Thermal neutron imaging in an active interrogation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, P.E.; Forman, L.; Norman, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a thermal-neutron coded-aperture imager that reveals the locations of hydrogenous materials from which thermal neutrons are being emitted. This imaging detector can be combined with an accelerator to form an active interrogation system in which fast neutrons are produced in a heavy metal target by means of excitation by high energy photons. The photo-induced neutrons can be either prompt or delayed, depending on whether neutronemitting fission products are generated. Provided that there are hydrogenous materials close to the target, some of the photo-induced neutrons slow down and emerge from the surface at thermal energies. These neutrons can be used to create images that show the location and shape of the thermalizing materials. Analysis of the temporal response of the neutron flux provides information about delayed neutrons from induced fission if there are fissionable materials in the target. The combination of imaging and time-of-flight discrimination helps to improve the signal-to-background ratio. It is also possible to interrogate the target with neutrons, for example using a D-T generator. In this case, an image can be obtained from hydrogenous material in a target without the presence of heavy metal. In addition, if fissionable material is present in the target, probing with fast neutrons can stimulate delayed neutrons from fission, and the imager can detect and locate the object of interest, using appropriate time gating. Operation of this sensitive detection equipment in the vicinity of an accelerator presents a number of challenges, because the accelerator emits electromagnetic interference as well as stray ionizing radiation, which can mask the signals of interest.

  13. Vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D status and serum bioavailable 25(OH)D of young Asian Indian males working in outdoor and indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ravinder; Saha, Soma; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Singh, Namrata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    Urban Asian Indians generally have low serum 25(OH)D. Information on serum bioavailable 25(OH)D and the effect of prolonged sun-exposure in them is not known. We assessed serum 25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D in males with varying durations of sun-exposure in Delhi during August-September. Serum 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), bioavailable 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D index, iPTH, ionized calcium and sun-index were assessed in outdoor, mixed outdoor-indoor and indoor workers (n = 88, 32 and 74, respectively). The mean sun-index (12.0 ± 6.25, 4.3 ± 2.20 and 0.7 ± 0.62, respectively; P < 0.001) was highest outdoors and lowest indoors. Serum 25(OH)D (29.0 ± 8.61, 19.1 ± 5.73 and 10.9 ± 4.19 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001), bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index were maximum in outdoor workers followed by mixed-exposure and indoor workers. Their mean serum DBP levels (241.2 ± 88.77, 239.3 ± 83.40 and 216.6 ± 63.93 µg/ml, respectively; P = 0.12) were comparable. Mean serum iPTH was significantly lower in outdoor than indoor workers and showed inverse correlations with serum 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index (r = -0.401, -0.269 and -0.236, respectively; P < 0.001 in all). Daily dietary-calorie intake was higher and calcium lower in outdoor than indoor workers. On regression analysis, sun-exposure was the only significant variable, increasing serum 25(OH)D by 2.03 ng/ml per hour of sun-exposure (95 % confidence interval 1.77-2.28; P < 0.001). Outdoor workers with prolonged sun-exposure were vitamin D-sufficient, with higher serum bioavailable 25(OH)D than the indoor workers during summer. Use of serum DBP levels did not affect the interpretation of their vitamin D status.

  14. Predicted thermal and stress environments in the vicinity of repository openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, S.J.; Hardy, M.P.; Lin, M.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the thermal and stress environment in the vicinity of repository openings is important for preclosure performance considerations and worker health and safety considerations for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This paper presents the results of two and three dimensional numerical analyses which have determined the thermal and stress environments for typical repository openings. In general, it is predicted that openings close to heat sources attain high temperatures and experience a significant stress increase. Openings away from heat sources experience more uniform temperature changes and experience a stress change which results in part from a far-field thermal loading

  15. Thermal environment and sleep in winter shelter-analogue settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yosuke; Maeda, Kazuki; Nabeshima, Yuki; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from 0 AM to 7 AM in a gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used emergency supplies consisting of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. Air temperature, humidity were measured around the sleeping subjects through the night. Sleep parameters, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and heart rate of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires relating to thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after sleep. The sleep efficiency indices were lower when the subjects slept using the blankets. As the microclimate temperature between the human body and blanket was lower, mean skin temperature was significantly lower in the case of blankets.

  16. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  17. The band gap variation of a two dimensional binary locally resonant structure in thermal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the numerical investigation of thermal effect on band gap dynamical characteristic for a two-dimensional binary structure composed of aluminum plate periodically filled with nitrile rubber cylinder is presented. Initially, the band gap of the binary structure variation trend with increasing temperature is studied by taking the softening effect of thermal stress into account. A breakthrough is made which found the band gap being narrower and shifting to lower frequency in thermal environment. The complete band gap which in higher frequency is more sensitive to temperature that it disappears with temperature increasing. Then some new transformed models are created by changing the height of nitrile rubber cylinder from 1mm to 7mm. Simulations show that transformed model can produce a wider band gap (either flexure or complete band gap. A proper forbidden gap of elastic wave can be utilized in thermal environment although both flexure and complete band gaps become narrower with temperature. Besides that, there is a zero-frequency flat band appearing in the first flexure band, and it becomes broader with temperature increasing. The band gap width decreases trend in thermal environment, as well as the wider band gap induced by the transformed model with higher nitrile rubber cylinder is useful for the design and application of phononic crystal structures in thermal environment.

  18. Natural environment and thermal behaviour of Dimetrodon limbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florides; Kalogirou; Tassou; Wrobel

    2001-02-01

    This paper examines the body temperature variation of Dimetrodon during the different seasons of the year. The effect of the sail of Dimetrodon on its body temperature is also evaluated. It is shown that the sail of pelycosaurs provided an advantage to the reptile by warming it up quicker in the morning in cold environments. This would be a benefit, allowing Dimetrodon to prey on large reptiles, above 55kg, in the early morning while they were sluggish. From the results presented a climate similar to that of March for Cyprus could be representative of that of Permian period.

  19. Improving the Physical Activity and Outdoor Play Environment of Family Child Care Homes in Nebraska Through Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Danae; Dev, Dipti; Guo, Yage; Hulse, Emily; Rida, Zainab; Sedani, Ami; Coyle, Brian

    2018-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment in Child Care (Go NAP SACC) intervention was effective in improving best practices in the areas of infant and child physical activity and outdoor play and learning in family child care homes (FCCHs) in Nebraska. FCCHs (n = 201) participated in a pre-post evaluation using the Infant and Child Physical Activity and Outdoor Play and Learning assessments from the Go NAP SACC validated measure to assess compliance with best practices. At post, FCCHs demonstrated significant differences in 85% of the Infant and Child Physical Activity items (17 of 20) and 80% of the Outdoor Play and Learning items (12 of 15). Significant differences in best practices between urban and rural FCCH providers were also found. Go NAP SACC appears to be an effective intervention in Nebraska as, after participation in the initiative, providers were improving child care physical activity best practices. Additional research is needed to objectively determine if these changes resulted in objective improvements in children's physical activity levels. Further, efforts are needed to develop and/or identify geographic-specific resources for continued improvement.

  20. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W.; James, J. Joy; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children’s outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children’s HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included. PMID:29152542

  1. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; James, J Joy; Battista, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children's HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included.

  2. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  3. Self-correcting quantum memory in a thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesi, Stefano; Roethlisberger, Beat; Loss, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The ability to store information is of fundamental importance to any computer, be it classical or quantum. To identify systems for quantum memories, which rely, analogously to classical memories, on passive error protection (''self-correction''), is of greatest interest in quantum information science. While systems with topological ground states have been considered to be promising candidates, a large class of them was recently proven unstable against thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose two-dimensional (2D) spin models unaffected by this result. Specifically, we introduce repulsive long-range interactions in the toric code and establish a memory lifetime polynomially increasing with the system size. This remarkable stability is shown to originate directly from the repulsive long-range nature of the interactions. We study the time dynamics of the quantum memory in terms of diffusing anyons and support our analytical results with extensive numerical simulations. Our findings demonstrate that self-correcting quantum memories can exist in 2D at finite temperatures.

  4. Effect of Thermal Environment on the Mechanical Behaviors of Building Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and thermal environment can influence the mechanical properties of building materials worked in the civil engineering, for example, concrete, building rock, and steel. This paper examines standard cylindrical building marble specimens (Φ50 × 100 mm that were treated with high temperatures in two different thermal environments: vacuum (VE and airiness (AE. Uniaxial compression tests were also carried out on those specimens after heat treatment to study the effect that the thermal environment has on mechanical behaviors. With an increase in temperature, the mechanical behavior of marble in this study indicates a critical temperature of 600°C. Both the peak stress and elasticity modulus were larger for the VE than they were for the AE. The thermal environment has an obvious influence on the mechanical properties, especially at temperatures of 450∼750°C. The failure mode of marble specimens under uniaxial compression is mainly affected by the thermal environment at 600°C.

  5. Studies of archaeal virus-host systems in thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne

    Since the first organisms were isolated from hot springs, a large number of viruses were found in these geothermal active environments, most of them infecting Archaea. Archaeal viruses form a separate lineage from those of Eukarya and Bacteria often showing exceptional morphologies and genomic...... features. Most of the isolated archaeal viruses infecting members of the Crenarchaeota have been characterized regarding their genome, the structure of their virions and their influence on the host viability. Only a few, SIRV a rod-shaped and STIV an icosahedrical virus, have been subjected to more...... extensive studies. This work investigates tailed spindle-shaped viruses that we have isolated from different geographical acidothermal, terrestrial hot springs and they primarily infect members of the genus Sulfolobales. The wide distribution of these viruses was established and, moreover, genomic...

  6. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  7. Thermal changes of the environment and their influence on reinforced concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtik, R.; Cajka, R.

    2018-04-01

    The thermal expansion of concrete elements concerns both monolithic and prefabricated structures. Inappropriate design of dilation segments may cause minor but even larger failures. Critical environment factors are temperature-changing operations, such as unheated underground garages, where temperature fluctuations may occur depending on the exterior conditions. This paper numerically and experimentally analyses the thermal deformation of selected girders in the underground garages and the consequent structure failures, their causes, possible prevention and appropriate remediation.

  8. Rationale and study protocol for the 'eCoFit' randomized controlled trial: Integrating smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to improve health-related fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with, Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynska, Magdalena; Lubans, David R; Cohen, Kristen E; Smith, Jordan J; Robards, Sara L; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence and risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has dramatically increased over the past decade. Physical activity (PA) has significant benefits for the treatment and prevention of T2D. The aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based PA intervention to improve aerobic and muscular fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. The eCoFit pilot intervention will be evaluated using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. The 20-week (Phases 1 and 2) multi-component intervention was guided by Social Cognitive Theory, Health Action Process Approach Model, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy strategies. Phase 1 (Weeks 1-10) includes: i) 5 group face-to-face sessions consisting of outdoor training and cognitive mentoring; and ii) the use of the eCoFit smartphone application with a description of where and how to use the outdoor environment to be more physically active. Phase 2 (Weeks 11-20) includes the use of the eCoFit smartphone application only. Assessments are to be conducted at baseline, 10-weeks (primary end-point) and 20-weeks (secondary end-point) post-baseline. Primary outcomes are cardio-respiratory fitness and muscular fitness (lower body). Secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, mental health and quality of life, and social-cognitive outcomes. eCoFit is an innovative, multi-component intervention, which integrates smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to promote aerobic and resistance training PA among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. The findings will be used to guide future interventions and to develop and implement effective community-based prevention programs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12615000990527. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Body Exergy Balance: Numerical Analysis of an Indoor Thermal Environment of a Passive Wooden Room in Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Isawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a basic understanding of the resultant changes in the human body exergy balance (input, consumption, storage, and output accompanying outdoor air temperature fluctuations, a “human body system and a built environmental system” coupled with numerical analysis was conducted. The built environmental system assumed a wooden room equipped with passive cooling strategies, such as thermal insulation and solar shading devices. It was found that in the daytime, the cool radiation exergy emitted by surrounding surfaces, such as walls increased the rate of human body exergy consumption, whereas the warm radiant exergy emitted by the surrounding surfaces at night decreased the rate of human body exergy consumption. The results suggested that the rates and proportions of the different components in the exergy balance equation (exergy input, consumption, storage, and output vary according to the outdoor temperature and humidity conditions.

  10. A contribution to the thermal and aero-dynamical modelling of the urban micro-climate. Analysis of the water and vegetation impact on the comfort conditions in outdoor spaces; Contribution a la modelisation thermo-aeraulique du microclimat urbain. Caracterisation de l'impact de l'eau et de la vegetation sur les conditions de confort en espaces exterieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinet, J.

    2000-11-01

    In summer, temperatures in cities may rise, thereby inducing the so-called 'urban heat island' and tremendous consequences on outdoor comfort, health risks, pollutant emission and energy consumption. Replacing vegetation and moist surfaces by concrete or asphalt may enhance these problems. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the impact of vegetation and water on urban micro-climate and comfort through numerical modelling; In the first part, a scientific literature review considers various topics applied to our problem such as urban micro-climate, simulations, urbanism, urban forestry and outdoor thermal comfort. This information is relevant to define and interpret further numerical modelling. Numerical simulations based on the coupling of the SOLENE. thermal program and the N3S CFD code are proposed to model wind flow, air and surface temperatures. The theoretical principles, hypothesis and coupling methodology are presented here. This set of numerical tools is combined in order to help urban or landscape planners, architects and engineers, to analyse the impacts of different projects on micro-climate and on outdoor thermal comfort, under hot summer conditions. To illustrate this approach, an open space in Montpellier (southern France) called the 'Place du Millenaire' and designed by Ricardo Bofill is studied, considering various cases (no vegetation, actual vegetation and vegetation in 30 years). The comparative results demonstrate improvements of urban form, micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort. (author)

  11. Occupants' adaptive responses and perception of thermal environment in naturally conditioned university classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Runming [The School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom); The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Liu, Jing [The School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom); Li, Baizhan [The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2010-03-15

    A year-long field study of the thermal environment in university classrooms was conducted from March 2005 to May 2006 in Chongqing, China. This paper presents the occupants' thermal sensation votes and discusses the occupants' adaptive response and perception of the thermal environment in a naturally conditioned space. Comparisons between the Actual Mean Vote (AMV) and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) have been made as well as between the Actual Percentage of Dissatisfied (APD) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD). The adaptive thermal comfort zone for the naturally conditioned space for Chongqing, which has hot summer and cold winter climatic characteristics, has been proposed based on the field study results. The Chongqing adaptive comfort range is broader than that of the ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 in general, but in the extreme cold and hot months, it is narrower. The thermal conditions in classrooms in Chongqing in summer and winter are severe. Behavioural adaptation such as changing clothing, adjusting indoor air velocity, taking hot/cold drinks, etc., as well as psychological adaptation, has played a role in adapting to the thermal environment. (author)

  12. Parametric study of the effects of thermal environment on a waste package for a tuff repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J K; Sundberg, W D; Krumhansl, J L [Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, (USA)

    1982-12-31

    The thermal environment has been modeled in a simple reference waste package in a tuff repository for a variety of variables. The waste package was composed of the waste form, canister, overpack and backfill. The emplacement hole was 122cm dia. Waste forms used in the calculations were commercial high level waste (CHLW) and spent fuel (SF). Canister loadings varied from 50 to 100 kW/acre. Primary attention was focused on the backfill behavior in the thermal and chemical environment. Results are related to the maximum temperature calculated for the backfill. These calculations raise serious concerns about the effectiveness of the backfill within the context of the total waste package.

  13. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  14. Effects of the thermal environment on animal production in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertshaw, D.

    1986-01-01

    The problems of heat stress in animal production can be solved by an interdisciplinary approach whereby the engineer, animal scientist and animal physiologist can all interact. By understanding the principles associated with heat flow between an animal and its environment it is possible to predict the potential success of an animal production system. This review analyses the nature of the thermal environment and the way in which it can affect production. Methods for alleviating heat stress are also described. (author)

  15. Prediction of Wind Environment and Indoor/Outdoor Relationships for PM2.5 in Different Building–Tree Grouping Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airflow behavior and indoor/outdoor PM2.5 dispersion in different building–tree grouping patterns depend significantly on the building–tree layouts and orientation towards the prevailing wind. By using a standard k-ε model and a revised generalized drift flux model, this study evaluated airflow fields and indoor/outdoor relationships for PM2.5 resulting from partly wind-induced natural ventilation in four hypothetical building–tree grouping patterns. Results showed that: (1 Patterns provide a variety of natural ventilation potential that relies on the wind influence, and buildings that deflect wind on the windward facade and separate airflow on the leeward facade have better ventilation potential; (2 Patterns where buildings and trees form a central space and a windward opening side towards the prevailing wind offer the best ventilation conditions; (3 Under the assumption that transported pollution sources are diluted through the inlet, the aerodynamics and deposition effects of trees cause the lower floors of a multi-storey building to be exposed to lower PM2.5 compared with upper floors, and lower indoor PM2.5 values were found close to the tree canopy; (4 Wind pressure differences across each flat showed a poor correlation (R2 = 0.059, with indoor PM2.5 concentrations; and (5 Patterns with the long facade of buildings and trees perpendicular to the prevailing wind have the lowest indoor PM2.5 concentrations.

  16. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  17. Simulation of thermal environment in a three-layer vinyl greenhouse by natural ventilation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tea-Hwan; Shin, Ki-Yeol; Yoon, Si-Won; Im, Yong-Hoon; Chang, Ki-Chang

    2017-11-01

    A high energy, efficient, harmonious, ecological greenhouse has been highlighted by advanced future agricultural technology recently. This greenhouse is essential for expanding the production cycle toward growth conditions through combined thermal environmental control. However, it has a negative effect on farming income via huge energy supply expenses. Because not only production income, but operating costs related to thermal load for thermal environment control is important in farming income, it needs studies such as a harmonious ecological greenhouse using natural ventilation control. This study is simulated for energy consumption and thermal environmental conditions in a three-layered greenhouse by natural ventilation using window opening. A virtual 3D model of a three-layered greenhouse was designed based on the real one in the Gangneung area. This 3D model was used to calculate a thermal environment state such as indoor temperature, relative humidity, and thermal load in the case of a window opening rate from 0 to 100%. There was also a heat exchange operated for heating or cooling controlled by various setting temperatures. The results show that the cooling load can be reduced by natural ventilation control in the summer season, and the heat exchange capacity for heating can also be simulated for growth conditions in the winter season.

  18. Predication of skin temperature and thermal comfort under two-way transient environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Xiong, Jing; Lian, Zhiwei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, three transient environmental conditions consisting of one high-temperature phase within two low-temperature phases were developed, thus creating a temperature rise followed by a temperature fall. Twenty-four subjects (including 12 males and 12 females) were recruited and they underwent all three test scenarios. Skin temperature on seven body parts were measured during the whole period of the experiment. Besides, thermal sensation was investigated at specific moments by questionnaires. Thermal sensation models including PMV model, Fiala model and the Chinese model were applied to predict subjects' thermal sensation with comparisons carried out among them. Results show that most predicated thermal sensation by Chinese model lies within the range of 0.5 scale of the observed sensation vote, and it agrees best with the observed thermal sensation in transient thermal environment than PMV and Fiala model. Further studies should be carried out to improve performance of Chinese model for temperature alterations between "very hot" to "hot" environment, for prediction error in the temperature-fall situation of C5 (37-32°C) was over 0.5 scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of thermal environment in a three-layer vinyl greenhouse by natural ventilation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Tea-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A high energy, efficient, harmonious, ecological greenhouse has been highlighted by advanced future agricultural technology recently. This greenhouse is essential for expanding the production cycle toward growth conditions through combined thermal environmental control. However, it has a negative effect on farming income via huge energy supply expenses. Because not only production income, but operating costs related to thermal load for thermal environment control is important in farming income, it needs studies such as a harmonious ecological greenhouse using natural ventilation control. This study is simulated for energy consumption and thermal environmental conditions in a three-layered greenhouse by natural ventilation using window opening. A virtual 3D model of a three-layered greenhouse was designed based on the real one in the Gangneung area. This 3D model was used to calculate a thermal environment state such as indoor temperature, relative humidity, and thermal load in the case of a window opening rate from 0 to 100%. There was also a heat exchange operated for heating or cooling controlled by various setting temperatures. The results show that the cooling load can be reduced by natural ventilation control in the summer season, and the heat exchange capacity for heating can also be simulated for growth conditions in the winter season.

  20. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and

  1. Understanding thermal comfort perception of nurses in a hospital ward work environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.T.H.; Mishra, A.K.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Kort, H.S.M.

    2018-01-01

    In indoor comfort research, thermal comfort of care-professionals in hospital environment is a little explored topic. To address this gap, a mixed methods study, with the nursing staff in hospital wards acting as participants, was undertaken. Responses were collected during three weeks in the summer

  2. Study of thermal environment in Jingjintang urban agglomeration based on WRF model and Landsat data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Q N; Cao, Z Q; Guo, H D; Xi, X H; Li, X W

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, unprecedented urban expansion has taken place in developing countries resulting in the emergence of megacities or urban agglomeration. It has been highly concerned by many countries about a variety of urban environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and urban heat island phenomenon associated with urbanization. Generally, thermal environment is monitored by remote sensing satellite data. This method is usually limited by weather and repeated cycle. Another approach is relied on numerical simulation based on models. In the study, these two means are combined to study the thermal environment of Jingjintang urban agglomeration. The high temperature processes of the study area in 2009 and 1990s are simulated by using WRF (the Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with UCM (Urban Canopy Model) and the urban impervious surface estimated from Landsat-5 TM data using support vector machine. Results show that the trend of simulated air temperature (2 meter) is in accord with observed air temperature. Moreover, it indicates the differences of air temperature and Land Surface Temperature caused by the urbanization efficiently. The UHI effect at night is stronger than that in the day. The maximum difference of LST reaches to 8–10°C for new build-up area at night. The method provided in this research can be used to analyze impacts on urban thermal environment caused by urbanization and it also provides means on thermal environment monitoring and prediction which will benefit the coping capacity of extreme event

  3. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  4. Analysis of Sensory/Active Piezoelectric Composite Structures in Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1996-01-01

    Although there has been extensive development of analytical methods for modeling the behavior of piezoelectric structures, only a limited amount of research has been performed concerning the implications of thermal effects on both the active and sensory response of smart structures. Thermal effects become important when the piezoelectric structure has to operate in either extremely hot or cold temperature environments. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to extend the previously developed discrete layer formulation of Saravanos and Heyliger to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response in modern smart composite beams. The mechanics accounts for thermal effects which may arise in the elastic and piezoelectric media at the material level through the constitutive equations. The displacements, electric potentials, and temperatures are introduced as state variables, allowing them to be modeled as variable fields through the laminate thickness. This unified representation leads to an inherent capability to model both the active compensation of thermal distortions in smart structures and the resultant sensory voltage when thermal loads are applied. The corresponding finite element formulation is developed and numerical results demonstrate the ability to model both the active and sensory modes of composite beams with heterogeneous plies with attached piezoelectric layers under thermal loadings.

  5. Thermal analysis of HNPF spent fuel shipping container in torch environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, P.E.; Crawford, H.L.; Trujillo, A.A.; Pope, R.B.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal analysis of a modified HNPF cask has been performed to predict cask temperatures in simulated torch fire environments. A portion of this analysis also provided a basis for the modifications leading to the design of external cooling fins, a pressure relief valve system, a spent fuel torch fire analyses will provide comparison with experimentally measured temperatures of the HNPF cask, in torch fire environments, which will be obtained in the future. Scope of this study was analytical in nature and involved the use of a computer-based heat transfer analysis methods. Product of this study is the prediction of cask temperatures and internal pressures under normal and torch-fire accident conditions. This study also involved an analysis of the torch fire literature in order to develop an empirically based thermal model for the torch environment. 8 figures, 3 tables

  6. Comfort and performance impact of personal control over thermal environment in summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerstra, Atze C.; te Kulve, Marije; Toftum, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Field studies suggest that the availability of adjustable thermostats, operable windows and other controls has a positive impact on comfort, the incidence of building related symptoms and productivity. This laboratory study was designed to further investigate how having or not having control over...... the thermal environment affects human responses to the indoor environment.The study was conducted in summer in a field laboratory that was kept at 28°C. A total of 23 subjects were exposed twice for about 2.5h. During the first session (A) subjects were able to fine-tune their local thermal environment at any...... recorded during the first session. Thus, each subject was exposed to two customized conditions with identical exposure, only different from a psychological point of view.During the two sessions identical questionnaires and performance tests were used to evaluate subjects' comfort, SBS symptom incidence...

  7. CFD model of thermal and velocity conditions in a particular indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Guillen Guillamon, Ignacio [Applied Physics Department, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for maintaining high indoor environmental quality (IEQ) with the minimum energy consumption is rapidly increasing. In the recent years, several studies have been completed to investigate the impact of indoor environment factors on human comfort, health and energy efficiency. Therefore, the design of the thermal environment in any sort of room, specially offices, has huge economic consequences. In this paper, a particular analysis on the air temperature in a multi-task room environment is modeled, in order to represent the velocities and temperatures inside the room by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. This model will help to designers to analyze the thermal comfort regions inside the studied air volume and to visualize the whole temperatures inside the room, determining the effect of the fresh external incoming air in the internal air temperature.

  8. Metabolic heat production and thermal conductance are mass-independent adaptations to thermal environment in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristoe, Trevor S; Burger, Joseph R; Balk, Meghan A; Khaliq, Imran; Hof, Christian; Brown, James H

    2015-12-29

    The extent to which different kinds of organisms have adapted to environmental temperature regimes is central to understanding how they respond to climate change. The Scholander-Irving (S-I) model of heat transfer lays the foundation for explaining how endothermic birds and mammals maintain their high, relatively constant body temperatures in the face of wide variation in environmental temperature. The S-I model shows how body temperature is regulated by balancing the rates of heat production and heat loss. Both rates scale with body size, suggesting that larger animals should be better adapted to cold environments than smaller animals, and vice versa. However, the global distributions of ∼9,000 species of terrestrial birds and mammals show that the entire range of body sizes occurs in nearly all climatic regimes. Using physiological and environmental temperature data for 211 bird and 178 mammal species, we test for mass-independent adaptive changes in two key parameters of the S-I model: basal metabolic rate (BMR) and thermal conductance. We derive an axis of thermal adaptation that is independent of body size, extends the S-I model, and highlights interactions among physiological and morphological traits that allow endotherms to persist in a wide range of temperatures. Our macrophysiological and macroecological analyses support our predictions that shifts in BMR and thermal conductance confer important adaptations to environmental temperature in both birds and mammals.

  9. Perspectives of Elementary School Teachers on Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan, Ozcan; Cicek, Volkan; Atabay, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor education stands out as one of the methods to deliver the desired educational outcomes taking the needs of the students, teachers and the curricular objectives into consideration. Outdoor education focuses on experimental, hands-on learning in real-life environments through senses, e.g., through visual, auditory, and tactile means,…

  10. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  11. Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

    2013-01-01

    This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

  12. Urban thermal environment and its biophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.

    2013-10-01

    In frame of global warming, the field of urbanization and urban thermal environment are important issues among scientists all over the world. This paper investigated the influences of urbanization on urban thermal environment as well as the relationships of thermal characteristics to other biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania based on satellite remote sensing imagery Landsat TM/ETM+, time series MODIS Terra/Aqua data and IKONOS acquired during 1990 - 2012 period. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also retrieved from thermal infrared band of Landsat TM/ETM+, from MODIS Terra/Aqua datasets. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters have been analyzed. Results indicated that the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during two decades investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  13. The thermal environment effect on the comfort of electronic factory worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Huda, Listiani

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, thermal comfort issues of the operators working on one of the electronics companies in the evaporator area are observed. The objective of this study is to reduce Percentage of Dissatisfied (PD) of operators in an effort to improve the work productivity. PD is predicted using CBE Thermal Comfort Tool by measuring the thermal variables around the evaporator area and by calculating the Heat Stress Index (HSI). The operator productivity is analyzed by Wet Bulb Globe Thermometer (WBGT) Work-Rest Chart. The PD of operators before and after improvement is compared. The results showed that the average temperature around the operators area at evaporator station is high with average WBGT of 33,6°C. HSI value is 51.95 indicating that the effect of 8-h exposure is severe strain with work impact is health threat for unit operators and acclimatization is necessary. The PD value is 96% indicating that almost all operators feel uncomfortable at work. These indicate that the thermal environment should be improved. The proposed improvement is by installing water cooled and sprayed into the evaporator area. This installation is able to reduce HSI and PD by more 70% and more 60%, respectively. These findings indicate that improving the thermal environment will be able to improve working comfort which will further affect the level of work productivity.

  14. Local body cooling to improve sleep quality and thermal comfort in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L; Qian, X L; Lian, Z W; Lin, Y B

    2018-01-01

    The effects of local body cooling on thermal comfort and sleep quality in a hot environment were investigated in an experiment with 16 male subjects. Sleep quality was evaluated subjectively, using questionnaires completed in the morning, and objectively, by analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that were continuously monitored during the sleeping period. Compared with no cooling, the largest improvement in thermal comfort and sleep quality was observed when the back and head (neck) were both cooled at a room temperature of 32°C. Back cooling alone also improved thermal comfort and sleep quality, although the effects were less than when cooling both back and head (neck). Mean sleep efficiency was improved from 84.6% in the no cooling condition to 95.3% and 92.8%, respectively, in these conditions, indicating good sleep quality. Head (neck) cooling alone slightly improved thermal comfort and subjective sleep quality and increased Stage N3 sleep, but did not otherwise improve sleep quality. The results show that local cooling applied to large body sections (back and head) could effectively maintain good sleep and improve thermal comfort in a hot environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experimental Characterization of a Composite Morphing Radiator Prototype in a Relevant Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagne, Christopher L.; Chong, Jorge B.; Whitcomb, John D.; Hartl, Darren J.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    For future long duration space missions, crewed vehicles will require advanced thermal control systems to maintain a desired internal environment temperature in spite of a large range of internal and external heat loads. Current radiators are only able to achieve turndown ratios (i.e. the ratio between the radiator's maximum and minimum heat rejection rates) of approximately 3:1. Upcoming missions will require radiators capable of 12:1 turndown ratios. A radiator with the ability to alter shape could significantly increase turndown capacity. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer promising qualities for this endeavor, namely their temperature-dependent phase change and capacity for work. In 2015, the first ever morphing radiator prototype was constructed in which SMA actuators passively altered the radiator shape in response to a thermal load. This work describes a follow-on endeavor to demonstrate a similar concept using highly thermally conductive composite materials. Numerous versions of this new concept were tested in a thermal vacuum environment and successfully demonstrated morphing behavior and variable heat rejection, achieving a turndown ratio of 4.84:1. A summary of these thermal experiments and their results are provided herein.

  16. Study of Quilted Fabrics Used in Outdoor Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Matusiak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quilted fabrics are more and more frequently used in outdoor clothing, especially jackets. They are usually composed of two or three layers connected together by sewing or thermal quilting. They are characterised by different properties, depending on the structure of the quilted fabrics. In the presented work, five variants of quilted fabrics were studied in terms of of their comfort-related properties, such as thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, thermal absorptivity, water-vapour resistance and air permeability. On the basis of the results, it was possible to assess the quilted fabrics from the point of view of their usability for outdoor clothing.

  17. Numerical modelling evaluation for the microclimate of an outdoor urban form in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Elnabawi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve outdoor thermal comfort it is necessary to understand the interactions between the prevailing climate, the urban form and roughness. The near surface boundary layer is directly influenced by local irradiative and convective exchange processes due to the presence of a variety of different surfaces, sheltering elements and obstacles to air flow leading to distinctive micro-scale climates. The paper presents a micro-scale numerical model for an outdoor urban form for a hot summer’s day in Al-Muizz street located at the Islamic quarter of Cairo, where a few studies have attempted to study these conditions in vernacular settings in hot arid areas where the continuously evolving urban patterns and shaded environments were perceived to produce more pedestrian friendly outdoor environments. In situ measurements are used to validate the ENVI-met results which showed an overall agreement with the observed ones, representing adequate mean radiant temperature (Tmrt which is one of the most important meteorological parameters governing human energy balance and has therefore a strong influence on thermal sensation of the pedestrians using the open public spaces and generating a micro-climatic map as an initial step in addressing the urgent need for a modelling platform accessible to urban designers, architects, and decision makers towards sustainable urban forms.

  18. Measurements of Thermal and Wind Environment of Vernacular Architecture made of Adobe in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, Kiyotaka; Sugawara, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the field measurements on thermal and wind environment of a vernacular architecture made of adobe called “Kasbah” in Morocco.It has a courtyard and watch towers in corners.Investigation was carried out by measuring temperature,humidity,wind velocity,heat transfer,etc. The thermal comfort was evaluated by the index of SET*. The courtyard is evaluated as comfort by SET* at the time of the shadow zone,and the central room at the first floor was almost comfort because of th...

  19. Thermal Analysis of a Finite Element Model in a Radiation Dominated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Arthur T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of thermal analysis, evaluating the University of Arizona mirror design, for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Pre-Phase A vehicle concept. Model building begins using Thermal Desktop(TM), by Cullimore and Ring Technologies, to import a NASTRAN bulk data file from the structural model of the mirror assembly. Using AutoCAD(R) capabilities, additional surfaces are added to simulate the thermal aspects of the problem which, for due reason, are not part of the structural model. Surfaces are then available to accept thermophysical and thermo-optical properties. Thermal Desktop(TM) calculates radiation conductors using Monte Carlo simulations. Then Thermal Desktop(TM) generates the SINDA input file having a one-to-one correspondence with the NASTRAN node and element definitions. A model is now available to evaluate the mirror design in the radiation dominated environment, conduct parametric trade studies of the thermal design, and provide temperatures to the finite element structural model.

  20. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Törmäkangas, Timo; Leinonen, Raija; Heikkinen, Eino; Rantanen, Taina

    2009-04-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation. Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses. Community and research center. Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up. Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period. At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively). Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.

  1. Guidelines for the Selection of Near-Earth Thermal Environment Parameters for Spacecraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Justus, C. G.; Batts, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal analysis and design of Earth orbiting systems requires specification of three environmental thermal parameters: the direct solar irradiance, Earth's local albedo, and outgoing longwave radiance (OLR). In the early 1990s data sets from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment were analyzed on behalf of the Space Station Program to provide an accurate description of these parameters as a function of averaging time along the orbital path. This information, documented in SSP 30425 and, in more generic form in NASA/TM-4527, enabled the specification of the proper thermal parameters for systems of various thermal response time constants. However, working with the engineering community and SSP-30425 and TM-4527 products over a number of years revealed difficulties in interpretation and application of this material. For this reason it was decided to develop this guidelines document to help resolve these issues of practical application. In the process, the data were extensively reprocessed and a new computer code, the Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) was developed to simplify the process of selecting the parameters for input into extreme hot and cold thermal analyses and design specifications. In the process, greatly improved values for the cold case OLR values for high inclination orbits were derived. Thermal parameters for satellites in low, medium, and high inclination low-Earth orbit and with various system thermal time constraints are recommended for analysis of extreme hot and cold conditions. Practical information as to the interpretation and application of the information and an introduction to the STEM are included. Complete documentation for STEM is found in the user's manual, in preparation.

  2. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad

  3. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  4. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, Elizabeth M [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique (α < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (ToG), narrower range of gelatinization (RG), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHG). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower ToG, wider RG, and lower ΔHG. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were

  5. An Internal Thermal Environment Model of an Aluminized Solid Rocket Motor with Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the severity of the internal solid rocket motor (SRM) environment, very few direct measurements of that environment exist; therefore, the appearance of such data provides a unique opportunity to assess current thermal/fluid modeling capabilities. As part of a previous study of SRM internal insulation performance, the internal thermal environment of a laboratory-scale SRM featuring aluminized propellant was characterized with two types of custom heat-flux calorimeters: one that measured the total heat flux to a graphite slab within the SRM chamber and another that measured the thermal radiation flux. Therefore, in the current study, a thermal/fluid model of this lab-scale SRM was constructed using ANSYS Fluent to predict not only the flow field structure within the SRM and the convective heat transfer to the interior walls, but also the resulting dispersion of alumina droplets and the radiative heat transfer to the interior walls. The dispersion of alumina droplets within the SRM chamber was determined by employing the Lagrangian discrete phase model that was fully coupled to the Eulerian gas-phase flow. The P1-approximation was engaged to model the radiative heat transfer through the SRM chamber where the radiative contributions of the gas phase were ignored and the aggregate radiative properties of the alumina dispersion were computed from the radiative properties of its individual constituent droplets, which were sourced from literature. The convective and radiative heat fluxes computed from the thermal/fluid model were then compared with those measured in the lab-scale SRM test firings and the modeling approach evaluated.

  6. The effect of thermal treatment on the fracture properties of alloy X-750 in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, R.; Elliott, C.S.; Hwang, I.S.; Prybylowski, J.

    1993-05-01

    Alloy X-750 is a high strength, age hardenable nickel-base alloy used in light water nuclear reactors. The excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature strength of alloy X-750 make it suitable for use in a variety of structure components in both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. These applications involve exposure of highly stressed material to aqueous media. Operational stresses are subject to low frequency thermally induced fluctuations and high frequency flow induced fluctuations. In general, alloy X-750 has performed well in light water reactors. However, an economically significant number of components have failed unexpectedly due to localized forms of attack such as corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Thermal processing history is known to play a significant role in the fracture properties of alloy X-750 in aqueous environments. While thermal treatments have been developed recently to improve performance, in many cases the reason for improved performance remains unclear. Therefore, identification of the mechanisms responsible for the degradation of fracture properties in aqueous environments is necessary. As a corollary it is necessary to achieve an understanding of how thermal treatment influences microstructure and, in turn, how microstructure influences fracture properties in aqueous environments. This report discusses five thermal treatments which were studied: (1) SA-1 hr at 1093 degree C, (2) AH - 24 hr at 885 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, (3) HTH - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, (4) AHTH - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 24 hr at 885 degree C + 20 hr at 704 degree C, and (5) HOA - 1 hr at 1093 degree C + 100 hrs at 760 degree C. Microstructural characterization of these materials was accomplished through the use of optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy,scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry

  7. Three-dimensional free vibration of functionally graded truncated conical shells subjected to thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: p_malekz@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fiouz, A.R.; Sobhrouyan, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) free vibration analysis of the functionally graded (FG) truncated conical shells subjected to thermal environment is presented. The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent and graded in the radius direction, which can vary according to a simple power law distribution. The initial thermal stresses are obtained accurately by solving the thermoelastic equilibrium equations and by considering the two-dimensional axisymmetric temperature distribution in the shell. The differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical tool is adopted to solve the thermal and thermo-mechanical governing equations. For this purpose, a mapping technique is employed to transform the cross section of the shell into the computational domain of DQM. The convergence behavior of the method is numerically demonstrated and comparison studies with the available solutions in the literature are performed. The effects of temperature dependence of material properties, geometrical parameters, material graded index, thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the frequency parameters of the FG truncated conical shells are carried out. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D free vibration analysis of the functionally graded truncated conical shells is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two-dimensional axisymmetric temperature distribution in the shell is assumed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial thermal stresses due to thermal environment are evaluated accurately and included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Representing the effects of different parameters on the non-dimensional frequencies.

  8. Thermal Performance of Precast Concrete Sandwich Panel (PCSP) Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Peniel Ang Soon; Ling, Lim Mei; Kasim, Narimah; Hamid, Zuhairi Abd; Masrom, Md Asrul Nasid Bin

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia’s awareness of performance criteria in construction industry towards a sustainable built environment with the use of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) system is applied in the building’s wall to study the structural behaviour. However, very limited studies are conducted on the thermal insulation of exterior and interior panels in PCSP design. In hot countries such as Malaysia, proper designs of panel are important to obtain better thermal insulation for building. This study is based on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel design for sustainable built environment in Malaysia. In this research, three full specimens, which are control specimen (C), foamed concrete (FC) panels and concrete panels with added palm oil fuel ash (FC+ POFA), where FC and FC+POFA sandwiched with gypsum board (G) were produced to investigate their thermal performance. Temperature difference of exterior and interior surface of specimen was used as indicators of thermal-insulating performance of PCSP design. Heat transfer test by halogen lamp was carried out on three specimens where the exterior surface of specimens was exposed to the halogen lamp. The temperature reading of exterior and interior surface for three specimens were recorded with the help of thermocouple. Other factors also studied the workability, compressive strength and axial compressive strength of the specimens. This study has shown that FC + POFA specimen has the strength nearer to normal specimen (C + FC specimen). Meanwhile, the heat transfer results show that the FC+POFA has better thermal insulation performance compared to C and FC specimens with the highest temperature difference, 3.4°C compared to other specimens. The results from this research are useful to be implemented in construction due to its benefits such as reduction of energy consumption in air-conditioning, reduction of construction periods and eco-friendly materials.

  9. In Situ Study of Thermal Stability of Copper Oxide Nanowires at Anaerobic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many metal oxides with promising electrochemical properties were developed recently. Before those metal oxides realize the use as an anode in lithium ion batteries, their thermal stability at anaerobic environment inside batteries should be clearly understood for safety. In this study, copper oxide nanowires were investigated as an example. Several kinds of in situ experiment methods including in situ optical microscopy, in situ Raman spectrum, and in situ transmission electron microscopy were adopted to fully investigate their thermal stability at anaerobic environment. Copper oxide nanowires begin to transform as copper(I oxide at about 250°C and finish at about 400°C. The phase transformation proceeds with a homogeneous nucleation.

  10. Investigation on thermal environment improvement by waste heat recovery in the underground station in Qingdao metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jiaquan; Wang, Fengyin; Wang, Cuiping

    2018-03-01

    The thermal environment parameters, like the temperature and air velocity, are measured to investigate the heat comfort status of metro staff working area in winter in Qingdao. The temperature is affected obviously by the piston wind from the train and waiting hall in the lower Hall, and the temperature is not satisfied with the least heat comfort temperature of 16 °C. At the same time, the heat produced by the electrical and control equipments is brought by the cooling air to atmosphere for the equipment safety. Utilizing the water-circulating heat pump, it is feasible to transfer the emission heat to the staff working area to improve the thermal environment. Analyzed the feasibility from the technique and economy when using the heat pump, the water-circulating heat pump could be the best way to realize the waste heat recovery and to help the heat comfort of staff working area in winter in the underground metro station in north China.

  11. Effect of Personal Control over Thermal Environment in a Laboratorium Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulve, M. te; Boerstra, A. C.; Toftum, Jørn

    Field studies have demonstrated that personal control over the indoor climate may increase comfort and could reduce SBS symptoms. A laboratory study was performed to investigate if being in control over the thermal environment influences comfort, symptoms and performance. The central hypothesis...... was that human responses to a thermal indoor environment depend on the availability of control opportunities. This was tested in a field lab where subjects had a personal desk fan with a stepless controller at their workplace. Two conditions were tested: one (the first) with individual control and one without......, but with identical indoor climate exposure as recorded during the first session. During both experimental conditions, 23 subjects were exposed for 120 min to an operative temperature of 28 °C and they were provided with a personal desk fan. During the first exposure subjects were allowed to adjust air velocity (and...

  12. Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

  13. A Multi-Environment Thermal Control System With Freeze-Tolerant Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; Fogg, David; Mancini, Nick; Steele, John; Quinn, Gregory; Bue, Grant; Littibridge, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Future space exploration missions require advanced thermal control systems (TCS) to dissipate heat from spacecraft, rovers, or habitats operating in environments that can vary from extremely hot to extremely cold. A lightweight, reliable TCS is being developed to effectively control cabin and equipment temperatures under widely varying heat loads and ambient temperatures. The system uses freeze-tolerant radiators, which eliminate the need for a secondary circulation loop or heat pipe systems. Each radiator has a self-regulating variable thermal conductance to its ambient environment. The TCS uses a nontoxic, water-based working fluid that is compatible with existing lightweight aluminum heat exchangers. The TCS is lightweight, compact, and requires very little pumping power. The critical characteristics of the core enabling technologies were demonstrated. Functional testing with condenser tubes demonstrated the key operating characteristics required for a reliable, freeze-tolerant TCS, namely (1) self-regulating thermal conductance with short transient responses to varying thermal loads, (2) repeatable performance through freeze-thaw cycles, and (3) fast start-up from a fully frozen state. Preliminary coolant tests demonstrated that the corrosion inhibitor in the water-based coolant can reduce the corrosion rate on aluminum by an order of magnitude. Performance comparison with state-of-the-art designs shows significant mass and power saving benefits of this technology.

  14. Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment. Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilidis, Georgios A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Kazos, Elias A; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the results of a measurement campaign aiming to assess cancer risk among two special groups of population: policemen and laboratory technicians exposed to the toxic substances, benzene and formaldehyde are presented. The exposure is compared to general population risk. The results show that policemen working outdoor (traffic regulation, patrol on foot or in vehicles, etc.) are exposed at a significantly higher benzene concentration (3-5 times) than the general population, while the exposure to carbonyls is in general lower. The laboratory technicians appear to be highly exposed to formaldehyde while no significant variation of benzene exposure in comparison to the general population is recorded. The assessment revealed that laboratory technicians and policemen run a 20% and 1% higher cancer risk respectively compared to the general population. Indoor working place air quality is more significant in assessing cancer risk in these two categories of professionals, due to the higher Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) of formaldehyde compared to benzene. Since the origin of the danger to laboratory technicians is clear (use of chemicals necessary for the experiments), in policemen the presence of carbonyls in indoor air concentrations due to smoking or used materials constitute a danger equal to the exposure to traffic originated air pollutants.

  15. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  16. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  17. The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power ( R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context.

  18. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  19. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  20. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  1. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  2. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  3. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  4. Innovation and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Within our fast-paced, fluid society, it is arguable that outdoor education needs to be innovative to play a useful role in young people's overall educational enterprise. A critical view, however, would suggest that we must beware of accepting technological innovation for its own sake. Innovations (or improvements) in education can take the form…

  5. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  6. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-11-11

    The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the 'Perceived Temperature' procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. The global maps 1971-1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm-humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041-2050 based on the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate

  7. Thermal environment in simulated offices with convective and radiant cooling systems under cooling (summer) mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment in a double office room and in a six-person meeting room obtained with chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition-mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...... calculated. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by using two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants' thermal perception. The results revealed that the differences in the thermal conditions achieved...

  8. The Mercury Thermal Environment As A Design Driver and A Scientific Objective of The Bepicolombo Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotto, V.; Malosti, T.; Martino, R.; Briccarello, M.; Anselmi, A.

    The thermal environment of Mercury is extremely severe and a strong design driver for any mission to the planet. The main factors are the large amount of energy both di- rectly received from the sun and reflected/re-emitted from the planet, and the variation of such energy with time. The total thermal flux received by an object in orbit or on the surface of Mercury is a combination of the above-mentioned contributions, weighted according to the orbit characteristics, or the morphology of the surface. For a lander mission, the problems are compounded by the uncertainty in the a-priori knowledge of the surface properties and morphology. The thermal design of the orbiting and land- ing elements of the BepiColombo mission has a major role in the Definition Study being carried out under ESA contract by a team led by Alenia Spazio. The project en- compasses a spacecraft in low, near-circular, polar orbit (Mercury Planetary Orbiter, MPO), a spacecraft in high-eccentricity, polar orbit (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO, provided by ISAS, Japan) and a lander (Mercury Surface Element, MSE). The approach to a feasible mission design must rely on several provisions. For the orbiting elements, the orientation of the orbit plane with respect to the line of apsides of the or- bit of Mercury is found to have a major effect on the achievable orbiter temperatures. The spacecraft configuration, and its attitude with respect to the planet and the sun, drive the accommodation of the scientific instruments. Once the optimal orientation, attitude and configuration are determined, specific thermal control solutions must be elaborated, to maintain all components including the instruments in the required tem- perature range. The objective is maximizing the scientific return under constraints such as the available on-board resources and the project budget. A major outcome of the study so far has been the specification of requirements for improved thermal con- trol technologies, which are

  9. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: spatial characterization of thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Menezes de Souza, Zigomar

    2017-11-01

    The use of enhanced technologies of temperature control can improve the thermal conditions in environments of livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the thermal environment variables in a pig nursery with a heating system with two temperature control technologies based on the geostatistical analysis. The following systems were evaluated: overhead electrical resistance with Proportional, Integral, and Derivative (PID) controller and overhead electrical resistance with a thermostat. We evaluated the climatic variables: dry bulb temperature (Tbs), air relative humidity (RH), temperature and humidity index (THI), and enthalpy in the winter, at 7:00, 12:00, and 18:00 h. The spatial distribution of these variables was mapped by kriging. The results showed that the resistance heating system with PID controllers improved the thermal comfort conditions in the pig nursery in the coldest hours, maintaining the spatial distribution of the air temperature more homogeneous in the pen. During the hottest weather, neither system provided comfort.

  10. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: spatial characterization of thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Menezes de Souza, Zigomar

    2018-05-01

    The use of enhanced technologies of temperature control can improve the thermal conditions in environments of livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the thermal environment variables in a pig nursery with a heating system with two temperature control technologies based on the geostatistical analysis. The following systems were evaluated: overhead electrical resistance with Proportional, Integral, and Derivative (PID) controller and overhead electrical resistance with a thermostat. We evaluated the climatic variables: dry bulb temperature (Tbs), air relative humidity (RH), temperature and humidity index (THI), and enthalpy in the winter, at 7:00, 12:00, and 18:00 h. The spatial distribution of these variables was mapped by kriging. The results showed that the resistance heating system with PID controllers improved the thermal comfort conditions in the pig nursery in the coldest hours, maintaining the spatial distribution of the air temperature more homogeneous in the pen. During the hottest weather, neither system provided comfort.

  11. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: spatial characterization of thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Menezes de Souza, Zigomar

    2017-11-28

    The use of enhanced technologies of temperature control can improve the thermal conditions in environments of livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the thermal environment variables in a pig nursery with a heating system with two temperature control technologies based on the geostatistical analysis. The following systems were evaluated: overhead electrical resistance with Proportional, Integral, and Derivative (PID) controller and overhead electrical resistance with a thermostat. We evaluated the climatic variables: dry bulb temperature (Tbs), air relative humidity (RH), temperature and humidity index (THI), and enthalpy in the winter, at 7:00, 12:00, and 18:00 h. The spatial distribution of these variables was mapped by kriging. The results showed that the resistance heating system with PID controllers improved the thermal comfort conditions in the pig nursery in the coldest hours, maintaining the spatial distribution of the air temperature more homogeneous in the pen. During the hottest weather, neither system provided comfort.

  12. Thermal and Irradiation Creep Behavior of a Titanium Aluminide in Advanced Nuclear Plant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Per; Chen, Jiachao; Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Titanium aluminides are well-accepted elevated temperature materials. In conventional applications, their poor oxidation resistance limits the maximum operating temperature. Advanced reactors operate in nonoxidizing environments. This could enlarge the applicability of these materials to higher temperatures. The behavior of a cast gamma-alpha-2 TiAl was investigated under thermal and irradiation conditions. Irradiation creep was studied in beam using helium implantation. Dog-bone samples of dimensions 10 × 2 × 0.2 mm3 were investigated in a temperature range of 300 °C to 500 °C under irradiation, and significant creep strains were detected. At temperatures above 500 °C, thermal creep becomes the predominant mechanism. Thermal creep was investigated at temperatures up to 900 °C without irradiation with samples of the same geometry. The results are compared with other materials considered for advanced fission applications. These are a ferritic oxide-dispersion-strengthened material (PM2000) and the nickel-base superalloy IN617. A better thermal creep behavior than IN617 was found in the entire temperature range. Up to 900 °C, the expected 104 hour stress rupture properties exceeded even those of the ODS alloy. The irradiation creep performance of the titanium aluminide was comparable with the ODS steels. For IN617, no irradiation creep experiments were performed due to the expected low irradiation resistance (swelling, helium embrittlement) of nickel-base alloys.

  13. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  14. Combined environment aging effects: radiation-thermal degradation of polyvinylchloride and polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented for a case of polymer aging in which powerful synergisms are found between radiation and temperature. This effect was observed with formulations of polyvinylchloride and polyethylene and occurred in simultaneous and sequential radiation-thermal experiments. Dose rate dependencies, which appear to be mechanistically related to the synergism, were also found. The evidence indicates that these aging effects are mediated by a thermally induced breakdown of peroxides initially formed by the radiation. Similar effects could be important to material degradation in a variety of other types of combined-stress environment. A new technique, which uses PH 3 treatment of intact polymer specimens to test for the importance of peroxides in the pathway that leads to changes in macroscopic tensile properties, is described

  15. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air...... with the temperature of 25°C. PV improved thermal conditions and was up to nearly 10 times more efficient in delivering clean air at workstations than mixing ventilation systems, which resulted in strong protection of occupants from the cross-infection. In the room space outside workstations no substantial differences...

  16. Time evolution of tunneling in a thermal medium: Environment-driven excited tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sh.; Yoshimura, M.

    2004-01-01

    Time evolution of tunneling phenomena proceeding in a thermal medium is studied using a standard model of environmental interaction. A semiclassical probability formula for the particle motion in a metastable state of a one-dimensional system put in a thermal medium is combined with the formula of the quantum penetration factor through a potential barrier to derive the tunneling rate in the medium. The effect of environment, its influence on time evolution in particular, is clarified in our real-time formalism. A nonlinear resonance effect is shown to enhance the tunneling rate at finite times of order 2/η, with η the friction coefficient unless η is too small. In the linear approximation this effect has relevance to the parametric resonance. This effect enhances the possibility of early termination of the cosmological phase transition much prior to the typical Hubble time

  17. Constraining the thermal conditions of impact environments through integrated low-temperature thermochronometry and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N. M.; Marchi, S.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Flowers, R. M.; Metcalf, J. R.; Bottke, W. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts have a significant physical and chemical influence on the surface conditions of a planet. The cratering record is used to understand a wide array of impact processes, such as the evolution of the impact flux through time. However, the relationship between impactor size and a resulting impact crater remains controversial (e.g., Bottke et al., 2016). Likewise, small variations in the impact velocity are known to significantly affect the thermal-mechanical disturbances in the aftermath of a collision. Development of more robust numerical models for impact cratering has implications for how we evaluate the disruptive capabilities of impact events, including the extent and duration of thermal anomalies, the volume of ejected material, and the resulting landscape of impacted environments. To address uncertainties in crater scaling relationships, we present an approach and methodology that integrates numerical modeling of the thermal evolution of terrestrial impact craters with low-temperature, (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The approach uses time-temperature (t-T) paths of crust within an impact crater, generated from numerical simulations of an impact. These t-T paths are then used in forward models to predict the resetting behavior of (U-Th)/He ages in the mineral chronometers apatite and zircon. Differences between the predicted and measured (U-Th)/He ages from a modeled terrestrial impact crater can then be used to evaluate parameters in the original numerical simulations, and refine the crater scaling relationships. We expect our methodology to additionally inform our interpretation of impact products, such as lunar impact breccias and meteorites, providing robust constraints on their thermal histories. In addition, the method is ideal for sample return mission planning - robust "prediction" of ages we expect from a given impact environment enhances our ability to target sampling sites on the Moon, Mars or other solar system bodies where impacts have strongly

  18. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  19. Urban Thermal Environment Dynamics: A Case Study in Hangzhou During 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Li, F.; Yang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Hangzhou, as the Capital of Zhejiang Province in East China, has experienced the rapid urbanization process and associated urban heat island effect in the past twenty decades. In this study, we implemented Landsat satellite remote sensing images to investigate the relationship between landscape changes and thermal environment dynamics during 2005-2015 in Hangzhou City. A total of 48 Landsat TM/ETM+/OLR/TIRS images spanning four different seasons were downloaded from the USGS website and utilized in the study. Preprocessing works, i.e., radiometric correction and removing cloud- and fog -contaminated pixels, were conducted, and the land surface temperature (LST) was derived using the radiative transfer equation. Meanwhile, the land use and land cover (LULC) classification was accomplished by using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, and four main landscape indexes (i.e., Shannon Diversity Index, Landscape Division Index, Shannon Evenness Index, and Aggregation Index) were estimated from the LULC map. Our preliminary results show that: 1) the magnitude of urban thermal environment has obviously increased from 2005 to 2015, and the summer season shows more significant heat island effect than other three seasons; 2) the general landscape pattern of Hangzhou becomes more diversified and fragmentized from 2005 to 2015, and different landscape patterns bring that four different function zones (i.e., urban core zone, tourism function zone, industrial development zone and ecological reservation zone) of Hangzhou have different characteristics in urban thermal environment; 3) significant hot spots of LST point to the construction land while cold spots of LST coincides with the vegetation land.

  20. Thermal Exposure and Environment Effects on Tension, Fracture and Fatigue of 5XXX Alloys Tested in Different Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-27

    Thermal Exposure and Environment Effects on Tension, Fracture and Fatigue of 5XXX Alloys Tested in Different Orientations Sb. GRANT NUMBER ONR-N000 14...e.g.Hl31, HI 16, HI 28), thermal exposure conditions (i .e. time, temperature), and environment (e.g. dry air, humid air, solutions) on the... environmental cracking susceptibility at different load ing rates in both the S-T and L-T orientations. Experiments were conducted using slow strain rate

  1. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  2. Individual thermal profiles as a basis for comfort improvement in space and other environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Coca, A.; Leon, G. R.; Dancisak, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of individualized countermeasures to address problems in thermoregulation is of considerable importance for humans in space and other extreme environments. A methodology is presented for evaluating minimal/maximal heat flux from the total human body and specific body zones, and for assessing individual differences in the efficiency of heat exchange from these body areas. The goal is to apply this information to the design of individualized protective equipment. METHODS: A multi-compartment conductive plastic tubing liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) was developed. Inlet water temperatures of 8-45 degrees C were imposed sequentially to specific body areas while the remainder of the garment was maintained at 33 degrees C. RESULTS: There were significant differences in heat exchange level among body zones in both the 8 degrees and 45 degrees C temperature conditions (p thermal profiles is feasible for better comfort of astronauts on long-duration missions and personnel in other extreme environments.

  3. A Review of Criteria for Outdoor Classroom in Selected Tertiary Educational Institutions in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheran, Y.; Fadzidah, A.; Nur Fadhilah, R.; Farha, S.

    2017-12-01

    A proper design outdoor environment in higher institutions contributes to the students’ learning performances and produce better learning outcomes. Campus surrounding has the potential to provide an informal outdoor learning environment, especially when it has the existing physical element, like open spaces and natural features, that may support the learning process. However, scholarly discourses on environmental aspects in tertiary education have minimal environmental inputs to fulfill students’ needs for outdoor exposure. Universities have always emphasized on traditional instructional methods in classroom settings, without concerning the importance of outdoor classroom towards students’ learning needs. Moreover, the inconvenience and discomfort outdoor surrounding in campus environment offers a minimal opportunity for students to study outside the classroom, and students eventually do not favor to utilize the spaces because no learning facility is provided. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the appropriate criteria of outdoor areas that could be converted to be outdoor classrooms in tertiary institutions. This paper presents a review of scholars’ work in regards to the characteristics of the outdoor classrooms that could be designed as part of contemporary effective learning space, for the development of students’ learning performances. The information gathered from this study will become useful knowledge in promoting effective outdoor classroom and create successful outdoor learning space in landscape campus design. It I hoped that the finding of this study could provide guidelines on how outdoor classrooms should be designed to improve students’ academic achievement.

  4. Analysis of human factors on urban heat island and simulation of urban thermal environment in Lanzhou city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinghu

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) effect is a global phenomenon caused by urbanization. Because of the number and complexity of factors contributing to the urban thermal environment, traditional statistical methods are insufficient for acquiring data and analyzing the impact of human activities on the thermal environment, especially for identifying which factors are dominant. The UHI elements were extracted using thermal infrared remote sensing data to retrieve the land surface temperatures of Lanzhou city, and then adopting an object-oriented fractal net evolution approach to create an image segmentation of the land surface temperature (LST). The effects of urban expansion on the urban thermal environment were quantitatively analyzed. A comprehensive evaluation system of the urban thermal environment was constructed, the spatial pattern of the urban thermal environment in Lanzhou was assessed, and principal influencing factors were identified using spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) and multisource spatial data. We found that in the last 20 years, the UHI effect in Lanzhou city has been strengthened, as the UHI ratio index has increased from 0.385 in 1993 to 0.579 in 2001 and to 0.653 in 2011. The UHI expansion had a spatiotemporal consistency with the urban expansion. The four major factors that affect the spatial pattern of the urban thermal environment in Lanzhou can be ranked in the following order: landscape configuration, anthropogenic heat release, urban construction, and gradient from man-made to natural land cover. These four together accounted for 91.27% of the variance. A linear model was thus successfully constructed, implying that SPCA is helpful in identifying major contributors to UHI. Regression analysis indicated that the instantaneous LST and the simulated thermal environment have a good linear relationship, the correlation coefficient between the two reached 0.8011, highly significant at a confidence level of 0.001.

  5. Mathematical Modelling of Thermal Process to Aquatic Environment with Different Hydrometeorological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibek Issakhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model of the thermal process from thermal power plant to aquatic environment of the reservoir-cooler, which is located in the Pavlodar region, 17 Km to the north-east of Ekibastuz town. The thermal process in reservoir-cooler with different hydrometeorological conditions is considered, which is solved by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and temperature equation for an incompressible flow in a stratified medium. A numerical method based on the projection method, divides the problem into three stages. At the first stage, it is assumed that the transfer of momentum occurs only by convection and diffusion. Intermediate velocity field is solved by fractional steps method. At the second stage, three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved by the Fourier method in combination with tridiagonal matrix method (Thomas algorithm. Finally, at the third stage, it is expected that the transfer is only due to the pressure gradient. Numerical method determines the basic laws of the hydrothermal processes that qualitatively and quantitatively are approximated depending on different hydrometeorological conditions.

  6. Vibration and Acoustic Response of Rectangular Sandwich Plate under Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the vibration and acoustic response of a rectangular sandwich plate which is subjected to a concentrated harmonic force under thermal environment. The critical buckling temperature is obtained to decide the thermal load. The natural frequencies and modes as well as dynamic responses are acquired by using the analytical formulations based on equivalent non-classical theory, in which the effects of shear deformation and rotational inertia are taken into account. The rise of thermal load decreases the natural frequencies and moves response peaks to the low-frequency range. The specific features of sandwich plates with different formations are discussed subsequently. As the thickness ratio of facing to core increases, the natural frequencies are enlarged, and the response peaks float to the high-frequency region. Raising the Young's modulus of the core can cause the similar trends. The accuracy of the theoretical method is verified by comparing its results with those computed by the FEM/BEM.

  7. Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface thermal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamano, Makoto; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Kaneko, Shinji; Yoshikoshi, Akihisa

    2009-04-15

    Anthropogenic effects in both Osaka and Bangkok were evaluated to compare the relationships between subsurface environment and the development stage of both cities. Subsurface thermal anomalies due to heat island effects were found in both cities. The Surface Warming Index (SWI), the departure depth from the steady geothermal gradient, was used as an indicator of the heat island effect. SWI increases (deeper) with the magnitude of heat island effect and the elapsed time starting from the surface warming. Distributions of subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect agreed well with the distribution of changes in air temperature due to the same process, which is described by the distribution of population density in both Osaka and Bangkok. Different time lags between groundwater depression and subsidence in the two cities was found. This is attributed to differences in hydrogeologic characters, such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity. We find that differences in subsurface degradations in Osaka and Bangkok, including subsurface thermal anomalies, groundwater depression, and land subsidence, depends on the difference of the development stage of urbanization and hydrogeological characters.

  8. Small-Scale Flat Plate Collectors for Solar Thermal Scavenging in Low Conductivity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ogbonnaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great opportunity to develop power supplies for autonomous application on the small scale. For example, remote environmental sensors may be powered through the harvesting of ambient thermal energy and heating of a thermoelectric generator. This work investigates a small-scale (centimeters solar thermal collector designed for this application. The absorber is coated with a unique selective coating and then studied in a low pressure environment to increase performance. A numerical model that is used to predict the performance of the collector plate is developed. This is validated based on benchtop testing of a fabricated collector plate in a low-pressure enclosure. Model results indicate that simulated solar input of about 800 W/m2 results in a collector plate temperature of 298 K in ambient conditions and up to 388 K in vacuum. The model also predicts the various losses in W/m2 K from the plate to the surroundings. Plate temperature is validated through the experimental work showing that the model is useful to the future design of these small-scale solar thermal energy collectors.

  9. Theoretical modeling for optimizing horizontal production well placement in thermal recovery environments to maximize recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, D.J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Heavy oil has a high viscosity and a low API gravity rating. Since it is difficult to get a fluid of this nature to flow, enhanced oil recovery techniques are required to extract the oil from the reservoir. Thermal recovery strategies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection stimulation (CSS) can be used. These techniques involve injecting steam into a formation which heats up the fluid in place decreasing its viscosity and allowing it to flow into the producing well bore. In order to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from this type of geological environment, the placement of the horizontal production well bore relative to the base of the reservoir is important. In conventional oil and gas plays, well placement methods involving directional deep resistivity logging while drilling (DDR-LWD) measurements to map formation contacts while drilling have enabled wells to be placed relative to formation boundaries. This paper discussed a study that presented some theoretical resistivity inversion and forward modeling results generated from a three-dimensional geocellular model to confirm that this evolving DDR-LWD technology may be applicable to western Canada's Athabasca heavy oil drilling environments. The paper discussed the effect of well bore position, thermal recovery, and pro-active well placement. Resistivity modeling work flow was also presented. It was concluded that being able to drill a horizontal production well relative to the base of the formation could help minimize abandoned oil ultimately leading to better recovery. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, C. C. [Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK and Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Heyes, A. L. [Energy Technology and Innovation Initiative, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Feist, J. P. [Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  11. SRB thermal protection systems materials test results in an arc-heated nitrogen environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The external surface of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) will experience imposed thermal and shear environments due to aerodynamic heating and radiation heating during launch, staging and reentry. This report is concerned with the performance of the various TPS materials during the staging maneuver. During staging, the wash from the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) exhust plumes impose severe, short duration, thermal environments on the SRB. Five different SRB TPS materials were tested in the 1 MW Arc Plasma Generator (APG) facility. The maximum simulated heating rate obtained in the APG facility was 248 Btu/sq ft./sec, however, the test duration was such that the total heat was more than simulated. Similarly, some local high shear stress levels of 0.04 psia were not simulated. Most of the SSME plume impingement area on the SRB experiences shear stress levels of 0.02 psia and lower. The shear stress levels on the test specimens were between 0.021 and 0.008 psia. The SSME plume stagnation conditions were also simulated.

  12. ANTHEM2000TM: Integration of the ANTHEM Thermal Hydraulic Model in the ROSETM Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boire, R.; Nguyen, M; Salim, G.

    1999-01-01

    ROSEN TM is an object oriented, visual programming environment used for many applications, including the development of power plant simulators. ROSE provides an integrated suite of tools for the creation, calibration, test, integration, configuration management and documentation of process, electrical and I and C models. CAE recently undertook an ambitious project to integrate its two phase thermal hydraulic model ANTHEM TM into the ROSE environment. ANTHEM is a non equilibrium, non-homogenous model based on the drift flux formalism. CAE has used the model in numerous two phase applications for nuclear and fossil power plant simulators. The integration of ANTHEM into ROSE brings the full power of visual based programming to two phase modeling applications. Features include graphical model building, calibration tools, a superior test environment and process visualisation. In addition the integration of ANTHEM into ROSE makes it possible to easily apply the fidelity of ANTHEM to BOP applications. This paper describes the implementation of the ANTHEM model within the ROSE environment and gives examples of its use. (author)

  13. Creating the Thermal Environment for Safely Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Lauterbach, John; Garcia, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. The chamber was originally built to support testing of the Apollo Service and Command Module for lunar missions, but underwent major modifications to be able to test the James Webb Space Telescope in a simulated deep space environment. To date seven tests have been performed in preparation of testing the flight optics for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Each test has had a uniquie thermal profile and set of thermal requirements for cooling down and warming up, controlling contamination, and releasing condensed air. These range from temperatures from 335K to 15K, with tight uniformity and controllability for maintining thermal stability and pressure control. One unique requirement for two test was structurally proof loading hardware by creating thermal gradients at specific temperatures. This paper will discuss the thermal requirements and goals of the tests, the original requirements of the chamber thermal systems for planned operation, and how the new requirements were met by the team using the hardware, system flexiblilty, and engineering creativity. It will also discuss the mistakes and successes to meet the unique goals, especially when meeting the thermal proof load.

  14. Analysis of near-field thermal and psychometric waste package environment using ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, G.

    1995-03-01

    The ultimate objective of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Program is to safely emplace and isolate the nations' spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. Radioactive waste emplaced in a geologic repository will generate heat, increasing the temperature in the repository. The magnitude of this temperature increase depends upon (1) the heat source, i.e. the thermal loading of the repository, and (2) the geologic and engineered heat transport characteristics of the repository. Thermal management techniques currently under investigation include ventilation of the emplacement drifts during the preclosure period which could last as long as 100 years. Understanding the amount of heat and moisture removed from the emplacement drifts and near-field rock by ventilation, are important in determining performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS), as well as the corrosive environment of the waste packages, and the interaction of the EBS with the near-field host rock. Since radionuclide releases and repository system performance are significantly affected by the corrosion rate related to the psychometric environment, it is necessary to predict the amount of heat and moisture that are removed from the repository horizon using a realistic model for a wide range of thermal loading. This can be realized by coupling the hydrothermal model of the rock mass to a ventilation/climate model which includes the heat and moisture transport on the rock-air interface and the dilution of water vapor in the drift. This paper deals with the development of the coupled model concept, and determination of the boundary conditions for the calculations

  15. Differentially expressed genes associated with adaptation to different thermal environments in three sympatric Cuban Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Hiroshi D; Cádiz Díaz, Antonio; Shigenobu, Shuji; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-05-01

    How animals achieve evolutionary adaptation to different thermal environments is an important issue for evolutionary biology as well as for biodiversity conservation in the context of recent global warming. In Cuba, three sympatric species of Anolis lizards (Anolis allogus, A. homolechis and A. sagrei) inhabit different thermal microhabitats, thereby providing an excellent opportunity to examine how they have adapted to different environmental temperatures. Here, we performed RNA-seq on the brain, liver and skin tissues from these three species to analyse their transcriptional responses at two different temperatures. In total, we identified 400, 816 and 781 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two temperatures in A. allogus, A. homolechis and A. sagrei, respectively. Only 62 of these DEGs were shared across the three species, indicating that global transcriptional responses have diverged among these species. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that large numbers of ribosomal protein genes were DEGs in the warm-adapted A. homolechis, suggesting that the upregulation of protein synthesis is an important physiological mechanism in the adaptation of this species to hotter environments. GO analysis also showed that GO terms associated with circadian regulation were enriched in all three species. A gene associated with circadian regulation, Nr1d1, was detected as a DEG with opposite expression patterns between the cool-adapted A. allogus and the hot-adapted A. sagrei. Because the environmental temperature fluctuates more widely in open habitats than in forests throughout the day, the circadian thermoregulation could also be important for adaptation to distinct thermal habitats. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Developing an audit checklist to assess outdoor falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group.

  17. The thermal comfort, the indoor environment control, and the energy consumption in three types of operating rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melhado, M.D.A.; Beyer, P.O.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Siqueira, L.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of three layouts of operating rooms on the indoor environment control, on thermal comfort and on energy consumption. It was used the EnergyPlus software. The parameters of the environment were described in accordance with standards. The three layouts had

  18. Microenvironments in swine farrowing rooms: the thermal, lighting, and acoustic environments of sows and piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Munhoz Morello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present research hypothesized that the thermal, lighting and acoustic environments in commercial swine farrowing rooms vary over time and from crate to crate. This study was conducted on 27 replicates in two commercial farrowing rooms in North Central Indiana, each equipped with 60 farrowing crates. Temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, sound intensity, and air velocity were continuously monitored and estimated for each crate at the sow level, for 48 h post-farrowing, which is usually a critical period for piglet survivability. Average daily temperature for all the crates in Room 1 was 24.1 ± 2.0 °C, 1.0 °C lower (p < 0.05 than in Room 2. Although the overall mean temperature was similar between rooms and seasons, frequency distribution diagrams revealed that the proportion of time spent within distinct limits of mean daily temperature ranged from 15.0 °C to 28.0 °C and varied substantially between rooms and seasons. Similar results were found for all variables measured in this study. Differences in temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, air velocity, and sound intensity in crates were as high as 9.6 °C, 57 %, 3,847.3 Lx, 0.87 m s–1, and 38.7 dBC, respectively, in the same farrowing room when measured at the same instant. The results of the present research indicate that aspects that go beyond the physical environment of the sows, such as thermal, lighting, and acoustic environment can vary substantially over time and between crates of automatically climate controlled farrowing rooms. These differences should be taken into consideration in production setting and research.

  19. Integrating smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to improve fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with, Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from the 'eCoFit' randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wilczynska, Magdalena; Cohen, Kristen E; Smith, Jordan J; Lubans, David R

    2017-12-01

    The risk and prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has dramatically increased over the past decade. The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a physical activity intervention to improve aerobic and muscular fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. A 20-week, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the University of Newcastle (June-December 2015). Adults were randomized to the intervention (n=42) or wait-list control group (n=42). The theory-based intervention included: Phase 1 (weeks 1-10) integrated group sessions (outdoor physical activity and cognitive mentoring), and the eCoFit smartphone application (app). Phase 2 (weeks 11-20) only included the eCoFit app. Participants were assessed at baseline, 10weeks and 20weeks. Linear mixed models (intention-to-treat) were used to determine group-by-time interactions at 10weeks (primary time-point) and 20weeks for the primary outcomes. Several secondary outcomes were also assessed. After 10weeks, significant group-by-time effects were observed for aerobic fitness (4.5mL/kg/min; 95% CI [1.3, 7.7], d=0.68) and muscular fitness (lower body) (3.4 reps, 95% CI [2.7, 4.2], d=1.45). Intervention effects for secondary outcomes included significant increased physical activity (1330steps/week), improved upper body muscular fitness (5 reps; arm-curl test), improved functionality (-1.8s; timed-up and go test) reduced waist circumference (2.8cm) and systolic blood pressure (-10.4mmHg). After 20weeks, significant effects were observed for lower body muscular fitness and health outcomes. eCoFit is an innovative lifestyle intervention which integrates smartphone technology, social support, and the outdoor environment to improve aerobic and muscular fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  1. Enhancing integrated indoor/outdoor mobility in a smart campus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sospedra, Joaquín; Avariento, Joan; Rambla Risueño, David; Montoliu Colás, Raúl; Casteleyn, Sven; Benedito Bordonau, Mauri; Gould Carlson, Michael; Huerta Guijarro, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A Smart City relies on six key factors: Smart Governance, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart Mobility. This paper focuses on Smart Mobility by improving one of its key components: positioning. We developed and deployed a novel indoor positioning system (IPS) that is combined with an outdoor positioning system to support seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and wayfinding. The positioning system is implemented as a service in our broader cartography-based ...

  2. Decreasing the Thermal Load on the Environment with the Help of Thermal Pumps in the Sewage Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovetskii, V. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Cherkina, V. M.; Ivanchuk, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    We propose designs for practical use of residual heat of sewage by means of thermal-pump transformation of thermal energy in plants operating on inverse Rankine and Lorentz cycles, as well as a method for sewage heat removal in drainage canals of water removal systems based on the application of double-pipe heat exchangers known as Field tubes.

  3. Microstructure Evolution and Impedance Spectroscopy Characterization of Thermal Barrier Coating Exposed to Gas Thermal-shock Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Wen-long

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas thermal-shock experiment of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs was carried out in air up to 1250℃ in order to simulate the thermal cycling process of the engine blades during the start heating and shut down cooling. The growth of thermal growth oxide (TGO layer and microstructure evolution of YSZ layer during thermal cycling process were investigated systematically by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy testing and SEM. The results show that the thickness of TGO layer increases when increasing the frequency of thermal cycling, and the impedance response of middle frequencies is more and more remarkable. Meanwhile, initiation and growth of micro-cracks occur in YSZ layer during the gas thermal-shock experiment. The corresponding impedance characterization of YSZ layer after 100 cycles is similar to the as-sprayed sample, indicating that micro-cracks in short time could heal since the YSZ micro-cracks sinter at high temperature. But after 300 cycles, the impedance spectroscopy of YSZ layer is quite different to the as-sprayed sample, with the corresponding impedance of particle-gap of YSZ more and more remarkable with the increase of the thermal-shock times, indicating that non-healing micro-cracks form in the YSZ layer, which may be the main reason to induce the failure of YSZ layer.

  4. Study on the effect of shape-stabilized phase change materials on spacecraft thermal control in extreme thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wan-fan; Liu, Na; Cheng, Wen-long; Liu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A shape-stabilized PCM is used to protect the spacecraft attacked by high energy. ► Taking a satellite as example, it proves the solution given in the work is feasible. ► Low thermal conductivity makes the material above its thermal stability limit. ► It provides guidance on how to choose the shape-stabilized PCM for similar problems. - Abstract: In space, the emergencies such as short-term high heat flux is prone to cause spacecraft thermal control system faults, resulting in temperature anomalies of electronic equipment of the spacecraft and even failures in them. In order to protect the spacecraft attacked by the high energy, a new guard method is proposed. A shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM), which has high thermal conductivity and does not require being tightly packaged, is proposed to be used on the spacecraft. To prove the feasibility of using the material on spacecraft attacked by high energy, the thermal responses for spacecraft with shape-stabilized PCM are investigated in situations of normal and short-term high heat flux, in contrast to that with conventional thermal control system. The results indicate that the shape-stabilized PCM can effectively absorb the heat to prevent the thermal control system faults when the spacecraft’s outer heat flux changes dramatically and has no negative effect on spacecraft in normal heat flux. Additionally the effect of thermal conductivity of PCM on its application effectiveness is discussed

  5. Thermal and fluid simulation of the environment under the dashboard, compared with measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, C. S.; Sirbu, G. M.; Nita, I. C.

    2017-10-01

    The development of vehicles during the last decade is related to the evolution of electronic systems added in order to increase the safety and the number of services available on board, such as advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS). Cars already have a complex computer network, with electronic control units (ECUs) connected to each other and receiving information from many sensors. The ECUs transfer an important heat power to the environment, while proper operating conditions need to be provided to ensure their reliability at high and low temperature, vibration and humidity. In a car cabin, electronic devices are usually placed in the compartment under the dashboard, an enclosed space designed for functional purposes. In the early stages of the vehicle design it has become necessary to analyse the environment under dashboard, by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and measurements. This paper presents the cooling of heat sinks by natural convection, a thermal and fluid simulation of the environment under the dashboard compared with test data.

  6. Thermocouple Errors when Mounted on Cylindrical Surfaces in Abnormal Thermal Environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zepper, Ethan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Jerry J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valdez, Vincent A. [ECI Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed, Type-K thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of various items in high-temperature environments, often exceeding 1000degC (1273 K). The thermocouple wires (chromel and alumel) are protected from the harsh environments by an Inconel sheath and magnesium oxide (MgO) insulation. The sheath and insulation are required for reliable measurements. Due to the sheath and MgO insulation, the temperature registered by the thermocouple is not the temperature of the surface of interest. In some cases, the error incurred is large enough to be of concern because these data are used for model validation, and thus the uncertainties of the data need to be well documented. This report documents the error using 0.062" and 0.040" diameter Inconel sheathed, Type-K thermocouples mounted on cylindrical surfaces (inside of a shroud, outside and inside of a mock test unit). After an initial transient, the thermocouple bias errors typically range only about +-1-2% of the reading in K. After all of the uncertainty sources have been included, the total uncertainty to 95% confidence, for shroud or test unit TCs in abnormal thermal environments, is about +-2% of the reading in K, lower than the +-3% typically used for flat shrouds. Recommendations are provided in Section 6 to facilitate interpretation and use of the results. .

  7. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioural, physiological and psychological responses of passengers to the thermal environment of boarding a flight in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxin; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Cheng, Yong; Mmereki, Daniel; Kong, Deyu

    2018-06-01

    In practice, passengers actively respond to the thermal environment when they board an aircraft in winter, which is not considered in the current standards. In this study, the behavioural, physiological and psychological responses to the thermal environment were examined at 22 °C (with 68 subjects), 20 °C and 26 °C (with 32 subjects). The results showed that the three air temperature levels had significant effect on nozzle usage and clothing adjustment behaviours, surface skin temperature, and thermal sensation vote (TSV). The walking/waiting states prior to boarding the aircraft cabin had a significant effect on the proportion of jacket removal, TSV and thermal comfort vote. After 10 min in the aircraft cabin, the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins. Practitioner Summary: Experimental investigation of human responses was conducted in an aircraft cabin. Analysis showed that the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins.

  9. Research on Integration of Indoor and Outdoor Positioning in Professional Athletic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GNSS is widely used in professional athletic training as an outdoor location based services, and the indoor positioning technology has gradually flourished in the gymnasium. To keep up with the demand for athletic training in indoor and outdoor environment, integration of indoor and outdoor positioning technology can achieve a seamless indoor/outdoor position solution. The proposed method uses GPS/BEIDOU with IMU-MEMS technology for outdoor positioning and UWB with IMU-MEMS technology for indoor positioning to provide high precision positioning services. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve meter level position accuracy in outdoor environment and centimeter level position accuracy in indoor environment, it can provide precise and real-time positioning service for effective athletic training aid.

  10. The Past and Future Trends of Heat Stress Based On Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Outdoor Environment of Tehran City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi Mohraz, Majid; Ghahri, Asghar; Karimi, Mehrdad; Golbabaei, Farideh

    2016-06-01

    The workers who are working in the open and warm environments are at risk of health effects of climate and heat changes. It is expected that the risk is increase with global warming. This study aimed to investigate the changes of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index in the past and to predict their trend of future changes in Tehran, capital of Iran. The meteorological data recorded in Tehran, Iran during the statistical period between 1961 and 2009 were obtained from the Iran Meteorological Organization and based on them, WBGT index was calculated and processed using Man-Kendall correlation test. The results of Man-Kendall correlation test showed that the trend of changes of annual mean WBGT during the statistical period under study (1961-2009) has been significantly increasing. In addition, the result of proposed predictive model estimated that an increase of about 1.55 degree in WBGT index will be seen over 40 years from 2009 to 2050 in Tehran. Climate change in Tehran has had an effect on person's exposure to heat stresses consistent with global warming.

  11. The Short Term Effectiveness of an Outdoor Environmental Education on Environmental Awareness and Sensitivity of In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is mostly mentioned in terms of environmental education. The aim of this research is to determine the short term effectiveness of an outdoor environmental education program on biodiversity awareness, environmental awareness and sensitivity to natural environment. The data is collected from an outdoor environmental education…

  12. Investigation of Primary Dew-Point Saturator Efficiency in Two Different Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvizdic, D.; Heinonen, M.; Sestan, D.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the evaluation process of the performance of the low-range saturator (LRS), when exposed to two different thermal environments. The examined saturator was designed, built, and tested at MIKES (Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland), and then transported to the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM) in Croatia, where it was implemented in a new dew-point calibration system. The saturator works on a single-pressure-single-pass generation principle in the dew/frost-point temperature range between and . The purpose of the various tests performed at MIKES was to examine the efficiency and non-ideality of the saturator. As a test bath facility in Croatia differs from the one used in Finland, the same tests were repeated at LPM, and the effects of different thermal conditions on saturator performance were examined. Thermometers, pressure gauges, an air preparation system, and water for filling the saturator at LPM were also different than those used at MIKES. Results obtained by both laboratories indicate that the efficiency of the examined saturator was not affected either by the thermal conditions under which it was tested or by equipment used for the tests. Both laboratories concluded that LRS is efficient enough for a primary realization of the dew/frost-point temperature scale in the range from to , with flow rates between and . It is also shown that a considerable difference of the pre-saturator efficiency, indicated by two laboratories, did not have influence to the overall performance of the saturator. The results of the research are presented in graphical and tabular forms. This paper also gives a brief description of the design and operation principle of the investigated low-range saturator.

  13. Comparison of the effects of nuclear power plants and thermal power plants on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.; Teverovskij, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of ecological effects produced by a thermal power station (TPS) and a nuclear power plant (NPP) of similar electric capacity has been made. The ecological advantages of NPP over TPS are revealed in analysis of aerosol and gas blow-out and its danger for the environment. From the above data it follows that TPS as compared with NPP of similar electric capacity produces a 100 and 1000 fold higher air pollution effect than the latter. The dose of TPS radiation effect is minimum 500 times higher than that of NPP at normal operation. Large-scale construction of NPP is one of the most perfect means of atmosphere protection against harmful industrial discharges

  14. Preliminary results of thermal igniter experiments in H2-air-steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal igniters (glow plugs), proposed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for intentional ignition of hydrogen in nuclear reactor containment, have been tested for functionability in mixtures of air, hydrogen, and steam. Test environments included 6% to 16% hydrogen concentrations in air, and 8%, 10%, and 12% hydrogen in mixtures with 30% and 40% steam fractions. All were conducted in a 10.6 ft 3 insulated pressure vessel. For all of these tests the glow plug successfully initiated combustion. Dry air/hydrogen tests exhibited a distinct tendency for complete combustion at hydrogen concentrations between 8% and 9%. Steam suppressed both peak pressures and completeness of combustion. No combustion could be initiated at or above a 50% steam fraction. Circulation of the mixture with a fan increased the completeness of combustion. The glow plug showed no evidence of performance degradation throughout the program

  15. Development of a field measurement methodology for studying the thermal indoor environment in hybrid GEOTABS buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Khovalyg, Dolaana; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    buildings. The three demonstration buildings were an office building in Luxembourg, an elderly care home in Belgium, and an elementary school in Czech Republic. All of these buildings are equipped with hybrid GEOTABS systems; however, they vary in size and function, which requires a unique measurement...... methodology for studying them. These buildings already have advanced Building Management Systems (BMS); however, a more detailed measurement plan was needed for the purposes of the project to document the current performance of these systems regarding thermal indoor environment and energy performance......, and to be able to document the improvements after the implementation of the MPC. This study provides the details of the developed field measurement methodology for each of these buildings to study the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in details. The developed measurement methodology can be applied to other...

  16. Nonlocal microstructure-dependent dynamic stability of refined porous FG nanoplates in hygro-thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Based on the generalized nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT), dynamic modeling and analysis of nanoporous inhomogeneous nanoplates is presented. Therefore, it is possible to capture both stiffness-softening and stiffness-hardening effects for a more accurate dynamic analysis of nanoplates. The nanoplate is in hygro-thermal environments and is subjected to an in-plane harmonic load. Porosities are incorporated to the model based on a modified rule of mixture. Modeling of the porous nanoplate is conducted according to a refined four-variable plate theory with fewer field variables than in the first-order plate theory. The governing equations and related classical and nonclassical boundary conditions are derived based on Hamilton's principle. These equations are solved for hinged nanoplates via Galerkin's method. It is shown that porosities, moisture rise, temperature rise, nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, material gradation, elastic foundation and uniform dynamic load have a remarkable influence on the dynamic behavior of nanoscale plates.

  17. Internal pressure changes of liquid filled shipping casks due to thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of the significance of internal pressure calculations in liquid filled shipping casks subjected to a high temperature thermal environment is presented. Some basic thermodynamic relationships are introduced and discussed as they apply to the two-phase mixture problem encountered with liquid filled casks. A model of the liquid filled cask is developed and the assumptions and limitations of the mathematical model are discussed. A relationship is derived which can be used to determine internal cask pressures as a function of initial thermodynamic loading conditions, initial fluid volume ratio and final mixture temperature. The results for water/air filled casks are presented graphically in a parametric form. The curves presented are particularly useful for preliminary design verification purposes. A qualitative discussion of the use of the results from an error analysis aspect is presented. Some pressure calculation problems frequently seen by NRC for liquid filled cask designs are discussed

  18. Vibration, buckling and smart control of microtubules using piezoelectric nanoshells under electric voltage in thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farajpour, A., E-mail: ariobarzan.oderj@gmail.com; Rastgoo, A.; Mohammadi, M.

    2017-03-15

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are of low toxicity and have many biomedical applications including optical imaging, drug delivery, biosensing and harvesting biomechanical energy using hybrid nanogenerators. In this paper, the vibration, buckling and smart control of microtubules (MTs) embedded in an elastic medium in thermal environment using a piezoelectric nanoshell (PNS) are investigated. The MT and PNS are considered to be coupled by a filament network. The PNS is subjected to thermal loads and an external electric voltage which operates to control the mechanical behavior of the MT. Using the nonlocal continuum mechanics, the governing differential equations are derived. An exact solution is presented for simply supported boundary conditions. The differential quadrature method is also used to solve the governing equations for other boundary conditions. A detailed parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of the elastic constants of surrounding medium and internal filament matrix, scale coefficient, electric voltage, the radius-to-thickness ratio of PNSs and temperature change on the smart control of MTs. It is found that the applied electric voltage can be used as an effective controlling parameter for the vibration and buckling of MTs.

  19. Outdoor Education and Mobile Learning: An Autobiographical Narrative Using Application-Based Information and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeff, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Although mobile learning using smartphones and applications or apps have the potential to inform and educate individuals in an outdoor environment, users may find that connectivity issues and basic knowledge of outdoor environments, including both physical and emotional, could be limited by what this technology provided. This study provided my…

  20. Evaluating thermal image sharpening over irrigated crops in a desert environment

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides spatially and temporally distributed data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Multi-spectral platforms, including Landsat and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), acquire imagery in the visible to shortwave infrared and thermal infrared (TIR) domain at resolutions ranging from 30 to 1000 m. Land-surface temperature (LST) derived from TIR satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. As a result, several techniques for thermal sharpening have been developed. In this study, the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique is applied over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The DMS approach sharpens TIR imagery using finer resolution shortwave spectral reflectances and functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. In this study, the DMS is applied to Landsat 8 data (100m TIR resolution), which is scaled up to 240m, 480m, and 960m in order to assess the accuracy of the DMS technique in arid irrigated farming environments for different sharpening ratios. Furthermore, the scaling done on Landsat 8 data is consistent with the resolution of MODIS products. Potential enhancements to DMS are investigated including the use of ancillary terrain data. Finally, the impact of using sharpened LST, as input to a two-source energy balance model, on simulated ET will be evaluated. The ability to accurately monitor field-scale changes in vegetation cover, crop conditions and surface fluxes, are of main importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly

  1. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  2. An investigation into thermal comfort and residential thermal environment in an intertropical sub-Saharan Africa region: Field study report during the Harmattan season in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djongyang, Noel; Tchinda, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Investigations on thermal comfort have attracted authors for years throughout the world and the most important findings are now the basis of international thermal comfort standards. There is little information available concerning occupant comfort and residential thermal environment in the intertropical sub-Saharan Africa. Thus the purpose for this study is to conduct a field study on comfort and residential thermal environments in a typical intertropical climatic region. A field survey has been conducted during the Harmattan season in two cities from the two climatic regions of Cameroon concerned by that wind. Specific study objectives were to evaluate and characterize some thermal perceptions of occupants in their residence, compare observed and predicted percent of dissatisfied, and discern differences between the study area and other climate zones where similar studies have been performed. It was found that the thermoneutral temperatures in both climatic regions range from 24.69 deg. C to 27.32 deg. C and, in traditional living room, it differs from that of modern living room with approximately 1 deg. C.

  3. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  4. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  5. Thermal environment characterization for the bovine cattle ranching in the Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Andres Molina Benavides

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of climate on animal behavior has been demonstrated for many years. Climatic variables such as temperature (T, ° C, relative humidity (RH, %, solar radiation (SR, W / m2 and wind speed (WS, m / s, outside their normal range, can displace ruminants of their comfort zone, which can results in negative impact on their productivity and reproduction behavior. In order to characterize the thermal environment of bovine cattle ranching in the Valle del Cauca department, two biometeorological indexes (heat load index for dairy cows and meat cattle were performed to develop an animal - environment relationship. The indexes were applied to the most representative Valle del Cauca department climatic ranges (T = 20-35; RH = 60-100; WS = 0-10, finding that for dairy cows under the mentioned conditions of T> 23, RH> 80 and 0 WS, starting to show signals of heat stress, while for beef cattle starts with T> 25, RH> 60 and WS <1.5. In conclusion, these indexes are useful tools to determine the degree of heat stress that may occur on farms during certain times of day for certain months of the year, helping to plan actions to control its effect in cattle and subsequently, mitigate the impacts on their productive and reproductive performance.

  6. Infiltration route analysis using thermal observation devices (TOD) and optimization techniques in a GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Soonam; Heo, Joon; Han, Soohee; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2010-01-01

    Infiltration-route analysis is a military application of geospatial information system (GIS) technology. In order to find susceptible routes, optimal-path-searching algorithms are applied to minimize the cost function, which is the summed result of detection probability. The cost function was determined according to the thermal observation device (TOD) detection probability, the viewshed analysis results, and two feature layers extracted from the vector product interim terrain data. The detection probability is computed and recorded for an individual cell (50 m × 50 m), and the optimal infiltration routes are determined with A* algorithm by minimizing the summed costs on the routes from a start point to an end point. In the present study, in order to simulate the dynamic nature of a real-world problem, one thousand cost surfaces in the GIS environment were generated with randomly located TODs and randomly selected infiltration start points. Accordingly, one thousand sets of vulnerable routes for infiltration purposes could be found, which could be accumulated and presented as an infiltration vulnerability map. This application can be further utilized for both optimal infiltration routing and surveillance network design. Indeed, dynamic simulation in the GIS environment is considered to be a powerful and practical solution for optimization problems. A similar approach can be applied to the dynamic optimal routing for civil infrastructure, which requires consideration of terrain-related constraints and cost functions.

  7. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  8. PASLINK and dynamic outdoor testing of building components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, P.H.; Dijk, H.A.L. van

    2008-01-01

    The PASLINK test facilities and analysis procedures aim to obtain the thermal and solar characteristics of building components under real dynamic outdoor conditions. Both the analysis and the test methodology have evolved since the start of the PASSYS Project in 1985. A programme of upgrading the

  9. Optimal control of building storage systems using both ice storage and thermal mass – Part I: Simulation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiah, Ali; Krarti, Moncef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simulation environment is described to account for both passive and active thermal energy storage (TES) systems. ► Laboratory testing results have been used to validate the predictions from the simulation environment. ► Optimal control strategies for TES systems have been developed as part of the simulation environment. - Abstract: This paper presents a simulation environment that can evaluate the benefits of using simultaneously building thermal capacitance and ice storage system to reduce total operating costs including energy and demand charges while maintaining adequate occupant comfort conditions within commercial buildings. The building thermal storage is controlled through pre-cooling strategies by setting space indoor air temperatures. The ice storage system is controlled by charging the ice tank and operating the chiller during low electrical charge periods and melting the ice during on-peak periods. Optimal controls for both building thermal storage and ice storage are developed to minimize energy charges, demand charges, or combined energy and demand charges. The results obtained from the simulation environment are validated using laboratory testing for an optimal controller.

  10. Degradation of electrical insulation of polyethylene under thermal and radiation environment, (4). [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Murabayashi, Fumio; Sawa, Goro [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan); Yamaguchi, Shinji; Ieda, Masayuki

    1982-12-01

    Although the quality assurance guideline for the cables used for the safety and protection systems of nuclear power plants is given by IEEE Standards 323 and 383-1974, in addition, it is important to clarify the aging process under the complex environment of heat and radiation and the equivalence of the accelerated aging test of insulating materials. The authors performed the sequential (H.T-..gamma.. or ..gamma..-HT) and simultaneous (..gamma.., HT) application of respective aging factors of heat and radiation to non-additive low density polyethylene films by changing dose rate as the first stage, to clarify the dose rate dependence of the aging. They mainly investigated the dielectric properties, and forwarded investigation based on the change of carbonyl group by infrared spectrometry and residual free radicals by ESR analysis. In the samples irradiated with ..gamma..-ray only and those irradiated with ..gamma..-ray after thermal treatment for 7 hours at 90 deg C, the absorption coefficient ..cap alpha.. of carbonyl group increased with dose in the range from 3 Mrad to 60 Mrad, and both samples showed approximately the same ..cap alpha.. value. The ..cap alpha.. value of the samples thermally treated after irradiation was larger than that of the samples treated in the reverse order, and the difference between them increased with the increase of dose. The values of dielectric tangent delta at room temperature and 1 kHz for the samples (..gamma..) and (HT-..gamma..) increased with dose, and were almost the same, but those for the samples (..gamma..-HT) and (..gamma.., HT) were larger than the former two.

  11. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, ...

  12. Research on seasonal indoor thermal environment and residents' control behavior of cooling and heating systems in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Chihye; Chun, Chungyoon [Department of Housing and Interior Design, College of Human Ecology, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    Indoor thermal environments and residents' control behavior of cooling and heating systems were investigated in Seoul, Korea and compared with the results of previous studies. Twenty-four houses in summer, six houses in autumn and 36 houses in winter were used in this study. The measurement of temperature, humidity and air conditioner usage behavior was carried out. The clo-value, thermal comfort, sensation and basic data of the houses were also investigated. The indoor thermal environment in the summer had a high temperature and a high humidity ratio compare to standard comfort zone. Most of the indoor thermal environments at the time of starting the air conditioner in the summer were out of the comfort zone. Some of the data recorded while the air conditioner was stopped were in the comfort zone, but in many cases the temperature was relatively higher than comfort zone. Most indoor climate distributions in the winter were in the comfort zone and the indoor climate in autumn coincided well with the criteria of the comfort zone. Compared with results of previous studies in these 25 years, indoor ambient average temperature in winter has increased and the comfort temperature has increased in the heating period and decreased in the cooling period. This result indicates that the development of an HVAC system has created an expectation of comfort for residents and has shifted their thermal comfort zone warmer in winter and cooler in summer. (author)

  13. Construction of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for Environment Test of Triple CubeSat Mission TRIO-CINEMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeheon; Lee, Seongwhan; Yoon, Seyoung; Seon, Jongho; Jin, Ho; Lee, Donghun; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-01

    TRiplet Ionospheric Observatory-CubeSat for Ion, Neutron, Electron & MAgnetic fields (TRIO-CINEMA) is a CubeSat with 3.14 kg in weight and 3-U (10 × 10 × 30 cm) in size, jointly developed by Kyung Hee University and UC Berkeley to measure magnetic fields of near Earth space and detect plasma particles. When a satellite is launched into orbit, it encounters ultrahigh vacuum and extreme temperature. To verify the operation and survivability of the satellite in such an extreme space environment, experimental tests are conducted on the ground using thermal vacuum chamber. This paper describes the temperature control device and monitoring system suitable for CubeSat test environment using the thermal vacuum chamber of the School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University. To build the chamber, we use a general purpose thermal analysis program and NX 6.0 TMG program. We carry out thermal vacuum tests on the two flight models developed by Kyung Hee University based on the thermal model of the TRIO-CINEMA satellite. It is expected from this experiment that proper operation of the satellite in the space environment will be achieved.

  14. Construction of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for Environment Test of Triple CubeSat Mission TRIO-CINEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeheon Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available TRiplet Ionospheric Observatory-CubeSat for Ion, Neutron, Electron & MAgnetic fields (TRIO-CINEMA is a CubeSat with 3.14 kg in weight and 3-U (10 × 10 × 30 cm in size, jointly developed by Kyung Hee University and UC Berkeley to measure magnetic fields of near Earth space and detect plasma particles. When a satellite is launched into orbit, it encounters ultrahigh vacuum and extreme temperature. To verify the operation and survivability of the satellite in such an extreme space environment, experimental tests are conducted on the ground using thermal vacuum chamber. This paper describes the temperature control device and monitoring system suitable for CubeSat test environment using the thermal vacuum chamber of the School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University. To build the chamber, we use a general purpose thermal analysis program and NX 6.0 TMG program. We carry out thermal vacuum tests on the two flight models developed by Kyung Hee University based on the thermal model of the TRIO-CINEMA satellite. It is expected from this experiment that proper operation of the satellite in the space environment will be achieved.

  15. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-22

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users' current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station's signal strength in different environments, and identified the users' current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  16. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users’ current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM communication cellular base station’s signal strength in different environments, and identified the users’ current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  17. A Novel Method To On-Line Monitor Reactor Nuclear Power And In-Core Thermal Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Li, Dongxu; Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2002-01-01

    For current nuclear power plants, nuclear power can not be directly measured and in-core fuel thermal environments can not be monitored due to the unavailability of an appropriate measurement technology and the inaccessibility of the fuel. If the nuclear deposited power and the in-core thermal conditions (i.e. fuel or coolant temperature and heat transfer coefficient) can be monitored in-situ, then it would play a valuable and critical role in increasing nuclear power, predicting abnormal reactor operation, improving core physical models and reducing core thermal margin so as to implement higher fuel burn-up. Furthermore, the management of core thermal margin and fuel operation may be easier during reactor operation, post-accident or spent fuel storage. On the other hand, for some advanced Generation IV reactors, the sealed and long-lived reactor core design challenges traditional measurement techniques while conventional ex-core detectors and current in-core detectors can not monitor details of the in-core fuel conditions. A method is introduced in this paper that responds to the challenge to measure nuclear power and to monitor the in-core thermal environments, for example, local fuel pin or coolant heat convection coefficient and temperature. In summary, the method, which has been designed for online in-core measurement and surveillance, will be beneficial to advanced plant safety, efficiency and economics by decreasing thermal margin or increasing nuclear power. The method was originally developed for a constant temperature power sensor (CTPS). The CTPS is undergoing design and development for an advanced reactor core to measure in-core nuclear power in measurement mode and to monitor thermal environments in compensation mode. The sensor dynamics was analyzed in compensation mode to determine the environmental temperature and the heat transfer coefficient. Previous research demonstrated that a first order dynamic model is not sufficient to simulate sensor

  18. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  19. Study of the thermal comfort, of the energy consumption and of the indoor environment control in surgery rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melhado, M.D.A.; Beyer, P.O.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Siqueira, L.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    In this research were investigated the influence of different layouts of operating rooms on thermal comfort, on the indoor environment control and on energy consumption. The layouts studied were: Case 1 (a surgery room and a hallway); Case 2 (a surgery room and two hallways); and Case 3 (a surgery

  20. Size-dependent thermal stability analysis of graded piezomagnetic nanoplates on elastic medium subjected to various thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the thermal stability of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory and a refined plate model. The METE-FG nanoplate is subjected to the external electric potential, magnetic potential and different temperature rises. Interaction of elastic medium with the METE-FG nanoplate is modeled via Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. The governing equations are derived by using the Hamilton principle and solved by using an analytical method to determine the critical buckling temperatures. To verify the validity of the developed model, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of the nonlocal parameter, foundation parameters, temperature rise, external electric and magnetic potentials on the size-dependent thermal buckling characteristics of METE-FG nanoplates.

  1. Exploring the relationship between structurally defined geometrical parameters of reinforced concrete beams and the thermal comfort on indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Naboni, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    mass effect (and the implication on thermal comfort) and the given geometrical parameters of exposed soffit reinforced concrete beams are explored. The geometrical parameters of the beams are initially defined in means of structural optimisation. The beams consist of flange and web in likeness of T...... the resultant heat exchange behaviour, and the implication on thermal comfort indoor environment. However, the current paper presents the thermal mass characteristics of one geometrical type. The study is based on results derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, where Rhino 3D is used......The paper presents a research exploring the thermal mass effect of reinforced concrete beams with structurally optimised geometrical forms. Fully exposed concrete soffits in architectural contexts create more than just visual impacts on the indoor climate through their possible interferences...

  2. Remote sensing study of the impact of vegetation on thermal environment in different contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qijiao; Wu, Yingjiao; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2018-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology provides informative data for detecting the land surface temperature (LST) distribution and urban heat island (UHI) effect remotely and regionally. In this study, two Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired on September 26, 1987 and September 17, 2013 were used to derive LST and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values in Wuhan, China. The relationships between NDVI and LST were examined in different contexts, namely built-up area, farmland, grassland and forest. Results showed that negative correlations between the mean NDVI and LST were detected in all observed land covers, which meant that vegetation was efficient in decreasing surface temperatures and mitigating UHI effect. The cooling efficiency of vegetation on thermal environment varied with different contexts. As mean NDVI increased at each 0.1, the decreased LST values in built-up area, farmland, grassland and forest were 1.4 °C, 1.4 °C, 1.1 °C, 1.9 °C in 1987 and 1.4 °C, 1.7 °C, 1.3 °C, 1.8 °C in 2013, respectively. This finding encourages urban planners and greening designers to devote more efforts in protecting urban forests.

  3. The evaluation of the thermal environment of lands with different cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Kuroda, M.

    1989-01-01

    It is clear that ground conditions have a large effect on the thermal environment. A numerical experiment was carried out to determine the diurnal changes of energy flux on various types of land use. Wind velocity, potential temperature and specific humidity were applied respectively at the upper boundary 100 m, and a temperature was specified for the lower boundary -0.5 m. All these conditions were kept constant throughout the simulation period. The analysis were performed on the basis of data obtained in Fukuoka City (latitude 33 33'N) on July. The model was simplified by (1) omitting advection, (2) no consideration on the topographical difference and (3) adopting the most outstanding land usage as the unit mesh (200 m X 200 m) character. The daily amounts of sensible and latent heat flux were large in a order of town, upland field, paddy field, orchard and forest. And that of latent heat flux was in a reverse order. Recently, remote-sensing is widely used for the exvironmental assessment. But in most cases, those are limited to the instantaneous data. The simulation presented here will effectively be used for the estimation of unknown data which cannot be measured

  4. [Correlative analysis of the diversity patterns of regional surface water, NDVI and thermal environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin-Long; Zhang, Xue-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taking Zhengzhou City, the capital of Henan Province in Central China, as the study area, and by using the theories and methodologies of diversity, a discreteness evaluation on the regional surface water, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and land surface temperature (LST) distribution was conducted in a 2 km x 2 km grid scale. Both the NDVI and the LST were divided into 4 levels, their spatial distribution diversity indices were calculated, and their connections were explored. The results showed that it was of operability and practical significance to use the theories and methodologies of diversity in the discreteness evaluation of the spatial distribution of regional thermal environment. There was a higher overlap of location between the distributions of surface water and the lowest temperature region, and the high vegetation coverage was often accompanied by low land surface temperature. In 1988-2009, the discreteness of the surface water distribution in the City had an obvious decreasing trend. The discreteness of the surface water distribution had a close correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution, while the discreteness of the NDVI classification distribution had a more complicated correlation with the discreteness of the temperature region distribution. Therefore, more environmental factors were needed to be included for a better evaluation.

  5. Neural computing thermal comfort index PMV for the indoor environment intelligent control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Yifei

    2013-03-01

    Providing indoor thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of indoor environmental control system. An intelligent comfort control system by combining the intelligent control and minimum power control strategies for the indoor environment is presented in this paper. In the system, for realizing the comfort control, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is designed as the control goal, and with chastening formulas of PMV, it is controlled to optimize for improving indoor comfort lever by considering six comfort related variables. On the other hand, a RBF neural network based on genetic algorithm is designed to calculate PMV for better performance and overcoming the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation better. The formulas given in the paper are presented for calculating the expected output values basing on the input samples, and the RBF network model is trained depending on input samples and the expected output values. The simulation result is proved that the design of the intelligent calculation method is valid. Moreover, this method has a lot of advancements such as high precision, fast dynamic response and good system performance are reached, it can be used in practice with requested calculating error.

  6. Transient response of rotating laminated functionally graded cylindrical shells in thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, P.; Heydarpour, Y.; Haghighi, M.R. Golbahar; Vaghefi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the elasticity theory, the transient analysis of dynamically pressurized rotating multi-layered functionally graded (FG) cylindrical shells in thermal environment is presented. The variations of the field variables across the shell thickness are accurately modeled by dividing the shell into a set of co-axial mathematical layers in the radial direction. The initial thermo-mechanical stresses are obtained by solving the thermoelastic equilibrium equations. The differential quadrature method and Newmark's time integration scheme are employed to discretize the obtained governing equations of each mathematical layer. After performing the convergence and comparison studies, parametric studies for two common types of FG sandwich shells, namely, the shell with homogeneous inner/outer layers and FG core and the shell with FG inner/outer layers and homogeneous core are carried out. The influences of the temperature dependence of material properties, material graded index, the convective heat transfer coefficient, the angular velocity, the boundary condition and the geometrical parameters (length and thickness to outer radius ratios) on the dynamic response of the FG shells are investigated. Highlights: ► As a first endeavor, transient analysis of rotating laminated functionally graded cylinders. ► Employing an elasticity based discrete layer-differential quadrature method. ► Evaluating and including the initial thermo-mechanical stresses accurately. ► Considering the temperature-dependence of the material properties. ► Presenting some new results, which can be used as benchmark solution for future works.

  7. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  8. Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.

  9. The evaluation of the thermal environment of lands with different cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroda, M.

    1989-01-15

    It is clear that ground conditions have a large effect on the thermal environment. A numerical experiment was carried out to determine the diurnal changes of energy flux on various types of land use. Wind velocity, potential temperature and specific humidity were applied respectively at the upper boundary 100 m, and a temperature was specified for the lower boundary -0.5 m. All these conditions were kept constant throughout the simulation period. The analysis were performed on the basis of data obtained in Fukuoka City (latitude 33 33'N) on July. The model was simplified by (1) omitting advection, (2) no consideration on the topographical difference and (3) adopting the most outstanding land usage as the unit mesh (200 m X 200 m) character. The daily amounts of sensible and latent heat flux were large in a order of town, upland field, paddy field, orchard and forest. And that of latent heat flux was in a reverse order. Recently, remote-sensing is widely used for the exvironmental assessment. But in most cases, those are limited to the instantaneous data. The simulation presented here will effectively be used for the estimation of unknown data which cannot be measured.

  10. Embodied thermal environments: an examination of older-people's sensory experiences in a variety of residential types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, Victoria; Guy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensations of space, namely temperature, humidity and the movement of air, can be difficult to separate from other sensory information such as the sound of fans or ventilation equipment, or the smell of damp or cool fresh air. Despite this factor, efforts to reduce the consumption of energy through the installation of low-carbon technologies including sealed whole-building systems frequently isolate the thermal environment and fail to recognise and respond to the influence of other sensory information on personal preferences and behaviours. Older people represent an increasing proportion of the UK's population, can be faced with a range of physiological challenges associated with ageing, and sometimes have long-established personal preferences. Drawing from data collected across the Conditioning Demand Project, this paper explores the embodied nature of older people's experiences of low-carbon and more traditional thermal technologies in private residences, extra-care housing and residential care-homes, focussing specifically upon auditory and olfactory stimulus. Exploring the management of the sensory experience across these settings, we analyse each case to inform the development of new design and policy approaches to tackling housing for older people. In doing so, we further build connections between energy research and debates around sensory urbanism. -- Highlights: •Some thermal technologies present particular sensory issues and problems for older people. •Older people use a range of sensory stimuli in evaluating and controlling thermal environments. •Older people use non-thermal sensory information when selecting between thermal technologies. •Sensory information plays an important role in thermal technology maintenance

  11. Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, James

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

  12. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  13. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  14. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless...

  15. The InSight Mars Lander and Its Effect on the Subsurface Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Matthew A.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Grott, Matthias; Piqueux, Sylvain; Mueller, Nils; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Spohn, Tilman

    2017-10-01

    The 2018 InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Mission has the mission goal of providing insitu data for the first measurement of the geothermal heat flow of Mars. The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) will take thermal conductivity and thermal gradient measurements to approximately 5 m depth. By necessity, this measurement will be made within a few meters of the lander. This means that thermal perturbations from the lander will modify local surface and subsurface temperature measurements. For HP3's sensitive thermal gradient measurements, this spacecraft influence will be important to model and parameterize. Here we present a basic 3D model of thermal effects of the lander on its surroundings. Though lander perturbations significantly alter subsurface temperatures, a successful thermal gradient measurement will be possible in all thermal conditions by proper (>3 m depth) placement of the heat flow probe.

  16. Technical solutions for mitigating adverse impacts on the environment implemented at Deva Thermal Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, Victor; Egyed, Francisc; Manea, Laurean

    2004-01-01

    Situated at the south-west of Transylvania, 9 km from Deva town on the Mures River bank, Deva Power Plant has an installed capacity of 1260 MW, in six 210 MW generation units. Each unit operates with two steam boilers of 330 t/h, and steam rated parameters are 13.72 MPa and 550 deg C. The generated electricity is delivered in the national grid at voltage levels of 200 and 400 kV; there exists also the possibility of delivering electricity to the neighbouring countries through the power line Sibiu - Arad - Szeged. The Power Plant also produces thermal energy. The total installed thermal capacity is 400 MWt. Deva Power Plant was commissioned in three stages. During the first stage, between 1969 and 1971, Units No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 were commissioned, followed by Unit No. 5 in 1977 and by Unit No. 6 in 1980. All main equipment was manufactured in Russia. The main fuel utilised here is hard coal extracted from Valea Jiului basins, with calorific value between 14600 and 18800 kJ/kg. Natural gas is used as a flame support fuel. Deva Power Plant has actually produced 9% to 12% of the total electricity produced in the country and 18% to 25% of the electricity produced on coal. Continuous efforts have been made for the rehabilitation and modernisation of this power plant aiming to improve operational safety whilst equal interest has been paid to mitigating the environmental damage caused by the great size combustion systems. In this paper we present some of the preoccupations concerning earliest as well as prospective actions to be taken to protect the environment and to comply with the relevant standards and laws in force. The major role played by Deva Power Plant within the National Power Grid secured through reliable and steady operation also means undertaking exceptional environmental protection actions, to comply with current requirements. By its comprehensive modernisation programme already in progress, Deva Power Plant focus on the continuous upgrading of their plant in

  17. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  18. Improvement of sweating model in 2-Node Model and its application to thermal safety for hot environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, Ryozo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153 8505 (Japan); Minami, Yuriko [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Sakoi, Tomonori [International Young Researchers Empowerment Center, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan); Tsuzuki, Kazuyo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Rijal, H.B. [Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Recently, due to global warming and the heat-island effect, more and more people are exposed to the dangers of heat disorders. A hot thermal environment can be evaluated using various indices, such as new Standard Effective Temperature (SET{sup *}) using the 2-Node Model (2 NM), Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model, and so on. The authors aim to develop a safety evaluation approach for hot environments. Subject experiments are performed in a laboratory to comprehend the physiological response of the human body. The results are compared with the computed values from the 2 NM and PHS models, and improved the sweating model in 2 NM in order to take into account the relationship with metabolic rate. A demonstration is provided of using the new sweating model for evaluating thermal safety in a hot environment. (author)

  19. Field study on behaviors and adaptation of elderly people and their thermal comfort requirements in residential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, R-L; Chen, C-P

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the thermal sensation of elderly people in Taiwan, older than 60 years, in indoor microclimate at home, and their requirements for establishing thermal comfort. The study was conducted using both a thermal sensation questionnaire and measurement of indoor climatic parameters underlying the thermal environment. Survey results were compared with those reported by Cheng and Hwang (2008, J. Tongji Univ., 38, 817-822) for non-elders to study the variation between different age groups in requirements of indoor thermal comfort. The results show that the predominant strategy of thermal adaptation for elders was window-opening in the summer and clothing adjustment in the winter. The temperature of thermal neutrality was 25.2 degrees C and 23.2 degrees C for the summer and the winter, respectively. Logistically regressed probit modeling on percentage of predicted dissatisfied (PPD) against mean thermal sensation vote revealed that the sensation votes corresponding to a PPD of 20% were +/- 0.75 for elders, about +/- 0.10 less than the levels projected by ISO 7730 model. The range of operative temperature for 80% thermal acceptability for elders in the summer was 23.2-27.1 degrees C, narrower than the range of 23.0-28.6 degrees C reported for non-elders. This is likely a result of a difference in the selection of adaptive strategies. Taiwan in the last decade has seen a rapid growth in the elderly population in its societal structure, and as such the quality of indoor thermal comfort increasingly concerns the elderly people. This study presents the results from field-surveying elders residing in major geographical areas of Taiwan, and discusses the requirements of these elders for indoor thermal comfort in different seasons. Through a comparison with the requirements by non-elders, this study demonstrates the unique sensitivity of elders toward indoor thermal quality and the selection of adaptive strategies that need to be considered when a thermal

  20. A review on potential use of low-temperature water in the urban environment as a thermal-energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanearu, J.; Borodinecs, A.; Rimeika, M.; Palm, B.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal-energy potential of urban water sources is largely unused to accomplish the up-to-date requirements of the buildings energy demands in the cities of Baltic Sea Region. A reason is that the natural and excess-heat water sources have a low temperature and heat that should be upgraded before usage. The demand for space cooling should increase in near future with thermal insulation of buildings. There are a number of options to recover heat also from wastewater. It is proposed that a network of heat extraction and insertion including the thermal-energy recovery schemes has potential to be broadly implemented in the region with seasonally alternating temperature. The mapping of local conditions is essential in finding the suitable regions (hot spots) for future application of a heat recovery schemes by combining information about demands with information about available sources. The low-temperature water in the urban environment is viewed as a potential thermal-energy source. To recover thermal energy efficiently, it is also essential to ensure that it is used locally, and adverse effects on environment and industrial processes are avoided. Some characteristics reflecting the energy usage are discussed in respect of possible improvements of energy efficiency.

  1. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  2. Promoting Physical Activity and Science Learning in an Outdoor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kevin E.; Yan, Zi; McInnis, Kyle J.

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor education programs have been shown to have a positive effect on the educational, physical and emotional development of youth. They are increasingly being used to foster a sense of community in schools and to provide students with learning opportunities related to the environment. This article describes an integrated outdoor education…

  3. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children : A large-scale cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. Purpose: This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were

  4. Effect of wind speed on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuhan

    2018-06-01

    In this experiment, a method of questionnaire survey was adopted. By changing the air flow rate under the indoor and outdoor natural conditions, the subjective Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) and the Thermal Comfort Vote (TCV) were recorded. The draft sensation can reduce the thermal sensation, but the draft sensation can cause discomfort, and the thermal comfort in a windy environment is lower than in a windless environment. When the temperature rises or the level of human metabolism increases, the person feels heat, the demand for draft sensation increases, and the uncomfortable feeling caused by the draft sensation may be reduced. Increasing the air flow within a certain range can be used to compensate for the increase in temperature.

  5. Investigation of Ageing Behaviour of Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber with Added Graphene in an Accelerated Thermal Ageing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Zhou Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermal ageing of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR reinforced with different graphene (GE concentrations has been investigated. NBR and NBR-GE composites were exposed to an accelerated thermal ageing environment produced by an air-circulating oven for seven days. The mechanical properties, chemical changes, and thermal stability of ageing samples and neat samples were evaluated. The results showed that the surface damage of NBR was severe and inhomogeneous, and the degree of ageing was most serious on the edge region of the voids, but NBR-GE composites were changed slightly before and after ageing. The tensile strength increased with the increase of GE concentration, up to a maximum value, and decreased with further increases in GE concentration. The GE embedded crosslinked network limited the segment movement of chains in the stretch direction and played a role in the composites properties, and the GE sheets (contained the functional groups of −OH, −C=O and C=C after ageing. This behaviour may indicate greater interface adhesion between the GE and NBR. In addition, results obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that the thermal stability of NBR significantly changed with accelerated thermal ageing environment, but with addition of a certain amount of GE to NBR, the thermal stability of NBR could be improved. The NBR/GE composites exhibited good comprehensive performance with a mass fraction of GE of 10 %. Before and after the thermal ageing, the failure mechanism of NBR-GE composites appeared intergranular and ductile fracture, respectively.

  6. Estimation of the thermal characteristics of a bridgewire environment by an electrothermal response test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.B.; Strasburg, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    The electrothermal response of an electroexplosive device is determined by applying a subcritical square wave current pulse to the bridgewire and monitoring the resultant temperature excursion. The temperature profile, thus obtained, can be utilized with a mathematical model called the ''Probe Method'' for approximating thermal properties. It is possible to estimate the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the pyrotechnic and the thermal contact conductance at the bridgewire/pyrotechnic interface by this technique

  7. Thermal cyclic oxidation behavior of the developed compositionally gradient graphite material of SiC/C in air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Fujii, Kimio; Shindo, Masami

    1993-08-01

    For the developed compositionally gradient graphite material composed of surface SiC coating layer, middle SiC/C layer and graphite matrix, the thermal cyclic oxidation test was performed together with two kinds of the SiC coated graphite materials in air environment. It was made clear that the developed material exhibited high performance under severe thermal cyclic condition independent of the morphology of middle SiC/C layers and had the longer time or the more cycle margins from crack initiation to failure for surface SiC coating layer compared with the SiC coated graphite materials. (author)

  8. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments: Part III: whole-body sensation and comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie; Han, Taeyoung

    2009-01-01

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specifi...

  9. Thermal Conditions in a Simulated Office Environment with Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin

    2013-01-01

    velocity and turbulent intensity were measured and draft rate levels calculated in the room. Manikin-based equivalent temperature (MBET) was determined by two thermal manikins to identify the impact of the local thermal conditions generated by the studied systems on occupants’ thermal comfort. The results......The thermal conditions in a two person office room were measured with four air conditioning systems: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...

  10. Impact of thermal power generation units on floristic diversity of Kota and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shuchita; Dadhich, K.

    2001-01-01

    The emissions from thermal power plants have great phytotoxic effects on plants due to changes in their morphology and physiology. A floristic study has been conducted near the Thermal Power Station at Kota in Rajasthan to estimate the impact of emissions from the thermal power plant on biota. It is observed that the whole vegetation, especially the perennial trees and shrubs, growing near the station were severely damaged due to effects of air pollutants emitted from the Thermal Power Station. Analysis of the fly ash reveals its composition as composed of silica, alumina, iron oxide etc. (author)

  11. Thermal de-isolation of silicon microstructures in a plasma etching environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong-Seok; Jang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Kim, Jung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental strategy for thermal de-isolation of silicon microstructures during a plasma etching process. Heat sinking blocks and thin metal layers are implemented around a thermally isolated mass to avoid severe spring width losses by a steep temperature rise. Thermal de-isolation significantly reduces the fabrication errors from −51.0% to −9.0% and from −39.5% to −6.7% for spring widths and resonant frequencies, respectively. Thermal de-isolation also reduces the standard deviation of resonant frequencies from 8.7% to 1.5% across a wafer, which clearly demonstrates the proposed method. (paper)

  12. Effects of electron irradiation in space environment on thermal and mechanical properties of carbon fiber/bismaleimide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qi; Chen, Ping; Gao, Yu; Ma, Keming; Lu, Chun; Xiong, Xuhai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electron irradiation decreased the storage modulus finally. •T g decreased first and then increased and finally decreased. •The thermal stability was reduced and then improved and finally decreased. •The changing trend of flexural strength and ILSS are consistent. -- Abstract: The effects of electron irradiation in simulated space environment on thermal and mechanical properties of high performance carbon fiber/bismaleimide composites were investigated. The dynamic mechanical properties of the composites exposed to different fluences of electron irradiation were evaluated by Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to investigate the changes in thermal stability of the resin matrix after exposure to electron irradiation. The changes in mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). The results indicated that electron irradiation in high vacuum had an impact on thermal and mechanical properties of CF/BMI composites, which depends on irradiation fluence. At lower irradiation fluences less than 5 × 10 15 cm −2 , the dynamic storage modulus, cross-linking degree, thermal stability and mechanical properties that were determined by a competing effect between chain scission and cross-linking process, decreased firstly and then increased. While at higher fluences beyond 5 × 10 15 cm −2 , the chain scission process was dominant and thus led to the degradation in thermal and mechanical properties of the composites

  13. Using deep learning to quantify the beauty of outdoor places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2017-07-01

    Beautiful outdoor locations are protected by governments and have recently been shown to be associated with better health. But what makes an outdoor space beautiful? Does a beautiful outdoor location differ from an outdoor location that is simply natural? Here, we explore whether ratings of over 200 000 images of Great Britain from the online game Scenic-Or-Not , combined with hundreds of image features extracted using the Places Convolutional Neural Network, might help us understand what beautiful outdoor spaces are composed of. We discover that, as well as natural features such as 'Coast', 'Mountain' and 'Canal Natural', man-made structures such as 'Tower', 'Castle' and 'Viaduct' lead to places being considered more scenic. Importantly, while scenes containing 'Trees' tend to rate highly, places containing more bland natural green features such as 'Grass' and 'Athletic Fields' are considered less scenic. We also find that a neural network can be trained to automatically identify scenic places, and that this network highlights both natural and built locations. Our findings demonstrate how online data combined with neural networks can provide a deeper understanding of what environments we might find beautiful and offer quantitative insights for policymakers charged with design and protection of our built and natural environments.

  14. Planning for outdoor play: Government and family decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, Julia J; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bundy, Anita C; Froude, Elspeth; Villeneuve, Michelle A

    2018-03-08

    Despite indisputable developmental benefits of outdoor play, children with disabilities can experience play inequity. Play decisions are multifactorial; influenced by children's skills and their familial and community environments. Government agencies have responsibilities for equity and inclusion of people with disabilities; including in play. This multiple-perspective case study aimed to understand outdoor play decision-making for children with disabilities from the perspectives and interactions of: local government and families of primary school-aged children with disabilities. Five mothers, four local government employees, and two not-for-profit organization representatives participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive and iterative analyzes involved first understanding perspectives of individuals, then stakeholders (local government and families), and finally similarities and differences through cross-case analysis. Local government focused more on physical access, than social inclusion. Local government met only minimal requirements and had little engagement with families. This resulted in poor understanding and action around family needs and preferences when designing public outdoor play spaces. To increase meaningful choice and participation in outdoor play, government understanding of family values and agency around engagement with local government needs to improve. Supporting familial collective capabilities requires understanding interactions between individuals, play, disability, and outdoor play environments.

  15. Thermal comfort of various building layouts with a proposed discomfort index range for tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Lee, Yee Yong; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Iwao, Kenzo; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen issues related to thermal comfort gaining more momentum in tropical countries. The thermal adaptation and thermal comfort index play a significant role in evaluating the outdoor thermal comfort. In this study, the aim is to capture the thermal sensation of respondents at outdoor environment through questionnaire survey and to determine the discomfort index (DI) to measure the thermal discomfort level. The results indicated that most respondents had thermally accepted the existing environment conditions although they felt slightly warm and hot. A strong correlation between thermal sensation and measured DI was also identified. As a result, a new discomfort index range had been proposed in association with local climate and thermal sensation of occupants to evaluate thermal comfort. The results had proved that the respondents can adapt to a wider range of thermal conditions.Validation of the questionnaire data at Putrajaya was done to prove that the thermal sensation in both Putrajaya and UTM was almost similar since they are located in the same tropical climate region. Hence, a quantitative field study on building layouts was done to facilitate the outdoor human discomfort level based on newly proposed discomfort index range. The results showed that slightly shaded building layouts of type- A and B exhibited higher temperature and discomfort index. The resultant adaptive thermal comfort theory was incorporated into the field studies as well. Finally, the study also showed that the DI values were highly dependent on ambient temperature and relative humidity but had fewer effects for solar radiation intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of human thermal comfort experiments in controlled and semi-controlled environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craenendonck, Van Stijn; Lauriks, Leen; Vuye, Cedric; Kampen, Jarl

    2018-01-01

    There are three main methods to improve thermal comfort in existing buildings: modeling, experiments and measurements. Regarding experiments, no standardized procedure exists. This article provides an answer to the question: “What is the most common practice for human thermal comfort experiments in

  17. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  18. Outdoor fitness routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a sport you enjoy, such as bicycling, hiking, jogging, rowing, tennis, or Frisbee. Make chores a ... L, Lin BB, Gaston KJ, Fuller RA. The benefits of natural environments for physical activity. Sports Med . ...

  19. Influence of measurement uncertainty on classification of thermal environment in buildings according to European Standard EN 15251

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    European Standard EN 15 251 in its current version does not provide any guidance on how to handle uncertainty of long term measurements of indoor environmental parameters used for classification of buildings. The objective of the study was to analyse the uncertainty for field measurements...... measurements of operative temperature at two measuring points (south/south-west and north/northeast orientation). Results of the present study suggest that measurement uncertainty needs to be considered during assessment of thermal environment in existing buildings. When expanded standard uncertainty was taken...... into account in categorization of thermal environment according to EN 15251, the difference in prevalence of exceeded category limits were up to 17.3%, 8.3% and 2% of occupied hours for category I, II and III respectively....

  20. Effect of personal control over thermal environment in a laboratory setting; Effect van klimaatbeinvloeding in een laboratoriumsetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Kulve, M.; ; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J.L.M. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Boerstra, A.C. [BBA Binnenmilieu, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Toftum, J. [Technical University of Denmark DTU, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-07-15

    A laboratory study was performed to investigate if being in control over the thermal environment influences comfort, symptoms and performance. Two conditions were tested: the first with individual control and the second without, but with identical indoor climate exposure as recorded during the first session. For the investigated case, the availability of control opportunities does not directly influence human perception to the thermal environment, symptoms or performance. However, personal preferences for the air velocity of the fan makes a lot of difference [Dutch] Onderzoeken in kantoorgebouwen hebben aangetoond dat het hebben van persoonlijke controle over het binnenklimaat een positieve invloed heeft op comfort en productiviteit. Is dit effect toe te schrijven aan het verschil in behoefte van werknemers, of is alleen het gevoel van het hebben van controle al voldoende om een positieve invloed te hebben? Dit laboratoriumonderzoek richtte zich op die vraag. Het onderzoek maakt deel uit van het promotieonderzoek 'Persoonlijke Beinvloeding van het Binnenklimaat in kantoorgebouwen'.

  1. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  2. Incorporating Outdoor Education into the Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhu

    2015-01-01

    Low motivation to participate in traditional or team sports, apathy toward competitive environments, and a low rate of transfer of skills to lifetime activities and wellness can be barriers for student pursuits of lifelong fitness. Adding an outdoor component can be a solution for some of these problems, while still accomplishing the National…

  3. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  4. Sense of place in outdoor-pursuits trip groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Anderson B. Young; Lynn S. Anderson; Timothy S. O' Connell; Mary Breunig

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that sense of community and group cohesion increase significantly over time in outdoor-pursuits trip groups. This study sought to understand similar development of sense of place. Do people simultaneously become more attached to or dependent on the natural environment as they grow closer to each other? Results from a study of college students...

  5. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  6. Everyone needs the health benefits of being outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulatt, Ian

    2017-08-02

    A study by researchers at the University of Warwick has shown that for many older people in care homes it takes a great effort to get outdoors. This isn't due to a lack of will but rather the environment they are living in and the restrictions placed on them, which range from needing permission to go outside to inadequate seating in gardens.

  7. An Examination of Perceived Constraints to Outdoor Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.T. Green; J.M. Bowker; X. Wang; H.K. Cordell; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether different social and marginalized groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, immigrants, low income, less educated) perceive more constraints or barriers to outdoor recreation participation than White middle-class males. Logistic regressions were applied to data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment...

  8. A Teacher's Guide To: Indians and the Outdoor Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, C. M.

    As a basic teacher's guide to the study of plants in their environment, this document serves primarily as a starting point for outdoor education with an American Indian emphasis in the State of South Dakota. The State is divided into three broad environmental categories or "biotic communities" (Prairie and Plains, Woodlands, and Wet…

  9. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  10. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  11. Psychological implications of outdoor adventure model of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthetic analysis of the Outdoor Adventure Education model in the context of three elementary components: the environment – in relation to the theory of space from the perspective of sociological and pedagogical theory of space; personal perspective and growth as well as social development – in relation to psychological phenomena that accompany the individual and group involved in the process of Outdoor Adventure Education. The aim is to present how these processes determine the effects of education and what personalities’ elements are involved.

  12. Geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical factors which influence repository design in the bedded salt environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Nair, O.; Ortman, D.; Rowe, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical considerations applicable to repository design. The topics discussed in the report include: tectonic activity; geologic structure; stratigraphy; rock mechanical properties; and hydrologic properties

  13. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  14. Present and future thermal environments available to Sharp-tailed Grouse in an intact grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Raynor

    Full Text Available Better understanding animal ecology in terms of thermal habitat use has become a focus of ecological studies, in large part due to the predicted temperature increases associated with global climate change. To further our knowledge on how ground-nesting endotherms respond to thermal landscapes, we examined the thermal ecology of Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus during the nesting period. We measured site-specific iButton temperatures (TiB and vegetation characteristics at nest sites, nearby random sites, and landscape sites to assess thermal patterns at scales relevant to nesting birds. We asked if microhabitat vegetation characteristics at nest sites matched the characteristics that directed macrohabitat nest-site selection. Grouse selected sites sheltered by dense vegetation for nesting that moderated TiB on average up to 2.7°C more than available landscape sites. Successful nests were positioned in a way that reduced exposure to thermal extremes by as much as 4°C relative to failed nests with an overall mean daytime difference (±SE of 0.4 ±0.03°C. We found that macrohabitat nest-site selection was guided by dense vegetation cover and minimal bare ground as also seen at the microhabitat scale. Global climate projections for 2080 suggest that TiB at nest sites may approach temperatures currently avoided on the landscape, emphasizing a need for future conservation plans that acknowledge fine-scale thermal space in climate change scenarios. These data show that features of grassland landscapes can buffer organisms from unfavorable microclimatic conditions and highlight how thermal heterogeneity at the individual-level can drive decisions guiding nest site selection.

  15. Present and future thermal environments available to Sharp-tailed Grouse in an intact grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Edward J; Powell, Larkin A; Schacht, Walter H

    2018-01-01

    Better understanding animal ecology in terms of thermal habitat use has become a focus of ecological studies, in large part due to the predicted temperature increases associated with global climate change. To further our knowledge on how ground-nesting endotherms respond to thermal landscapes, we examined the thermal ecology of Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) during the nesting period. We measured site-specific iButton temperatures (TiB) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites, nearby random sites, and landscape sites to assess thermal patterns at scales relevant to nesting birds. We asked if microhabitat vegetation characteristics at nest sites matched the characteristics that directed macrohabitat nest-site selection. Grouse selected sites sheltered by dense vegetation for nesting that moderated TiB on average up to 2.7°C more than available landscape sites. Successful nests were positioned in a way that reduced exposure to thermal extremes by as much as 4°C relative to failed nests with an overall mean daytime difference (±SE) of 0.4 ±0.03°C. We found that macrohabitat nest-site selection was guided by dense vegetation cover and minimal bare ground as also seen at the microhabitat scale. Global climate projections for 2080 suggest that TiB at nest sites may approach temperatures currently avoided on the landscape, emphasizing a need for future conservation plans that acknowledge fine-scale thermal space in climate change scenarios. These data show that features of grassland landscapes can buffer organisms from unfavorable microclimatic conditions and highlight how thermal heterogeneity at the individual-level can drive decisions guiding nest site selection.

  16. Heat transfer in fish: are short excursions between habitats a thermoregulatory behaviour to exploit resources in an unfavourable thermal environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépino, Marc; Goyer, Katerine; Magnan, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Temperature is the primary environmental factor affecting physiological processes in ectotherms. Heat-transfer models describe how the fish's internal temperature responds to a fluctuating thermal environment. Specifically, the rate coefficient (k), defined as the instantaneous rate of change in body temperature in relation to the difference between ambient and body temperature, summarizes the combined effects of direct thermal conduction through body mass, passive convection (intracellular and intercellular fluids) and forced convective heat transfer (cardiovascular system). The k-coefficient is widely used in fish ecology to understand how body temperature responds to changes in water temperature. The main objective of this study was to estimate the k-coefficient of brook charr equipped with internal temperature-sensitive transmitters in controlled laboratory experiments. Fish were first transferred from acclimation tanks (10°C) to tanks at 14, 19 or 23°C (warming experiments) and were then returned to the acclimation tanks (10°C; cooling experiments), thus producing six step changes in ambient temperature. We used non-linear mixed models to estimate the k-coefficient. Model comparisons indicated that the model incorporating the k-coefficient as a function of absolute temperature difference (dT: 4, 9 and 13°C) best described body temperature change. By simulating body temperature in a heterogeneous thermal environment, we provide theoretical predictions of maximum excursion duration between feeding and resting areas. Our simulations suggest that short (i.e. behaviour adopted by cold freshwater fish species to sustain body temperature below a critical temperature threshold, enabling them to exploit resources in an unfavourable thermal environment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. A constraints-based approach to the acquisition of expertise in outdoor adventure sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, Keith; Brymer, Eric; Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A constraints-based framework enables a new understanding of expertise in outdoor adventure sports by considering performer-environment couplings through emergent and self-organizing behaviours in relation to interacting constraints. Expert adventure athletes, conceptualized as complex, dynamical

  18. Effects of thermal energy harvesting on the human - clothing - environment microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, A. C.; Jur, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work is to perform an in depth investigation of garment-based thermal energy harvesting. The effect of human and environmental factors on the working efficiency of a thermal energy harvesting devices, or a thermoelectric generator (TEG), placed on the body is explored.. Variables that strongly effect the response of the TEG are as follows: skin temperature, human motion or speed, body location, environmental conditions, and the textile properties surrounding the TEG. In this study, the use of textiles for managing thermal comfort of wearable technology and energy harvesting are defined. By varying the stitch length and/or knit structure, one can manipulate the thermal conductivity of the garment in a specific location. Another method of improving TEG efficiency is through the use of a heat spreader, which increases the effective collection area of heat on the TEG hot side. Here we show the effect of a TEG on the thermal properties of a garment with regard to two knit stitches, jersey and 1 × 1 rib.

  19. Hybrid heating systems optimization of residential environment to have thermal comfort conditions by numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Nabi; Keshavarz, Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine optimum hybrid heating systems parameters, such as temperature, surface area of a radiant heater and vent area to have thermal comfort conditions. DOE, Factorial design method is used to determine the optimum values for input parameters. A 3D model of a virtual standing thermal manikin with real dimensions is considered in this study. Continuity, momentum, energy, species equations for turbulent flow and physiological equation for thermal comfort are numerically solved to study heat, moisture and flow field. K - ɛRNG Model is used for turbulence modeling and DO method is used for radiation effects. Numerical results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. The effect of various combinations of inlet parameters on thermal comfort is considered. According to Pareto graph, some of these combinations that have significant effect on the thermal comfort require no more energy can be used as useful tools. A better symmetrical velocity distribution around the manikin is also presented in the hybrid system.

  20. Evaluating the interior thermal performance of mosques in the tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. I.; Misni, A.

    2018-02-01

    This study introduces the methodology applied in conducting data collection and data analysis. Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic method. Qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in collecting data from government departments, site experiments and observation. Furthermore, analysing the indoor thermal performance data in the heritage and new mosques were used thermal monitoring tests, while validation will be made by meteorology data. Origin 8 version of the software is used to analyse all the data. Comparison techniques were applied to analyse several factors that influence the indoor thermal performance of mosques, namely building envelope include floor area, opening, and material used. Building orientation, location, surrounding vegetation and water elements are also recorded as supported building primary data. The comparison of primary data using these variables for four mosques include heritage and new buildings were revealed.

  1. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  2. A numerical study to evaluate the effects of a plant canopy on the modification of thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Cho, T.

    1985-01-01

    It is clear that ground conditions have a large effect on the thermal environment. Plant canopies have their own characteristic types of architecture and have a great influence upon the action and reaction processes occurring between plants and their environment through the modification and interception of fluxes of radiation, heat and mass. A numerical experiment was carried out to determine the diurnal changes occurring in soil and air temperatures near the ground surface covered by a plant. The model assumed that a canopy can be mathematically condensed into a single plane and treated as a single ‘big leaf’. The stomatal resistance was estimated by using the rectangular hyperbolic relationship between stomatal resistance and irradiance. Wind velocity, potential temperature and specific humidity values of 3.6m/s, 25°C and 0.0015 were applied respectively at the upper boundary (100 m), and a temperature of 25°C was specified for the lower boundary (-0.5m). All these conditions were kept constant throughout the simulation period. The analysis was performed on the basis of irradiant data obtained in Fukuoka City (latitude 33° 38'N) on 26 th July, 1978. The temperature profiles during daylight were characterized by curves with a maximum in the canopy layer. The temperature range on the soil surface was reduced owing to the effect of shading by the leaves. These phenomena make the formation of the thermal environment on a plant canopy extremely complex. In the case presented in this paper, the type of plant canopy investigated was similar to that of a soybean field with plants 1.00 m high, but the method could easily be adapted to simulate the thermal environment of a tall canopy, such as that in a forest. (author)

  3. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....

  4. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  5. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  6. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  7. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  8. Expanding & strengthening outdoor recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter S. Hopkins

    1971-01-01

    Though the Forest Service has pioneered in outdoor recreation research, the funding for recreation research has been inadequate. Specific needs for research are outlined. There is a need to define recreation and recreation research in terms that busy legislators can understand.

  9. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  10. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized. PMID:25763384

  11. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Iwasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires’ thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  12. Robust vehicle detection under various environments to realize road traffic flow surveillance using an infrared thermal camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  13. Thermal Comfort in Simulated Office Environment with Four Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Mustakallio, Panu; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    with overhead mixing ventilation (MVRC). Whole body thermal sensation (TS) and whole body TS acceptability under the four systems in a simulated office room for one hour exposure were collected. The simulated two-man office (4.12 x 4.20 x 2.89 m, L x W x H) was kept at 26 oC room air temperature. Moderate heat...... to “neutral” compared to male, whose votes were closer to the “slightly warm” thermal sensation. The whole body TS acceptability was rated close to ''clearly acceptable'' (EN 15251-2007) and was independent of subject's gender for all tested systems....

  14. Thermal effects on human performance in office environment measured by integrating task speed and accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed a method in which the speed and accuracy can be integrated into one metric of human performance. This was achieved by designing a performance task in which the subjects receive feedback on their performance by informing them whether they have committed errors, and if did, they can......, 12 subjects performed tasks under two thermal conditions (neutral & warm) repeatedly. The tasks were presented with and without feedback on errors committed, as outlined above. The results indicate that there was a greater decrease in task performance due to thermal discomfort when feedback was given......, compared to the performance of tasks presented without feedback....

  15. A Study of Visual Descriptors for Outdoor Navigation Using Google Street View Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, L.; Payá, L.; Reinoso, O.; Jiménez, L. M.; Ballesta, M.

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis between several methods to describe outdoor panoramic images is presented. The main objective consists in studying the performance of these methods in the localization process of a mobile robot (vehicle) in an outdoor environment, when a visual map that contains images acquired from different positions of the environment is available. With this aim, we make use of the database provided by Google Street View, which contains spherical panoramic images captured in urban en...

  16. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  17. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  18. Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center. Program Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    Describing Department of Defense Dependents Schools Europe (DODDSEUR) use of Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center, this document is directed to sponsors wishing to take groups to Hinterbrand for one or more of the five program options (outdoor education week, teacher weekend, school-designed outdoor education program, administrative faculty…

  19. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  20. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing...

  1. Thermal management evaluation of the complex electro-optical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijemčević Srećko S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal management of a complex electro-optical system aimed for outdoor application is challenging task due to the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure, harsh working environment, and an additional thermal load generated by sunlight. It is essential to consider the effect of heating loads in the system components, as well as the internal temperature distribution, that can have influence on the system life expectancy, operational readiness and parameters, and possibility for catastrophic failure. The main objective of this paper is to analyze internal temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system component operation capability. The electro-optical system simplified model was defined and related thermal balance simulation model based on Solid Works thermal analysis module was set and applied for temperature distribution calculation. Various outdoor environment scenarios were compared to evaluate system temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system operation, reliability, and life time in application environment. This work was done during the design process as a part of the electro-optical system optimization. The results show that temperature distribution will not be cause for catastrophic failure and malfunction operation during operation in the expected environment.

  2. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  3. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects (n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  4. Evaluation of ULV and Thermal Fog Mosquito Control Applications in Temperate and Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra low volume (ULV) and thermal fog aerosol dispersals of pesticides have been used against mosquitoes and other insects for half a century. Although each spray technology has advantages and disadvantages, only 7 studies have been identified that directly compare their performance in the field. U...

  5. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment: effect on thermal comfort and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Duszyk, Marcin; Krejcirikova, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on thermal comfort and perceived air quality reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels...... and (4) two radiant panels with one panel equipped with small fans. A reference condition without cooling was tested as well. The response of the subjects to the exposed conditions was collected by computerized questionnaires. The cooling devices significantly (pthermal comfort...... compared to without cooling. The acceptability of the thermal environment was similar for all cooling devices. The acceptability of air movement and PAQ increased when the local cooling methods were used. The best results were achieved with personalized ventilation and cooling fan. The improvement in PAQ...

  6. A Study of Visual Descriptors for Outdoor Navigation Using Google Street View Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis between several methods to describe outdoor panoramic images is presented. The main objective consists in studying the performance of these methods in the localization process of a mobile robot (vehicle in an outdoor environment, when a visual map that contains images acquired from different positions of the environment is available. With this aim, we make use of the database provided by Google Street View, which contains spherical panoramic images captured in urban environments and their GPS position. The main benefit of using these images resides in the fact that it permits testing any novel localization algorithm in countless outdoor environments anywhere in the world and under realistic capture conditions. The main contribution of this work consists in performing a comparative evaluation of different methods to describe images to solve the localization problem in an outdoor dense map using only visual information. We have tested our algorithms using several sets of panoramic images captured in different outdoor environments. The results obtained in the work can be useful to select an appropriate description method for visual navigation tasks in outdoor environments using the Google Street View database and taking into consideration both the accuracy in localization and the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  7. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of th...

  8. Residual limb skin temperature and thermal comfort in people with amputation during activity in a cold environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort remains a common problem for people with lower-limb amputation. Both donning a prosthesis and engaging in activity at room temperature can increase residual limb skin temperature; however, the effects of activity on skin temperature and comfort in more extreme environments remain unknown. We examined residual limb skin temperatures and perceived thermal comfort (PTC; 11-point Likert scale) of participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (n = 8) who were snowshoeing in a cold environment. Residual limb skin temperature increased by 3.9°C [3.0°C to 4.7°C] (mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)], p < 0.001) after two 30 min exercise sessions separated by a 5 min rest session. Minimal cooling (-0.2°C [-1.1°C to 0.6°C]) occurred during the rest period. Similar changes in PTC were found for the residual limb, intact limb, and whole body, with a mean scale increase of 1.6 [1.1 to 2.1] and 1.3 [0.8 to 1.8] for the first and second exercise sessions, respectively (p < 0.001). Activity in a cold environment caused similar increases in residual limb skin temperature as those found in studies conducted at room temperature. Participants with amputation perceived warming as their skin temperature increased during exercise followed by the perception of cooling during rest, despite minimal associated decreases in skin temperature.

  9. Thermal Pollution Math Model. Volume 1. Thermal Pollution Model Package Verification and Transfer. [environment impact of thermal discharges from power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.

    1980-01-01

    Two three dimensional, time dependent models, one free surface, the other rigid lid, were verified at Anclote Anchorage and Lake Keowee respectively. The first site is a coastal site in northern Florida; the other is a man-made lake in South Carolina. These models describe the dispersion of heated discharges from power plants under the action of ambient conditions. A one dimensional, horizontally-averaged model was also developed and verified at Lake Keowee. The data base consisted of archival in situ measurements and data collected during field missions. The field missions were conducted during winter and summer conditions at each site. Each mission consisted of four infrared scanner flights with supporting ground truth and in situ measurements. At Anclote, special care was taken to characterize the complete tidal cycle. The three dimensional model results compared with IR data for thermal plumes on an average within 1 C root mean square difference. The one dimensional model performed satisfactorily in simulating the 1971-1979 period.

  10. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Kazumi; Nagata, Izumi; Sueki, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m 2 /day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m 2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m 2 /day. • More than 500 Bq/m 2 /day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  11. Thermal stability of diamond-like carbon–MoS{sub 2} thin films in different environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niakan, H., E-mail: hamid.niakan@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Zhang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, 101 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Szpunar, J.A.; Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) based coatings are ideal for low friction and wear resistant applications. For those tribological applications, the coatings may expose to high temperature environments. Therefore, the thermal stability of the coating is very important for its long-term performance. In this work, DLC–MoS{sub 2} composite thin films were synthesized using biased target ion beam deposition technique in which MoS{sub 2} was produced by sputtering a MoS{sub 2} target using Ar ion beams while DLC was deposited by an ion source with CH{sub 4} gas as carbon source. DLC films without MoS{sub 2} deposited under similar conditions were used as reference samples. After the deposition, DLC and DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films were heat-treated in ambient air and low pressure environments at different temperatures ranging from 100 to 600 °C for 2 h. The effect of annealing on the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of the resulting films were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and ball-on-disk testing. The results showed that the structure, hardness, Young's modulus, friction coefficient and wear coefficient of the DLC films were stable up to 200 °C annealing in air and 300 °C in low pressure. At higher temperature, the annealing led to the transformation of sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2}, which degraded the mechanical and tribological properties of the thin films. Comparing with the DLC films, the DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films showed a slower rate of graphitization and higher structure stability throughout the range of annealing temperatures, indicating a relatively higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC–MoS{sub 2} films were evaluated. • DLC–MoS{sub 2} films can be synthesized by biased target ion beam deposition technique. • Comparing with DLC films, the DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films showed higher

  12. Evaluation of indoor thermal environment with improved 65 nodes thermoreguration model; Kairyogata 65 bunkatsu taion chosetsu model wo mochiita shashitsunai onnetsu kankyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, K; Sudo, F [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanabe, S [Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Indoor thermal environment of a vehicle was evaluated by a numerical simulation. A numerical simulation using the equivalent temperature measured with the thermal manikin was conducted. Numerical manikin was improved and convective and radiative heat transfer at each body surface was described in detail. Comparative examination using the calculation results by the numerical simulation was also conducted. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. URBAN OUTDOOR ADVERTISING AS A VARIETY OF SMALL ARCHITECTURAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA H. P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The statement of the problem. The outdoor advertising is the highly developed industry in the leading countries of the world that uses the latest technologies. It largely determines the appearance and visual comfort of the urban environment. The city's outdoor advertising and visual information should correspond to the character of human vital activity. The basic requirements for them are ensuring effective advertising and operational orientation in the maze of streets and squares of the city, informing about the location of the objects, creating an image of a modern city. The city has always been a place striking because of the synthesis of arts. The outdoor advertising market development in Ukraine coincided with the beginning of the process of market reforms in the 90-ies, and in less than ten years its volume has reached considerable proportions. The small and large outdoor advertising objects continue to win the city more space with the rapid development of the country market economy. The concept of small architectural forms (IRF in the urban environment arose long time ago and it is understood as structures, equipment, and decorative exterior amenities, complementing the main urban development. The LFA include: kiosks, vending machines, street lamps (or landscape lamps as they are fashionably called now, stands for posters and advertisements, stairs, fences, fountains, obelisks, memorial plaques, urban street furniture, litter bins, sports design play structures, street planters, park benches, etc. This is a whole balanced set of elements of the urban environment. This directly affects the ergonomics, the usability of elements and products and their durability. The purpose of the article is to study the diversity of IRFs as well as the development and the implementation of the city outdoor advertising concept.

  14. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  15. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagel, T.; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects...... represented by juvenile growth rate), but not female total length, to jointly contribute to explain within- and among-season size variation in juvenile pike. While there was no statistical evidence for maternal effects on offspring growth rate, fast female juvenile growth positively correlated...... in the wild and that early hatching does not generally produce size advantages in light of stochastically varying temperature conditions...

  16. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  17. Optimal joint scheduling of electrical and thermal appliances in a smart home environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Elham; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal appliances are scheduled based on desired temperature and energy prices. • A discomfort index has been introduced within the home energy scheduling model. • Appliances are scheduled based on activity probability and desired options. • Starting probability depends on the social random factor and consumption behavior. - Abstract: With the development of home area network, residents have the opportunity to schedule their power usage in the home by themselves aiming at reducing electricity expenses. Moreover, as renewable energy sources are deployed in home, a home energy management system needs to consider both energy consumption and generation simultaneously to minimize the energy cost. In this paper, a smart home energy management model has been presented in which electrical and thermal appliances are jointly scheduled. The proposed method aims at minimizing the electricity cost of a residential customer by scheduling various type of appliances considering the residents consumption behavior, seasonal probability, social random factor, discomfort index and appliances starting probability functions. In this model, the home central controller receives the electricity price information, environmental factors data as well as the resident desired options in order to optimally schedule appliances including electrical and thermal. The scheduling approach is tested on a typical home including variety of home appliances, a small wind turbine, photovoltaic panel, combined heat and power unit, boiler and electrical and thermal storages over a 24-h period. The results show that the scheduling of different appliances can be reached simultaneously by using the proposed formulation. Moreover, simulation results evidenced that the proposed home energy management model exhibits a lower cost and, therefore, is more economical.

  18. Numerical simulation of diurnally varying thermal environment in a street canyon under haze-fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zijing; Dong, Jingliang; Xiao, Yimin; Tu, Jiyuan

    2015-10-01

    The impact of haze-fog on surface temperature, flow pattern, pollutant dispersion and pedestrian thermal comfort are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on a three-dimensional street canyon model under different haze-fog conditions. In this study, light extinction coefficient (Kex) is adopted to represent haze-fog pollution level. Numerical simulations are performed for different Kex values at four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST). The numerical results suggest that the surface temperature is strongly affected by the haze-fog condition. Surface heating induced by the solar radiation is enhanced by haze-fog, as higher surface temperature is observed under thicker haze-fog condition. Moreover, the temperature difference between sunlit and shadow surfaces is reduced, while that for the two shadow surfaces is slightly increased. Therefore, the surface temperature among street canyon facets becomes more evenly distributed under heavy haze-fog conditions. In addition, flow patterns are considerably altered by different haze-fog conditions, especially for the afternoon (1600 LST) case, in which thermal-driven flow has opposite direction as that of the wind-driven flow direction. Consequently, pollutants such as vehicular emissions will accumulate at pedestrian level, and pedestrian thermal comfort may lower under thicker haze-fog condition.

  19. THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF ICES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF NEWLY FORMED STARS: THE CO2 DIAGNOSTIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A. M.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Shenoy, S. S.; Gerakines, P. A.; White, D. W.; Chiar, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Archival data from the Infrared Spectrometer of the Spitzer Space Telescope are used to study the 15 μm absorption feature of solid CO 2 toward 28 young stellar objects (YSOs) of approximately solar mass. Fits to the absorption profile using laboratory spectra enable categorization according to the degree of thermal processing of the ice matrix that contains the CO 2 . The majority of YSOs in our sample (20 out of 28) are found to be consistent with a combination of polar (H 2 O-rich) and nonpolar (CO-rich) ices at low temperature; the remainder exhibit profile structure consistent with partial crystallization as the result of significant heating. Ice-phase column densities of CO 2 are determined and compared with those of other species. Lines of sight with crystallization signatures in their spectra are found to be systematically deficient in solid-phase CO, as expected if CO is being sublimated in regions where the ices are heated to crystallization temperatures. Significant variation is found in the CO 2 abundance with respect to both H 2 O (the dominant ice constituent) and total dust column (quantified by the extinction, A V ). YSOs in our sample display typically higher CO 2 concentrations (independent of evidence for thermal processing) in comparison to quiescent regions of the prototypical cold molecular cloud. This suggests that enhanced CO 2 production is driven by photochemical reactions in proximity to some YSOs, and that photoprocessing and thermal processing may occur independently.

  20. A Study of Land Surface Temperature Retrieval and Thermal Environment Distribution Based on Landsat-8 in Jinan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Based on the medium resolution Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, the temperature distribution in four seasons of urban area in Jinan City was obtained by using atmospheric correction method for the retrieval of land surface temperature. Quantitative analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, development trend of urban thermal environment, the seasonal variation and the relationship between surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was studied. The results show that the distribution of high temperature areas is concentrated in Jinan, and there is a tendency to expand from east to west, revealing a negative correlation between land surface temperature distribution and NDVI. So as to provide theoretical references and scientific basis of improving the ecological environment of Jinan City, strengthening scientific planning and making overall plan addressing climate change.