WorldWideScience

Sample records for outdoor facility sensitivity

  1. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless...

  2. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing...

  3. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects marine mammals by restricting animals and... effective natural barrier that restricts the marine mammals to the facility and restricts entry by animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.103 Section 3...

  4. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Smokefree signage at New Zealand racecourses and sports facilities with outdoor stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2017-10-27

    Smokefree signage is crucial to the implementation of smokefree policies for outdoor venues and for facilitating smoking denormalisation. Such signage helps to communicate the expected norms for not smoking at venues. Therefore, we aimed to identify such signage at racecourses and sports facilities that had outdoor stands. We surveyed the entrances of 25 racecourse and 25 sport facilities with outdoor stands, across New Zealand. There were smokefree signs at the main entrances of 40% of the sports facilities with outdoor stands, and at 16% of the 25 other entrances. None of the horse/greyhound racecourses had smokefree signage at any of their entrances.

  6. The Short Term Effectiveness of an Outdoor Environmental Education on Environmental Awareness and Sensitivity of In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is mostly mentioned in terms of environmental education. The aim of this research is to determine the short term effectiveness of an outdoor environmental education program on biodiversity awareness, environmental awareness and sensitivity to natural environment. The data is collected from an outdoor environmental education…

  7. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  8. Residential outdoor air pollution and allergen sensitization in schoolchildren in Oslo, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oftedal, B.; Brunekreef, B.; Nystad, W.; Nafstad, P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between air pollution and atopy have found inconsistent results. Furthermore, often exposure to outdoor air pollution has had limited quality, and more individual exposure is needed. Objective To investigate the relations

  9. Quantifying outdoor water consumption of urban land use/land cover: sensitivity to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement (r² = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (<300 mm). Within urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

  10. Barriers to Shared Use of Indoor and Outdoor Facilities at US Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Calvert, Hannah G.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: School policies and practices, such as the sharing of school facilities with the surrounding community, support physical activity among students and community members, but are often underutilized. This study examined variations in shared use practices, and associations with perceived barriers. Methods: Surveys were completed by a…

  11. Characterization of Spatial Impact of Particles Emitted from a Cement Material Production Facility on Outdoor Particle Deposition in the Surrounding Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Fan, Zhihua Tina; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Stern, Alan H; Lioy, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of a facility that processes steel production slag into raw material for cement production to local outdoor particle deposition in Camden, NJ. A dry deposition sampler that can house four 37-mm quartz fiber filters was developed and used for the collection of atmospheric particle deposits. Two rounds of particle collection (3-4 weeks each) were conducted in 8-11 locations 200-800 m downwind of the facility. Background samples were concurrently collected in a remote area located ∼2 km upwind from the facility. In addition, duplicate surface wipe samples were collected side-by-side from each of the 13 locations within the same sampling area during the first deposition sampling period. One composite source material sample was also collected from a pile stored in the facility. Both the bulk of the source material and the particle deposition flux in the study area was higher (24-83 mg/m 2 ·day) than at the background sites (13-17 mg/m 2 ·day). The concentration of Ca, a major element in the cement source production material, was found to exponentially decrease with increasing downwind distance from the facility (P particle deposition. The contribution of the facility to outdoor deposited particle mass was further estimated by three independent models using the measurements obtained from this study. The estimated contributions to particle deposition in the study area were 1.8-7.4% from the regression analysis of the Ca concentration in particle deposition samples against the distance from the facility, 0-11% from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source-receptor model, and 7.6-13% from the EPA Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST3) dispersion model using the particle-size-adjusted permit-based emissions estimates. [Box: see text].

  12. Indoor and outdoor SO{sub 2} in a community near oil sand extraction and production facilities in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Ranganathan, H.K.S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In order to examine whether the proximity to several oil sand operations in the Athabasca region has affected the air quality in nearby communities, a baseline study measuring indoor and outdoor sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) levels was conducted in Fort McKay, a small native community located in northern Alberta. The study involved deploying a passive sampling device for 96 hours at 30 randomly chosen homes over a 6 week period such that 75 per cent of homes were sampled during weekdays and 25 per cent during weekends. The common living area of each home (kitchen or family room) was sampled indoors. Outdoor passive samplers were attached to a sampling stand under a shelter in the yard. This article presented an introduction to oil sands development in the region and discussed the link between SO{sub 2} emissions and outdoor air pollution. The passive sampling monitors and study methods were described. Last, the article discussed the results of the study and provided a discussion of quality assurance and quality control; indoor and outdoor SO{sub 2} levels; and air exchange measurements. It was concluded that the results of the testing to determine accuracy and precision of the monitors were both within 35 per cent based on a 96 hour average measurement, which are considered very low and consistent with levels observed elsewhere in Alberta. 43 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Light sterile neutrino sensitivity at the nuSTORM facility

    CERN Document Server

    Adey, D; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.J.; Barker, G.; Baussan, E.; Bayes, R.; Bhadra, S.; Blackmore, V.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S.A.; Booth, C.; Boyd, S.B.; Bramsiepe, S.G.; Bravar, A.; Brice, S.J.; Bross, A.D.; Cadoux, F.; Cease, H.; Cervera, A.; Cobb, J.; Colling, D.; Coloma, P.; Coney, L.; Dobbs, A.; Dobson, J.; Donini, A.; Dornan, P.; Dracos, M.; Dufour, F.; Edgecock, R.; Geelhoed, M.; Uchida, M.A.; Ghosh, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; de Gouvea, A.; Haesler, A.; Hanson, G.; Harrison, P.F.; Hartz, M.; Hernandez, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Hodgson, P.; Huber, P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kopp, J.; Kormos, L.; Korzenev, A.; Kuno, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.B.; Laing, A.; Liu, A.; Link, J.M.; Long, K.; Mahn, K.; Mariani, C.; Martin, C.; Martin, J.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, K.T.; Mena, O.; Mishra, S.R.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Mori, Y.; Murray, W.; Neuffer, D.; Nichol, R.; Noah, E.; Palmer, M.A.; Parke, S.; Pascoli, S.; Pasternak, J.; Plunkett, R.; Popovic, M.; Ratoff, P.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Rubinov, P.; Santos, E.; Sato, A.; Sen, T.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Smith, D.R.; Smith, P.J.; Sobczyk, J.T.; Sby, L.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sorel, M.; Snopok, P.; Stamoulis, P.; Stanco, L.; Striganov, S.; Tanaka, H.A.; Taylor, I.J.; Touramanis, C.; Tunnell, C.D.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wascko, M.O.; Weber, A.; Wilking, M.J.; Wildner, E.; Winter, W.

    2014-01-01

    A facility that can deliver beams of electron and muon neutrinos from the decay of a stored muon beam has the potential to unambiguously resolve the issue of the evidence for light sterile neutrinos that arises in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and from estimates of the effective number of neutrino flavors from fits to cosmological data. In this paper, we show that the nuSTORM facility, with stored muons of 3.8 GeV/c $\\pm$ 10%, will be able to carry out a conclusive muon neutrino appearance search for sterile neutrinos and test the LSND and MiniBooNE experimental signals with 10$\\sigma$ sensitivity, even assuming conservative estimates for the systematic uncertainties. This experiment would add greatly to our knowledge of the contribution of light sterile neutrinos to the number of effective neutrino flavors from the abundance of primordial helium production and from constraints on neutrino energy density from the cosmic microwave background. The appearance search is complemented by a simulta...

  14. Light sterile neutrino sensitivity at the nuSTORM facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adey, D.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J. J.; Barker, G.; Baussan, E.; Bayes, R.; Bhadra, S.; Blackmore, V.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S. A.; Booth, C.; Boyd, S. B.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Bravar, A.; Brice, S. J.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Cease, H.; Cervera, A.; Cobb, J.; Colling, D.; Coloma, P.; Coney, L.; Dobbs, A.; Dobson, J.; Donini, A.; Dornan, P.; Dracos, M.; Dufour, F.; Edgecock, R.; Geelhoed, M.; Uchida, M. A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; de Gouvêa, A.; Haesler, A.; Hanson, G.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartz, M.; Hernández, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Hodgson, P.; Huber, P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kopp, J.; Kormos, L.; Korzenev, A.; Kuno, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J. B.; Laing, A.; Liu, A.; Link, J. M.; Long, K.; Mahn, K.; Mariani, C.; Martin, C.; Martin, J.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, K. T.; Mena, O.; Mishra, S. R.; Mokhov, N.; Morfín, J.; Mori, Y.; Murray, W.; Neuffer, D.; Nichol, R.; Noah, E.; Palmer, M. A.; Parke, S.; Pascoli, S.; Pasternak, J.; Plunkett, R.; Popovic, M.; Ratoff, P.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Rubinov, P.; Santos, E.; Sato, A.; Sen, T.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Smith, D. R.; Smith, P. J.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Søby, L.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sorel, M.; Snopok, P.; Stamoulis, P.; Stanco, L.; Striganov, S.; Tanaka, H. A.; Taylor, I. J.; Touramanis, C.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wilking, M. J.; Wildner, E.; Winter, W.

    2014-04-01

    A facility that can deliver beams of electron and muon neutrinos from the decay of a stored muon beam has the potential to unambiguously resolve the issue of the evidence for light sterile neutrinos that arises in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and from estimates of the effective number of neutrino flavors from fits to cosmological data. In this paper, we show that the nuSTORM facility, with stored muons of 3.8GeV/c±10%, will be able to carry out a conclusive muon neutrino appearance search for sterile neutrinos and test the LSND and MiniBooNE experimental signals with 10σ sensitivity, even assuming conservative estimates for the systematic uncertainties. This experiment would add greatly to our knowledge of the contribution of light sterile neutrinos to the number of effective neutrino flavors from the abundance of primordial helium production and from constraints on neutrino energy density from the cosmic microwave background. The appearance search is complemented by a simultaneous muon neutrino disappearance analysis that will facilitate tests of various sterile neutrino models.

  15. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  16. Spacing Sensitivity Analysis of HLW Intermediate Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Bum Soo; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01

    Currently, South Korea's spent fuels are stored in its temporary storage within the plant. But the temporary storage is expected to be reaching saturation soon. For the effective management of spent fuel wastes, the need for intermediate storage facility is a desperate position. However, the research for the intermediate storage facility for waste has not made active so far. In addition, in case of foreign countries it is mostly treated confidentially and the information isn't easy to collect. Therefore, the purpose of this study is creating the basic thermal analysis data for the waste storage facility that will be valuable in the future

  17. Sensitization to Indigenous Pollen and Molds and Other Outdoor and Indoor Allergens in Allergic Patients From Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne allergens vary from one climatic region to another. Therefore, it is important to analyze the environment of the region to select the most prevalent allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive skin tests to pollen and fungal allergens collected from local indigenous plants or isolated molds, as well as other outdoor and indoor allergens in allergic patients in 6 different geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan. Materials and methods Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients evaluated at different Allergy Clinics (276 women and 256 men; mean age, 30 years) participated in this study. The selection of indigenous allergens was based on research findings in different areas from Riyadh and adjoining areas. Indigenous raw material for pollen grains was collected from the desert near the capital city of Riyadh, KSA. The following plants were included: Chenopodium murale, Salsola imbricata, Rumex vesicarius, Ricinus communis, Artiplex nummularia, Amaranthus viridis, Artemisia monosperma, Plantago boissieri, and Prosopis juliflora. Indigenous molds were isolated from air sampling in Riyadh and grown to obtain the raw material. These included the following: Ulocladium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. The raw material was processed under Good Manufacturing Practices for skin testing. Other commercially available outdoor (grass and tree pollens) and indoor (mites, cockroach, and cat dander) allergens were also tested. Results The highest sensitization to indigenous pollens was detected to C. murale (32%) in Khartoum (Sudan) and S. imbricata (30%) and P. juliflora (24%) in the Riyadh region. The highest sensitization to molds was detected in Khartoum, especially to Cladosporium spp. (42%), Aspergillus (40%), and Alternaria spp. (38%). Sensitization to mites was also very prevalent

  18. Depressive-like behavior, its sensitization, social buffering, and altered cytokine responses in rhesus macaques moved from outdoor social groups to indoor housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Chun, Katie; Capitanio, John P

    2017-02-01

    Psychosocial stressors appear to promote the onset of depressive illness through activation and sensitization of inflammatory mechanisms. Here, adult male rhesus monkeys brought from large outdoor social groups to indoor housing for 8 days reliably exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. When rehoused indoors a second 8 days about 2 weeks later, monkeys housed alone, but not those with an affiliative partner, showed sensitization of the depressive-like hunched posture. Housing indoors also affected circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β showed increased responsiveness to immune challenge, and IL-1β and TNF-α showed reduced suppression by dexamethasone. Sensitivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 to immune challenge exhibited a relative increase from the first to the second round of indoor housing in animals housed in pairs, and a relative decrease in animals housed alone. Cytokine levels during indoor housing were positively correlated with duration of depressive-like behavior. Plasma cortisol levels increased but did not differentiate housing conditions or rounds. Results demonstrate a rapid induction and sensitization of depressive-like behavior to indoor individual housing, social buffering of sensitization, and associated inflammatory responses. This paradigm may provide a practical nonhuman primate model for examining inflammatory-mediated consequences of psychosocial stressors on depression and possible social buffering of these effects.

  19. Outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8–25 percent). The activity projected to...

  20. Sensitivity of the Low Frequency Facility experiment around 10 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Virgilio, A.; Braccini, S.; Ballardin, G.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Giazotto, A.; Gennai, A.; Holloway, L.H.; La Penna, P.; Losurdo, G.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, J.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Zhang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of thermal noise is a fundamental issue for the improvement of future gravitational wave antennas. The main purpose of the Low Frequency Facility (LFF) is to study pendulum thermal noise in the region of 10 Hz. Data at the LFF has been taking since the beginning of 2003 and has been analyzed in order to thoroughly understand the region around 10 Hz. Above 7 Hz, the displacement noise floor is at the level of 10 -14 m/√Hz, decreasing with frequency approximately as 1/ν. Seismic noise contamination is not observed above a few Hz

  1. Sensitivity of the Low Frequency Facility experiment around 10 Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Virgilio, A.; Braccini, S.; Ballardin, G.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Giazotto, A.; Gennai, A.; Holloway, L.H.; La Penna, P.; Losurdo, G.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, J.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Zhang, Z

    2004-02-23

    The reduction of thermal noise is a fundamental issue for the improvement of future gravitational wave antennas. The main purpose of the Low Frequency Facility (LFF) is to study pendulum thermal noise in the region of 10 Hz. Data at the LFF has been taking since the beginning of 2003 and has been analyzed in order to thoroughly understand the region around 10 Hz. Above 7 Hz, the displacement noise floor is at the level of 10{sup -14} m/{radical}Hz, decreasing with frequency approximately as 1/{nu}. Seismic noise contamination is not observed above a few Hz.

  2. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  4. Federal outdoor recreation trends: effects on economic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Donald B.K. English

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor recreation is a central way that people interact with the natural environment. Federal land agencies are key providers of settings, facilities, and landscapes for recreation. Outdoor recreation is also an important driver of economic activity in rural communities near recreation destinations and across the United States. Future participation in outdoor...

  5. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  6. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  7. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  8. SPES3 Facility RELAP5 Sensitivity Analyses on the Containment System for Design Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilli, A.; Congiu, C.; Ferri, R.; Bianchi, F.; Meloni, P.; Grgic, D.; Dzodzo, M.

    2012-01-01

    An Italian MSE R and D programme on Nuclear Fission is funding, through ENEA, the design and testing of SPES3 facility at SIET, for IRIS reactor simulation. IRIS is a modular, medium size, advanced, integral PWR, developed by an international consortium of utilities, industries, research centres and universities. SPES3 simulates the primary, secondary and containment systems of IRIS, with 1:100 volume scale, full elevation and prototypical thermal-hydraulic conditions. The RELAP5 code was extensively used in support to the design of the facility to identify criticalities and weak points in the reactor simulation. FER, at Zagreb University, performed the IRIS reactor analyses with the RELAP5 and GOTHIC coupled codes. The comparison between IRIS and SPES3 simulation results led to a simulation-design feedback process with step-by-step modifications of the facility design, up to the final configuration. For this, a series of sensitivity cases was run to investigate specific aspects affecting the trend of the main parameters of the plant, as the containment pressure and EHRS removed power, to limit fuel clad temperature excursions during accidental transients. This paper summarizes the sensitivity analyses on the containment system that allowed to review the SPES3 facility design and confirm its capability to appropriately simulate the IRIS plant.

  9. SPES3 Facility RELAP5 Sensitivity Analyses on the Containment System for Design Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Achilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Italian MSE R&D programme on Nuclear Fission is funding, through ENEA, the design and testing of SPES3 facility at SIET, for IRIS reactor simulation. IRIS is a modular, medium size, advanced, integral PWR, developed by an international consortium of utilities, industries, research centres and universities. SPES3 simulates the primary, secondary and containment systems of IRIS, with 1:100 volume scale, full elevation and prototypical thermal-hydraulic conditions. The RELAP5 code was extensively used in support to the design of the facility to identify criticalities and weak points in the reactor simulation. FER, at Zagreb University, performed the IRIS reactor analyses with the RELAP5 and GOTHIC coupled codes. The comparison between IRIS and SPES3 simulation results led to a simulation-design feedback process with step-by-step modifications of the facility design, up to the final configuration. For this, a series of sensitivity cases was run to investigate specific aspects affecting the trend of the main parameters of the plant, as the containment pressure and EHRS removed power, to limit fuel clad temperature excursions during accidental transients. This paper summarizes the sensitivity analyses on the containment system that allowed to review the SPES3 facility design and confirm its capability to appropriately simulate the IRIS plant.

  10. Optimal capacity design of LID facility for conserving natural water cycle and its sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O.; Choi, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the 20th century, urbanization has resulted in increased impermeable land surface and reduced infiltration capacity in catchment scale. Especially, when agriculture area or forest area would be developed into urban area, it can cause more runoff in the same climate condition. Such urbanization causes problems such as changes in hydrological cycle and ecosystem disturbance. Various methods have been proposed worldwide to reduce the impact of such urbanization. Among the various strategies, the low-impact development is a development strategy that aims to return to pre-development state by minimizing the change of the hydrological cycle due to urbanization. In this strategy, the infiltration and/or surface storage of stormwater runoff can be increased through the installation of various facilities. In this study, a facility capacity design strategy is proposed to return into the natural water cycle through the installation of various LID facilities. This is accomplished by determining the optimal LID facility design capacity through which flow duration curves remain the same before and after urban development. For this purpose, EPA-SWMM is constructed with a part of Busan Metropolitan City Noksan Industrial Complex as a virtual processing area. Under the various land-use scenarios, the optimum design capacity of various LID facilities capable of retaining the flow duration curve before and after development is determined. In addition, the sensitivity of the optimal design capacity of LID facilities is analyzed according to the design specifications of various LID facilities, the local rainfall characteristics, and the size of the treatment area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (2016000200002) from Public Welfare Technology Development Program funded by Ministry of Environment of Korean government.

  11. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis on probabilistic safety assessment of an experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis on the probabilistic safety assessment of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), in order to assess the effect on the final risk values of the uncertainties associated with the generic data used for the initiating events and component reliability and to identify the key quantities contributing to this uncertainty. The analysis is conducted on the expected frequency calculated for the accident sequences, defined through the event tree (ET) modeling. This is in order to increment credit to the ET model quantification, to calculate frequency distributions for the occurrence of events and, consequently, to assess if sequences have been correctly selected on the probability standpoint and finally to verify the fulfillment of the safety conditions. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are performed using respectively Monte Carlo sampling and an importance parameter technique. (author)

  12. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  13. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  14. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  15. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; Gatu Johnson, M.; MacPhee, A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    2016-11-01

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF's absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF's sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF's sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. Some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  16. Indoor versus outdoor time in preschoolers at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Zhou, Chuan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2013-01-01

    Being outdoors may have health benefits including being more physically active. Understanding the relationship between outdoor time and health is hampered by the difficulty of measuring outdoor time. To examine the accuracy and validity of light-sensor and GPS methods for quantifying outdoor time among those aged 3-5 years at child care. A total of 45 children (mean age 4.5 years, 64% boys) from five child care centers wore portable accelerometers with built-in light sensors and a separate GPS device around their waists during child care, providing 80,648 episodes (15 seconds each) for analysis. Direct observation (gold standard) of children being outdoors versus indoors was conducted for 2 days at each center. GPS signal-to-noise ratios, processed through the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System were used to define indoor versus outdoor locations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to determine thresholds for defining being indoors versus outdoors. Data were collected in Fall 2011, analyzed in 2012. Mean observed outdoor time was 63 [±44; range: 18-152] minutes/day. Mean light-sensor levels were significantly higher outdoors. The area under the ROC curve for location based on light sensor for all weather conditions was 0.82 (range: 0.70 on partly cloudy days to 0.97 on sunny days); for GPS, it was 0.89. The light sensor had a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 86%. GPS had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 88%. A light sensor and a GPS device both distinguish indoor from outdoor time for preschoolers with moderate to high levels of accuracy. These devices can increase the feasibility and lower the cost of measuring outdoor time in studies of preschool children. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wetland and Sensitive Species Survey Report for Y-12: Proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, N.; Peterson, M.; Reasor, S.; Pounds, L.; Byrd, G.; Wiest, M. C.; Hill, C. C.

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of an environmental survey conducted at sites associated with the proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in September-October 2009. The survey was conducted in order to evaluate potential impacts of the overall project. This project includes the construction of a haul road, concrete batch plant, wet soil storage area and dry soil storage area. The environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at ORNL who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Natural resource staff assistance on this project included the collection of environmental information that can aid in project location decisions that minimize impacts to sensitive resource such as significant wildlife populations, rare plants and wetlands. Natural resources work was conducted in various habitats, corresponding to the proposed areas of impact. Thc credentials/qualifications of the researchers are contained in Appendix A. The proposed haul road traverses a number of different habitats including a power-line right-of-way. wetlands, streams, forest and mowed areas. It extends from what is known as the New Salvage Yard on the west to the Polaris Parking Lot on the east. This haul road is meant to connect the proposed concrete batch plant to the UPF building site. The proposed site of the concrete batch plant itself is a highly disturbed fenced area. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 1. The proposed Wet Soils Disposal Area is located on the north side of Bear Creek Road at the former Control Burn Study Area. This is a second growth arce containing thick vegetation, and extensive dead and down woody material. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 2. Thc dry soils storage area is proposed for what is currently known as the West Borrow Area. This site is located on the west side of Reeves Road south of Bear Creek Road. The site is an early successional

  18. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  19. Facile Fabrication of Multi-hierarchical Porous Polyaniline Composite as Pressure Sensor and Gas Sensor with Adjustable Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Jin-Tao; Jia, Xian-Sheng; Tong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Ning, Xin; Long, Yun-Ze

    2017-08-01

    A multi-hierarchical porous polyaniline (PANI) composite which could be used in good performance pressure sensor and adjustable sensitivity gas sensor has been fabricated by a facile in situ polymerization. Commercial grade sponge was utilized as a template scaffold to deposit PANI via in situ polymerization. With abundant interconnected pores throughout the whole structure, the sponge provided sufficient surface for the growth of PANI nanobranches. The flexible porous structure helped the composite to show high performance in pressure detection with fast response and favorable recoverability and gas detection with adjustable sensitivity. The sensing mechanism of the PANI/sponge-based flexible sensor has also been discussed. The results indicate that this work provides a feasible approach to fabricate efficient sensors with advantages of low cost, facile preparation, and easy signal collection.

  20. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  1. Facile Fabrication of Multi-hierarchical Porous Polyaniline Composite as Pressure Sensor and Gas Sensor with Adjustable Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Jin-Tao; Jia, Xian-Sheng; Tong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Ning, Xin; Long, Yun-Ze

    2017-01-01

    A multi-hierarchical porous polyaniline (PANI) composite which could be used in good performance pressure sensor and adjustable sensitivity gas sensor has been fabricated by a facile in situ polymerization. Commercial grade sponge was utilized as a template scaffold to deposit PANI via in situ polymerization. With abundant interconnected pores throughout the whole structure, the sponge provided sufficient surface for the growth of PANI nanobranches. The flexible porous structure helped the co...

  2. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  3. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  4. Innovation and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Within our fast-paced, fluid society, it is arguable that outdoor education needs to be innovative to play a useful role in young people's overall educational enterprise. A critical view, however, would suggest that we must beware of accepting technological innovation for its own sake. Innovations (or improvements) in education can take the form…

  5. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  6. Facile preparation of squarylium dye sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and their enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhongyu, E-mail: zhongyuli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Changzhou Expansion New Stuff Technology Limited Company, Changzhou 213122 (China); Fang, Yongling [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhan, Xueqiu [Department of Basic Courses, Wuxi Institute of Technology, Wuxi 214121 (China); Xu, Song [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •ISQ dye sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared via a facile solution method. •ISQ/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced visible light activity. •ISQ/TiO{sub 2} showed high visible light photocatalytic activity over MB decomposition. •ISQ/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibited good photocatalytic stability. -- Abstract: A squarylium dye, 1,3-bis[(3,3-dimethylindolin-2-ylidene)methyl]squaraine (ISQ) sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles photocatalysts with different mass ratio of ISQ to TiO{sub 2} were facilely prepared by blending ISQ and TiO{sub 2} in ethanol solution. The resulting composite photocatalysts were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscope (DRS). The visible light photocatalytic activities of ISQ sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were evaluated using the degradation of methylene blue (MB) as a photodegradation target. The results showed that photo-response of the ISQ sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were remarkably extended to visible-light region, and the ISQ dye sensitized TiO{sub 2} exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. The maximum photocatalytic activity of the ISQ sensitized TiO{sub 2} was found at a composite photocatalyst (mass ratio of ISQ to TiO{sub 2} was 1:3), and its degradation efficiency of MB reached approximately 98% in 2 h under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative degradation was also proposed.

  7. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  8. Facile Conversion Synthesis of Densely-Formed Branched ZnO-Nanowire Arrays for Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woojin; Kang, Suji; Hwang, Taehyun; Kim, Kunsu; Woo, Hyungsub; Lee, Byungho; Kim, Jaewon; Kim, Jinhyun; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •3-D hierarchically branched ZnO nanowires by a facile synthesis with seed nucleation. •Nanobranching enhances the efficiency by a factor of two compared with the bare QDSC. •Attributed to the increased sensitizer by ∼80% and decreased transmittance by ∼17%. •Optimized nanostructures correlate with the light-harvesting and carrier-collection efficiencies. -- Abstract: An effective way of synthesizing densely-formed branched ZnO-nanowire arrays was developed by a straightforward conversion reaction of ZnS into ZnO. Hierarchically structured ZnO nanowires are utilized for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), having resulted in the conversion-efficiency enhancement by a factor of two compared to the bare ZnO nanowires. This is attributed to the increased CdS-quantum-dot sensitizer by ∼80% and decreased diffused transmittance by ∼17%, induced by the densely-formed branched nanowires. The correlations between the branched nanostructures and photovoltaic performances are systematically investigated in terms of light absorption, charge-transfer resistance, and carrier lifetime. This facile and controllable branched nanowire synthesis is anticipated to be applicable to other semiconductor photoanodes for efficient light harvesting and charge collecting properties

  9. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  10. Important radionuclides and their sensitivity for groundwater pathway of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Chang, K.; Kim, C. L. [Nuclear Enviroment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    A radiological safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical near-surface radioactive waste repository as a simple screening calculation to identify important nuclides and to provide insights on the data needs for a successful demonstration of compliance. Individual effective doses were calculated for a conservative groundwater pathway scenario considering well drilling near the site boundary. Sensitivity of resulting ingestion dose to input parameter values was also analyzed using Monte Carlo sampling. Considering peak dose rate and assessment timescale, C-14 and I-129 were identified as important nuclides and U-235 and U-238 as potentially important nuclides. For C-14, the does was most sensitive to Darcy velocity in aquifer. The distribution coefficient showed high degree of sensitivity for I-129 release.

  11. Important radionuclides and their sensitivity for groundwater pathway of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Chang, K.; Kim, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    A radiological safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical near-surface radioactive waste repository as a simple screening calculation to identify important nuclides and to provide insights on the data needs for a successful demonstration of compliance. Individual effective doses were calculated for a conservative groundwater pathway scenario considering well drilling near the site boundary. Sensitivity of resulting ingestion dose to input parameter values was also analyzed using Monte Carlo sampling. Considering peak dose rate and assessment timescale, C-14 and I-129 were identified as important nuclides and U-235 and U-238 as potentially important nuclides. For C-14, the does was most sensitive to Darcy velocity in aquifer. The distribution coefficient showed high degree of sensitivity for I-129 release

  12. The CAMEO project: high sensitivity quest for Majorana neutrino mass with the BOREXINO counting test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Giammarchi, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The unique features of the CTF and BOREXINO set-ups are used for a high sensitivity study of 100 Mo and 116 Cd neutrinoless 2β decay. Pilot measurements with 116 Cd and Monte Carlo simulation show that the sensitivity of the CAMEO experiment (in terms of the T 1/2 limit for 0ν2β decay) is (3-5) · 10 24 y with a 1 kg source of 100 Mo ( 116 Cd, 82 Se, 150 Nd) and ∼ 10 26 y with 65 kg of 116 CdWO 4 crystals placed in the CTF. The last value corresponds to a limit on the neutrino mass of m ν ≤ 0.06 eV. Moreover, with 1000 kg of 116 CdWO 4 crystals located in the BOREXINO apparatus, the neutrino mass limit can be pushed down to m ν ≤ 0.02 eV

  13. A sensitive DNA biosensor based on a facile sulfamide coupling reaction for capture probe immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingxiang; Ding, Yingtao; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Shulian; Zhang, Bin; Ni, Jiancong; Gao, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel DNA biosensor was fabricated through a facile sulfamide coupling reaction between probe DNA and the sulfonic dye of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid that electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode. -- Highlights: •A versatile sulfonic dye of ANS was electrodeposited on a GCE. •A DNA biosensor was fabricated based on a facile sulfamide coupling reaction. •High probe DNA density of 3.18 × 10 13 strands cm −2 was determined. •A wide linear range and a low detection limit were obtained. -- Abstract: A novel DNA biosensor was fabricated through a facile sulfamide coupling reaction. First, the versatile sulfonic dye molecule of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonate (AN-SO 3 − ) was electrodeposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to form a steady and ordered AN-SO 3 − layer. Then the amino-terminated capture probe was covalently grafted to the surface of SO 3 − -AN deposited GCE through the sulfamide coupling reaction between the amino groups in the probe DNA and the sulfonic groups in the AN-SO 3 − . The step-by-step modification process was characterized by electrochemistry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Using Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ as probe, the probe density and the hybridization efficiency of the biosensor were determined to be 3.18 × 10 13 strands cm −2 and 86.5%, respectively. The hybridization performance of the biosensor was examined by differential pulse voltammetry using Co(phen) 3 3+/2+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) as the indicator. The selectivity experiments showed that the biosensor presented distinguishable response after hybridization with the three-base mismatched, non-complementary and complementary sequences. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents of Co(phen) 3 3+/2+ increased linearly with the logarithm values of the concentration of the complementary sequences in the range from 1.0 × 10 −13 M to 1.0 × 10 −8 M with

  14. Assessment of the smoke-free outdoor regulation in the WHO European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Guydish, Joseph; Robinson, Gillian; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose María; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the level of protection of secondhand smoke in outdoor locations among countries belonging to the WHO European Region. This cross-sectional study measures the level of protection provided by laws in outdoor locations. A protocol to evaluate the outdoor smoke-free legislation was developed according to the recommendations provided by the WHO Guidelines for implementing smoke-free outdoor places. For each law 6 main sectors and 28 outdoor locations were evaluated. 68 laws from 48 countries were reviewed, totally assessing 1758 locations. Overall 3.1% of the locations specified 100% smoke-free outdoor regulation without exceptions, 2.5% permitted smoking in designated outdoor areas, 37.5% allowed smoking everywhere, and 56.9% did not provide information about how to deal with smoking in outdoor places. In the Education sector 17.8% of the laws specified smoke-free outdoor regulation, mainly in the primary and secondary schools. Three pioneering laws from recreational locations and two from general health facilities specified 100% outdoor smoke-free regulation. Outdoor smoke-free policies among countries belonging to the WHO European Region are limited and mainly have been passed in the primary and secondary schools, which protect minors from the hazards of secondhand smoke in educational settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of Criteria for Outdoor Classroom in Selected Tertiary Educational Institutions in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheran, Y.; Fadzidah, A.; Nur Fadhilah, R.; Farha, S.

    2017-12-01

    A proper design outdoor environment in higher institutions contributes to the students’ learning performances and produce better learning outcomes. Campus surrounding has the potential to provide an informal outdoor learning environment, especially when it has the existing physical element, like open spaces and natural features, that may support the learning process. However, scholarly discourses on environmental aspects in tertiary education have minimal environmental inputs to fulfill students’ needs for outdoor exposure. Universities have always emphasized on traditional instructional methods in classroom settings, without concerning the importance of outdoor classroom towards students’ learning needs. Moreover, the inconvenience and discomfort outdoor surrounding in campus environment offers a minimal opportunity for students to study outside the classroom, and students eventually do not favor to utilize the spaces because no learning facility is provided. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the appropriate criteria of outdoor areas that could be converted to be outdoor classrooms in tertiary institutions. This paper presents a review of scholars’ work in regards to the characteristics of the outdoor classrooms that could be designed as part of contemporary effective learning space, for the development of students’ learning performances. The information gathered from this study will become useful knowledge in promoting effective outdoor classroom and create successful outdoor learning space in landscape campus design. It I hoped that the finding of this study could provide guidelines on how outdoor classrooms should be designed to improve students’ academic achievement.

  16. SENSITIVITY OF MOLDS ISOLATED FROM WAREHOUSES OF FOOD PRODUCTION FACILITY ON SELECTED ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Kręcidło

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Storage of raw materials is one of steps in food production chain. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of selected essential oils on the growth of four fungal strains: Trichoderma viride, Rhizomucor miehei, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium janthinellum. Strains were isolated from warehouses of the food production facility. Selected essential oils: thyme oil, rosewood oil and rosemary oil were used to assess antifungal activity. Chemical composition of essential oils was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Antifungal activity of essential oils was estimated in relative to peracetic acid (PAA and sterile water with Tween 80 (0,5%. The influence of essential oils on fungal growth was carried by medium poisoning method. Increment of fungal mycelium was measured every day by 10 days. The thyme essential oils totally inhibited fungal growth in the lowest concentration of 1 mm3·cm-3. The most resistant strain was Penicillium janthinellum.

  17. Healthy outdoor recreation: An integrated approach to linking physical activity with wellness goals. Chapter 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; David M. Buchner

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the shared interest of the public health and leisure fields in promoting outdoor recreation. We describe how trans disciplinary integration of research efforts across these fields can lead to a better understanding of how outdoor recreation facilities and programs can help realize a full range of health and wellness benefits....

  18. Facile synthesized SnO2 decorated functionalized graphene modified electrode for sensitive determination of daidzein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yamin; Wang, Lu; Duan, Yinghao; Zou, Lina; Ye, Baoxian

    2017-06-01

    A one-step and facile method using SnCl 2 ·H 2 O as reducing agent to reduce graphene oxide (GO) was performed in the aid of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution (PDDA). SnCl 2 ·H 2 O is not only a reducing agent for graphene oxide (GO), but also a precursor of SnO 2 . SnO 2 -PDDA-GR composite was characterized by various surface, structural and electrochemical analysis techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrum (UV-vis), Infrared Spectrum (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Cyclic voltammograms (CV) and electrochemical impedance (EIS). The SnO 2 -PDDA-GR composite was used to constructed electrochemical sensor (SnO 2 -PDDA-GR/GCE) for the determination of daidzein. Under the optimized experimental condition, it was found that the response of peak current is linear to the concentration of daidzein in the ranges of 2.0×10 -8 -1.0×10 -6 molL -1 , and the detection limit was estimated to be 6.7×10 -9 mol L -1 (S/N=3). Furthermore, this sensor was successfully applied for the determination of daidzein in traditional Chinese medicine (pueraria lobata) and Daidzein tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure of Markov chains with applications on reliability of IFMIF accelerator-system facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, I.

    2005-05-01

    This work presents the implementation of the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure (ASAP) for the Continuous Time, Discrete Space Markov chains (CTMC), as an alternative to the other computational expensive methods. In order to develop this procedure as an end product in reliability studies, the reliability of the physical systems is analyzed using a coupled Fault-Tree - Markov chain technique, i.e. the abstraction of the physical system is performed using as the high level interface the Fault-Tree and afterwards this one is automatically converted into a Markov chain. The resulting differential equations based on the Markov chain model are solved in order to evaluate the system reliability. Further sensitivity analyses using ASAP applied to CTMC equations are performed to study the influence of uncertainties in input data to the reliability measures and to get the confidence in the final reliability results. The methods to generate the Markov chain and the ASAP for the Markov chain equations have been implemented into the new computer code system QUEFT/MARKOMAGS/MCADJSEN for reliability and sensitivity analysis of physical systems. The validation of this code system has been carried out by using simple problems for which analytical solutions can be obtained. Typical sensitivity results show that the numerical solution using ASAP is robust, stable and accurate. The method and the code system developed during this work can be used further as an efficient and flexible tool to evaluate the sensitivities of reliability measures for any physical system analyzed using the Markov chain. Reliability and sensitivity analyses using these methods have been performed during this work for the IFMIF Accelerator System Facilities. The reliability studies using Markov chain have been concentrated around the availability of the main subsystems of this complex physical system for a typical mission time. The sensitivity studies for two typical responses using ASAP have been

  20. Facile and Sensitive Epifluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for the Rapid Screening of EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravate Tuitemwong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop antibodies conjugated fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles (FDS-NPs aiming to increase signals for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with glass slide method. The FDS-NPs were produced with microemulsion/sol-gel techniques resulting in spherical in shape with 47 ± 6 nm in diameter. The particles showed high intensity and stable orange color Rubpy luminescent dye. The XRD spectrum showed a broad diffraction peak in the range of – (centered at indicating an amorphous structure. Surface modifications for bioconjugation with affinity chromatography purified (IgGs antibodies were successful. The properties were evident from FTIR spectra at 1631.7 . Results indicated that nanoparticles could attach onto cells of E. coli O157:H7 coated on a glass slide, and give distinctively bright color under epifluorescence microscope (400x. It was shown that FDS-NPs could detect a very low amount of cells of E. coli O157:H7 (16 CFU in 10 ml in 60 min. The phosphate buffered saline (PBS with ionic strength of 1.70 gave zeta potential of good particle dispersion (−40 mV. This work demonstrated that highly sensitive bioconjugated E. coli O157:H7 FDS-NPs were successfully developed with a potential to be used for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in foods.

  1. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  2. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  3. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented

  4. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented.

  5. Pore-filled electrolyte membranes for facile fabrication of long-term stable dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok-Jun; Cha, Hyeon-Jung; Kang, Yong Soo; Kang, Moon-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Pore-filled film electrolytes (PFEMs) were investigated for facile DSSC fabrication. •Optimal mixed solvent was suggested to enhance the long-term stability of DSSCs. •The PFEMs promised both the excellent thermal stability and energy efficiency. •Thephotovoltaic efficiency was well correlated with porous structure of substrates. -- ABSTRACT: Pore-filled electrolyte membranes (PFEMs) have been prepared by employing an optimized porous substrate and stable electrolyte composition for a facile manufacturing process of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The PFEMs could be easily loaded into a photovoltaic device without adding a traditional electrolyte injection through a hole. In order to meet the requirements of both high energy conversion efficiency and proper long-term stability, three different solvents with high boiling point, i.e. valeronitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethylacetamide, were appropriately mixed as a volumetric ratio of 7:2:1, respectively. As a result, similar conductivity and viscosity as well as better chemical stability were obtained compared to those of conventional 3-methoxypropionitrile-based electrolyte. In addition, linear relations were observed between the photovoltaic efficiency and porous film properties (i.e. porosity and tortuosity). The DSSC employing the PFEM doped with the mixed solvent based electrolyte exhibited the photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 6.30% at one sun condition. Moreover, the long-term stability test fixed at an elevated temperature of 85 °C exhibited outstanding durability of DSSC for 500 h

  6. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  7. PASLINK and dynamic outdoor testing of building components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, P.H.; Dijk, H.A.L. van

    2008-01-01

    The PASLINK test facilities and analysis procedures aim to obtain the thermal and solar characteristics of building components under real dynamic outdoor conditions. Both the analysis and the test methodology have evolved since the start of the PASSYS Project in 1985. A programme of upgrading the

  8. Tetra(p-tolyl)borate-functionalized solvent polymeric membrane: a facile and sensitive sensing platform for peroxidase and peroxidase mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Qin, Wei

    2013-07-22

    The determination of peroxidase activities is the basis for enzyme-labeled bioaffinity assays, peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes- and nanoparticles-based assays, and characterization of the catalytic functions of peroxidase mimetics. Here, a facile, sensitive, and cost-effective solvent polymeric membrane-based peroxidase detection platform is described that utilizes reaction intermediates with different pKa values from those of substrates and final products. Several key but long-debated intermediates in the peroxidative oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) have been identified and their charge states have been estimated. By using a solvent polymeric membrane functionalized by an appropriate substituted tetraphenylborate as a receptor, those cationic intermediates could be transferred into the membrane from the aqueous phase to induce a large cationic potential response. Thus, the potentiometric indication of the o-PD oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase or its mimetics can be fulfilled. Horseradish peroxidase has been detected with a detection limit at least two orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by spectrophotometric techniques and traditional membrane-based methods. As an example of peroxidase mimetics, G-quadruplex DNAzymes were probed by the intermediate-sensitive membrane and a label-free thrombin detection protocol was developed based on the catalytic activity of the thrombin-binding G-quadruplex aptamer. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, ...

  10. Statistical model evaluation and calibrations for outdoor comfort assessment in South Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldieron, J.M.; Thitisawat, M.; Polakit, K.; Mangone, G.

    2011-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas, people can spend more time outdoors than in other latitudes. Understanding the sensitivity of outdoor comfort is a fundamental element for architects and urban designers working in these specific climates. This study is part of a research project attempting to

  11. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  12. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  13. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  14. Soy flour-derived carbon dots: facile preparation, fluorescence enhancement, and sensitive Fe{sup 3+} detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Liyang; Xu, Qian [China University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing (China); Zheng, Xing [Bei Jing Sinen En-Tech Co., Ltd (China); Zhang, Weina; Zheng, Jingtang, E-mail: jtzheng03@163.com; Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: wumb@upc.edu.cn; Wu, Wenting, E-mail: wuwt@upc.edu.cn [China University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing (China)

    2016-08-15

    Soy flour-derived carbon quantum dots (C-dots) were successfully synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal approach. The as-prepared C-dots exhibit an average diameter of 2.5 nm and the crystalline lattices are consistent with graphitic carbons. Meanwhile, they show strong photoluminescence (quantum yield is 7.85 %), good water solubility, and high photostability. Importantly, structural defects of the C-dots were designed to obtain controllable fluorescence, which was achieved by changing the contents of N defects and O defects of C-dots. Our results indicate that N defects can more effectively enhance the fluorescence emission than O defects. As the preparation temperature increases, the N defects are fine-tuned by substituting for partial O defects, reducing nonradiative recombination and enhancing fluorescence intensity, which is further confirmed by surface passivation. Due to its fine photostability, high sensitivity, and good selectivity for Fe{sup 3+}, the as-prepared C-dots were used as fluorescence probes for detection of ferric ion. The detection limitation comes to 0.021 µM.

  15. Risk factors for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the characteristics of indoor and outdoor falls in older patients and the factors related to severe injury in the emergency department (ED). In total, 26,515 patients fell indoors and 19,581 outdoors. The general and clinical characteristics were compared between the two groups and factors associated with severe injury following the falls were evaluated. Younger males fell more frequently outdoors than indoors. The common activities during outdoor falls were sports and leisure activities. Environmental hazards lead to more outdoor falls than indoor falls. Factors associated with severe injury after indoor falls were transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility rather than individual transportation, fall from stairs rather than fell over, and a head and neck injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Factors related to severe injury after outdoor falls were male sex, transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility or by another method rather than individual transportation, state employed, fall from stairs rather than fell over, head and neck or thorax or abdomen injury rather than a lower extremity injury. Transport to the ED by public ambulance or from another medical facility, and head and neck injury were risks for severe injury following indoor and outdoor falls in elderly subjects. Efforts to identify the risk factors for severe injury and for falling itself are important to prevent and reduce fall injuries in elderly subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in CR-39 proton sensitivity due to prolonged exposure to high vacuums relevant to the National Ignition Facility and OMEGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, M J-E; Rosenberg, M J; Sinenian, N; Rinderknecht, H; Zylstra, A B; Séguin, F H; Frenje, J; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2011-09-01

    When used at facilities like OMEGA and the NIF, CR-39 is exposed to high vacuum environments before and after irradiation by charged particles and neutrons. Using an electrostatic linear accelerator at MIT, studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of high vacuum exposure on the sensitivity of CR-39 to fusion protons in the ~1-9 MeV energy range. High vacuum conditions, of order 10(-5) Torr, experienced by CR-39 samples at these facilities were emulated. It is shown that vacuum exposure times longer than ~16 h before proton irradiation result in a decrease in proton sensitivity, whereas no effect was observed for up to 67 h of vacuum exposure after proton irradiation. CR-39 sensitivity curves are presented for samples with prolonged exposure to high vacuum before and after proton irradiation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  18. Characterization of indoor and outdoor pool fires with active calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Gill, W.; Gritzo, L.A.; Kent, L.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    A water cooled, 1 m x 1 m, vertical calorimeter panel has been used in conjunction with other fire diagnostics to characterize a 6 m x 6 m outdoor and three 3 m x 3 m indoor JP-4 pool fires. Measurements reported include calorimeter surface heat flux and surface temperatures, flame temperatures, and gas flow velocities in the fire. From the data, effective radiative absorption coefficients for various zones in the fires have been estimated. The outdoor test was conducted at Sandia's Coyote Canyon test facility, while indoor tests were conducted at the indoor SMokE Reduction Facility (SMERF) at the same location. The measurements provide data useful in calibrating simple analytic fire models intended for the analysis of packages containing hazardous materials

  19. Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor lighting is an essential service for modern life. However, the high influence of this type of facility on energy consumption makes it necessary to take extra care in the design phase. Therefore, this manuscript describes an algorithm to help light designers to get, in an easy way, the best configuration parameters and to improve energy efficiency, while ensuring a minimum level of overall uniformity. To make this possible, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. These algorithms are well established, and are simple and effective to solve optimization problems. To take into account the most influential parameters on lighting and energy efficiency, 500 simulations were performed using DIALux software (4.10.0.2, DIAL, Ludenscheid, Germany. Next, the relation between these parameters was studied using to data mining software. Subsequently, we conducted two experiments for setting parameters that enabled the best configuration algorithm in order to improve efficiency in the proposed process optimization.

  20. 9 CFR 3.25 - Facilities, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, general. 3.25 Section 3.25... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.25 Facilities, general. (a) Structural strength. Indoor and outdoor housing facilities for guinea pigs or hamsters shall be structurally sound and...

  1. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  2. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....

  3. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  4. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  5. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  6. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  7. Expanding & strengthening outdoor recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter S. Hopkins

    1971-01-01

    Though the Forest Service has pioneered in outdoor recreation research, the funding for recreation research has been inadequate. Specific needs for research are outlined. There is a need to define recreation and recreation research in terms that busy legislators can understand.

  8. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  9. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  10. Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center. Program Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    Describing Department of Defense Dependents Schools Europe (DODDSEUR) use of Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center, this document is directed to sponsors wishing to take groups to Hinterbrand for one or more of the five program options (outdoor education week, teacher weekend, school-designed outdoor education program, administrative faculty…

  11. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  12. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of th...

  13. Light Pollution: Outdoor lighting is a growing threat to astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, K W

    1973-03-30

    There have been major qualitative and quantitative changes in outdoor lighting technology in the last decade. The level of skylight caused by outdoor lighting systems is growing at a very high rate, about 20 percent per year nationwide. In addition, the spectral distribution of man-made light pollution may change in the next decade from one containing a few mercury lines to one containing dozens of lines and a significantly increased continuum level. Light pollution is presently damaging to some astronomical programs, and it is likely to become a major factor limiting progress in the next decade. Suitable sites in the United States for new dark sky observing facilities are very difficult to find. Some of the increase in outdoor illumination is due to the character of national growth and development. Some is due to promotional campaigns, in which questionable arguments involving public safety are presented. There are protective measures which might be adopted by the government; these would significantly aid observational astronomy, without compromising the legitimate outdoor lighting needs of society. Observatories should establish programs to routinely monitor sky brightness as a function of position, wavelength, and time. The astronomical community should establish a mechanism by which such programs can be supported and coordinated.

  14. Radon concentration in outdoor occupational environments in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sakurai, N.; Inaba, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration in outdoor workplaces were measured in Aomori Prefecture, Japan as a part of a program on measurement of natural radiation background dose to people in the prefecture where Japan's first nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction. 222 Rn concentrations were measured in 116 outdoor workplaces by passive Rn detectors for 10 months, which represented agricultural, forestry, fishery and construction/transportation workplaces. The 222 Rn concentrations in outdoor workplaces were generally lower than those in indoor environments. The dose to workers was estimated by using the results of the passive detectors as well as diurnal variation of 222 Rn and equilibrium factor measured with active-type detectors. The average dose from 222 Rn and its progenies to people in Aomori Prefecture was estimated as 0.39 mSv x y -1 based on the obtained results and results in indoor environments. The contribution of 222 Rn in outdoor workplaces to the total dose was 3.3% because of low occupancy ratio. (author)

  15. Quantification of Outdoor Mobility by Use of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Taraldsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures in older persons are associated with both low levels of daily physical activity and loss of outdoor mobility. The aim was to investigate if accelerometer-based measures of physical behaviour can be used to determine if people undertake outdoor walking and to provide reference values for physical behaviour outcomes related to outdoor mobility. Older persons (n=245, ≥70 years, one year after hip fracture, participated. Six objective measures of physical behaviour collected by an activity monitor were compared with self-reported outdoor mobility assessed with the Nottingham Extended ADL scale. All measures of time and length in upright periods were significantly lower in participants who reported not walking outdoors (p<0.001. A set of cut-off points for the different physical behaviour variables was generated. Maximum length of upright events discriminated best between groups, with 31 minutes as a threshold to determine if a person is more likely to report that they walk outdoors (sensitivity: 0.805, specificity: 0.704, and AUC: 0.871 or 41 minutes or more to determine if a person is more likely to report outdoor walking on their own (AUC: 0.891. Physical behaviour variables from activity monitoring can provide information about patterns of physical behaviour related to outdoor activity performance.

  16. Planning Facilities for Athletics, Physical Education and Recreation. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD).

    This revised edition includes new material recommended by a panel of experts in the field of recreational planning. The following topics are covered: (1) the planning process; (2) indoor facilities; (3) outdoor facilities; (4) indoor and outdoor swimming pools; (5) encapsulated spaces and stadiums; (6) service areas; (7) recreation and park…

  17. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  18. PARENTS ATTITUDE ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.

  19. Facile green synthesis of graphene-Au nanorod nanoassembly for on-line extraction and sensitive stripping analysis of methyl parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenxin; Liu, Wei; Li, Tianbao; Yue, Xiaoyue; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Wentao; Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Daohong; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the facile green fabrication of GN-AuNRs/GCE and its application for the extraction and electroanalysis of MP. - Highlights: • This paper described a facile green electrochemical approach to synthesize graphene-AuNRs nanocomposite. • The as-synthesized sensor shows low LOD and wide linear concentration range towards MP. • The sensor can be well used for the determination of MP in water and kiwi fruits samples. • This paper further enlarges the scope of facile green synthetic methods of GN-based hybrids. - Abstract: This paper described a facile green electrochemical approach to synthesize graphene-AuNRs nanocomposite (GN-AuNRs) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for electrocatalytic analysis of methyl parathion (MP). This electrochemical synthesis of GN-AuNRs hybrid is environmentally friendly for not involving the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and facile for just on the basis of electrostatic interaction between GO and AuNRs, as well as electrochemical reduction of GO-AuNRs to GN-AuNRs. Combined the high conductivity, large surface area, good adsorption capacity towards aromatic rings and high catalytic ability of graphene with the excellent electronic properties and adsorption capacity of AuNRs, the high sensitive methyl parathion sensor was fabricated with the GN-AuNRs nanocomposite. The limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed sensor was calculated to be 0.82 ng/mL, which was lower than many previously reported enzyme or nonenzyme-based sensors. In the meantime, the linear detection range of this sensor was from 10 to 500 ng/mL and 750 to 4000 ng/mL, which was also wider than many other enzyme or enzymeless sensors. Furthermore, the facile and green electrochemical reduction strategy provided here could also be used to construct more GN-based hybrids. And the GN-based hybrid might be a new and highly efficient SPE factor, which opens new opportunities for green, facile and sensitive analysis of

  20. Outdoor fungi and child asthma health service attendances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Taylor, Philip E; Katelaris, Constance H; Vicendese, Don; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan

    2014-08-01

    Asthma is a significant global public health issue. Severe asthma exacerbations can be triggered by environmental factors and require medical care from health services. Although it is known that fungal exposure may lead to allergic sensitization, little is understood about its impact on asthma exacerbations. This review aims to examine whether outdoor fungi play a significant role in child asthma exacerbations. Systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand searching for peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to 31 August 2013. Inclusion criteria were study population aged asthma, attended a health service; outdoor fungi exposure was reported. Quality and risk of bias assessments were conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. Of the 1896 articles found, 15 were eligible. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to methodological variations in exposure classifications, statistical methods and inclusion of confounders. Cross-sectional studies found no or weak associations. All but one time series studies indicated an association that varied between fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that asthmatic children are susceptible to asthma exacerbations when exposed to outdoor fungal spores. There is limited understanding of the contributions of different fungal species. Research is needed to investigate interactions of outdoor fungi with pollen, air pollutants and respiratory viruses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  2. Evaluation of spatial sensitivity of a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis facility for the in vivo determination of nitrogen in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasviki, K.; Ioannina University; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the spatial dependence of the sensitivity of nitrogen measurement with a prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for small animals and developed an analysis procedure that permits the reduction of systematic errors due to that dependence. The analysis procedure is based on neutron and photon transport calculations performed using the MCNP code in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the PGNAA facility. The system can be calibrated experimentally using a small number of phantoms of known size and composition. The calculation approach can then be used to predict responses for animal body sizes and shapes relatively to those experimentally determined and to include the effect of tissue inhomogeneities. Our calculations were verified by experimental measurements performed for a set of cylindrical inhomogeneous phantoms. The calculated to experimental ratios observed were within 6%. (author)

  3. Context-specific outdoor time and physical activity among school-children across gender and age: Using accelerometers and GPS to advance methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Demant Klinker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being outdoors has a positive influence on health among children. Evidence in this area is limited and many studies have used self-reported measures. Objective context-specific assessment of physical activity patterns and correlates, such as outdoor time, may progress this field.Aims: To employ novel objective measures to assess age and gender differences in context-specific outdoor weekday behavior patterns among school-children (outdoor time and outdoor MVPA and to investigate associations between context-specific outdoor time and MVPA.Methods: A total of 170 children had at least one weekday of nine hours combined accelerometer and GPS data and were included in the analyses. The data were processed using the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System and a purpose-built PostgreSQL database resulting in context-specific measures for outdoor time, outdoor MVPA and overall daily MVPA. In addition, four domains (leisure, school, transport and home and 11 subdomains (e.g. urban green space, sports facilities were created and assessed. Multilevel analyses provided results on age and gender differences and the association between outdoor time and MVPA.Results: Girls compared to boys had fewer outdoors minutes (pConclusion:A new methodology to assess context-specific outdoor time and physical activity patterns has been developed and can be expanded to other populations. Different context-specific patterns were found for gender and age, suggesting different strategies may be needed to promote physical activity

  4. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...... to the application in question. In this way results providing a certain level of accuracy are obtained using methods which are balanced with the accuracy of the input data. Advanced measurement techniques are looked into and suggestions for future research are made...

  5. Mobile Phones and Outdoor Advertising: Measurable Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...

  6. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  7. Consideration on the current status and issues of sensitive information management concerning the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Tomoaki; Madarame, Haruki

    2009-01-01

    The confidentiality system concerning the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities was enacted by revision of the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law in 2005. We made a comparative analysis with the information security in governmental agencies or financial sectors, in order to consider the way the sensitive information management concerning the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities should be. The considerations in this paper are as follows. (1) In order to secure a suitable level of security, close cooperation should be achieved among related governmental agencies. (2) A cycle that continuously evaluates whether suitable management is performed should be established. (3) Excessive secretiveness should be eliminated. (4) An information-sharing system among the related persons beyond the frame of governmental agencies and electricity companies should be established. (5) Improvement in the social acceptability of the sensitive information management is important. (6) Although it is important to perform evaluation by the consideration of suitable balance with information disclosure, it is also important that it is positively shown to society. (author)

  8. Investigations on detection sensitivity of the NRTA method for different size representing facilities. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.; Bicking, U.; Koutsouvelis, G.

    1985-12-01

    The capability and limitations of the NRTA method (Near-Real-Time Accountancy method) in reprocessing facilities with different throughputs and inventories and measurement uncertainties, were investigated with a detailed computer simulated data base. These investigations have confirmed the earlier findings that the NRTA method could permit under certain operating conditions and for a number of realistic diversion scenarios, a perceptible improvement in the detection capability. Depending on the conditions prevailing, such improvements could be by a factor of 10-20, both for the detectable amounts and the detection time, over the conventional material balance method with annual inventories. The reasons for and the conditions which would permit such improvements have been discussed in detail with numerical examples in the report. (orig.) [de

  9. Implementation of a spark plasma sintering facility in a hermetic glovebox for compaction of toxic, radiotoxic, and air sensitive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrpekl, V., E-mail: vaclav.tyrpekl@ec.europa.eu, E-mail: vaclav.tyrpekl@gmail.com; Berkmann, C.; Holzhäuser, M.; Köpp, F.; Cologna, M.; Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wangle, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, Praha 1, 115 19 (Czech Republic)

    2015-02-15

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a rapidly developing method for densification of powders into compacts. It belongs to the so-called “field assisted sintering techniques” that enable rapid sintering at much lower temperatures than the classical approaches of pressureless sintering of green pellets or hot isostatic pressing. In this paper, we report the successful integration of a SPS device into a hermetic glovebox for the handling of highly radioactive material containing radioisotopes of U, Th, Pu, Np, and Am. The glovebox implantation has been facilitated by the replacement of the hydraulic system to apply pressure with a compact electromechanical unit. The facility has been successfully tested using UO{sub 2} powder. Pellets with 97% of the theoretical density were obtained at 1000 °C for 5 min, significantly lower than the ∼1600 °C for 5-10 h used in conventional pellet sintering.

  10. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  11. Support facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, F.S.; Blomquist, J.A.; Fox, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Computer support is centered on the Remote Access Data Station (RADS), which is equipped with a 1000 lpm printer, 1000 cpm reader, and a 300 cps paper tape reader with 500-foot spools. The RADS is located in a data preparation room with four 029 key punches (two of which interpret), a storage vault for archival magnetic tapes, card files, and a 30 cps interactive terminal principally used for job inquiry and routing. An adjacent room provides work space for users, with a documentation library and a consultant's office, plus file storage for programs and their documentations. The facility has approximately 2,600 square feet of working laboratory space, and includes two fully equipped photographic darkrooms, sectioning and autoradiographic facilities, six microscope cubicles, and five transmission electron microscopes and one Cambridge scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray energy dispersive analytical system. Ancillary specimen preparative equipment includes vacuum evaporators, freeze-drying and freeze-etching equipment, ultramicrotomes, and assorted photographic and light microscopic equipment. The extensive physical plant of the animal facilities includes provisions for holding all species of laboratory animals under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and lighting. More than forty rooms are available for studies of the smaller species. These have a potential capacity of more than 75,000 mice, or smaller numbers of larger species and those requiring special housing arrangements. There are also six dog kennels to accommodate approximately 750 dogs housed in runs that consist of heated indoor compartments and outdoor exercise areas

  12. Sensitivity analysis of high resolution gamma-ray detection for safeguards monitoring at natural uranium conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, S.A., E-mail: dewjisa@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Hertel, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Under the policies proposed by recent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) circulars and policy papers, implementation of safeguards exists when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exists. Under IAEA Policy Paper 18, the starting point for nuclear material under safeguards was reinterpreted, suggesting that purified uranium compounds should be subject to safeguards procedures no later than the first point in the conversion process. In response to this technical need, a combination of simulation models and experimental measurements were employed in previous work to develop and validate gamma-ray nondestructive assay monitoring systems in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). In particular, uranyl nitrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) solution exiting solvent extraction was identified as a key measurement point (KMP). Passive nondestructive assay techniques using high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy were evaluated to determine their viability as a technical means for drawing safeguards conclusions at NUCPs, and if the IAEA detection requirements of 1 significant quantity (SQ) can be met in a timely manner. Building upon the aforementioned previous validation work on detector sensitivity to varying concentrations of uranyl nitrate via a series of dilution measurements, this work investigates detector response parameter sensitivities to gamma-ray signatures of uranyl nitrate. The full energy peak efficiency of a detection system is dependent upon the sample, geometry, absorption, and intrinsic efficiency parameters. Perturbation of these parameters translates into corresponding variations of the 185.7 keV peak area of the {sup 235}U in uranyl nitrate. Such perturbations in the assayed signature impact the quality or versatility of the safeguards conclusions drawn. Given the potentially high throughput of uranyl nitrate in NUCPs, the ability to assay 1 SQ of material requires

  13. Dynamic simulation and thermo-economic analysis of a PhotoVoltaic/Thermal collector heating system for an indoor–outdoor swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonomano, Annamaria; De Luca, Giuseppina; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV/T heating system for indoor–outdoor swimming pools is proposed. • A comparison among some thermal pool models available in literature is carried out. • Dynamic simulations of the thermal behavior of the swimming-pools are performed. • PV/T thermal energy is used to heat the swimming pool and for DHW production. • Energy and economic parametric analyses of the proposed system are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of an innovative renewable energy plant serving an existing indoor/outdoor swimming pool located in Naples. The proposed solar hybrid system is designed in order to balance the remarkable energy demand of the swimming pool facility and to ensure suitable comfort conditions for swimmers. With the aim to accomplish such goals, the dynamic thermal behavior of the swimming pool was analyzed as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the indoor space and on the meteorological conditions of the pool site. In order to properly design and size the proposed renewable energy system, different thermal pool loss formulations for the calculation of the swimming pool thermal balance, in indoor and outdoor regimes, are adopted. The solar hybrid system consists of a water cooled photovoltaic/thermal collectors plant (PV/T), designed to meet a part of the facility demands of electricity and heat. Electricity is completely utilized by the facility, while the produced thermal energy is primarily used to meet the pool thermal demand and secondarily for sanitary hot water scopes. In order to carry out dynamic simulations and sensitivity analyses, the system performance is designed and dynamically simulated in TRNSYS environment. The developed simulation model enables the calculation of both the indoor and outdoor swimming pool thermal losses and the overall energy and economic system performance. Such results are obtained as a function of the thermo-hygrometric conditions of the environment, of the occupants and the

  14. United States of America: outdoor recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.Ken Cordell; G.Theodore Green; V.R. Leeworthy; R. Stephens; M.J. Fly; Carter J. Betz

    2005-01-01

    the first nationwide survey of outdoor recreation in the USA was conducted in 1960 for the outdoor recreation resources review commission (ORRC, 1962; Cordell et al., 1996). since that time, seven additional national surveys have been conducted, in 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1983, 1995, and 2000/01 - summary details are presented in Table 16.1.

  15. The "F" Word: Feminism in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…

  16. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  17. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  18. Een toekomst voor outdoor fitness in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske

    De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen

  19. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's natural... launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative. Building on input from tens of thousands of people across... engine of growth. As part of our National Travel and Tourism Strategy, my Administration is working to...

  20. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  1. Radon parameters in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20

  2. Facile synthesis of ZnO nanobullets/nanoflakes and their applications to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou Jixia [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang Weiguang, E-mail: wgzhang@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Fan Jun; Deng Hong [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Wei [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: >Although there are many available methods to fabricate ZnO nanostructures, we report here a simple and generalized method to prepare ZnO nanocrystallites from zinc acetates by tuning the volume ratio between water and ethylene glycol. In comparison, this synthetic method is of relatively low cost and is able to readily scaled-up for industrial production. In particular, the ZnO nanostructures were used as active photoanodes after incorporation in sandwich-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies obtained under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions, were 1.93% using ZnO nanobullets, while the efficiency was raised up to 3.64% using ZnO nanoflakes. - Abstract: In this paper we reported a successful synthesis of ZnO nanobullets/nanoflakes by a simple hydro/solvothermal method employing a mixture of water/ethylene glycol as the solvent, and zinc acetate as the zinc source. The final products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman scattering and photofluorescence spectra of the products were also investigated. ZnO with both nanobullets and nanoflakes nanostructures had been comparably studied as active photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) system, and the overall light-to-energy conversion efficiency of 1.93% has been achieved for nanobullets based DSSC, while that for ZnO nanoflakes based DSSC has been raised up to 3.64%.

  3. The Policies and Practice of Preschoolers' Outdoor Play: A Chinese Perspective on Greeting the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Kong, Zhaowei; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) scholars and health professionals worldwide share a common concern about the decline in children's physical development and activity due to lack of access to good quality outdoor environments. Early childhood education and care facilities across the world have been affected by trends that are limiting…

  4. Benefits of Campus Outdoor Recreation Programs: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Elizabeth K.; Williams, Nathan; Schwartz, Forrest; Bullard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Campus outdoor recreation programs and facilities have faced a number of public attacks questioning their value for students. Climbing walls in particular have become, to some, emblematic of waste and financial excess in higher education. Despite these claims, this literature review uncovers numerous benefits for participants and schools provided…

  5. Facile synthesis of TiO2 hierarchical microspheres assembled by ultrathin nanosheets for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Fang; Zhang, Xuyan; Wu, Yao; Wu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiyong; Jiang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TiO 2 hierarchical spheres were prepared via one-pot solvothermal route. •TiO 2 hierarchical spheres based DSSCs shows a conversion efficiency of 5.56%. •The performance of DSSC is dependence of the thickness of photoanode. -- Abstract: TiO 2 hierarchical microspheres assembled by ultrathin nanosheets were prepared via solvothermal route for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The performance of cells was investigated by diffuse and reflectance spectra, photocurrent–voltage measurement, incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra. Photoanodes with different thickness of TiO 2 hierarchical spheres were studied, which proves that the photoanode with thickness of 15.9 μm exhibits higher performance (short-circuit current density of 12.36 mA cm −2 , open-circuit voltage of 0.73 mV, fill factor of 61.95, and conversion efficiency of 5.56%) than that of P25-based DSSC due to the excellent particle interconnections, low electron recombination and high specific surface area (78 m 2 g −1 )

  6. Facile synthesis of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide as an efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liguo; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yulin; Luo, Ruidong; Li, Jinqi; Gu, Xiaohu; Zhan, Zhaoshun; Dong, Yongli; Song, Weina; Fan, Ruiqing

    2018-04-01

    A nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) nanosheet was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electrode microscopy. After being deposited as counter electrode film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), it is found that the synthesized N-RGO nanosheet has smaller charge-transfer resistance and better electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of triiodide than the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheet. Consequently, the DSSCs based on the N-RGO counter electrode achieve an energy conversion efficiency of 4.26%, which is higher than that of the RGO counter electrode (2.85%) prepared under the same conditions, and comparable to the value (5.21%) obtained with the Pt counter electrode as a reference. This N-RGO counter electrode offers the advantages of not only saving the cost of Pt itself but also simplifying the process of counter electrode preparation. Therefore, an inexpensive N-RGO nanosheet is a promising counter electrode material to replace noble metal Pt. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Sensitive and specific identification by polymerase chain reaction of Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima, important protozoan pathogens in laboratory avian facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kim, Okjin

    2011-09-01

    Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima are important pathogens causing intracellular protozoa infections in laboratory avian animals and are known to affect experimental results obtained from contaminated animals. This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive, and efficient protocol for the molecular identification of E. tenella and E. maxima in experimental samples using chickens as laboratory avian animals. DNA was extracted from fecal samples collected from chickens and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was employed to detect E. tenella and E. maxima from the extracted DNA. The target nucleic acid fragments were specifically amplified by PCR. Feces secreting E. tenella and E. maxima were detected by a positive PCR reaction. In this study, we were able to successfully detect E. tenella and E. maxima using the molecular diagnostic method of PCR. As such, we recommended PCR for monitoring E. tenella and E. maxima in laboratory avian facilities.

  8. A facile one-pot hydrothermal method to prepare europium-doped titania hollow phosphors and their sensitized luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xuan; Yang Ling; Zhang Nianchun [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Western Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liu Yingliang, E-mail: tliuyl@jnu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Western Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} The strongest emission intensity was observed with TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres and TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres calcining at 550 {sup o}C. Moreover, the strongest excitation of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres transferred from 400 to 500 {sup o}C and the effective nonradiative energy transfer from the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres host matrix to Eu{sup 3+} ions crystal field states was realized due to changes of crystalline field in the environment around Eu{sup 3+} ions occupying Ti{sup 4+} sites. The proposed energy transfer mechanism was that UV light is absorbed in the band of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres crystal and then the energy is relaxed to the defect states of TiO{sub 2} host. The energy can transfer to the crystal states of Eu{sup 3+} ions ({sup 7}F{sub j}, j = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), which results in efficient photoluminescence. The fluorescent intensity of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres was 2.2 times as strong as that of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} bulk material. - Abstract: Monodisperse europium-activated titania hollow phosphors had been synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method using carbon spheres as hard templates. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and photoluminescence spectrum. The strongest emission intensity was observed with TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres and TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres calcining at 550 {sup o}C. Moreover, the strongest excitation of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sub 0.2} hollow spheres transferred from 400 to 500 {sup o}C and the effective nonradiative energy transfer from the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres host matrix to Eu{sup 3+} ions crystal field states was realized due to changes of crystalline field in the environment around Eu{sup 3+} ions occupying Ti{sup 4+} sites. The proposed energy transfer mechanism was that UV light is absorbed in the band

  9. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  10. Facile method for synthesis of TiO{sub 2} film and its application in high efficiency dye sensitized-solar cell (DSSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widiyandari, Hendri, E-mail: h.widiyandari@undip.ac.id; Gunawan, S. K.V.; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro [Department of Physics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto SH, Semarang, Central Java 50275 (Indonesia); Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Diharjo, Kuncoro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is a device which converts a solar energy to electrical energy. Different with semiconductor thin film based solar cell, DSSC utilize the sensitized-dye to absorb the photon and semiconductor such as titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as a working electrode photoanode. In this report, the preparation of TiO{sub 2} film using a facile method of spray deposition and its application in DSSC have been presented. TiO{sub 2} photoanode was synthesized by growing the droplet of titanium tetraisopropoxide diluted in acid solution on the substrate of conductive glass flourine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with variation of precursor volume. DSSC was assemblied by sandwiching both of photoanode electrode and platinum counter electrode subsequently filling the area between these electrodes with triodine/iodine electrolite solution as redox pairs. The characterization of the as prepared DSSC using solar simulator (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}) and I-V source meter Keithley 2400 showed that the performance of DSSC was affected by the precursor volume.. The overall conversion efficiency of DSSC using the optimum TiO{sub 2} film was about 1.97% with the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.73 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 4.61 mA and fill factor (FF) of 0.58.

  11. Facile Preparation of TiO2 Nanobranch/Nanoparticle Hybrid Architecture with Enhanced Light Harvesting Properties for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report TiO2 nanobranches/nanoparticles (NBN hybrid architectures that can be synthesized by a facile solution phase method. The hybrid architecture simultaneously improves light harvesting and charge collection performances for a dye-sensitized solar cell. First, TiO2 nanorods with a trunk length of 2 μm were grown on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/glass substrate, and then nanobranches and nanoparticles were deposited on the nanorods’ trunks through a solution method using an aqueous TiCl3 solution at 80°C. The relative amount of nanobranches and nanoparticles can be controlled by multiplying the number of TiCl3 treatments to maximize the amount of surface area. We found that the resultant TiO2 NBN hybrid architecture greatly improves the amount of dye adsorption (five times compared to bare nanorods due to the enhanced surface area, while maintaining a fast charge collection, leading to a three times higher current density and thus tripling the maximum power conversion efficiency for a dye-sensitized solar cell.

  12. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km 2 , the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km 2 or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km 2 are posted as surface contamination and 10 km 2 are posted as underground contamination

  13. Applicability of the two-angle differential method to response measurement of neutron-sensitive devices at the RCNP high-energy neutron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Akihiko, E-mail: aki-masuda@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tetsuro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Iwamoto, Yosuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hagiwara, Masayuki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Satoh, Daiki; Sato, Tatsuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Iwase, Hiroshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yashima, Hiroshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010 Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nakane, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nishiyama, Jun [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shima, Tatsushi; Tamii, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Kichiji [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Harano, Hideki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2017-03-21

    Quasi-monoenergetic high-energy neutron fields induced by {sup 7}Li(p,n) reactions are used for the response evaluation of neutron-sensitive devices. The quasi-monoenergetic high-energy field consists of high-energy monoenergetic peak neutrons and unwanted continuum neutrons down to the low-energy region. A two-angle differential method has been developed to compensate for the effect of the continuum neutrons in the response measurements. In this study, the two-angle differential method was demonstrated for Bonner sphere detectors, which are typical examples of moderator-based neutron-sensitive detectors, to investigate the method's applicability and its dependence on detector characteristics. Experiments were performed under 96–387 MeV quasi-monoenergetic high-energy neutron fields at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The measurement results for large high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sphere detectors agreed well with Monte Carlo calculations, which verified the adequacy of the two-angle differential method. By contrast, discrepancies were observed in the results for small HDPE sphere detectors and metal-induced sphere detectors. The former indicated that detectors that are particularly sensitive to low-energy neutrons may be affected by penetrating neutrons owing to the geometrical features of the RCNP facility. The latter discrepancy could be consistently explained by a problem in the evaluated cross-section data for the metals used in the calculation. Through those discussions, the adequacy of the two-angle differential method was experimentally verified, and practical suggestions were made pertaining to this method.

  14. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  15. Towards Consensus on the Nature of Outdoor Education. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter; Loynes, Chris

    1997-01-01

    At a European conference in Finland, various outdoor education organizations drafted a statement of intent for the newly created European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education. Their common view of outdoor education is that it strives to stimulate personal and social development experientially through some experience of the outdoors. Discusses…

  16. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  17. The little book of maths outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This is a unique book that supports the current thinking behind outdoor learning. It features over 40 ideas for outdoor activities that support mathematics in the early years and the specific areas of learning in the revised EYFS. All the ideas are tried and tested by Terry and this book will prove to be popular in the early years and well into Key stage 1.

  18. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  19. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  20. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…

  1. Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-03-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥ 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

  3. PubMed search filters for the study of putative outdoor air pollution determinants of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano

    2016-12-21

    Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one 'more specific', one 'more sensitive'). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. The 'more specific' filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The 'more sensitive' filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the 'more specific' filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the 'more sensitive' one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the 'more specific' filter and 3.3 for the 'more sensitive' one. The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Scalable Fabrication of Efficient NiCo2S4 Counter Electrodes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Using a Facile Solution Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, An-Lin; Lu, Man-Ning; Chang, Chin-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Lin, Jeng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting highly electrocatalytic and cost-effectiveness counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been regarded as a persistent objective. In this work, we proposed a facile low-cost solution approach for scalable fabrication of NiCo 2 S 4 (NCS) CEs in Pt-free DSCs. Firstly, NCS particles were synthesized by means of a solvothermal method. Afterwards, the NCS particles were successfully immobilized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate and indium doped tin oxide polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) flexible substrate as NCS CE and flexible NCS CE, respectively, by using series of dip-coating processes. On the basis of extensive electrochemical characterizations, the NCS CEs displayed Pt-like electrocatalytic activity for I 3 − reduction. The DSC based on the NCS CE achieved an impressive cell efficiency of 8.94%, which was higher than that of the cell with the conventional Pt CE (8.51%). More interesting, the DSC using the flexible NCS CE still demonstrated an acceptable cell performance of 8.62% (or 8.57% with the bended flexible NCS CE).

  5. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  6. 9 CFR 3.78 - 0utdoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and... facility at that time of year without stress or discomfort, may be kept in outdoor facilities. (b) Shelter...) The housing facility is surrounded by a natural barrier that restricts the nonhuman primates to the...

  7. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  8. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  9. Effects of the pyrethroid insecticide gamma-cyhalothrin on aquatic invertebrates in laboratory and outdoor microcosm tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Barber, I.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of a range of freshwater lentic invertebrates to gamma-cyhalothrin (GCH), a single enantiomer of the synthetic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, was assessed in single species laboratory tests and an outdoor multi-species ecosystem test. The most sensitive species in the laboratory

  10. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  11. Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act: banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Smith, Carson; Sorg, Amy A

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco industry has challenged new FDA rules restricting outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds on First Amendment grounds, arguing that they would lead to a near complete ban on tobacco advertising in dense urban areas. To examine how the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) rules banning outdoor tobacco advertising near schools and playgrounds would affect tobacco retailers. GIS spatial analyses of two different states (Missouri, New York), along with more detailed analyses of two urban areas within those states (St. Louis, New York City), were conducted in 2010. The percentage of tobacco retailers falling within 350-, 500-, and 1000-foot buffer zones was then calculated. 22% of retailers in Missouri and 51% in New York fall within 1000-foot buffers around schools. In urban settings, more retailers are affected, 29% in St. Louis and 79% in New York City. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that smaller buffers decrease the proportion of affected retailers. That is, 350-foot buffers affect only 6.7% of retailers in St. Louis and 29% in New York City. The effects of new outdoor tobacco advertising restrictions vary by location and population density. In Missouri and New York, outdoor tobacco advertising would still be permitted in many locations if such advertising was prohibited in a 1000-foot buffer zone around schools and playgrounds. Much smaller buffer zones of 350 feet may result in almost no reduction of outdoor advertising in many parts of the country. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Outdoor ultraviolet exposure of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.; Gibson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)

  13. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  14. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  15. Testing and Performance Validation of a Sensitive Gamma Ray Camera Designed for Radiation Detection and Decommissioning Measurements in Nuclear Facilities-13044

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N. [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom); Creed, Richard; Pancake, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the measurements, testing and performance validation of a sensitive gamma ray camera designed for radiation detection and quantification in the environment and decommissioning and hold-up measurements in nuclear facilities. The instrument, which is known as RadSearch, combines a sensitive and highly collimated LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector with an optical (video) camera with controllable zoom and focus and a laser range finder in one detector head. The LaBr{sub 3} detector has a typical energy resolution of between 2.5% and 3% at the 662 keV energy of Cs-137 compared to that of NaI detectors with a resolution of typically 7% to 8% at the same energy. At this energy the tungsten shielding of the detector provides a shielding ratio of greater than 900:1 in the forward direction and 100:1 on the sides and from the rear. The detector head is mounted on a pan/tile mechanism with a range of motion of ±180 degrees (pan) and ±90 degrees (tilt) equivalent to 4 π steradians. The detector head with pan/tilt is normally mounted on a tripod or wheeled cart. It can also be mounted on vehicles or a mobile robot for access to high dose-rate areas and areas with high levels of contamination. Ethernet connects RadSearch to a ruggedized notebook computer from which it is operated and controlled. Power can be supplied either as 24-volts DC from a battery or as 50 volts DC supplied by a small mains (110 or 230 VAC) power supply unit that is co-located with the controlling notebook computer. In this latter case both power and Ethernet are supplied through a single cable that can be up to 80 metres in length. If a local battery supplies power, the unit can be controlled through wireless Ethernet. Both manual operation and automatic scanning of surfaces and objects is available through the software interface on the notebook computer. For each scan element making up a part of an overall scanned area, the unit measures a gamma ray spectrum. Multiple

  16. Testing and Performance Validation of a Sensitive Gamma Ray Camera Designed for Radiation Detection and Decommissioning Measurements in Nuclear Facilities-13044

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Creed, Richard; Pancake, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the measurements, testing and performance validation of a sensitive gamma ray camera designed for radiation detection and quantification in the environment and decommissioning and hold-up measurements in nuclear facilities. The instrument, which is known as RadSearch, combines a sensitive and highly collimated LaBr 3 scintillation detector with an optical (video) camera with controllable zoom and focus and a laser range finder in one detector head. The LaBr 3 detector has a typical energy resolution of between 2.5% and 3% at the 662 keV energy of Cs-137 compared to that of NaI detectors with a resolution of typically 7% to 8% at the same energy. At this energy the tungsten shielding of the detector provides a shielding ratio of greater than 900:1 in the forward direction and 100:1 on the sides and from the rear. The detector head is mounted on a pan/tile mechanism with a range of motion of ±180 degrees (pan) and ±90 degrees (tilt) equivalent to 4 π steradians. The detector head with pan/tilt is normally mounted on a tripod or wheeled cart. It can also be mounted on vehicles or a mobile robot for access to high dose-rate areas and areas with high levels of contamination. Ethernet connects RadSearch to a ruggedized notebook computer from which it is operated and controlled. Power can be supplied either as 24-volts DC from a battery or as 50 volts DC supplied by a small mains (110 or 230 VAC) power supply unit that is co-located with the controlling notebook computer. In this latter case both power and Ethernet are supplied through a single cable that can be up to 80 metres in length. If a local battery supplies power, the unit can be controlled through wireless Ethernet. Both manual operation and automatic scanning of surfaces and objects is available through the software interface on the notebook computer. For each scan element making up a part of an overall scanned area, the unit measures a gamma ray spectrum. Multiple radionuclides may be

  17. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  18. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  19. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  20. Evaluating the sensitivity of EQ-5D in a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two tertiary health care facilities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, Obinna Ikechukwu; Ezenduka, Charles C; Uzoma, Bede Emeka

    2016-01-12

    The EQ-5D instrument is arguably the most well-known and commonly used generic measure of health status internationally. Although the instrument has been employed in outcomes studies of diabetes mellitus in many countries, it has not yet been used in Nigeria. This study was carried out to assess the sensitivity of the EQ-5D instrument in a sample of Nigerian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional study was conducted using the EQ-5D instrument to assess the self-reported quality of life of patients with T2DM attending two tertiary healthcare facilities in south eastern Nigeria consenting patients completed the questionnaire while waiting to see a doctor. A priori hypotheses were examined using multiple regression analysis to model the relationship between the dependent variables (EQ VAS and EQ-5D Index) and hypothesized independent variables. A total of 226 patients with T2DM participated in the study. The average age of participants was 57 years (standard deviation 10 years) and 61.1% were male. The EQ VAS score and EQ-5D index averaged 66.19 (standard deviation 15.42) and 0.78 (standard deviation 0.21) respectively. Number of diabetic complications, number of co-morbidities, patient's age and being educated predicted EQ VAS score by -6.76, -6.15, -0.22, and 4.51 respectively. Also, number of diabetic complications, number of co-morbidities, patient's age and being educated predicted EQ-5D index by -0.12, -0.07, -0.003, and 0.06 respectively.. Our findings indicate that the EQ-5D could adequately capture the burden of type 2 diabetes and related complications among Nigerian patients.

  1. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Törmäkangas, Timo; Leinonen, Raija; Heikkinen, Eino; Rantanen, Taina

    2009-04-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation. Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses. Community and research center. Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up. Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period. At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively). Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.

  2. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  3. Nitrification in moving bed and fixed bed biofilters treating effluent water from a large commercial outdoor rainbow trout RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    The nitrification performance of two fixed bed (FB) biofilters and two moving bed (MB) biofilters was evaluated. They received the same cold (8 degrees C) influent water from a commercial outdoor RAS facility producing rainbow trout (average density 32 kg m(-3)). The filters were constructed as f...

  4. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  5. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  6. Sustainability in outdoor recreation and tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Kelly Bricker; Jeremy Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and tourism represents a major service by which the public identifies with and better understands natural resources, even to the extent that it can foster environmental stewardship (for example, see Winter and Chavez 2008). Yet, myriad threats to recreation and tourism exist which need to be addressed. Addressing these threats can be...

  7. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  8. Outdoor i integrationsarbejde - et nyt EU projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt

    2014-01-01

    Beskriver opstarten af det internationale projekt, hvor omgivelserne anvendes i læreprocesser for nytilkomne. Samarbejdspartnere er Linköbing Universitet i Sverige, Novia Yrkeshøgskola i Finland, Bologna Universitet i Italien. Projektet vil udvikle læreplan til anvendelse for undervisere af nytil...... nytilkomne, hvor Outdoor learning i naturen og de kulturelle omgivelser anvendes....

  9. Establishing the Competence of Outdoor Training Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Bertie

    1997-01-01

    The United Kingdom lacks a framework of nationally recognized professional qualifications for outdoor trainers and facilitators. Various definitions of competence are examined, and suggestions are offered for improving approaches to establishing staff competence. Includes a model of personal development dimensions, and compares U.K. and U.S.…

  10. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... protecting an iconic vast public land, or by creating a community garden or an urban park. Last year, I was... leaders, students, and community groups led to a report unveiled in February, America's Great Outdoors: A Promise to Future Generations, which lays the foundation for smarter, more community-driven action to...

  11. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad

  12. Playing with Power: An Outdoor Classroom Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood-Bird, Eden

    2017-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, discovery of how preschool-aged children use play to wield their individual power in the outdoors is documented in a single classroom. Embedded as a participant-researcher and working from constructivist and critical theory orientations, the researcher seeks to understand how children use their play to construct the…

  13. Issues in Outdoor Recreation: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Clayne R., Comp.; Thorstenson, Clark T., Comp.

    This book is a compilation of selected writings on the subject of outdoor recreation. It is addressed to students specializing in recreation and resource management, and teachers, conservationists, and the public in general. Seven chapters contain articles discussing issues, facts, and concerns in the field of recreation and represent various…

  14. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  15. Learning Leadership: Becoming an Outdoor Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Elisabeth; Lynch, Pip

    2018-01-01

    Recent leadership research has demonstrated a need for better understanding the process of becominga leader because it might be qualitatively different to being a leader. If so, there is likely to be a need for pedagogies designed deliberately to support first-time outdoor leadership experiences and any such pedagogies must be informed by the…

  16. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  17. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  18. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  19. Designing interactive outdoor games for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile outdoor games for groups of children have emerged recently as a credible technological proposition and as an area of research and development that promises substantial benefits for children regarding a more active lifestyle and the development of social skills. This chapter examines

  20. Determination of Science Teachers' Opinions about Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Ulas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to discover what science teachers' opinions about outdoor education learning environments are. Outdoor education learning environments contribute to problem-solving, critical and creative thinking skills of students. For this reason, outdoor education learning environments are very important for students to learn by…

  1. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  2. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  3. Outdoor Education in Senior Schooling: Clarifying the Body of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Australia has a state-based educational system. In some of these states, outdoor education exists as part of the formal accredited secondary school curriculum. In this paper I analyse the content of these senior secondary school outdoor courses as a means to help delineate and describe the body of knowledge of outdoor education. I suggest outdoor…

  4. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

  5. The Perceived Life Impact of a University Outdoor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesworth, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the outdoors provides lasting educational experiences. Most students retain information best when doing an activity, and the outdoors allows for these opportunities. Outdoor education (OE) is a large, multi-disciplinary field cultivated from many roots. Since OE offers such vivid learning opportunities, it is an important area for…

  6. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was

  7. Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

  8. People participation in natural outdoors recreation activities and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the visitors believe natural outdoor recreation in the south-west of the country ... These identified benefits of Natural Outdoors Recreational in the course of the ... promotion, employment, urban aesthetic, healthy livings and improve tourism ... outdoor recreation centres to augment medical service in improving life span ...

  9. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  10. Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

  11. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W.; James, J. Joy; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children’s outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children’s HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included. PMID:29152542

  12. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; James, J Joy; Battista, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children's HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included.

  13. Associations between Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Neighbourhood Recreational Facilities: The Features of the Facilities Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Yiu Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the associations between objectively-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and perceived/objective measures of neighbourhood recreational facilities categorized into indoor or outdoor, public, residential or commercial facilities. The associations between facility perceptions and objectively-assessed numbers of recreational facilities were also examined. Method: A questionnaire was used on 480 adults to measure local facility perceptions, with 154 participants wearing ActiGraph accelerometers for ≥4 days. The objectively-assessed number of neighbourhood recreational facilities were examined using direct observations and Geographical Information System data. Results: Both positive and negative associations were found between MVPA and perceived/objective measures of recreational facilities. Some associations depended on whether the recreational facilities were indoor or outdoor, public or residential facilities. The objectively-assessed number of most public recreational facilities was associated with the corresponding facility perceptions, but the size of effect was generally lower than for residential recreational facilities. Conclusions: The objectively-assessed number of residential outdoor table tennis courts and public indoor swimming pools, the objectively-assessed presence of tennis courts and swimming pools, and the perceived presence of bike lanes and swimming pools were positive determinants of MVPA. It is suggested to categorize the recreational facilities into smaller divisions in order to identify unique associations with MVPA.

  14. PubMed search filters for the study of putative outdoor air pollution determinants of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Stefania; Gori, Davide; Di Gregori, Valentina; Farioli, Andrea; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Fantini, Maria Pia; Christiani, David C; Violante, Francesco S; Mattioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Several PubMed search filters have been developed in contexts other than environmental. We aimed at identifying efficient PubMed search filters for the study of environmental determinants of diseases related to outdoor air pollution. Methods We compiled a list of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms seeming pertinent to outdoor air pollutants exposure as determinants of diseases in the general population. We estimated proportions of potentially pertinent articles to formulate two filters (one ‘more specific’, one ‘more sensitive’). Their overall performance was evaluated as compared with our gold standard derived from systematic reviews on diseases potentially related to outdoor air pollution. We tested these filters in the study of three diseases potentially associated with outdoor air pollution and calculated the number of needed to read (NNR) abstracts to identify one potentially pertinent article in the context of these diseases. Last searches were run in January 2016. Results The ‘more specific’ filter was based on the combination of terms that yielded a threshold of potentially pertinent articles ≥40%. The ‘more sensitive’ filter was based on the combination of all search terms under study. When compared with the gold standard, the ‘more specific’ filter reported the highest specificity (67.4%; with a sensitivity of 82.5%), while the ‘more sensitive’ one reported the highest sensitivity (98.5%; with a specificity of 47.9%). The NNR to find one potentially pertinent article was 1.9 for the ‘more specific’ filter and 3.3 for the ‘more sensitive’ one. Conclusions The proposed search filters could help healthcare professionals investigate environmental determinants of medical conditions that could be potentially related to outdoor air pollution. PMID:28003291

  15. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  16. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  17. Obstacole in implementarea activitatilor de tip outdoor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    2013-01-01

    It is never easy to implement new ways of teaching, and during this process the changing agent will often face a number of different barriers. Which kind of barriers depends of course what kind of changes we are talking about. There are a number of countries where teachers have tried to implement...... outdoor learning, and some of these experiences will be described in this article....

  18. Marketingová komunikace Outdoor Training Clubu

    OpenAIRE

    Soukeníková, Karla

    2017-01-01

    Title: Outdoor Training Club's Marketing Communication Goals: The aim of the thesis is to evaluate current club's marketing communication and come up with the suggestions of how to improve marketing communication, which would be benefit for the club and it helps acquire new potential customers. Methods: Electronic and written questionnaire, informal semi-structured interviews, document analysis. Results: Based on research and interview with the owner, I found that the current marketing commun...

  19. Slam estimation in dynamic outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheyuan; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi; コ, シンテイ; ウチムラ, ケイイチ; 胡, 振程; 内村, 圭一

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different approaches to estimate simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in dynamic outdoor environments. SLAM has been intensively researched in recent years in the field of robotics and intelligent vehicles, many approaches have been proposed including occupancy grid mapping method (Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer and Fuzzy Logic), Localization estimation method (edge or point features based direct scan matching techniques, probabilistic likelihood, EK...

  20. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  1. A comprehensive air quality investigation at an aquatic centre: Indoor/outdoor comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, Evangelos I; Panaras, Giorgos; Bartzis, John G

    2018-06-01

    Air quality and comfort parameters in a naturally ventilated aquatic centre were studied in relation to the outdoor pollution levels. Simultaneous measurements of PM 2.5, as well as of volatile organic compounds, were carried out for the indoor and outdoor environment of the aquatic centre. The chemical analysis of ionic species and trace elements associated with particulate matter was also performed. In addition, automated analyzer for NO 2 and O 3 was used in order to record the indoor and outdoor levels of these pollutants. Analysis of diurnal variation of the pollutants' concentration was applied to the collected data, allowing the identification of potential variation on the sources affecting the indoor air quality. PM 2.5 concentration was almost two times higher indoors than outdoors with average values of 13.96 and 6.78 μg/m 3 , respectively. Concerning the ion fraction of PM 2.5, SO 4 2- and Ca 2+ were the ions with higher concentration indoors with values of 1.06 and 0.93 μg/m 3 , respectively, while the percentage of Cl - to the PM 2.5 fraction of the indoor atmosphere (9%) was too high than outdoor ones (1%). These results showed that indoor air of swimming pool concerning PM 2.5 and ionic species is mainly affected by the chlorination process along with the comfort conditions (high relative humidity) created during the operation of the facility. The common volatile organic compound concentrations at indoor air are generally in higher levels, compared to the outdoor air with p,m-xylene and toluene to be the substances with the higher concentration for indoor and outdoor area, respectively (7.80 and 1.57 μg/m 3 ); nevertheless, values were rather low compared with the findings of other studies. Also, they clearly demonstrate a diurnal variation as a result of poor ventilation during night. As it was expected, chloroform showed the highest concentration compared to the other volatile organic compounds with values ranging from 3.35 to 135.89 μg/m 3

  2. Pengaruh Outdoor Learning Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Matematis Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Cristi Crismono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah Outdoor Learning berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Mengacu pada teori perkembangan kognitifnya penggunaan Outdoor Learning dengan memanfaatkan lingkungan sekitar pada media pembelajaran dan semua aktifitas belajar yang dilakukan oleh siswa di bawah pengawasan dan bimbingan guru. Penggunaan sumber belajar yang bersifat kontektual mampu mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Data penelitian dapat diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes yang terdiri dari seperangkat soal uraian untuk mengukur dan mengetahui  kemampuan  awal  matematika  berupa  kemampuan  berpikir  kritis siswa. Hasil analisis pengaruh penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa yang telah dilakukan diketahui bahwa terdapat pengaruh positif penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Kesimpulan dari peneitian ini adalah metode Outdoor learning berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa.

  3. Facile fabrication of novel silver-polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for replacement of platinum in dye-sensitized solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Shaista Rafique; Rehana Sharif; Imran Rashid; Sheeba Ghani

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the facile synthesis of high performance silver-polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes (Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS) nanocomposites via electrodeposition method on stainless steel substrate and its application as a low cost counter electrode (CE) for the precious platinum (Pt) free DSSC. The nanocomposites were characterized by variety of techniques such as Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Four pr...

  4. Outdoor Education Course - The New Product of a Company Offer

    OpenAIRE

    Beránek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    and Key Words Title: Outdoor Education Course- The New Product of a Company Offer Aim: Analysis and evaluation of needs and attitudes of the present company clients of Firma na zážitky, s.r.o. company in the outdoor education field to frame a pilot project of an outdoor course programme. Method: Method of questionnare was used to analyse and evaluate needs and attitudes ofthe company clients. Results: A project of outdoor course programme was created according to results of realized research....

  5. Evaluating the impact of water conservation on fate of outdoor water use: a study in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria

    2011-08-01

    In this research, the impact of several water conservation policies and return flow credits on the fate of water used outdoors in an arid region is evaluated using system dynamics modeling approach. Return flow credits is a strategy where flow credits are obtained for treated wastewater returned to a water body, allowing for the withdrawal of additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. In the return credit strategy, treated wastewater becomes a resource. This strategy creates a conundrum in which conservation may lead to an apparent decrease in water supply because less wastewater is generated and returned to water body. The water system of the arid Las Vegas Valley in Nevada, USA is used as basis for the dynamic model. The model explores various conservation scenarios to attain the daily per capita demand target of 752 l by 2035: (i) status quo situation where conservation is not implemented, (ii) conserving water only on the outdoor side, (iii) conserving water 67% outdoor and 33% indoor, (iv) conserving equal water both in the indoor and outdoor use (v) conserving water only on the indoor side. The model is validated on data from 1993 to 2008 and future simulations are carried out up to 2035. The results show that a substantial portion of the water used outdoor either evapo-transpires (ET) or infiltrates to shallow groundwater (SGW). Sensitivity analysis indicated that seepage to groundwater is more susceptible to ET compared to any other variable. The all outdoor conservation scenario resulted in the highest return flow credits and the least ET and SGW. A major contribution of this paper is in addressing the water management issues that arise when wastewater is considered as a resource and developing appropriate conservation policies in this backdrop. The results obtained can be a guide in developing outdoor water conservation policies in arid regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  7. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  8. The Outdoor Classroom: School Camping as Education in NSW 1890-1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    At all levels of education in New South Wales outdoor experiences and outdoor education are a prominent part of the curriculum. This emphasis on the outdoors begins early. Outdoor activities are an important part of most primary schools whether they are public or private. Likewise at secondary level and at university outdoor education is still an…

  9. A Guide to Outdoor Education Resources and Programs for the Handicapped. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

    The resource guide is designed to assist educators, park resource persons, and parents of disabled children in locating and identifying sources of information for developing, implementing, and evaluating outdoor education programs for all disabled children and youth. The guide has two main parts. The first part contains an annotated bibliography…

  10. LightSavers : accelerating advanced outdoor lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, B.; Pickering, M.

    2010-01-15

    This paper provided an update to the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) LightSavers program. The program was designed to accelerate market transformation for light emitting diode (LED) and advanced lighting management systems in outdoor lighting applications. It is expected that the program will result in significant electricity savings and emissions reductions within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and other Ontario municipalities. The first phase of the program established advanced outdoor lighting pilot programs in parking lots, garages, and pathway lighting applications that were guided by a common monitoring protocol to ensure useful and reliable assessment of the pilot programs. The TAF has since developed a strategy to strengthen public understanding and support for the use of advanced lighting, and continues to address policy issues that may impact the future of LED lighting programs. The TAF has also activated an electronic newsletter, delivered public workshops, and has been represented at several conferences. A working partnership has been established with Toronto Hydro Energy Services. Five pilot sites have been installed and have begun to provide monitoring data. Details of the pilot programs were provided. 16 figs.

  11. Radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Brenda J.; Strand, Per; Assimakopoulos, Panayotis

    2003-01-01

    After the release of radionuclide into the environment it is important to be able to readily identify major routes of radiation exposure, the most highly exposed individuals or populations and the geographical areas of most concern. Radioecological sensitivity can be broadly defined as the extent to which an ecosystem contributes to an enhanced radiation exposure to Man and biota. Radioecological sensitivity analysis integrates current knowledge on pathways, spatially attributes the underlying processes determining transfer and thereby identifies the most radioecologically sensitive areas leading to high radiation exposure. This identifies where high exposure may occur and why. A framework for the estimation of radioecological sensitivity with respect to humans is proposed and the various indicators by which it can be considered have been identified. These are (1) aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), (2) action (and critical) loads, (3) fluxes and (4) individual exposure of humans. The importance of spatial and temporal consideration of all these outputs is emphasized. Information on the extent of radionuclide transfer and exposure to humans at different spatial scales is needed to reflect the spatial differences which can occur. Single values for large areas, such as countries, can often mask large variation within the country. Similarly, the relative importance of different pathways can change with time and therefore assessments of radiological sensitivity are needed over different time periods after contamination. Radioecological sensitivity analysis can be used in radiation protection, nuclear safety and emergency preparedness when there is a need to identify areas that have the potential of being of particular concern from a risk perspective. Prior identification of radioecologically sensitive areas and exposed individuals improve the focus of emergency preparedness and planning, and contribute to environmental impact assessment for future facilities. The

  12. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  13. A facile approach to pure-phase Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanoparticles sensitive to visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X., E-mail: xiongwang@njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Zhang, M.; Tian, P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chin, W.S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Zhang, C.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pure-phase Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanoparticles were prepared by a facile and environmentally benign sol–gel method. • The multiband characteristic of the nanoparticles greatly expands the visible light absorption. • The visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of the obtained nanoparticles was improved by 30-fold as compared to the bulk. - Abstract: Pure-phase Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanoparticles with mullite-type structure were successfully fabricated through a facile and environmentally benign sol–gel process. According to the UV–Vis diffuse reflection spectrum, the multiband structure and the band edge position of the nanoparticles were confirmed, indicating the prominent absorption in the expanded visible-light region. As compared to the bulk, the visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of the obtained nanoparticles was improved by 30-fold. The much improved photocatalytic efficiency of the sample mainly owed to the small crystal size and the multiband characteristic as well as the adding of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as electron scavenger and a source of hydroxide free radicals instead of Fenton-like reaction, leading to a low recombination of the photogenerated e{sup −}/h{sup +} pairs.

  14. Relation between 222Rn concentration in outdoor air and lower atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Toshio; Mori, Tadashige; Yunoki, Eiji; Michihiro, Kenshuh; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Sahashi, Ken.

    1991-01-01

    Using the height of the surface-based inversion layer obtained by the acoustic sounder returns and the variation of the 222 Rn concentration in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer, the exhalation rate of 222 Rn is estimated to be 0.020 Bq·m -2 ·s -1 , which is observed elsewhere on land. Furthermore, the exposure rate at 1 m above the air-ground interface due to the short-lived 222 Rn daughters in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer can be estimated using the height of the surface-based inversion layer and the 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor air at the ground level before and after the onset of the surface-based inversion layer. From these treatment, it is clearly demonstrated that the monostatic acoustic sounder is useful as a supplementary method for a weather survey which forms a part of monitoring around the nuclear facilities. (author)

  15. Facile and sensitive determination of N-nitrosamines in food samples by high-performance liquid chromatography via combining fluorescent labeling with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuaimin; Wu, Di; Li, Guoliang; Lv, Zhengxian; Gong, Peiwei; Xia, Lian; Sun, Zhiwei; Chen, Guang; Chen, Xuefeng; You, Jinmao; Wu, Yongning

    2017-11-01

    The intake of N-nitrosamines (NAs) from foodstuffs is considered to be an important influence factor for several cancers. But the rapid and sensitive screening of NAs remains a challenge in the field of food safety. Inspired by that, a sensitive and rapid method was demonstrated for determination of five NAs (Nitrosopyrrolidine, Nitrosodimethylamine, Nitrosodiethylamine, Nitrosodipropylamine and Nitrosodibutylamine) using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The NAs were firstly denitrosated and labeled by 2-(11H-benzo[a]carbazol-11-yl) ethyl carbonochloridate (BCEC-Cl) and finally enriched by DLLME. Furthermore, the main DLLME conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, satisfactory limits of detection (LODs) were obtained with a range of 0.01-0.07ngg -1 , which were significantly lower than the reported methods. The developed method showed many merits including rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and excellent selectivity, which shows a broad prospect in food safety analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RPA Assessment of Outdoor Recreation: Past, Current, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the outdoor recreation sections of the Renewable Resource Planning Act (RPA) Assessments conducted to date are reviewed. Current policy and mangement applications of the outsdoor recreation results published in 1989 Assessment are discussed also. The paper concludes with suggestions for the assemssment of outdoor recreation in future RPA Assessements...

  17. Characteristics of wilderness users in outdoor recreation assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann

    1989-01-01

    Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel...

  18. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  19. Perspectives of Elementary School Teachers on Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan, Ozcan; Cicek, Volkan; Atabay, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor education stands out as one of the methods to deliver the desired educational outcomes taking the needs of the students, teachers and the curricular objectives into consideration. Outdoor education focuses on experimental, hands-on learning in real-life environments through senses, e.g., through visual, auditory, and tactile means,…

  20. Developing Approaches to Outdoor Education that Promote Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Social, economic, and environmental issues facing 21st century societies compel a transformative shift towards sustainability in all spheres of life, including education. The challenges this holds for outdoor education programs and practices is significant. If outdoor education theory and practice is to make a greater contribution to…

  1. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  2. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  3. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  4. Is Outdoor Education a Discipline? Provocations and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; Potter, Tom G.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is often undervalued. As such, we believe there is merit in critiquing the field and focusing more attention on its value and importance. This paper seeks to offer a critical exploration of "if" and "how" outdoor education is a discipline. The paper begins with a brief overview of the literature that seeks to…

  5. Outdoor Education Academic Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brent J.; Seaman, Jayson; Trauntvein, Nate

    2017-01-01

    The growth of outdoor adventure programs developed, in part, from the Outward Bound movement in the 1970s (MacArthur, 1979; Outward Bound, 1968), which created a demand for specialized collegiate training. Since the inaugural conference on outdoor pursuits in higher education at Appalachian State University in 1974 (Smathers, 1974), approximately…

  6. Outdoor skaber særlig professionel identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt; Lybæk-Hansen, Esper

    2015-01-01

    På pædagoguddannelsen i Horsens tilbydes årligt en toning af pædagoguddannelsen i Outdoor - en beskrivelse......På pædagoguddannelsen i Horsens tilbydes årligt en toning af pædagoguddannelsen i Outdoor - en beskrivelse...

  7. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  8. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  9. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  10. Health Benefits of Outdoor Recreation: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…

  11. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  12. Motivations, attitudes, preferences, and satisfactions among outdoor recreationists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is presented in two sections. The first by Bright and Tarrant describes visitor preferences and examines users' perceptions of encountering other visitors in outdoor recreation settings. The second by Tarrant and others reviews visitor preferences for, and satisfactions with, outdoor recreation experiences.

  13. Getting the Most Out of Journaling: Strategies for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor educators often ask students to write journals without training them in journal writing. A workshop in journal writing for university students in outdoor education courses covers how to write entries related to specific content areas; an understanding of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Thinking and how it applies to journal writing; and…

  14. Affordances of outdoor settings for children in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    were observed during times for ‘free play’ in their usual outdoor settings: traditional playground and forest (12 visits, respectively). Modified classes of outdoor features are suggested along with new practical class names: open ground, sloping terrain, shielded places, rigid fixtures, moving...

  15. Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

    2011-01-01

    Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

  16. Outdoor Recreation and Adventure Tourism: Unique but Allied Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, H. K.; Lewis, T. Grant

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and adventure tourism are overlapping industries serving similar clientele. While descriptive marketing research exists for both industries (George Washington University School of Business [GW], Adventure Travel Trade Association [ATTA], & Xola Consulting [XC], 2010; Outdoor Foundation [OF], 2014), there is no clear…

  17. Infusing Outdoor Field Experiences into the Secondary Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ginny

    1984-01-01

    To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…

  18. The ODELIA Study on Noise Limits for Outdoor Machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Carletti, E.; Spellerberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the ODELIA study for the European Commission an assessment of the outdoor equipment noise directive 2000/14/EC and its amendment 2005/88/EC has been performed. The directive requires noise marking for 57 types of equipment used outdoors, and sets noise limits for 22 of these. Since the limits

  19. Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortill, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

  20. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  1. Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

    2013-01-01

    This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

  2. The Implementation of Mobile Learning in Outdoor Education: Application of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  3. A facile, sensitive, and highly specific trinitrophenol assay based on target-induced synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer towards DNA-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyin; Chang, Jiafu; Hou, Ting; Ge, Lei; Li, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Reliable, selective and sensitive approaches for trinitrophenol (TNP) detection are highly desirable with respect to national security and environmental protection. Herein, a simple and novel fluorescent strategy for highly sensitive and specific TNP assay has been successfully developed, which is based on the quenching of the fluorescent poly(thymine)-templated copper nanoclusters (DNA-CuNCs), through the synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer. Upon the addition of TNP, donor-acceptor complexes between the electron-deficient nitro-groups in TNP and the electron-donating DNA templates are formed, resulting in the close proximity between TNP and CuNCs. Moreover, the acidity of TNP contributes to the pH decrease of the system. These factors combine to dramatically quench the fluorescence of DNA-CuNCs, providing a "signal-off" strategy for TNP sensing. The as-proposed strategy demonstrates high sensitivity for TNP assay, and a detection limit of 0.03μM is obtained, which is lower than those reported by using organic fluorescent materials. More significantly, this approach shows outstanding selectivity over a number of TNP analogues, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 3-nitrophenol (NP), nitrobenzene (NB), phenol (BP), and toluene (BT). Compared with previous studies, this method does not need complex DNA sequence design, fluorescent dye labeling, or sophisticated organic reactions, rendering the strategy with additional advantages of simplicity and cost-effectiveness. In addition, the as-proposed strategy has been adopted for the detection of TNP in natural water samples, indicating its great potential to be applied in the fields of public safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facile synthesis of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide semiconducting nanocomposite using pulsed laser ablation technique and its performance in photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ilyas, A.M. [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Baig, Umair [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence for Scientific Research Collaboration with MIT, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • SiC–TiO{sub 2} semiconducting nanocomposites synthesized by nanosecond PLAL technique. • Synthesized nanocomposites were morphologically and optically characterized. • Nanocomposites were applied for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic dye. • Photovoltaic performance was investigated in dye sensitized solar cell. - Abstract: Separation of photo-generated charge carriers (electron and holes) is a major approach to improve the photovoltaic and photocatalytic performance of metal oxide semiconductors. For harsh environment like high temperature applications, ceramic like silicon carbide is very prominent. In this work, 10%, 20% and 40% by weight of pre-oxidized silicon carbide was coupled with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) to form nanocomposite semiconductor via elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique using second harmonic 532 nm wavelength of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. In addition, the effect of silicon carbide concentration on the performance of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as photo-anode in dye sensitized solar cell and as photocatalyst in photodegradation of methyl orange dye in water was also studied. The result obtained shows that photo-conversion efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell was improved from 0.6% to 1.65% and the percentage of methyl orange dye removed was enhanced from 22% to 77% at 24 min under ultraviolet–visible solar spectrum in the nanocomposite with 10% weight of silicon carbide. This remarkable performance enhancement could be due to the improvement in electron transfer phenomenon by the presence of silicon carbide on titanium dioxide.

  5. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  6. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  7. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Let's Walk Outdoors! Self-Paced Walking Outdoors Improves Future Intention to Exercise in Women With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinski, Kleverton; Machado, Daniel G S; Lirani, Luciana S; DaSilva, Sergio G; Costa, Eduardo C; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Elsangedy, Hassan M

    2017-04-01

    In order to examine whether environmental settings influence psychological and physiological responses of women with obesity during self-paced walking, 38 women performed two exercise sessions (treadmill and outdoors) for 30 min, where oxygen uptake, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, affect, attentional focus, enjoyment, and future intentions to walk were analyzed. Physiological responses were similar during both sessions. However, during outdoor exercise, participants displayed higher externally focused attention, positive affect, and lower ratings of perceived exertion, followed by greater enjoyment and future intention to participate in outdoor walking. The more externally focused attention predicted greater future intentions to participate in walking. Therefore, women with obesity self-selected an appropriate exercise intensity to improve fitness and health in both environmental settings. Also, self-paced outdoor walking presented improved psychological responses. Health care professionals should consider promoting outdoor forms of exercise to maximize psychological benefits and promote long-term adherence to a physically active lifestyle.

  9. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  10. Facile fabrication of novel silver-polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for replacement of platinum in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Shaista; Sharif, Rehana; Rashid, Imran; Ghani, Sheeba

    2016-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the facile synthesis of high performance silver-polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes (Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS) nanocomposites via electrodeposition method on stainless steel substrate and its application as a low cost counter electrode (CE) for the precious platinum (Pt) free DSSC. The nanocomposites were characterized by variety of techniques such as Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Four probe technique respectively. The cyclic voltammetry and Tafel polymerization measurements of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites CE reveal the favorable electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance Rct(2.50 Ω cm2) for I3-/I- redox solution. The four probe studies showed the large electrical conductivity (226S cm-1) of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposite. The DSSC assembled with Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites CE display the considerable short circuit current density (13.95 mA cm-2) and acceptable solar to electrical conversion efficiency of 7.6%, which is higher to the efficiency of DSSC with thermally decomposed Pt reference electrode 7.1%. The excellent conversion efficiency, rapid charge transfer in combination with low cost and simple fabrication method of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites can be exploited as an efficient and potential candidate to replace the Pt CE for large scale production of DSSC.

  11. A Facile synthesis of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanofibers with superior peroxidase-like catalytic activity for sensitive colorimetric detection of L-cysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sihui; Chi, Maoqiang; Zhu, Yun; Gao, Mu; Wang, Ce; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2018-05-01

    Superaramagnetic Fe3O4 nanomaterials are good candidates as enzyme mimics due to their excellent catalytic activity, high stability and facile synthesis. However, the morphology of Fe3O4 nanomaterials has much influence on their enzyme-like catalytic activity. In this work, we have developed a simple polymer-assisted thermochemical reduction approach to prepare Fe3O4 nanofibers for peroxidase-like catalytic applications. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanofibers show a higher catalytic activity than commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The steady-state kinetic assay result shows that the Michaelis-Menten constant value of the as-obtained Fe3O4 nanofibers is similar to that of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), indicating their superior affinity to the 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H2O2 substrate. Based on the outstanding catalytic activity, a sensing platform for the detection of L-cysteine has been performed and the limit of detection is as low as 0.028 μM. In addition, an excellent selectivity toward L-cysteine over other types of amino acids, glucose and metal ions has been achieved as well. This work offers an original means for the fabrication of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanofibers and demonstrates their delightful potential applications in the fields of biosensing, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics.

  12. Facile fabrication of novel silver-polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for replacement of platinum in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Shaista; Sharif, Rehana; Ghani, Sheeba [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Rashid, Imran, E-mail: f.imran.rashid@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Lahore, Islamabad, 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-08-15

    This paper demonstrates the facile synthesis of high performance silver-polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes (Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS) nanocomposites via electrodeposition method on stainless steel substrate and its application as a low cost counter electrode (CE) for the precious platinum (Pt) free DSSC. The nanocomposites were characterized by variety of techniques such as Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Four probe technique respectively. The cyclic voltammetry and Tafel polymerization measurements of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites CE reveal the favorable electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance R{sub ct}(2.50 Ω cm{sup 2}) for I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox solution. The four probe studies showed the large electrical conductivity (226S cm{sup −1}) of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposite. The DSSC assembled with Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites CE display the considerable short circuit current density (13.95 mA cm{sup −2}) and acceptable solar to electrical conversion efficiency of 7.6%, which is higher to the efficiency of DSSC with thermally decomposed Pt reference electrode 7.1%. The excellent conversion efficiency, rapid charge transfer in combination with low cost and simple fabrication method of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites can be exploited as an efficient and potential candidate to replace the Pt CE for large scale production of DSSC.

  13. Facile fabrication of novel silver-polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for replacement of platinum in dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, Shaista; Sharif, Rehana; Ghani, Sheeba; Rashid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the facile synthesis of high performance silver-polypyrrole-multiwall carbon nanotubes (Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS) nanocomposites via electrodeposition method on stainless steel substrate and its application as a low cost counter electrode (CE) for the precious platinum (Pt) free DSSC. The nanocomposites were characterized by variety of techniques such as Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Four probe technique respectively. The cyclic voltammetry and Tafel polymerization measurements of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites CE reveal the favorable electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance R_c_t(2.50 Ω cm"2) for I_3"−/I"− redox solution. The four probe studies showed the large electrical conductivity (226S cm"−"1) of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposite. The DSSC assembled with Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites CE display the considerable short circuit current density (13.95 mA cm"−"2) and acceptable solar to electrical conversion efficiency of 7.6%, which is higher to the efficiency of DSSC with thermally decomposed Pt reference electrode 7.1%. The excellent conversion efficiency, rapid charge transfer in combination with low cost and simple fabrication method of Ag-PPy-FMWCNTS nanocomposites can be exploited as an efficient and potential candidate to replace the Pt CE for large scale production of DSSC.

  14. Sunburn risk among children and outdoor workers in South Africa and Reunion Island coastal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Brogniez, Colette; Ncongwane, Katlego P; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; Coetzee, Gerrie; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Auriol, Frédérique; Deroo, Christine; Sauvage, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    To estimate potential sunburn risk for schoolchildren and outdoor workers, ground-based ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) measurements were converted into possible child (5% of ambient solar UVR) and outdoor worker (20% of ambient solar UVR) solar UVR exposures by skin type and season for three coastal sites: Durban, Cape Point (South Africa) and Saint Denis (Reunion Island, France). Cumulative daily ambient solar UVR levels were relatively high at all sites, especially during summer, with maximum values of about 67, 57 and 74 Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) (1 SED = 100 J m(-2)) at Durban, Cape Point and Saint Denis respectively. Sunburn risk was evident for both children and outdoor workers, especially those with skin types I and II (extremely to moderately sensitive) during summer, early autumn and/or late spring at all three sites. Although results need to be verified with real-time, instantaneous and nonintegrated personal solar UVR measurements, this understanding of sunburn risk is useful for initiating the development skin cancer prevention and sun protection awareness campaigns in both countries. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Investigation of Mountaineering and Outdoor Sports Clubs with Activity Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak GÜRER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current study aims to identify activity areas of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs in Turkey that organize activities regularly. Universe of the study was composed of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs that were active between the dates of 11 March 2012 and 5 January 2013. This study and the sample included 49 active outdoor sports clubs that could be reached in the region. Data were collected via surveys. Obtained data were analyzed and interpreted with the help of statistical package program (SPSS 16.0. Frequencies and percentage distributions were provided. Criteria for the provision of outdoor sports activities in clubs include requests from members and geographical conditions of the area. It is observed that those clubs provide outdoor walks approximately for 21-40 members. There are clubs without trainers. Clubs provide mountaineering and rock climbing activities the most. Aegean and Marmara Regions are more active compared to other regions. In general, most of the clubs are active in areas such as mountaineering, rock climbing and outdoor walks. It is suggested that local administrations and federations support outdoor sports clubs

  16. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstroem, Kristina

    2007-07-01

    This report describes recreation and outdoor life in and around Simpevarp/Laxemar area. It also describes the impact of constructing a final repository for spent nuclear fuel on the outdoor life. The study area in this report is situated in the parish of Misterhult, in the municipality of Oskarshamn. Oskarshamn nuclear power plant (OKG) and the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (Clab) are situated within the area. The parish of Misterhult is sparsely populated and includes both houses and holiday cottages. The area is used for various kinds of recreation by inhabitants from surrounding villages and employees at OKG and SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), and also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Misterhult archipelago has the highest values for recreation and outdoor life in the study area. Many water related activities, such as swimming, sailing, fishing, diving, kayaking and canoeing are conducted in the region Hamnefjaerden, Kraakelund and a walking track called Ostkustleden are three other places in the study area which are popular for outdoor life. SKB and OKG facilities are also visited by many tourists. Disturbances to the recreation and outdoor life during construction and operation of a final repository and a interim storage facility will occur in the form of increased noise and movement in the area, mostly from the traffic. The consequences of these disturbances are: Decreased serenity, which will probably decrease the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. The final repository in Laxemar will likely require road access that will cross the walking track. Various prevention and compensation measures, such as noise restrictions and a new section of the walking track at Ostkustleden, are suggested to minimise and/or mitigate the consequences. Also measures that increase the value of recreation and outdoor life are listed, for example an exhibition about the areas nature and culture

  17. Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect 131I Measurement Methods from the Stack to Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suhariyono

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The radioisotope production facility at PUSPIPTEK Serpong produces and processes 131I that can disperse to the settlements (community and the environment around the Serpong Nuclear Area (SNA. 131I is produced routinely for medical uses in hospitals and pharmacies, for both domestic uses and export. 131I is a beta and gamma emitting radioactive material and can cause thyroid cancer. The problem was that there was so far no research and in-depth assessment of the aerial dispersion of 131I radioactivity emitted from the radioisotope production stack to the environment at actual conditions. The research was conducted through simultaneous measurement of 131I radioactivity in the stack of the 131I radioisotope production facility, Serpong, and outdoor in house courtyards around SNA in normal condition (no accident based on the variations of the distance and wind direction. Direct measurements were carried out with a portable in-situ NaI(Tl detector at outdoor, and with a LaBr3 detector in the stack. Indirect measurements were carried out by using charcoal filter and vacuum pump in the stack and outdoor. The direct measurement method has many advantages over the indirect measurement. The direct measurement method was found to be more accurate, less expensive, easier to operate, needing just one operator in its implementation, portable, and can be operated continuously and for long durations. The overall activity concentrations of 131I on average obtained by either direct or indirect method were still below the upper limit of 131I activity concentration in the air (530 Bq/m3 stipulated by the Regulation of the Chairman of BAPETEN (Perka BAPETEN No. 7/2013. 

  18. Laser-Based and Ultra-Portable Gas Sensor for Indoor and Outdoor Formaldehyde (HCHO) Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutter, J. D.; Allen, N.; Paul, J.; Thiebaud, J.; So, S.; Scherer, J. J.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    While used as a key tracer of oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, formaldehyde (HCHO) is also a known human carcinogen and is listed and regulated by the United States EPA as a hazardous air pollutant. Combustion processes and photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major outdoor sources of HCHO, and building materials and household products are ubiquitous sources of indoor HCHO. Due to the ease with which humans can be exposed to HCHO, it is imperative to monitor levels of both indoor and outdoor HCHO exposure in both short and long-term studies.High-quality direct and indirect methods of quantifying HCHO mixing ratios exist, but instrument size and user-friendliness can make them cumbersome or impractical for certain types of indoor and long-term outdoor measurements. In this study, we present urban HCHO measurements by using a new, commercially-available, ppbv-level accurate HCHO gas sensor (Aeris Technologies' MIRA Pico VOC Laser-Based Gas Analyzer) that is highly portable (29 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm), lightweight (3 kg), easy-to-use, and has low power (15 W) consumption. Using an ultra-compact multipass cell, an absorption path length of 13 m is achieved, resulting in a sensor capable of achieving ppbv/s sensitivity levels with no significant spectral interferences.To demonstrate the utility of the gas sensor for emissions measurements, a GPS was attached to the sensor's housing in order to map mobile HCHO measurements in real-time around the Boston, Massachusetts, metro area. Furthermore, the sensor was placed in residential and industrial environments to show its usefulness for indoor and outdoor pollution measurements. Lastly, we show the feasibility of using the HCHO sensor (or a network of them) in long-term monitoring stations for hazardous air pollutants.

  19. Facile synthesis of high quality multi-walled carbon nanotubes on novel 3D KIT-6: application in high performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Jayaraman; Pandurangan, Arumugam; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2014-12-01

    A novel hard templating strategy for the synthesis of high quality multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a uniform diameter was developed. MWCNTs were successfully synthesized through chemical vapour deposition (CVD) using acetylene by employing 3D bicontinuous mesoporous silica (KIT-6) as a hard template and used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we report that Ni-Cr-KIT-6 and Co-Cr-KIT-6 systems are the most suitable catalysts for the growth of MWCNTs. Raman spectroscopy and TEM analysis revealed that the synthesized MWCNTs were of high quality and well graphitized. Impressively, DSSCs with a MWCNT counter electrode demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 10.53%, which was significantly higher than that of 9.87% obtained for a DSSC with a conventional Pt counter electrode. Moreover, MWCNTs had a charge transfer resistance (Rct) of only 0.74 Ω cm2 towards the I3-/I- electrolyte commonly applied in DSSCs, which is several orders of magnitude lower than that of a typical Pt electrode (2.78 Ω cm2). These results indicate that the synthesized MWCNT counter electrodes are versatile candidates that can increase the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs.A novel hard templating strategy for the synthesis of high quality multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a uniform diameter was developed. MWCNTs were successfully synthesized through chemical vapour deposition (CVD) using acetylene by employing 3D bicontinuous mesoporous silica (KIT-6) as a hard template and used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we report that Ni-Cr-KIT-6 and Co-Cr-KIT-6 systems are the most suitable catalysts for the growth of MWCNTs. Raman spectroscopy and TEM analysis revealed that the synthesized MWCNTs were of high quality and well graphitized. Impressively, DSSCs with a MWCNT counter electrode demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 10.53%, which was

  20. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  1. Dance Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Dudley, Ed.; Irey, Charlotte, Ed.

    This booklet represents an effort to assist teachers and administrators in the professional planning of dance facilities and equipment. Three chapters present the history of dance facilities, provide recommended dance facilities and equipment, and offer some adaptations of dance facilities and equipment, for elementary, secondary and college level…

  2. Facile synthesis of highly branched jacks-like ZnO nanorods and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhagar, P. [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, R. Saravana [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India); Jung, June Hyuk; Cho, Woohyung [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Sathyamoorthy, R. [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India); Won, Jongok [Department of Chemistry, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong Soo, E-mail: kangys@hanyang.ac.kr [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Highly branched, jacks-like ZnO nanorods architecture were explored as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells, and their photovoltaic performance was compared with that of branch-free ZnO nanorods photoanodes. The highly branched network and large pores of the jacks-like ZnO nanorods electrodes enhances the charge transport, and electrolyte penetration. Thus, the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs render a higher conversion efficiency of {eta} = 1.82% (V{sub oc} = 0.59 V, J{sub sc} = 5.52 mA cm{sup -2}) than that of the branch-free ZnO nanorods electrodes ({eta} = 1.08%, V{sub oc} = 0.49 V, J{sub sc} = 4.02 mA cm{sup -2}). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements reveal that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs exhibit higher internal quantum efficiency ({approx}59.1%) than do the branch-free ZnO nanorods DSSC ({approx}52.5%). The charge transfer resistances at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte interfaces investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSC had high charge transfer resistance and a slightly longer electron lifetime, thus improving the solar-cell performance.

  3. Facile synthesis of highly branched jacks-like ZnO nanorods and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhagar, P.; Kumar, R. Saravana; Jung, June Hyuk; Cho, Woohyung; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Won, Jongok; Kang, Yong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Highly branched, jacks-like ZnO nanorods architecture were explored as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells, and their photovoltaic performance was compared with that of branch-free ZnO nanorods photoanodes. The highly branched network and large pores of the jacks-like ZnO nanorods electrodes enhances the charge transport, and electrolyte penetration. Thus, the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs render a higher conversion efficiency of η = 1.82% (V oc = 0.59 V, J sc = 5.52 mA cm -2 ) than that of the branch-free ZnO nanorods electrodes (η = 1.08%, V oc = 0.49 V, J sc = 4.02 mA cm -2 ). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements reveal that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs exhibit higher internal quantum efficiency (∼59.1%) than do the branch-free ZnO nanorods DSSC (∼52.5%). The charge transfer resistances at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte interfaces investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSC had high charge transfer resistance and a slightly longer electron lifetime, thus improving the solar-cell performance.

  4. Untrodden Paths: A Critical Conversation about Wilder Places in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Jo; Potter, Tom G.; Irwin, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks, what is the outdoors, and challenges conceptions of the role the outdoors play in education. It critically examines why a better understanding of the outdoors is important to outdoor education, how wilder places are essential to education, and how learning generated from these places can be translated into sustainable thinking and…

  5. Australian Outdoor (and) Environmental Education Research: Senses of "Place" in Two Constituencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The Outdoor Council of Australia's renaming of "Australian Journal of Outdoor Education" ("AJOE") as "Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education" ("JOEE") follows deliberations among Australian and international stakeholders in outdoor education about the future of publishing in the field and raises a…

  6. Achieving Next Generation Science Standards through Agricultural Contexts: A Delphi Study of Outdoor Education Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Anthony; Washburn, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    A Delphi survey was conducted with 30 outdoor education experts in Kansas. Participant responses helped frame a Kansas definition of outdoor education and identified essential educational goals and outcomes, critical components for effective outdoor education programming, and barriers facing outdoor education in Kansas. The study highlights…

  7. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  8. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  9. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  10. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauert, Stefanie; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Knauer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment.

  11. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Ib Schou

    2014-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  12. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  13. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals.

  14. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  15. Enhancing integrated indoor/outdoor mobility in a smart campus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sospedra, Joaquín; Avariento, Joan; Rambla Risueño, David; Montoliu Colás, Raúl; Casteleyn, Sven; Benedito Bordonau, Mauri; Gould Carlson, Michael; Huerta Guijarro, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A Smart City relies on six key factors: Smart Governance, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart Mobility. This paper focuses on Smart Mobility by improving one of its key components: positioning. We developed and deployed a novel indoor positioning system (IPS) that is combined with an outdoor positioning system to support seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and wayfinding. The positioning system is implemented as a service in our broader cartography-based ...

  16. Terrain Mapping and Classification in Outdoor Environments Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Yukinobu Hata; Denis Fernando Wolf; Gustavo Pessin; Fernando Osório

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional terrain mapping and classification technique to allow the operation of mobile robots in outdoor environments using laser range finders. We propose the use of a multi-layer perceptron neural network to classify the terrain into navigable, partially navigable, and non-navigable. The maps generated by our approach can be used for path planning, navigation, and local obstacle avoidance. Experimental tests using an outdoor robot and a laser sensor demonstra...

  17. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Suk; Min, Byungrok; Oh, Sang-Hyon

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals. PMID:28728401

  18. Facile fabrication of flower like self-assembled mesoporous hierarchical microarchitectures of In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}: In(OH){sub 3} micro flowers with electron beam sensitive thin petals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arul Prakasam, Balasubramaniam, E-mail: arul7777@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130, Mikkeli (Finland); Lahtinen, Manu; Peuronen, Anssi [Department of Chemistry, Laboratories of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Muruganandham, Manickavachagam [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19122 (United States); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2016-12-01

    A template and capping-reagent free facile fabrication method for mesoporous hierarchical microarchitectures of flower-like In(OH){sub 3} particles under benign hydrothermal conditions is reported. Calcination of In(OH){sub 3} to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the retention of morphology is also described. Both In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures were analyzed with SEM, EDX, TEM and powder X-ray diffraction. The crystal sizes for In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were calculated using the Scherrer equation. In In(OH){sub 3} the thin flakes at the periphery of micro flowers were electron beam sensitive. The mechanism of self-assembly process was analyzed as well. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal fabrication In(OH){sub 3} self-assembled porous hierarchical architectures. • Induced dehydration in beam sensitive In(OH){sub 3} micro flowers. • Calcination of In(OH){sub 3} to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the retention of flower like morphology. • Phase pure synthesis of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the average crystal size of ∼37 nm.

  19. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  20. Outdoor time and dietary patterns in children around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Mark S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Mikkilä, Vera; Hu, Gang; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; LeBlanc, Allana G

    2018-04-19

    Whether outdoor time is linked to dietary patterns of children has yet to be empirically tested. The objective of this study was to examine the association between outdoor time and dietary patterns of children from 12 countries around the world. This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6229 children 9-11 years of age. Children self-reported the time that they spent outside before school, after school and on weekends. A composite score was calculated to reflect overall daily outdoor time. Dietary patterns were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and two components were used for analysis: healthy and unhealthy dietary pattern scores. On average, children spent 2.5 h outside per day. After adjusting for age, sex, parental education, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, screen time and body mass index z-score, greater time spent outdoors was associated with healthier dietary pattern scores. No association was found between outdoor time and unhealthy dietary pattern scores. Similar associations between outdoor time and dietary patterns were observed for boys and girls and across study sites. Greater time spent outside was associated with a healthier dietary pattern in this international sample of children. Future research should aim to elucidate the mechanisms behind this association.

  1. Developing an audit checklist to assess outdoor falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group.

  2. Built environment, parents' perception, and children's vigorous outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Grize, Leticia; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Sennhauser, Felix H; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the combined effects and relative importance of socio-cultural factors as well as parents' subjectively perceived and objectively assessed environment on time children spent vigorously playing outdoors. Cross-sectional study conducted in Berne, Biel-Bienne, and Payerne (Switzerland) during the school year 2004/2005. Included 1345 parental questionnaires from children out of three age groups (6/7, 9/10, and 13/14 years). A total of 1081 (80%) provided a home address, which could be linked to environmental data using a geographic information system (GIS). GIS-derived main street density in a buffer of 100 m around the home was inversely associated with time playing outdoors in adolescents and younger children, but only in more urbanized areas. In addition and independently of GIS-based main street density, parental concern about traffic safety was associated with less time playing outdoors in primary school children. Girls, adolescents, and children from the French speaking part of the country spent less time playing outdoors. A non-Swiss nationality and having younger siblings increased time playing vigorously outdoors in adolescents. In addition to socio-cultural factors, parents' perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors were significantly associated with the time spent vigorously playing outdoors. These associations differed by age group. Copyright (c) 2010 The Institute For Cancer Prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps. Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  4. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  5. A note on the relationship between outdoor and indoor exposure integrals for air pollution of outdoor origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoerup, H.L.; Roed, J.

    1980-05-01

    Beryllium-7 created by cosmic radiation has been used as a tracer in preliminary measurements designed to enable an estimation of the ratio between outdoor and indoor exposure integrals for aerosols of outdoor origin, with special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during reactor accidents. Earlier investigations relevant to this problem are reviewed. It is concluded that the reduction is inhalation dose offered by an average Danish house is roughly one order of magnitude. (author)

  6. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  7. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  8. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  9. Facility to evaluate street lightning solutionsin a realistic urban setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Munkgaard; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new large scale outdoor testing facility for street lighting solutions, that has been establish in Denmark for both research and demonstration purposes. The facility is fitted with lamp posts with an array of sensors and connections to allow for monitoring and control...... of lighting solutions under test. Initial data suggests a 75% reduction in energy usage from use of LED luminaries combined with traffic monitoring systems could be achievable....

  10. Outdoor Recreation and Applied Ecology. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendren, Travis E.; And Others

    This curriculum guide offers guidelines for structuring a course which exposes the students to various environmental careers. The guide is divided into three sections. The first section offers information about such a course: course description, purpose, credits, special or unique aspects, physical facilities, equipment, major materials, teacher…

  11. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  12. Characterization of BIPV(T) applications in research facility ‘SOLARBEAT’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valckenborg, R.M.E.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Folkerts, W.; Vries, de A.

    2015-01-01

    The SolarBEAT facility is an outdoor Research & Development infrastructure for innovation on BIPV(T). The facility is a cooperation between SEAC and the Technical University Eindhoven and is located in the Netherlands. It has been founded early 2014 and has grown rapidly to its full capacity at the

  13. Time spent in outdoor activities in relation to myopia prevention and control: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuyu; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Naduvilath, Thomas; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng; Lv, Minzhi; He, Xiangui; Xu, Xun

    2017-09-01

    Outdoor time is considered to reduce the risk of developing myopia. The purpose is to evaluate the evidence for association between time outdoors and (1) risk of onset of myopia (incident/prevalent myopia); (2) risk of a myopic shift in refractive error and c) risk of progression in myopes only. A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis and a dose-response analysis of relevant evidence from literature was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant papers. Of the 51 articles with relevant data, 25 were included in the meta-analysis and dose-response analysis. Twenty-three of the 25 articles involved children. Risk ratio (RR) for binary variables and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous variables were conducted. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to pool the data for meta-analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 test with I 2  ≥ 50% considered to indicate high heterogeneity. Additionally, subgroup analyses (based on participant's age, prevalence of myopia and study type) and sensitivity analyses were conducted. A significant protective effect of outdoor time was found for incident myopia (clinical trials: risk ratio (RR) = 0.536, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.338 to 0.850; longitudinal cohort studies: RR = 0.574, 95% CI = 0.395 to 0.834) and prevalent myopia (cross-sectional studies: OR = 0.964, 95% CI = 0.945 to 0.982). With dose-response analysis, an inverse nonlinear relationship was found with increased time outdoors reducing the risk of incident myopia. Also, pooled results from clinical trials indicated that when outdoor time was used as an intervention, there was a reduced myopic shift of -0.30 D (in both myopes and nonmyopes) compared with the control group (WMD = -0.30, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.41) after 3 years of follow-up. However, when only myopes were considered, dose-response analysis did not find a relationship between time outdoors and myopic

  14. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  15. Measurement of outdoor radioactivities of radon and thoron by the passive radon-thoron monitor of cup type with cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Iida, T.; Yamasaki, K.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to get information as to effective dose of radon and thoron for the public, we investigated the dosimetry of the average outdoor concentrations of radon and thoron by the cup type radon/thoron monitor using cellulose nitrate film. To overcome the disadvantages of cup monitors which are the relatively low sensitivity and the relatively high detection limit, the present dosimetry is based on the usage of several pairs of cup monitors and the statistical treatments (significant test). Because the detection limit could be lowered using the present dosimetry, we could measure the outdoor concentration levels more precisely. (1 tab.)

  16. Evaluating Outdoor Water Use Demand under Changing Climatic and Demographic Conditions: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, L.; Berglund, E. Z.; Soh, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Outdoor water-use for landscape and irrigation constitutes a significant end-use in total residential water demand. In periods of water shortages, utilities may reduce garden demands by implementing irrigation system audits, rebate programs, local ordinances, and voluntary or mandatory water-use restrictions. Because utilities do not typically record outdoor and indoor water-uses separately, the effects of policies for reducing garden demands cannot be readily calculated. The volume of water required to meet garden demands depends on the housing density, lawn size, type of vegetation, climatic conditions, efficiency of garden irrigation systems, and consumer water-use behaviors. Many existing outdoor demand estimation methods are deterministic and do not include consumer responses to conservation campaigns. In addition, mandatory restrictions may have a substantial impact on reducing outdoor demands, but the effectiveness of mandatory restrictions depends on the timing and the frequency of restrictions, in addition to the distribution of housing density and consumer types within a community. This research investigates a garden end-use model by coupling an agent-based modeling approach and a mechanistic-stochastic water demand model to create a methodology for estimating garden demand and evaluating demand reduction policies. The garden demand model is developed for two water utilities, using a diverse data sets, including residential customer billing records, outdoor conservation programs, frequency and type of mandatory water-use restrictions, lot size distribution, population growth, and climatic data. A set of garden irrigation parameter values, which are based on the efficiency of irrigation systems and irrigation habits of consumers, are determined for a set of conservation ordinances and restrictions. The model parameters are then validated using customer water usage data from the participating water utilities. A sensitivity analysis is conducted for garden

  17. Using deep learning to quantify the beauty of outdoor places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2017-07-01

    Beautiful outdoor locations are protected by governments and have recently been shown to be associated with better health. But what makes an outdoor space beautiful? Does a beautiful outdoor location differ from an outdoor location that is simply natural? Here, we explore whether ratings of over 200 000 images of Great Britain from the online game Scenic-Or-Not , combined with hundreds of image features extracted using the Places Convolutional Neural Network, might help us understand what beautiful outdoor spaces are composed of. We discover that, as well as natural features such as 'Coast', 'Mountain' and 'Canal Natural', man-made structures such as 'Tower', 'Castle' and 'Viaduct' lead to places being considered more scenic. Importantly, while scenes containing 'Trees' tend to rate highly, places containing more bland natural green features such as 'Grass' and 'Athletic Fields' are considered less scenic. We also find that a neural network can be trained to automatically identify scenic places, and that this network highlights both natural and built locations. Our findings demonstrate how online data combined with neural networks can provide a deeper understanding of what environments we might find beautiful and offer quantitative insights for policymakers charged with design and protection of our built and natural environments.

  18. Planning for outdoor play: Government and family decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, Julia J; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bundy, Anita C; Froude, Elspeth; Villeneuve, Michelle A

    2018-03-08

    Despite indisputable developmental benefits of outdoor play, children with disabilities can experience play inequity. Play decisions are multifactorial; influenced by children's skills and their familial and community environments. Government agencies have responsibilities for equity and inclusion of people with disabilities; including in play. This multiple-perspective case study aimed to understand outdoor play decision-making for children with disabilities from the perspectives and interactions of: local government and families of primary school-aged children with disabilities. Five mothers, four local government employees, and two not-for-profit organization representatives participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive and iterative analyzes involved first understanding perspectives of individuals, then stakeholders (local government and families), and finally similarities and differences through cross-case analysis. Local government focused more on physical access, than social inclusion. Local government met only minimal requirements and had little engagement with families. This resulted in poor understanding and action around family needs and preferences when designing public outdoor play spaces. To increase meaningful choice and participation in outdoor play, government understanding of family values and agency around engagement with local government needs to improve. Supporting familial collective capabilities requires understanding interactions between individuals, play, disability, and outdoor play environments.

  19. EVALUATION OF OUTDOOR SPORTS CLOTHING BRAND PERSONALITY BY USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand personality attributed to the brand is in case the condition of human character traits. One of the areas of the brand personality is the outdoor sports clothing also knowing as “outdoor” th at working city people’s adoption of opening up to the outdoor as new way events in a growing desire. In this study, the aims are personality characteristics of the outdoor sport clothing brands and determining the harmony of these personality characterist ics with brands. The research is in form of surveying study. The research population consists of people in Turkey who sports outdoor on land. In the sampling selection simple random sampling technique is utilized with asking concerned people to participate in the survey on a voluntary basis. The obtained data are analyzed and evaluated by using SPSS packet program. The survey that has been proven reliability and validity ( α = 0904 in the pilot application has sent to the related association members in a month - long through internet and a total of 103 people were replied. It has been identified that research participants are interesting in mostly as trekking , mountaineering, camping and biking outdoor sports and they are working in the public sector. Under research, in the result of factor analysis to determine the brand personality of outd oor sports brands, it had been seen that "competence", “ traditional ” and " androgen” dimensions were come through and the dimension of “excitement” was separated into three parts.

  20. Development of Modular Outdoor Furniture Product Using Lightweight Concrete for Public Parks in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, Grace; Thamrin, Diana; Antoni

    2017-09-01

    The development of public parks into green city facilities in Surabaya has triggered the need of outdoor furniture designs that can resist the tropical wet and dry weather conditions while also having a certain mobility to support flexible park arrangement. However, present furniture designs made of concrete material are generally heavy and immovable. Flexible designs are needed for various activities that can take place at the same time such as sitting and playing, and to support changes in arrangement to keep the green open spaces attractive from time to time. This research develops the idea of a modular outdoor furniture design using cellular lightweight concrete (CLC) as the main material as a result from observing its resistance towards weather change and its relative light weight. It starts with analysis of problems, formulation of design concept, creation of design alternatives, selection of design, calculation of mouldings, adaptation of design to the mouldings and production of a scaled mock-up using CLC. Findings of this research reveal that the modular design along with the CLC material used not only support the flexibility of change in function and arrangement but also make these furniture resistant to the hot and humid weather of Surabaya.

  1. Outdoor recreational use of the Salton Sea with reference to potential impacts of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.; Sidener, J.; Bingham, G.; Burke, J.E.

    1978-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the types, levels, and locations of outdoor recreation uses in the Salton Sea area, the number and principal activities of visitors, and to estimate the consequences upon outdoor recreation of geothermal development and other activities that might affect the Salton Sea. It is concluded that since the Salton Sea is considered legally to be a sump for agricultural, municipal, and presumably geothermal waste waters, recreational use of the Sea for fishing and boating (from present marinas) will undoubtedly continue to decline, unless there is a major policy change. Use of the shoreline for camping, the surrounding roads and lands for scenic viewing, ORV events, and retirement or recreation communities will not decline, and will probably increase, assuming control of hydrogen sulfide odors. Two ways in which the fishing and present boating facilities could be returned to a wholly usable steady state are discussed. One is by construction of a diked evaporation pond system at the south end of the Sea. This would allow a means of control over both water level and salinity. Another means, less costly but more difficult to effectively control, would be to budget geothermal plant use of, and disposal of wastes in, Salton Sea water. (JGB)

  2. Prediction and reduction of aircraft noise in outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Bao N.

    absorption mechanism due to the source's motion. To help mitigate the noise that propagates to the ground, multi-layered acoustic treatments can be applied to provide good performance over a wide range of frequencies. An accurate representation of material properties for each of the constituent layers is needed in the design of such treatments. The parameter of interest is the specific acoustic impedance, which can be obtained via inversion of acoustic transfer function measurements. However, several different impedance values can correspond to the same sound field predictions. The boundary loss factor F (associated with spherical wave reflection) is the source of this ambiguity. A method for identifying the family of solutions and selecting the physically meaningful branch is proposed to resolve this non-uniqueness issue. Accurate deduction of the acoustic impedance depends on precise measurements of the acoustic transfer function. However, measurement uncertainties exists in both the magnitude and the phase of the acoustic transfer function. The ASA/ANSI S1.18 standard impedance deduction method uses phase information, which can be unreliable in many outdoor environments. An improved technique which only relies on magnitude information is developed in this dissertation. A selection of optimal geometries become necessary to reduce the sensitivity of the deduced impedance to small variations in the measured data. A graphical approach is provided which offers greater insight into the optimization problem. A downhill simplex algorithm has been implemented to automate the impedance deduction procedure. Physical constraints are applied to limit the search region and to eliminate rogue solutions. Several case studies consisting of both indoor and outdoor acoustical measurements are presented to validate the proposed technique. The current analysis is limited to locally reacting materials where the acoustic impedance does not depend on the incidence angle of the reflected wave.

  3. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  4. A Qualitative Investigation of Californian Youth Interests in the Outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marni Goldenberg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has found connections between youth participation in recreational activities and academic achievement, civic involvement, and improved health. To investigate California youth outdoor recreation attitudes, behaviors, and constraints, eight focus groups were conducted with community recreation center youth participants. Youth answered 10 questions about their experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of outdoor recreation. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Three to seven axial codes were identified for each question. Results showed that youth want to have more access to outdoor recreational activities. However, there are frequently considerable constraints for the youth to overcome including draws of technology, family obligations, and laziness. Safety was a recurring concern among participants. Understanding youth attitudes and perceptions allows managers to meet youth needs, program for youth interests, and provides a strong foundation for marketing and as a rational for funding grants.

  5. DAVID: A new video motion sensor for outdoor perimeter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    To be effective, a perimeter intrusion detection system must comprise both sensor and rapid assessment components. The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) to provide the rapid assessment capability, makes possible the use of video motion detection (VMD) processing as a system sensor component. Despite it's conceptual appeal, video motion detection has not been widely used in outdoor perimeter systems because of an inability to discriminate between genuine intrusions and numerous environmental effects such as cloud shadows, wind motion, reflections, precipitation, etc. The result has been an unacceptably high false alarm rate and operator work-load. DAVID (Digital Automatic Video Intrusion Detector) utilizes new digital signal processing techniques to achieve a dramatic improvement in discrimination performance thereby making video motion detection practical for outdoor applications. This paper begins with a discussion of the key considerations in implementing an outdoor video intrusion detection system, followed by a description of the DAVID design in light of these considerations

  6. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, R. William; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m -3 . Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  7. Indoor/outdoor elemental concentration relationships at a nursery school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannefors, H.; Hansson, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of lead and bromine have been measured at a nursery school, using streaker samplers with 2.4 h resolution. The observed variations in concentration were well-correlated with traffic intensity variations. In addition to their closely related time-variation curves, the bromine to lead ratios pointed to the emissions from leaded gasoline-powered vehicles as the main source of these elements both in and outdoors. Time-variation patterns on weekdays and during weekends indicated that the lead and bromine containing particles entered the nursery school mainly by leaking. Only a minor fraction seemed to be brought in and resuspended by the staff and children. The indoor concentrations of the elements studied were about 5 times lower than the outdoor levels thus considerably reducing the indoor exposure. (orig.)

  8. Associations of outdoor air pollution with hemorrhagic stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuro; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-01

    Evidence linking short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution with hemorrhagic stroke is inconsistent. We evaluated the associations between outdoor air pollution and specific types of stroke in Tokyo, Japan, from April 2003 to December 2008. We obtained daily counts of stroke mortality (n = 41,440) and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide as well as particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter. Time-series analysis was employed. Although same-day air pollutants were positively associated with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage mortality, both air pollutants were more strongly associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage mortality: rate ratio was 1.041 (95% confidence interval: 1.011-1.072) for each 10 μg/m3 increase in the previous-day particles less than 2.5 μm. This study suggests that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risks of hemorrhagic stroke mortality as well as ischemic stroke mortality.

  9. Thermal Perception in the Mediterranean Area: Comparing the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI to Other Outdoor Thermal Comfort Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Golasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor thermal comfort is an essential factor of people’s everyday life and deeply affects the habitability of outdoor spaces. However the indices used for its evaluation were usually developed for indoor environments assuming still air conditions and absence of solar radiation and were only later adapted to outdoor spaces. For this reason, in a previous study the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI was developed, which is an empirical index able to estimate the thermal perception of people living in the Mediterranean area. In this study it was compared numerically (by using the data obtained through a field survey with other selected thermal indices. This comparison, performed in terms of Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, association Gamma, percentage of correct predictions and cross-tabulation analysis, led to identify the MOCI as the most suitable index to examine outdoor thermal comfort in the interested area. As a matter of fact it showed a total percentage of correct predictions of 35.5%. Good performances were reported even in thermophysiological indices as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Moreover it was revealed that adaptation and acclimatization phenomena tend to have a certain influence as well.

  10. Barriers to outdoor physical activity in wintertime among Somali youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Elizabeth; Holt, Christina; Kuhn, Celine; McAteer, Timothy; Askari, Isabella; O'Meara, Mary; Sharif, Abdimajid; Dexter, William

    2010-10-01

    To identify barriers to outdoor physical activity in winter among Somali youth in Maine. Despite the many proven health benefits of physical activity among children, such as cardiovascular fitness and health status as an adult, there has been a decrease in physical activity among children in recent years. Specifically, children who are of low socio-economic status or are from communities where many immigrants are at increased risk for developing obesity. Immigrants are also less likely to be physically active. There are many potential barriers to wintertime physical activity among Somali youth in Maine, such as lack of financial resources, transportation, proper winter clothing, and appropriate knowledge of winter safety, and language and cultural barriers. For females, different attire required for outdoor activity may be a barrier. Somali parents and children were recruited from Portland, Maine to participate in focus groups led by a trained facilitator with a Somali translator and cultural broker. Transcripts were coded using NVIVO software to identify barriers to physical activity among Somali youth outside in winter. Eight focus groups were conducted. Sixty-one Somali community members were recruited. Participants felt outdoor physical activity is important, but note that it is decreased in winter. Barriers to outdoor activity in winter cited by focus group participants were lack of resources, health concerns, gender barriers for females, and knowledge barriers. Concern over lack of supervision while children play outside was also cited. This study revealed many of the underlying beliefs, barriers and cultural issues that impact Somali families' intention to be active and ability to be active outdoors in winter. These findings can be used to generate research hypotheses and public health interventions regarding outdoor physical activity among Somali youth.

  11. The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo

    The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations of the g......The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...

  12. Study of Quilted Fabrics Used in Outdoor Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Matusiak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quilted fabrics are more and more frequently used in outdoor clothing, especially jackets. They are usually composed of two or three layers connected together by sewing or thermal quilting. They are characterised by different properties, depending on the structure of the quilted fabrics. In the presented work, five variants of quilted fabrics were studied in terms of of their comfort-related properties, such as thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, thermal absorptivity, water-vapour resistance and air permeability. On the basis of the results, it was possible to assess the quilted fabrics from the point of view of their usability for outdoor clothing.

  13. Psychological implications of outdoor adventure model of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthetic analysis of the Outdoor Adventure Education model in the context of three elementary components: the environment – in relation to the theory of space from the perspective of sociological and pedagogical theory of space; personal perspective and growth as well as social development – in relation to psychological phenomena that accompany the individual and group involved in the process of Outdoor Adventure Education. The aim is to present how these processes determine the effects of education and what personalities’ elements are involved.

  14. Dose rate modelled for the outdoors of a gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, J

    2012-01-01

    A model for the absorbed dose rate calculation on the surroundings of a gamma irradiation plant is developed. In such plants, a part of the radiation emitted upwards reach's the outdoors. The Compton scatterings on the wall of the exhausting pipes through de plant roof and on the outdoors air are modelled. The absorbed dose rate generated by the scattered radiation as far as 200 m is calculated. The results of the models, to be used for the irradiation plant design and for the environmental studies, are showed on graphics (author)

  15. Indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure monitoring of particulate air pollution: the Baltimore elderly epidemiology-exposure pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ron; Creason, John; Zweidinger, Roy; Watts, Randall; Sheldon, Linda; Shy, Carl

    A 17-day pilot study investigating potential PM exposures of an elderly population was conducted near Baltimore, Maryland. Collection of residential indoor, residential outdoor, and ambient monitoring data associated with the subjects living at a common retirement facility was integrated with results from a paired epidemiological pilot study. This integration was used to investigate the potential pathophysiological health effects resulting from daily changes in estimated PM exposures with results reported elsewhere. Objectives of the exposure study were to determine the feasibility of performing PM exposure assessment upon an elderly population and establishing relationships between the various exposure measures including personal monitoring. PM 2.5 was determined to be the dominant outdoor size fraction (0.83 PM 2.5/PM 10 mass ratio by dichot monitoring). Individual 24-h PM 1.5 personal exposures ranged from 12 to 58 μg m -3. Comparison of data from matched sampling dates resulted in mean daily PM 1.5 personal, PM 2.5 outdoor, and PM 1.5 indoor concentrations of 34, 17, and 17 μg m -3, respectively. Activity patterns of the study population indicated a generally sedentary population spending a mean of 96% of each day indoors. Future studies would benefit from the use of a consistent sampling methodology across a larger number of PM measurement sites relevant to the elderly subjects, as well as a larger personal PM exposure study population to more successfully collect data needed in matched epidemiological-exposure studies.

  16. Facilities Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Robert V.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for physical facilities management written 17 years ago is still worth following today. Each of the steps outlined for planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and evaluating must be accomplished if school facilities are to be properly planned and constructed. However, lessons have been learned about energy consumption and proper…

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation on thermal management of an outdoor battery cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X.Z.; Lu, Z.; Jin, L.W.; Zhang, L.Y.; Hu, W.Y.; Wei, L.C.; Chai, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of electronic equipment such as battery packs and telecom equipment must be stored in harsh outdoor environment. It is essential that these facilities be protected from a wide range of ambient temperatures and solar radiation. Temperature extremes greatly reduce lead-acid based battery performance and shorten battery life. Therefore, it is important to maintain the cabinet temperature within the optimal values between 20 °C and 30 °C to ensure battery stability and to extend battery lifespan. To this end, cabinet enclosures with proper thermal management have been developed to house such electronic equipment in a highly weather tight manner, especially for battery cabinet. In this paper, the flow field and temperature distribution inside an outdoor cabinet are studied experimentally and numerically. The battery cabinets house 24 batteries in two configurations namely, two-layer configuration and six-layer configuration respectively. The cabinet walls are maintained at a constant temperature by a refrigeration system. The cabinet's ability to protect the batteries from an ambient temperature as high as 50 °C is studied. An experimental facility is developed to measure the battery surface temperatures and to validate the numerical simulations. The differences between the experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) results are within 5%. - Highlights: • Battery placement has significant effect on temperature field in battery cabinet. • The six-layer configuration achieves better temperature uniformity. • Internal air circulation depends on battery configuration. • Natural convection could be an effective solution satisfying safety concerns.

  18. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2000-1065) of the 25. of October 2000 reporting the publication of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the CERN concerning the safety of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and the SPS (Proton Supersynchrotron) facilities, signed in Geneva on July 11, 2000. By this convention, the CERN undertakes to ensure the safety of the LHC and SPS facilities and those of the operations of the LEP decommissioning. The French legislation and regulations on basic nuclear facilities (concerning more particularly the protection against ionizing radiations, the protection of the environment and the safety of facilities) and those which could be decided later on apply to the LHC, SPS and auxiliary facilities. (O.M.)

  19. An Analysis of the Demand for and Value of Outdoor Recreation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, John C.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study of demand equations for 37 outdoor recreational activities using a multicommunity, multisite travel cost model suggest that determinants of the demand for outdoor recreation include population, residence, income, age, price, quality, and recreational opportunity substitutes. (JD)

  20. FIELD COMPARISONS OF DUAL SMPS-APS SYSTEMS TO MEASURE INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous measurements of particle size distributions across multiple locations can provide critical information to accurately assess human exposure to particles. These data are very useful to describe indoor-outdoor particle relationships, outdoor particle penetration thro...

  1. The use of segregated heat sink structures to achieve enhanced passive cooling for outdoor wireless devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Flaherty, K; Punch, J

    2014-01-01

    Environmental standards which govern outdoor wireless equipment can stipulate stringent conditions: high solar loads (up to 1 kW/m 2 ), ambient temperatures as high as 55°C and negligible wind speeds (0 m/s). These challenges result in restrictions on power dissipation within a given envelope, due to the limited heat transfer rates achievable with passive cooling. This paper addresses an outdoor wireless device which features two segregated heat sink structures arranged vertically within a shielded chimney structure: a primary sink to cool temperature-sensitive components; and a secondary sink for high power devices. Enhanced convective cooling of the primary sink is achieved due to the increased mass flow within the chimney generated by the secondary sink. An unshielded heat sink was examined numerically, theoretically and experimentally, to verify the applicability of the methods employed. Nusselt numbers were compared for three cases: an unshielded heat sink; a sink located at the inlet of a shield; and a primary heat sink in a segregated structure. The heat sink, when placed at the inlet of a shield three times the length of the sink, augmented the Nusselt number by an average of 64% compared to the unshielded case. The Nusselt number of the primary was found to increase proportionally with the temperature of the secondary sink, and the optimum vertical spacing between the primary and secondary sinks was found to be close to zero, provided that conductive transfer between the sinks was suppressed.

  2. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Thorkil E

    2010-05-01

    Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented in accordance with known physical laws. The occasional finding of higher concentrations is the result of synchronized populations of the mites developing outdoors and being passively transported into our homes by wind and dust. The hypothesis explains why we find mites in our homes but nonetheless have no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy.

  3. Indoor/Outdoor Seamless Positioning Using Lighting Tags and GPS Cellular Phones for Personal Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namie, Hiromune; Morishita, Hisashi

    The authors focused on the development of an indoor positioning system which is easy to use, portable and available for everyone. This system is capable of providing the correct position anywhere indoors, including onboard ships, and was invented in order to evaluate the availability of GPS indoors. Although the performance of GPS is superior outdoors, there has been considerable research regarding indoor GPS involving sensitive GPS, pseudolites (GPS pseudo satellite), RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tags, and wireless LAN .However, the positioning rate and the precision are not high enough for general use, which is the reason why these technologies have not yet spread to personal navigation systems. In this regard, the authors attempted to implement an indoor positioning system using cellular phones with built-in GPS and infrared light data communication functionality, which are widely used in Japan. GPS is becoming increasingly popular, where GPGGS sentences of the NMEA outputted from the GPS receiver provide spatiotemporal information including latitude, longitude, altitude, and time or ECEF xyz coordinates. As GPS applications grow rapidly, spatiotemporal data becomes key to the ubiquitous outdoor and indoor seamless positioning services at least for the entire area of Japan, as well as to becoming familiar with satellite positioning systems (e.g. GPS). Furthermore, the authors are also working on the idea of using PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), as cellular phones with built-in GPS and PDA functionality are also becoming increasingly popular.

  4. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  5. The Interactive Effect of Outdoor Activities and School Location on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Interactive Effect of Outdoor Activities and School Location on Senior Secondary Students' Environmental Problem Solving Skills in Biology. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  6. Private lands and outdoor recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Paul Gentle

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor recreation on private land is influenced by myriad factors. To provide background and context on these factors, this chapter first overviews the private land situation in the United States and provides general information and discussion related to ownership and tenure, land-use patterns, legal restrictions, and economic conditions, including taxation issues....

  7. Impedance characterization of PV modules in outdoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Spataru, Sergiu

    2016-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) has been used for laboratory characterizations of photovoltaic (PV) technologies under well controlled conditions. This work applies IS for outdoor characterization of PV panels, in order to observe the effect of irradiance (G) and temperature (T) on the PV module’s...

  8. Evaluating Outdoor Experiential Training for Leadership and Team Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott D.; Graham, T. Scott; Baker, Bud

    2003-01-01

    Presents a model for calculating the return on investment in outdoor experiential training that focuses on pre- and posttraining behavior and business performance. Includes a method for converting data on turnover, absenteeism, productivity, quality, and job performance into monetary values to compute return. (Contains 54 references.) (SK)

  9. Space and place in Outdoor Education in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2010-01-01

    on a qualitative approach using case study design with interviews and observations. For the analysis, ethnological cultural analysis was employed combined with configuration analysis to conceptualise the data. Theories and concepts of space and place in outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed. Results from...

  10. Outdoor Education and the Development of Environmental Responsibility Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Biederman, Kobe

    2003-01-01

    Six research studies are reviewed that examine the ability of environmental education programs in schools and resident camps to positively affect the environmental awareness and attitudes of children and adolescents. Outdoor educators must enable students to develop internal locus of control, critical thinking, and environmental action skills.…

  11. School-Based Experiential Outdoor Education: A Neglected Necessity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Joan K.; Williams, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    In this research study, we hear the voices of middle school students, preservice teachers, and practicing middle school teachers in support of school-based experiential outdoor education. The benefits of engaging youth in memorably relevant learning, immersing them in physically active, field-based education, and providing them with authentic,…

  12. Memories as Useful Outcomes of Residential Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Residential outdoor environmental education (ROEE) programs for youth have been shown to yield lasting autobiographical episodic memories. This article explores how past program participants have used such memories, and draws on the memory psychology literature to offer a new perspective on the long-term impacts of environmental education.…

  13. Learning from Leisure: Developing Nature Connectedness in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgriff, Marg

    2011-01-01

    The "greening" of outdoor education has received increasing attention from educators in Aotearoa-New Zealand and internationally. Given contemporary global concerns about the scale of environmental issues and the associated recognition that educating for sustainability is a matter of urgency, the continuing exploration of pedagogies…

  14. Teacher Qualification Guidelines, Ecological Literacy and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A key signpost to a profession is clarity of disciplinary knowledge. In this paper I describe the content and outcome of a process to refine the qualification guidelines for outdoor education teachers in Victorian, Australia. The guidelines, developed for the Victorian Institute of Teaching, include both practical skills and disciplinary…

  15. The Accuracy of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In the present era of outcome assessment and accountability, self-efficacy is a popular outcome measure in outdoor and adventure education. Self-efficacy beliefs are context specific perceptions an individual possesses about a likelihood of success in future tasks and are related to well-being confidence, and persistence. However, recent research…

  16. Incorporating Outdoor Education into the Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhu

    2015-01-01

    Low motivation to participate in traditional or team sports, apathy toward competitive environments, and a low rate of transfer of skills to lifetime activities and wellness can be barriers for student pursuits of lifelong fitness. Adding an outdoor component can be a solution for some of these problems, while still accomplishing the National…

  17. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  18. Outdoor Orientation Leaders: The Effects of Peer Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, J. David; Bell, Brent J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how student (peer) leaders of college outdoor orientation programs understand the effects of their leadership experience on personal growth and development. We collected data through in-depth interviews of 36 first-time student leaders at four colleges. Findings indicate that the majority of students at all four…

  19. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Kazumi; Nagata, Izumi; Sueki, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m 2 /day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m 2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m 2 /day. • More than 500 Bq/m 2 /day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  20. Merging weather data with materials response data during outdoor exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Anand Sanadi; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2002-01-01

    As part of an outdoor exposure protocol for a study of sealants, a full weather station was installed at the Forest Products Laboratory field test site near Madison, Wisconsin. Tem-perature, relative humidity, rainfall, ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 18 different wavelengths, and wind speed and direction are continuously measured. Using a specially designed apparatus,...

  1. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  2. Fipronil and its degradates in indoor and outdoor dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Burkhardt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Fipronil is a potent insecticide used for control of termites, fleas, roaches, ants, and other pests. We measured fipronil, fipronil sulfide, and desulfinyl fipronil concentrations in indoor and outdoor dust from 24 residences in Austin, Texas. At least one of these three fipronil compounds was detected in every sample. Fipronil accounted for most of the total fipronil (T-fipronil; fipronil+desulfinyl fipronil+fipronil sulfide), followed by desulfinyl fipronil and fipronil sulfide. Nineteen of 24 samples of indoor dust had T-fipronil concentrations less than 270 ??g/kg; the remaining five had concentrations from 1320 to 14,200 ??g/kg. All three of the residences with a dog on which a flea-control product containing fipronil was used were among the five residences with elevated fipronil concentrations. In outdoor dust, all concentrations of T-fipronil were less than 70??g/kg with one exception (430??g/kg). For every residence, the concentration of T-fipronil in indoor dust exceeded that in outdoor dust, and the median concentration of T-fipronil was 15 times higher indoors than outdoors.

  3. Learners' Experiences of Peer Tutoring in the Context of Outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article explores peer tutoring in the context of outdoor learning at a primary school in Lesotho. The peer-tutoring approach was trialled to explore its effectiveness in promoting learning in large class sizes which characterise primary and secondary schools in Lesotho. An urban primary school was purposively selected ...

  4. Microbiological Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality of Two Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both indoor and outdoor air samples were assessed monthly for the three (3) months in the wet season (June – August, 2010) and dry season (November 2010 - January 2011) using the settled plate methods. The study sites were divided into nine (9) units which include accident and emergency ward, laboratory, male ward ...

  5. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition, Set IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Larry, Ed.; And Others

    Eight games are included in the 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set IV. There are also simulations, crafts, biological techniques, and organism investigations focusing on animal and plant life in the forest, desert, and snow. Designed for small groups of children ages 10 to 15 from schools and…

  6. Sense of place in outdoor-pursuits trip groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Anderson B. Young; Lynn S. Anderson; Timothy S. O' Connell; Mary Breunig

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that sense of community and group cohesion increase significantly over time in outdoor-pursuits trip groups. This study sought to understand similar development of sense of place. Do people simultaneously become more attached to or dependent on the natural environment as they grow closer to each other? Results from a study of college students...

  7. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  8. Why Play Outside? Problematising Outdoor Play as a Biopedagogical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Barrett, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Although outdoor play has been widely recognised for the many benefits it affords children, some have rationalised the need for it based on goals related to physical health. More specifically, these instrumental goals have been closely related to obesity, overweight, and/or physical (in)activity. Adhering to obesity discourses and the notion of a…

  9. Everyone needs the health benefits of being outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulatt, Ian

    2017-08-02

    A study by researchers at the University of Warwick has shown that for many older people in care homes it takes a great effort to get outdoors. This isn't due to a lack of will but rather the environment they are living in and the restrictions placed on them, which range from needing permission to go outside to inadequate seating in gardens.

  10. Structures that Include a Semi-Outdoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papachristou, C.; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment of buildings with a second "skin" and semi-outdoor space is examined in the present study. A literature review was conducted on similar structures and only a few studies were found focusing on the thermal environment. Two different building case studies were chosen with di...

  11. An Examination of Perceived Constraints to Outdoor Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.T. Green; J.M. Bowker; X. Wang; H.K. Cordell; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether different social and marginalized groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, immigrants, low income, less educated) perceive more constraints or barriers to outdoor recreation participation than White middle-class males. Logistic regressions were applied to data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment...

  12. Federal outdoor recreation trends: Effects on economic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. White; Michael Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Don English

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor recreation plays a significant role in American lives. It provides physical challenges and well-being, helps develop lifelong skills, provokes interest and inquiry, inspires wonder and awe of the natural world, and often provides an alternative to daily routines. Recreation contributes greatly to the physical, mental, and spiritual health of individuals, bonds...

  13. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to urban outdoor air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outdoor air pollution in urban areas in South Africa was estimated to cause 3.7% of the national mortality from cardiopulmonary disease and 5.1 % of mortality attributable to cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung in adults aged 30 years and older, and 1.1 % of mortality from ARis in children under 5 years of age.

  14. Fostering Experiential Self-Regulation through Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…

  15. Enhancing Children's Outdoor Learning Experiences with a Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikala, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how a mobile learning application can enhance children's outdoor learning experiences. The study draws upon empirical evidence gathered in one case study conducted in a Finnish primary school setting in the fall of 2012. The data were collected with student and teacher surveys. The case study indicated that the mobile…

  16. Everyday Uncertainties: Reframing Perceptions of Risk in Outdoor Free Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Anita Nelson; Bundy, Anita; Broom, Alex; Tranter, Paul; Ragen, Jo; Engelen, Lina

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of risk reframing, an intervention to offer parents and educators a context for building new and complex perceptions of risk in children's outdoor free play. Our objective was to alter these adults' perceptions of risk to increase the sustainability of an innovative child-centred playground intervention. Qualitative…

  17. Design of outdoor urban spaces for thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet J. Plumley

    1977-01-01

    Microclimates in outdoor urban spaces may be modified by controlling the wind and radiant environments in these spaces. Design guidelines were developed to specify how radiant environments may be selected or modified to provide conditions for thermal comfort. Fanger's human-thermal-comfort model was used to determine comfortable levels of radiant-heat exchange for...

  18. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer: what now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade a substantial number of epidemiological studies suggested that outdoor air pollution and in particular respirable particulate matter (PM10 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.The most recent is a multicentre European study...

  19. Outdoor Learning: Supervision Is More than Watching Children Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather; Thompson, Donna; Hudson, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs strive to provide good-quality care and education as young children develop their physical, emotional, social, and intellectual skills. In order to provide children with positive, developmentally appropriate learning opportunities, educators ensure the safety and security of children, indoors and outdoors. The outdoor…

  20. Outdoor recreation in shifting societal and natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; J. M.  Bowker; Katherine  Smith; Cindi  West

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor recreation contributes to public health, supports hundreds of thousands of jobs, and  provides billions of dollars annually to rural economies. Visitors to federal lands alone spent $51  billion in 2012 in nearby communities during their trips to recreate on public lands and waters  (Forest Service National Center for Natural Resources Economic Research 2014)....

  1. Fast color/texture segmentation for outdoor robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Agrawal, Motilal; Sundaresan, Aravind

    2008-01-01

    We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K...

  2. Planetariums as a Source of Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyma, Aksu; Umdu Topsakal, Ünsal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to study the effect of using planetariums as an outdoor learning environment regarding students' opinions. Therefore, descriptive qualitative research was used. The participants were from a school in Istanbul. Ten students, 4 male and 6 female, participated in a planetarium visit to a museum. The data of the study were…

  3. Trends in land and water available for outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland; Thomas Rumpf

    1980-01-01

    A data base for assessing the availability of land for outdoor recreation does not exist. Information on related issues such as vandalism, easements, and land posting is scanty. Construction of a data base for assessing land availability should be a high priority for USFS and HCRS, and for SCORP's and the RPA and RCA assessments.

  4. A model for evaluating dispersed outdoor recreation use estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; Donald B. K. English; Susan M. Kocis

    2004-01-01

    An outdoor recreation use simulator (ORUS) has been developed to simulate dispersed recreation survey data similar to that collected by the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) Project's survey of the national forests of the U.S.A. Statistical distributions are used to represent the various behaviors of recreationists during their visit to a dispersed area. The...

  5. Outdoor Fieldwork in Higher Education: Learning from Multidisciplinary Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munge, Brendon; Thomas, Glyn; Heck, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Background: Many disciplines use outdoor fieldwork (OFW) as an experiential learning method in higher education. Although there has been an increase in research into the pedagogical approaches of OFW, the use of OFW is contested. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to synthesize the OFW literature across a range of disciplines to identify common…

  6. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  7. Robust Crop and Weed Segmentation under Uncontrolled Outdoor Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Y. Jeon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA.

  8. Harmonizing outdoor recreation and bird conservation targets in protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Rogier; Sierdsema, Henk; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Henkens, René J.H.G.; Opdam, Paul F.M.; Eupen, van Michiel

    2017-01-01

    In protected areas managers have to achieve conservation targets while providing opportunities for outdoor recreation. This dual mandate causes conflicts in choosing between management options. Furthermore, the persistence of a protected species within the management unit often depends on how

  9. Social indicators and outdoor recreation: the forgotten sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Peine; Robert W. Marans; Charles C. Harris

    1980-01-01

    Following a brief historical overview of the social indicators movement, outdoor recreation measures which can be considered as social indicators are discussed. Such indicators are largely derived from social surveys. Illustrative data from 53 such surveys are presented. Despite the availability of such data, there have been few attempts to adapt them as established...

  10. Locating opportunities for outdoor action and adventure recreation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper indicates how modern spatial computing technology can be used for developing spatial policy for, and planning of outdoor action and adventure recreation and tourism (OAART). An application was performed in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The research overviews spatial recreation and tourism ...

  11. A Teacher's Guide To: Indians and the Outdoor Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, C. M.

    As a basic teacher's guide to the study of plants in their environment, this document serves primarily as a starting point for outdoor education with an American Indian emphasis in the State of South Dakota. The State is divided into three broad environmental categories or "biotic communities" (Prairie and Plains, Woodlands, and Wet…

  12. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-22

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users' current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station's signal strength in different environments, and identified the users' current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  13. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users’ current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM communication cellular base station’s signal strength in different environments, and identified the users’ current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  14. Model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1994-01-01

    A series of scale model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm is described. The measurements are performed with a triggered spark source. The results are compared with data from an existing calculation model based upon uniform diffraction theory. Comparisons are made...

  15. Legal Liability and Risk Management in Outdoor Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynon, John; Loynes, Chris

    1990-01-01

    Describes duties and responsibilities of outdoor instructors under British criminal and civil law. Discusses elements of negligence under civil law including damage, duty of care, standard of care, in loco parentis, students' duty of care, foreseeability, and employer's legal duty. Presents risk management in terms of primary, secondary, and…

  16. Preventing Heat-Related Illness or Death of Outdoor Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instructed him to rest, but the man continued working. An hour later, the man appeared confused and coworkers carried ... for conducting research and making recommendations to prevent work-related illness and ... significantly reduced Preventing Heat-related Illness or Death of Outdoor ...

  17. The Social System in Outdoor Adventure Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Jostad, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the social system interact with one another to produce group-level behavior that determines the functionality of the small group in outdoor adventure education (OAE). This article synthesizes the contemporary literature and theory regarding eight aspects of the OAE social system: (a) Macro Contextual Factors, (b) Student…

  18. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  19. An Integrated Approach to Indoor and Outdoor Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-17

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Approach to Indoor and Outdoor Localization 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0299 5c.   PROGRAM ELEMENT...Distribution approved for public release. Figure 5: A flowchart of the method of computing an initial position estimate by comparing a single WiFi scan

  20. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN IPS TERPADU BERBASIS OUTDOOR LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugraheni Rachmawati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPelaksanaan kegiatan pembelajaran tematik di SD kota Semarang belum optimal. Sebagian besar guru belum menyusun dan menggunakan perangkat pembelaja- ran IPS Terpadu berbasis outdoor learning. Tujuan penelitian ini mengembangkan, mengkaji keefektifan dan kepraktisan perangkat pembelajaran. Penelitian ini meru- pakan penelitian pengembangan yang dimodifikasi dari penelitian Borg and Gall. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas 3 SD N Jatingaleh 01-02 Kota Semarang ta- hun pelajaran 2012/2013. Spesifikasi produk yang dikembangkan adalah perangkat pembelajaran IPS terpadu berbasis outdoor learning berupa silabus, RPP, media CD Interaktif, LKS dan alat evaluasi meliputi test kognitif, lembar observasi aktivi- tas serta angket respons siswa dan guru. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan Pretest- Posttest Control Group Design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran tergolong valid. Keefektifan perangkat dilihat dari aktivitas dan hasil belajar siswa. Aktivitas siswa tergolong sangat tinggi. Hasil belajar kog- nitif siswa setelah mengikuti pembelajaran IPS Terpadu berbasis Outdoor Learning mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan serta mencapai ketuntasan belajar. Rata- rata hasil belajar kognitif siswa secara signifikan lebih besar daripada kelompok siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran in door. Saran, hendaknya dapat dikembangkan lagi keefektifanya sehingga dapat lebih menggali kemampuan siswa, tidak hanya dalam segi kognitif dan afektif tetapi juga psikomotor. AbstractImplementation of thematic learning activities in elementary school of Semarang is not opti- mal. Most of the teachers do not prepare and use integrated social science learning tools based on outdoor learning. This research is aimed to develop the tools and to review the effectiveness and practicality of integrated social science learning based on outdoor learning. This is a research and development study modified from the research developed by Borg and

  1. Dairy cow preference for different types of outdoor access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Anne-Marieke C; Weary, Daniel M; Costa, Joao H C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2018-02-01

    Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas. Ninety-six lactating pregnant cows were assigned to 8 groups of 12 animals each. After a baseline phase of 2 d in which cows were kept inside the freestall barn, cows were habituated to the outdoor areas by providing them access to each of the 2 options for 24 h. Cows were then given access, in random order by group, to either the pasture (pasture phase) or the sand pack (sand phase). As we tested the 2 outdoor options using space allowances consistent with what would be practical on commercial dairy farms, the space provided on pasture was larger (21,000 m 2 ) than that provided on the sand pack (144 m 2 ). Cows were tested at night (for 2 nights in each condition), from 2000 h until morning milking at approximately 0800 h, as preference to be outdoors is strongest at this time. During the next 3 nights cows were given access to both outside options simultaneously (choice phase). Feeding and perching behaviors were recorded when cows were indoors during the day and night periods. Lying behavior was automatically recorded by HOBO data loggers (Onset, Bourne, MA). Cows spent more time outside in the pasture phase (90.0 ± 5.9%) compared with the sand phase (44.4 ± 6.3%). When provided simultaneous access to both options, cows spent more time on pasture than on the sand pack (90.5 ± 2.6% vs. 0.8 ± 0.5%, respectively). Time spent feeding indoors during the day did not change regardless of what type of outdoor access was provided, but there was a

  2. Outdoor recreation trends and futures: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a national study of outdoor recreation trends as part of the Renewable Resources Planning Act Assessment by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The objectives are to review past trends in outdoor recreation participation by Americans, to describe in detail current outdoor recreation participation patterns, and to compare...

  3. Individual Differences and Possible Effects from Outdoor Education: Long Time and Short Time Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, Tove Anita; Jacobsen, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study explores differences in the children's outcomes from outdoor education. The results revealed different outcomes within different subgroups: The children with an easy or a withdrawal temperament are good functioning both indoor and outdoor. Their outcomes from outdoor education are an increased vitality, which might be seen as a short…

  4. A Baseline Study of Ontario Teachers' Views of Environmental and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Erminia; Nazir, Joanne; Tan, Michael; Bellomo, Katherine; Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research that came about as a result of several converging factors in Ontario: a resurgence of interest in environmental and outdoor education (including outdoor education (OE) centres); recent publications supporting environmental and outdoor education; and curriculum revisions across subject areas that include…

  5. Outdoor Education in Rural Primary Schools in New Zealand: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Tara; Legge, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    This research examines teaching outdoor education in two rural primary schools in Aotearoa New Zealand. The aim was to give "voice" to how outdoor education is taught, programmed and understood. Underpinning the research was the question: what factors enable/constrain teachers' ability to implement outdoor education? The findings…

  6. The Role and Place of Outdoor Education in the Australian National Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As Australia heads into a new era of implementing a National Curriculum, the place of Outdoor Education in Australian schools is under question. In the initial drafts of the National Curriculum, Outdoor Education has been marginalised. The authors propose that Outdoor Education should maintain a strong role, especially as processes of experiential…

  7. The Constitution of Outdoor Education Groups: An Analysis of the Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Groups are ubiquitous in outdoor education and while there is a lot of literature on groups, there is limited examination of the assumptions made about groups and the effects these assumptions have on the practices of outdoor education. I utilise some of Michel Foucault's (1992) tools to investigate literature on outdoor education groups.…

  8. The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs: Current Practices, Research, and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brent J.; Gass, Michael A.; Nafziger, Christopher S.; Starbuck, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory…

  9. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5111.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…

  10. The perceived impact of a university outdoor education program on students' environmental behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Boland; Paul Heintzman

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor educators often seek to design programs that influence participants' daily lifestyles, especially environmental behaviors. Research on the impact of outdoor education programs on environmental behaviors has typically focused on schoolchildren and teenagers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of a university outdoor education...

  11. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  12. The Purposes Outdoor Education Does, Could and Should Serve in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the purposes that outdoor education does, could and should serve in Singapore. Gert Biesta's conceptualisation of three functions of education is adapted to frame deliberations on the purposes of outdoor education in Singapore's socio-political and educational milieu. The author suggests that outdoor education in Singapore…

  13. Outdoor recreation in American life: a national assessment of demand and supply trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Carter Betz; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Shela H. Mou; John C. Bergstrom; R. Jeff Teasley; Michael A. Tarrant; John Loomis

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor Recreation in American Life is the United States' only ongoing, comprehensive assessment of the trends, current situation, and likely future of outdoor recreation demand and supply. New and different aspects of national demand, resemblances to the past, and trends in the supply of outdoor recreation opportunities, both from the private and public sectors,...

  14. The Campcraft Book: A Beginner's Guide to Outdoor Living Skills. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Catherine T.

    This handbook contains information designed to help develop campcraft skills. This basic guide to outdoor living contains the following chapters: (1) Come On Out; (2) On the Trail; (3) Your Own Outdoor Equipment; (4) Campcraft Skills; (5) Fire Building and Fireplaces; (6) Outdoor Food; (7) Knotcraft; (8) Lashing; (9) Toolcraft; (10) Finding Your…

  15. Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

  16. Adolescent Girls and Body Image: Influence of Outdoor Adventure on Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Wilson, Susie K.; Roberts, Nina S.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor adventure may improve body image. However, minimal research exists on the effect outdoor adventure has on body image in adolescent girls, a demographic continually plagued by negative body image. In response, this exploratory study considered the influence of one outdoor adventure program in the San Francisco Bay Area. Through…

  17. URBAN OUTDOOR ADVERTISING AS A VARIETY OF SMALL ARCHITECTURAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA H. P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The statement of the problem. The outdoor advertising is the highly developed industry in the leading countries of the world that uses the latest technologies. It largely determines the appearance and visual comfort of the urban environment. The city's outdoor advertising and visual information should correspond to the character of human vital activity. The basic requirements for them are ensuring effective advertising and operational orientation in the maze of streets and squares of the city, informing about the location of the objects, creating an image of a modern city. The city has always been a place striking because of the synthesis of arts. The outdoor advertising market development in Ukraine coincided with the beginning of the process of market reforms in the 90-ies, and in less than ten years its volume has reached considerable proportions. The small and large outdoor advertising objects continue to win the city more space with the rapid development of the country market economy. The concept of small architectural forms (IRF in the urban environment arose long time ago and it is understood as structures, equipment, and decorative exterior amenities, complementing the main urban development. The LFA include: kiosks, vending machines, street lamps (or landscape lamps as they are fashionably called now, stands for posters and advertisements, stairs, fences, fountains, obelisks, memorial plaques, urban street furniture, litter bins, sports design play structures, street planters, park benches, etc. This is a whole balanced set of elements of the urban environment. This directly affects the ergonomics, the usability of elements and products and their durability. The purpose of the article is to study the diversity of IRFs as well as the development and the implementation of the city outdoor advertising concept.

  18. Objective Method for Selecting Outdoor Reporting Conditions for Photovoltaic Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maish, A.

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules and systems depends on prevailing conditions at the time of measurement. Outdoor test conditions must be relevant to device performance and readily attainable. Flat-plate, nonconcentrator PV device performance is reported with respect to fixed conditions referred to as Standard Reporting Conditions (SRC) of 1 kW/m plane of array total irradiance, 25 C device temperature, and a reference spectral distribution at air mass 1.5 under certain atmospheric conditions. We report a method of analyzing historical meteorological and irradiance data to determine the range of outdoor environmental parameters and solar irradiance components that affect solar collector performance when the SRC 1 kW/m total irradiance value occurs outdoors. We used data from the 30 year U.S. National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) , restricting irradiance conditions to within +/- 25 W/m of 1 kW/m on a solar tracking flat-plate collector. The distributions of environmental parameter values under these conditions are non-Gaussian and site dependent. Therefore the median, as opposed to the mean, of the observed distributions is chosen to represent appropriate outdoor reporting conditions. We found the average medians for the direct beam component (834 W/m), ambient temperature (24.4 C), total column water vapor (1.4 cm), and air mass (1.43) are near commonly used SRC values. Average median wind speed (4.4 m/s) and broadband aerosol optical depth (0.08) were significantly different from commonly used values

  19. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  20. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  1. Does spending time outdoors reduce stress? A review of real-time stress response to outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Sara F. Jacoby; Eugenia C. South

    2018-01-01

    Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review...

  2. The Place and Approach of Outdoor Learning within a Holistic Curricular Agenda: Development of Singaporean Outdoor Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, Matthew; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Ho, Susanna; Ching, Chew Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the potential contribution of outdoor education (OE) in Singaporean education given the recent raft of national curricular reforms aimed at fostering holistic and exploratory learning opportunities. In this context, we contend that increasing recognition of the value of OE, both internationally and locally, heralds specific…

  3. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Oskarshamn; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstroem, Kristina

    2007-07-15

    This report describes recreation and outdoor life in and around Simpevarp/Laxemar area. It also describes the impact of constructing a final repository for spent nuclear fuel on the outdoor life. The study area in this report is situated in the parish of Misterhult, in the municipality of Oskarshamn. Oskarshamn nuclear power plant (OKG) and the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (Clab) are situated within the area. The parish of Misterhult is sparsely populated and includes both houses and holiday cottages. The area is used for various kinds of recreation by inhabitants from surrounding villages and employees at OKG and SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), and also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Misterhult archipelago has the highest values for recreation and outdoor life in the study area. Many water related activities, such as swimming, sailing, fishing, diving, kayaking and canoeing are conducted in the region Hamnefjaerden, Kraakelund and a walking track called Ostkustleden are three other places in the study area which are popular for outdoor life. SKB and OKG facilities are also visited by many tourists. Disturbances to the recreation and outdoor life during construction and operation of a final repository and a interim storage facility will occur in the form of increased noise and movement in the area, mostly from the traffic. The consequences of these disturbances are: Decreased serenity, which will probably decrease the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. The final repository in Laxemar will likely require road access that will cross the walking track. Various prevention and compensation measures, such as noise restrictions and a new section of the walking track at Ostkustleden, are suggested to minimise and/or mitigate the consequences. Also measures that increase the value of recreation and outdoor life are listed, for example an exhibition about the areas nature and culture

  4. Predicting Use of Outdoor Fall Prevention Strategies: Considerations for Prevention Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor falls are just as common as indoor falls, but have received less attention in research and practice. Behavioral strategies play an important role in outdoor fall prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of strategy use. Backward stepwise regression was used to study factors associated with use of outdoor fall prevention strategies among a random sample ( N = 120) of community-dwelling seniors. Significant negative predictors of strategy use included higher education levels ( p outdoor fallers and nonfallers in the use of three different types of strategies ( ps outdoor fall prevention strategies. Further study of additional factors is warranted.

  5. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Thorkil E.

    2010-01-01

    there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented......Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present...... no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy....

  6. Solar UVR exposures of three groups of outdoor workers on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.P.; Roy, C.R.; Toomey, S.; MacLennan, R.; Watson, M.

    1995-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of three groups of outdoor workers, physical education (PE) teachers, ground staff/gardeners and lifeguards were measured using UVR-sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges. The exposures all took place on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland over 5 consecutive weekdays in November 1992. For the three groups, the shoulder badges received greater UVR exposures than the chest badges, in agreement with previous studies. The PE teachers received the highest UVR exposures while the lifeguards received the least. One of the 5 days of the study was overcast with some rain showers and UVR doses for this day for all groups was significantly lower than on the other 4 days, however the ratio of exposure to ambient remained relatively constant. All groups had measured UVR exposures in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures, including education and behaviour modification, which are becoming much more common in occupational situations in Australia, are both timely and necessary. (author)

  7. Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The

  8. [Outdoor activity and myopia among 681 primary students in urban and rural regions of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Liu, Lijuan; Xu, Liang; Lü, Yanyun; Tang, Ping; Feng, Yi

    2014-01-21

    To explore the association between outdoor activity and myopia among 681 primary students from Beijing. School-based, cross-sectional investigation. Eye examination includes the visual acuity test, auto-refractor, slit lamp, ocular biometry and non-mydriatic fundus camera. Questionnaire includes regular items, near work, outdoor activity and social-economic status. The mean time spent outdoors was 1.6 ± 0.8 hours daily. Time spent on outdoor sports and outdoor leisure were 0.7 ± 0.1 hours daily, 1.0 ± 0.8 hours daily, respectively. Mean time of outdoor activity in urban was 1.1 ± 0.4 hours daily, compared with 2.2 ± 0.8 hours daily in rural (P = 0.000). In grade-1, total time spent outdoors is significantly different between myopia and non-myopia (1.4 ± 0.6 vs 1.8 ± 0.8 hours daily, P = 0.000), similar to outdoor leisure (0.8 ± 0.6 vs 1.1 ± 0.9 hours daily, P = 0.000). The same trend was also found in grade-4. The mean time spent outdoors was 1.6 ± 0.8 hours daily. Myopia spent a lower outdoor activity compared with non-myopia. More outdoor activity, e.g., in schools, may potentially be helpful to reduce the high prevalence of myopia in the young generation.

  9. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  10. Development of radiation safety monitoring system at gamma greenhouse gamma facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairul Nizam Idris; Azimawati Ahmad, Ahmad Zaki Hussain; Ahmad Fairuz Mohd Nasir

    2009-01-01

    This paper is discussing about installation of radiation safety monitoring system at Gamma Greenhouse Gamma facility, Agrotechnology and Bioscience Division (BAB). This facility actually is an outdoor type irradiation facility, which first in Nuclear Malaysia and the only one in Malaysia. Source Cs-137 (801 Curie) was use as radiation source and it located at the centre of 30 metres diameter size of open irradiation area. The radiation measurement and monitoring system to be equipped in this facility were required the proper equipment and devices, specially purpose for application at outside of building. Research review, literature study and discussion with the equipment manufacturers was being carried out, in effort to identify the best system should be developed. Factors such as tropical climate, environment surrounding and security were considered during selecting the proper system. Since this facility involving with panoramic radiation type, several critical and strategic locations have been fixed with radiation detectors, up to the distance at 200 meter from the radiation source. Apart from that, this developed system also was built for capable to provide the online real-time reading (using internet). In general, it can be summarized that the radiation safety monitoring system for outdoor type irradiation facility was found much different and complex compared to the system for indoor type facility. Keyword: radiation monitoring, radiation safety, Gamma Greenhouse, outdoor irradiation facility, panoramic radiation. (Author)

  11. Currently Commercially Available Chemical Sensors Employed for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Outdoor and Indoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Szulczyński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principle of operation and design of the most popular chemical sensors for measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in outdoor and indoor air. It describes the sensors for evaluation of explosion risk including pellistors and IR-absorption sensors as well as the sensors for detection of toxic compounds such as electrochemical (amperometric, photoionization and semiconductor with solid electrolyte ones. Commercially available sensors for detection of VOCs and their metrological parameters—measurement range, limit of detection, measurement resolution, sensitivity and response time—were presented. Moreover, development trends and prospects of improvement of the metrological parameters of these sensors were highlighted.

  12. Outdoor education in New Zealand: a comparative and cultural perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2009-01-01

    relationships linked to identity. Masculine values are dominant and outdoor education in New Zealand can generally be understood as a reproduction of political ideas and values in society. Friluftsliv in Denmark is traditionally closely linked to similar traditions in Sweden and Norway (Tordsson, 1993). However......  This presentation takes general view of understanding outdoor education in New Zealand.  This is seen from an outsider's perspective and is compared with "friluftsliv" in Denmark and the Nordic countries. Analysing and understanding one's culture is never easy, and the main challenge is to focus...... on and question everyday phenomena which seem natural and that reproduce one's own perspective. Cultural analysis and the analysis of social configurations together with a comparative cultural perspective form the research approach.  . The presentation is based on a comparative and qualitative case study (Ragin...

  13. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  14. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar

    2015-05-01

    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration.

  15. Safety Cultures in Water-Based Outdoor Activities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the study Safe in Nature (Tryg i naturen) in which the aim was to analyze and discuss risk and safety related to outdoor recreation in the coastal regions of Denmark. A cultural perspective is applied to risk management and the safety cultures related to three selected...... water-based outdoor activities: small boat fishing, sea kayaking, and kite surfing. The theoretical framework used was cultural analysis and the methodological approach was mixed methods using case studies with survey and qualitative interviews. The study indicates that safety is a complex matter...... and that safety culture can be understood as the sum and interaction among six categories. The safety culture is closely related to the activity and differs widely among activities. We suggest a broad perspective be taken on risk management wherein risk and safety can be managed at different levels. Small boat...

  16. University Outdoor Activities: an integral approach in the professional formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ofelia Armas-Álvarez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is lead to establish the theoretical foundations of the university outdoor labour from the organizational forms of the teaching process that favour the knowledge acquisition and the development of necessary skills in the students to promote culture in the different moments where they have connection with the society by means of the participation of the subjects and disciplines of the current programs that allow to organize systematic and articulated activities, appropriately planned, able to satisfy the necessities and to achieve the purpose of getting the preparation and integral cultural formation, as well as the their appropriate projection in the social environment that demands the contemporary society from the university professionals. In the work they are determined the content and skills that the student requires to promote Physical Culture in correspondence with their professional performance. It is designed a plan of activities to carry out the university outdoor labour from the organizational forms of the teaching process.

  17. Alfalfa seedlings grown outdoors are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than plants grown in a UV-free environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Shinnosuke; Trunk, J.G.; Sutherland, J.C.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The relative UV sensitivities of alfalfa seedlings grown outdoors versus plants grown in a growth chamber under UV-filtered cool white fluorescent bulbs have been determined using three criteria: (1) level of endogenous DNA damage as sites for the UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, (2) susceptibility to pyrimidine dimer induction by a UV challenge exposure and (3) ability to repair UV-induced damage. We find that outdoor-grown plants contain approximately equal frequencies of endogenous DNA damages, are less susceptible to dimer induction by a challenge exposure of broad-spectrum UV and photorepair dimers more rapidly than plants grown in an environmental chamber under cool white fluorescent lamps plus a filter removes most UV radiation. These data suggest that plants grown in a natural environment would be less sensitive to UVB-induced damage than would be predicted on the basis of studies on plants grown under minimum UV. (author)

  18. Outdoor fitness equipment in parks: a qualitative study from older adults’ perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing amount of outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) placed in parks in many countries has the intent of encouraging physical activity among aging populations. However, little investigated aspects are the perceptions and experiences of older adults regarding the use of these facilities. Hence, this study seeks senior OFE users’ opinions to understand the exact nature of use of these facilities, the perceived health benefits achieved, and equipment’s improvements that would further encourage use. Methods The study conducts semi-structured interviews with 55 senior OFE users at two parks in Taiwan. Results Study results suggest that although OFE use is not the main purpose for which seniors visit parks, most seniors perceive the benefit of using OFE in terms of both physical and psychological health, as well as social connection. Respondents also raised issues related to safety, maintenance, and management of OFE. Conclusions OFE appears to meet the health needs of seniors, but improved management is necessary to ensure safety. Further research would reveal the actual behavior involving OFE use and use’s relationship to the physical activity of seniors. PMID:24359536

  19. Targeting Hispanic adolescents with outdoor food & beverage advertising around schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A L; Pasch, K E

    2017-02-09

    Although some research has focused on the food environment and food marketing, little has examined outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising, particularly its relationship to the Hispanic composition in schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of outdoor FB advertising was greater around middle and high schools with a majority Hispanic population as compared to schools with a lower Hispanic population. All FB advertisements located within a half-mile of 47 schools in Central Texas were documented. Advertisements were coded as free standing or on establishments. Advertisements were coded for theme including price (emphasizing price) and deals/value meals (promoting discounted price/meal deals). These two themes were combined to create an overall price promotion variable. In order to determine if the prevalence of FB advertising varied by the Hispanic composition of the students in the school, data from the Texas Education Agency was used to create a variable which dichotomized the schools into two groups: schools that reported ≥60% Hispanic students or 'Hispanic schools' (n = 21) and schools that reported advertising was greater around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Hispanic schools had more overall outdoor FB advertisements as compared to non-Hispanic schools (p = 0.02). Similarly, we found significantly more outdoor FB establishment (p = 0.02) and price promotion (p = 0.05) around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Differences in freestanding advertisements by school type approached significance (p = 0.07) with Hispanic schools having more freestanding FB advertisements on average. Further research is needed that documents the content of these advertisements and determines the extent to which these advertisements affect Hispanic and other racial/ethnic minority youth's attitudes and behaviors toward the consumption of these products.

  20. Outdoor Advertising and Gender Differences : Factors Influencing Perception and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further su...

  1. Outdoor thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Current and future investors in photovoltaic systems are interested in how well the system performs, and how predictable this is over the expected lifetime. To do so, models have been developed and measurements of photovoltaic systems have been done. This dissertation presents the outdoor measurement set-up that has been developed for thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems, aimed at measuring transient effects and changes. The main design decisions and ...

  2. Education for sustainable development using indoor and outdoor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigon, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    Environmental education became an important part of our development in the last years. We put a lot of effort into a task how to improve students'values, skills, understanding and how to significantly enhance their learning and achievements regarding ecological problems. At the same time we also know that environmental learning is easier when our students have the opportunity to feel, see, touch, taste and smell the nature. Therefore teachers in my school develop regular access to the outdoors as a learning resource. Students understand the impact of their activities on the environment and they also like to participate in the nature protection. My school (Biotechnical Centre)is an example of educational centre where different research and development programes are strongly oriented to the sustainable development. Students are educated to become experts in biotechnology, agronomy, food technology and horticulture. At the same time they are educated how to care for the nature. The institution itself cooperates with different fields of economy (farms, food - baker industry, floristry, country design etc.). For these reasons the environmental education is an essential dimension of basic education focused on a sphere of interaction that lies at the root of personal and social development. We try to develop different outdoor activities through all the school year. These activities are: analyse the water quality; research waste water treatment plants; exploration of new food sources (like aquaponics - where fish and plants grow together); collecting plants with medical activities; care for the plants in the school yard; growing new plants in the poly tunnel; learning about unknown plants - especially when visiting national and regional parks; selling different things in the school shop - also for local citizens; participating in the world wide activity - "Keep the country tidy" etc. Students and teachers enjoy to participate in different outdoor activities; we both

  3. The latest trends in nature-based outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell

    2008-01-01

    Considerable interest in better understanding current trends in nature-based outdoor recreation followed publication of Richard Louv’s book, Last Child in the Woods, and a recent paper by Oliver R.W. Pergams and Patricia A. Zaradic titled “Evidence for a Fundamental and Pervasive Shift away from Nature-Based Recreation.”

  4. Yyteri Outdoor Symposium : kaikille avoimen tapahtuman turvallisuuden varmistaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Aarikka, Laura; Haapa, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa Yyteri Outdoor Symposium -tapahtumalle turvallisuus- ja pelastussuunnitelma, riskikartoitus sekä vastata viiden lajipisteen ensiavusta. Tavoitteena oli varmistaa tapahtuman turvallisuus ja oppia hahmottamaan terveyteen ja tapaturmien ennaltaehkäisyyn liittyviä näkökohtia. Ennen kaikkea tavoitteena oli varmistaa tapahtuman turvallisuus. Toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö toteutettiin yhdessä Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulun Kaikille avoin ta...

  5. Challenges and advantages of using GPS data in outdoor advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Dirk; Körner, Christine; May, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of companies use mobility data in their day-to-day business. Especially in the area of outdoor advertising, GPS devices have been successfully applied in order to measure poster performance in recent years. Based on personal mobility traces, the quality and precision of performance measures has increased significantly. However, the usage of GPS technology poses several challenges when applied to critical business processes. We will present several challenges and solutions whi...

  6. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    OpenAIRE

    THANOS KRIEMADIS; ANNA KOURTESOPOULOU

    2008-01-01

    In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD). For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development ...

  7. Modelling the perception of weather conditions by users of outdoor public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, H.; Oliveira, S.; Alcoforado, M.-J.

    2009-09-01

    preference for lower wind speed in all the seasons. It was observed that adaptive strategies are undertaken to improve their level of comfort, namely through changes in clothing and displacement between shade/sunshine conditions. Older people declared lower discomfort, possibly due to higher clothing insulation and lower climatic sensitivity. The perception of wind is strongly influenced by gender, with women declaring a lower level of comfort when wind speed increases. Other personal characteristics found to have a significant influence were: company - people accompanied declared higher thermal comfort than people alone - and geographic origin, e.g. Brazilian people demonstrated a much lower tolerance to cool conditions than other communities. It should be noted that most Brazilians arrived in Portugal much more recently than, for example, African people, whose responses, in turn, did not reveal a significant difference from the general population, probably due to a certain degree of climatic adaptation already acquired. This study provides a framework to assess the perception of the bioclimatic comfort in outdoor open spaces. Furthermore, it constitutes a potential contribution to the design of more satisfying leisure areas in a future context of warmer cities.

  8. OUTDOOR SPACE QUALITY: CASE STUDY OF A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS PLAZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Aydin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studied the concept of campus plaza, i.e. the outdoor space of the Selcuk University located in Konya, Turkey. The objective of the study in which the survey, observation and photographic methods were used, was to examine the plaza as an outdoor space providing individual and social benefits to campus people and to determine the principles regarding the establishment of this space. Two hundred forty-three students participating in the survey were asked about the outdoor spaces they use in the campus area, the qualities of the plaza, their purposes and the frequency of plaza use, and a descriptive analysis was performed to determine the plaza’s quality. Additionally, a correlation analysis was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the landscape accessory and the manner in which the users’ senses were affected by the experienced space (profiles of the space. At the end of this study, two main components determining the campus plaza’s quality were found: (i qualities of the physical environment (climatic features, location of plaza, its relation with the surrounding structuring, pedestrian / vehicle relation in terms of accessibility, fixed elements / equipment in the area, quality of open space area, quality of landscape accessory and area’s being in good repair (ii user characteristics. User characteristics also comprised two quality criteria: (i the behavioural and functional quality, (ii the visual quality.

  9. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  10. Screening the working environment in outdoor pig systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Q; Torén, A; Salomon, E

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated how well organic growing-fattening pig systems provided a safe and healthy working environment and identified areas where improvements are needed. The study formed part of a larger project aimed at identifying strategies for creating a good animal and working environment and resource-efficient nutrient management in outdoor pig systems. Field studies were carried out at six Swedish farms in two types of outdoor pig systems (mobile and stationary). A method known as WEST (Work Environment Screening Tool) and a modified version of WEST, called WEST-agriculture (WEST-AG), were utilized for screening. Together, the two methods covered six factors of the working environment. The results were expressed in WEST-AG points and WEST points, an economic measure of the risk of impacts on health and productivity expressed as Swedish Krona (SEK) per thousand working hours. The results demonstrated that the risk of injury and ergonomic load during manual feeding and watering was much higher than during semi-automatic feeding and watering at farms with the mobile system. The study also identified other health-risk areas and provided valuable information for further improvement of the working environment in different outdoor pig systems.

  11. Dynamic modeling of temperature change in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androga, Dominic Deo; Uyar, Basar; Koku, Harun; Eroglu, Inci

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to analyze the temperature variation of tubular photobioreactors operated outdoors and the validity of the model was tested by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data. The model included the effects of convection and radiative heat exchange on the reactor temperature throughout the day. The temperatures in the reactors increased with increasing solar radiation and air temperatures, and the predicted reactor temperatures corresponded well to the measured experimental values. The heat transferred to the reactor was mainly through radiation: the radiative heat absorbed by the reactor medium, ground radiation, air radiation, and solar (direct and diffuse) radiation, while heat loss was mainly through the heat transfer to the cooling water and forced convection. The amount of heat transferred by reflected radiation and metabolic activities of the bacteria and pump work was negligible. Counter-current cooling was more effective in controlling reactor temperature than co-current cooling. The model developed identifies major heat transfer mechanisms in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors, and accurately predicts temperature changes in these systems. This is useful in determining cooling duty under transient conditions and scaling up photobioreactors. The photobioreactor design and the thermal modeling were carried out and experimental results obtained for the case study of photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus, but the approach is applicable to photobiological systems that are to be operated under outdoor conditions with significant cooling demands.

  12. Relationship between indoor and outdoor carbonaceous particulates in roadside households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Tsuruho, K. [Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Tamura, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Mizuno, T. [Mie University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry for Materials; Kuroda, K. [Osaka City University Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health

    2000-07-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous particulates in indoor and outdoor air at roadside private households were measured in Osaka, Japan. The particulate samples were collected on filters using a portable AND sampler capable of separating particles into three different size ranges: over 10 {mu}m, 2-10 {mu}m (coarse) and below 2 {mu}m (fine) in aerodynamic diameter. The filters were weighed and then analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermal oxidation using a CHN CORDER. The results showed that indoor fine PM concentration is considerably affected by fine EC and the fine EC in indoor air is significantly correlated to that in outdoor air, r = 0.86 (n = 30, p < 0.001). A simple estimation from EC content ratio in diesel exhaust particles indicated that about 30% of indoor particulates of less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) were contributed from diesel exhaust. Additionally, the size characteristics of outdoor PM at roadside and background sites were examined using Andersen Cascade Impactors. (author)

  13. Outdoor thermal comfort and behaviour in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inavonna, I.; Hardiman, G.; Purnomo, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor comfort is important due to the public spaces functions. Open spaces provide thermal comfort and a pleasant experience to improve the city life quality effectively. The influence of thermal comfort in outdoor activities is a complex problem. This paper presents a literature review and discussion of aspects of physical, psychology, and social behaviour toward outdoor thermal comfort. The valuation is determined not only by the “physical state” but also by the “state of mind”. The assessment is static and objective (i.e., physical and physiological characteristics) that it should be measured. Furthermore, an effective model to provide the knowledge of climatic conditions, as well as the dynamic and subjective aspects (i.e., psychological and social characteristics and behaviour), requires a comprehensive interview and observation. The model will be examined to describe the behaviour that is a reflection of perception and behaviour toward the environment. The adaptation process will constantly evolve so that it becomes a continuous cause between human behaviour and the spatial setting of the formation, which is eventually known as places and not just spaces. This evolutionary process is a civic art form.

  14. Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Paul, Prateek; Stieff, Alex; Stieff, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy affected much of the US East Coast extending over 1800 km. It passed over the test location in the State of Maryland on 29 October 2012. Being 350 km away from the regions of highest intensity the storm was of lower intensity at the test location. Continuous radon monitors and passive radon monitors were used for the measurement. The test location was the basement of a single family home representing the indoor concentration. A partially opened garage of the same test home represented the outdoor radon concentration. In 24 h, the atmospheric pressure dropped from 990 to 960 mbar and the indoor radon concentration increased from 70 to 1500 Bq m(-3) and returned to the normal of 70 Bq m(-3) at the end of the storm. Throughout the storm, the outdoor radon concentration was not significantly affected. Probable reasons for such surprisingly large changes are discussed. However, the outdoor temperature dropped from 13°C to 7°C during the radon peak.

  15. Investigating walking environments in and around assisted living facilities: a facility visit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    This study explores assisted living residents' walking behaviors, locations where residents prefer to walk, and walking environments in and around assisted living facilities. Regular walking is beneficial to older adults' physical and psychological health. Yet frail older residents in assisted living are usually too sedentary to achieve these benefits. The physical environment plays an important role in promoting physical activity. However, there is little research exploring this relationship in assisted living settings. The researcher visited 34 assisted living facilities in a major Texas city. Methods included walk-through observation with the Assisted Living Facility Walking Environment Checklist, and interviews with administrators by open- and close-ended questions. The data from 26 facilities were analyzed using descriptive statistics (for quantitative data) and content analysis (for qualitative data). The results indicate that (a) residents were walking both indoors and outdoors for exercise or other purposes (e.g., going to destinations); (b) assisted living facility planning and design details-such as neighborhood sidewalk conditions, facility site selection, availability of seating, walking path configuration (e.g., looped/nonlooped path), amount of shading along the path, presence of handrails, existence of signage, etc.-may influence residents' walking behaviors; and (c) current assisted living facilities need improvement in all aspects to make their environments more walkable for residents. Findings of the study provide recommendations for assisted living facilities to improve the walkability of environments and to create environmental interventions to promote regular walking among their residents. This study also implies several directions for future research.

  16. Fabrics Protect Sensitive Skin from UV Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Late Johnson Space Center engineer Dr. Robert Dotts headed a team to develop cool suits for children suffering from life-threatening sun sensitivities. Dotts hoped to develop ultraviolet-blocking technology in a fabric that -- unlike in a bulky space suit -- could remain comfortable, light, and breathable in the sun and heat. The team worked with SPF 4 US LLC (SPF) of Madison, Wisconsin to design ultraviolet-blocking cool suits, which protect sun-sensitive patients and enable them to experience life outdoors safely. Using knowledge gained during the NASA collaboration, SPF created an entire line of ultraviolet-blocking apparel.

  17. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauert, Stefanie; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Knauer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment. - Short-term effects on photosynthesis did not result in growth reduction of submerse macrophytes exposed to PSII inhibitors.

  18. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron to submersed macrophytes in outdoor mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauert, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.knauert@basf.co [University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Hebelstrasse 1, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Knauer, Katja [University of Basel, Program Sustainability Research, Klingelbergstr. 50, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    The submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens were constantly exposed over a five-week period to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine, isoproturon, diuron, and their mixture in outdoor mesocosms. Effects were evaluated investigating photosynthetic efficiency (PE) of the three macrophytes and growth of M. spicatum and E. canadensis. Adverse effects on PE were observed on days 2 and 5 after application. M. spicatum was found to be the more sensitive macrophyte. E. canadensis and P. lucens were less sensitive to atrazine, diuron and the mixture and insensitive to isoproturon. PE of M. spicatum was similarly affected by the single herbicides and the mixture demonstrating concentration addition. Growth of E. canadensis and M. spicatum was not reduced indicating that herbicide exposure did not impair plant development. Although PE measurements turned out to be a sensitive method to monitor PSII herbicides, plant growth remains the more relevant ecological endpoint in risk assessment. - Short-term effects on photosynthesis did not result in growth reduction of submerse macrophytes exposed to PSII inhibitors.

  19. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes at an Outdoor Piggery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Fleming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets. We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”, it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows, and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most vulnerable, especially when they are born out in the paddock, but older piglets were also lost. A significant ( p = 0.001 effect of individual sow identification on the weaning rate, but no effect of sow age (parity, suggests that individual sow behavior towards predators influences predation risk for litters. We tracked the movement of piglet carcasses by foxes, and confirmed that foxes make use of patches of native vegetation for cover, although there was no effect of paddock, distance to vegetation, or position on the farm on weaning rate. Trials with non-toxic baits reveal high levels

  20. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  1. Residential outdoor water use in Tucson, Arizona: Geospatial, demographic and temporal perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, Alexander I.

    Outdoor water use by single-family residences in the desert city of Tucson, Arizona is investigated as a multi-scaled coupled human-environment system, using remotely sensed images, GIS data, household water use records and survey responses. Like many desert cities, Tucson's municipal water system faces stresses at multiple spatial and temporal scales: rising demand, limited supplies, competition for distant resources and the likelihood of shortages due to regional climate change. Though the need for demand management is recognized, conflict between the long-term regional scale of the ecosystem that sustains Tucson's water supply and the short-term, local scale of the municipal utility results in a "lack of fit", shown here as the inability to reduce consumption to sustainable levels. While direct regulation of outdoor water use has not been successful, geographic research suggests that modification of the built environment, the focus of the three studies comprising this dissertation, holds promise as a demand management strategy. The first study is a spatial analysis of survey responses on outdoor water use practices during a drought. Next, the potential for substituting common amenities (irrigated landscapes and swimming pools) for private ones is investigated. Residential use was found to be sensitive to park proximity, greenness (proxied by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), size and presence of a park pool. Most small parks were net water savers; large parks offered the opportunity to substitute reclaimed water for potable supplies. The last study correlates long-term Landsat-based vegetation and water use trends and integrates these with a spatial analysis of kinetic temperatures. Findings indicate that despite reduced water use, Tucson became greener over the 1995 -- 2008 period. This effect is attributed to a pulse of vegetation establishment in response to a shift in the El Nino -- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO

  2. Research on Integration of Indoor and Outdoor Positioning in Professional Athletic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GNSS is widely used in professional athletic training as an outdoor location based services, and the indoor positioning technology has gradually flourished in the gymnasium. To keep up with the demand for athletic training in indoor and outdoor environment, integration of indoor and outdoor positioning technology can achieve a seamless indoor/outdoor position solution. The proposed method uses GPS/BEIDOU with IMU-MEMS technology for outdoor positioning and UWB with IMU-MEMS technology for indoor positioning to provide high precision positioning services. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve meter level position accuracy in outdoor environment and centimeter level position accuracy in indoor environment, it can provide precise and real-time positioning service for effective athletic training aid.

  3. The Relationship between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Godbole, Suneeta; Neukam, Suvi; Crist, Katie; Wasilenko, Kari; Golshan, Shahrokh; Buchner, David

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for...

  4. Temperament Is Associated With Outdoor Free Play in Young Children: A TARGet Kids! Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Julia R; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Abdullah, Kawsari; Chen, Yang; Perrin, Eliana M; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    Outdoor free play is important for preschoolers' physical activity, health, and development. Certain temperamental characteristics are associated with obesity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviors in preschoolers, but the relationship between temperament and outdoor play has not been examined. This study examined whether there is an association between temperament and outdoor play in young children. Healthy children aged 1 to 5 years recruited to The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!), a community-based primary care research network, from July 2008 to September 2013 were included. Parent-reported child temperament was assessed using the Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Outdoor free play and other potential confounding variables were assessed through validated questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between temperament and outdoor play, adjusted for potential confounders. There were 3393 children with data on outdoor play. The association between negative affectivity and outdoor play was moderated by sex; in boys, for every 1-point increase in negative affectivity score, mean outdoor play decreased by 4.7 minutes per day. There was no significant association in girls. Surgency was associated with outdoor play; for every 1-point increase in surgency/extraversion, outdoor play increased by 4.6 minutes per day. Young children's temperamental characteristics were associated with their participation in outdoor free play. Consideration of temperament could enhance interventions and strategies to increase outdoor play in young children. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between children's early temperament and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, James

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

  6. Should people be physically active outdoors on smog alert days?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Monica E; Li, Qian; Gingrich, Sarah E; Macfarlane, Ronald G; Cheng, Shouquan

    2005-01-01

    Given the importance of physical activity to well-being, there is a need to encourage people to be physically active year-round. At the same time, many people are vulnerable to adverse health effects from air pollution, especially on smog alert days. This study was undertaken to determine when air pollution levels tend to be lowest so that the public can modify strenuous outdoor activity accordingly. Existing hourly air pollution data for Toronto were analyzed to determine how pollutant levels varied from hour to hour throughout each 24-hour day, to identify the times when pollution levels are at their lowest on average. Pollutant levels vary throughout the day, with concentrations of some pollutants (such as ozone, particles and sulphur dioxide) being highest during mid-day, and others (such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide) being highest with morning rush hour. Overall, pollutant concentrations tend to be lowest before seven a.m. and after eight p.m. The public should be encouraged to maintain regular physical activity outdoors while monitoring any air pollution-related symptoms. The intensity of outdoor activity should be reduced, or activities replaced with indoor exercise, at those Air Quality Index (AQI) levels that trigger individual symptoms and when AQI values exceed 50. Where possible, strenuous activity should be taken when and where air pollution levels tend to be lowest, namely early in the morning and in low-traffic areas. More research is required to guide development of health protective advice on exercising when air quality is poor.

  7. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Fronka, A.; Moucka, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  8. Injury rates from walking, gardening, weightlifting, outdoor bicycling, and aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, K E; Heath, G W; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Branche, C M

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this survey was to estimate the frequency of injuries associated with five commonly performed moderately intense activities: walking for exercise, gardening and yard work, weightlifting, aerobic dance, and outdoor bicycling. National estimates were derived from weighted responses of over 5,000 individuals contacted between April 28 and September 18, 1994, via random-digit dialing of U.S. residential telephone numbers. Self-reported participation in these five activities in the late spring and summer of 1994 was common, ranging from an estimated 14.5 +/- 1.2% of the population for aerobics (nearly 30 million people) to 73.0 +/- 1.5% for walking (about 138 million people). Among participants, the activity-specific 30-d prevalence of injury ranged from 0.9 +- 0.5% for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.4 +- 1.3% for weightlifting. The estimated number in the 30 d of people injured in the 30 d before their interview ranged from 330,000 for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.1 million for gardening or yard work. Incidence rates for injury causing reduced participation in activity were 1.1 +/- 0.5x100 participantsx30 d for walking, 1.1 +/- 0.4 for gardening, and 3.3 +/- 1.9 for weightlifting. During walking and gardening, men and women were equally likely to be injured, but younger people (18-44 yr) were more likely to be injured than older people (45 + yr). Injury rates were low, yet large numbers of people were injured because participation rates were high. Most injuries were minor, but injuries may reduce participation in these otherwise beneficial activities. Additional studies to confirm the magnitude of the problem, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to recommend methods to reduce the frequency of such injuries are needed.

  9. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  10. Adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Baiz, N; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2012-09-01

    Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are potentially highly susceptible to the effects of outdoor air pollution due to normal and pathological ageing. The purpose of the present review was to gather data on the effects on respiratory health of outdoor air pollution in the elderly, on whom data are scarce. These show statistically significant short-term and chronic adverse effects of various outdoor air pollutants on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the elderly. When exposed to air pollution, the elderly experience more hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and higher COPD mortality than others. Previous studies also indicate that research on the health effects of air pollution in the elderly has been affected by methodological problems in terms of exposure and health effect assessments. Few pollutants have been considered, and exposure assessment has been based mostly on background air pollution and more rarely on objective measurements and modelling. Significant progress needs to be made through the development of 'hybrid' models utilising the strengths of information on exposure in various environments to several air pollutants, coupled with daily activity exposure patterns. Investigations of chronic effects of air pollution and of multi-pollutant mixtures are needed to better understand the role of air pollution in the elderly. Lastly, smoking, occupation, comorbidities, treatment and the neighbourhood context should be considered as confounders or modifiers of such a role. In this context, the underlying biological, physiological and toxicological mechanisms need to be explored to better understand the phenomenon through a multidisciplinary approach.

  11. Alcohol and tobacco marketing: evaluating compliance with outdoor advertising guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Molly M; Cohen, Deborah A; Schonlau, Matthias; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the alcohol and tobacco industries have been the biggest users of outdoor advertising. However, the 1999 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) outlawed tobacco billboards and transit furniture (e.g., bus, bench) ads, and the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) has pledged to voluntarily eliminate ads for alcohol and tobacco within 500 feet of schools, playgrounds, and churches. Outdoor advertisements were observed (2004-2005) in a sample of urban census tracts (106 in pre-Katrina southern Louisiana and 114 in Los Angeles County) to evaluate tobacco and alcohol advertisers' compliance with the MSA and the OAAA Code of Industry Principles. Data were analyzed in 2007-2008. More than one in four tobacco ads in Louisiana failed to comply with the MSA. In Los Angeles, 37% of alcohol ads and 25% of tobacco ads were located within 500 feet of a school, playground, or church; in Louisiana, roughly one in five ads promoting alcohol or tobacco fell within this distance. In Los Angeles, low-income status and the presence of a freeway in the tract were associated with 40% more alcohol and tobacco billboards near children. In Louisiana, each additional major roadway-mile was associated with 4% more tobacco ads-in violation of MSA-and 7% more small ads near schools, playgrounds, and churches; city jurisdiction accounted for 55% of MSA violations and more than 70% of the violations of OAAA guidelines. Cities must be empowered to deal locally with violations of the MSA. Legislation may be needed to force advertisers to honor their pledge to protect children from alcohol and tobacco ads.

  12. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  13. Functional Poly(ε-caprolactone)s via Copolymerization of ε-Caprolactone and Pyridyl Disulfide-Containing Cyclic Carbonate: Controlled Synthesis and Facile Access to Reduction-Sensitive Biodegradable Graft Copolymer Micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Zou, Yan; Jia, Junna; Meng, Fenghua; Cheng, Ru; Deng, Chao; Feijen, Jan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Pyridyl disulfide-functionalized cyclic carbonate (PDSC) monomer was obtained in four straightforward steps from 3-methyl-3-oxetanemethanol and exploited for facile preparation of functional poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) containing pendant pyridyl disulfide (PDS) groups via ring-opening

  14. On the applicability of models for outdoor sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    not only sound pressure levels but also phase information. Such methods are, however, not always able to predict the sound field for more complicated scenarios involving terrain features, atmospheric wind and temperature gradients and turbulence. Another class of methods is based upon approximate theory......The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound fields depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive methods such as Parabolic Equation methods, FFP methods and Boundary Element Methods all have advantages in certain situations. These approaches are accurate and predict...

  15. On the applicability of models for outdoor sound (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    not only sound pressure levels but also phase information. Such methods are, however, not always able to predict the sound field for more complicated scenarios involving terrain features, atmospheric wind and temperature gradients, and turbulence. Another class of methods is based upon approximate theory......The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound fields depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive methods such as parabolic equation methods, FFP methods, and boundary element methods all have advantages in certain situations. These approaches are accurate and predict...

  16. Economic Impact of Intelligent Dynamic Control in Urban Outdoor Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the possible energy savings in various approaches to outdoor lighting modernization. Several solutions implementable using currently-available systems are presented and discussed. An innovative approach using real-time sensor data is also presented in detail, along with its formal background, based on Artificial Intelligence methods (rule-based systems and graph transformations. The efficiency of all approaches has been estimated and compared using real-life data recorded at an urban setting. The article also presents other aspects which influence the efficiency and feasibility of intelligent lighting projects, including design quality, design workload and conformance to standards.

  17. Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.

    1984-09-11

    The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion containing propeller fan means for drawing air through the lower portion containing refrigerant coil means in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed. 4 figs.

  18. Spatial Resilience of Outdoor Domestic Space in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Felicio Veríssimo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the people of Mozambique have faced oppression and social spatial segregation and responded in a way that has reinforced rather than dismantled their traditional values. Since pre-colonial times, the population’s strategy for escaping from environmental and foreign political disruption has been to reinvent tradition, based on the principles of resilience, resistance and self-reliance. The development of decentralised human settlements, involving the appropriation of land for domestic space and the self-organisation of neighbourhoods, were strategies to protect communities from adversity and secure collective self-reliance. Following Mozambique’s conversion to globalization, the post-colonial ‘cement city’ is now the core of neo-liberalism, as a node of the global economy, where foreign donors and international market economy control national political economy, exacerbating the premise of the negation of self-sufficiency that continues to evolve resiliently at its margins. The adoption of a neo-liberal model of development during the 1990s, completely bypasses the realities of Mozambican society. This paper argues that the strategy of self-production of space regarding the household/Outdoor Domestic Space unit, which existed previously as a resistance strategy, first of all against colonialism and secondly, against the statist definition of socialism, thirdly, has become a successful strategy for survival, as the building block of the decentralised Agrocity, in the face of a global economy which totally neglects both the people and the land. Outdoor Domestic Space is a multifaceted space that refers to the external space surrounding the built house and which, in the case of Mozambique, is where daily life takes place, involving strong social, ecological and productive functions. Under successive periods of political economy oppression and environmental adversity, the Outdoor Domestic Space has been adapted and refined to

  19. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michelle L.; Elder, Alison; Auten, Rick L.; Bilbo, Staci D.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Costa, Daniel; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Dorman, David C.; Gold, Diane; Gray, Kimberly; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Kaufman, Joel D.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Kirshner, Annette; Lawler, Cindy; Miller, David S.; Nadadur, Sri; Ritz, Beate; Semmens, Erin O.; Tonelli, Leonardo H.; Veronesi, Bellina; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that outdoor air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists that was assigned the task of identifying research gaps and priority goals essential for advancing this growing field and addressing an emerging human health concern. Here, we review recent findings that have established the effects of inhaled air pollutants in the brain, explore the potential mechanisms driving these phenomena, and discuss the recommended research priorities/approaches that were identified by the panel. PMID:22981845

  20. Parametric Design of Outdoor Broadcasting Studio Based on Schema Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly demonstrates that the schema is an important way for the architect to cognize architecture form logic. It connects schema to algorithm of parametric design in order to seek the “algorithm schema” generation in parametric design of architecture. Meanwhile, this paper discusses the generative process and methods of the “algorithm schema” in parametric design of architecture by describing a case of outdoor broadcasting studio of Hunan Economic Radio. It also reveals the importance of “algorithm schema” for the cognition and architectural form logic generation.

  1. Estimating Outdoor Illumination Conditions Based on Detection of Dynamic Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Lal, Brajesh Behari

    2013-01-01

    into the image stream to achieve realistic Augmented Reality where the shading and the shadowing of virtual objects is consistent with the real scene. Other techniques require the presence of a known object, a light probe, in the scene for estimating illumination. The technique proposed here works in general......The paper proposes a technique for estimation outdoor illumination conditions in terms of sun and sky radiances directly from pixel values of dynamic shadows detected in video sequences produved by a commercial stereo camera. The technique is applied to the rendering of virtual object...

  2. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  3. Indoor and Outdoor Mobile Mapping Systems for Architectural Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, M.; di Luggo, A.; Monaco, S.; Siconolfi, M.; Palomba, D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of architectural surveys carried out with mobile mapping systems. The data acquired through different instruments for both indoor and outdoor surveying are analyzed and compared. The study sample shows what is required for an acquisition in a dynamic mode indicating the criteria for the creation of a georeferenced network for indoor spaces, as well as the operational processes concerning data capture, processing, and management. The differences between a dynamic and static scan have been evaluated, with a comparison being made with the aerial photogrammetric survey of the same sample.

  4. Sub-Surface Windscreen for Outdoor Measurement of Infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A windscreen is configured for measuring outdoor infrasonic sound. The windscreen includes a container and a microphone. The container defines a chamber. The microphone is disposed in the chamber and can be operatively supported by the floor. The microphone is configured for detecting infrasonic sound. The container is advantageously formed from material that exhibits an acoustic impedance of between 0 and approximately 3150 times the acoustic impedance of air. A reflector plate may be disposed in the container. The reflector plate operatively can support the microphone and provides a doubling effect of infrasonic pressure at the microphone.

  5. Stochastic Automata for Outdoor Semantic Mapping using Optimised Signal Quantisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caponetti, Fabio; Blas, Morten Rufus; Blanke, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous robots require many types of information to obtain intelligent and safe behaviours. For outdoor operations, semantic mapping is essential and this paper proposes a stochastic automaton to localise the robot within the semantic map. For correct modelling and classi¯cation under...... uncertainty, this paper suggests quantising robotic perceptual features, according to a probabilistic description, and then optimising the quantisation. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art techniques that can assess the con¯dence of their classi¯cation. Data recorded on an autonomous...

  6. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD. For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development will be presented. Basic theories and models will be analysed as well as the benefits earned and evaluation concerns about the effectiveness of such training programs.

  7. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility and changes in sense of autonomy in participation outdoors among older people: a prospective two-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Iwarsson, Susanne; Kauppinen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to study whether perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility affect changes in sense of autonomy in participation outdoors among community-dwelling older people over a two-year period. Community-dwelling people aged 75-90 years (n = 848) in central Finland were interviewed on two occasions, face-to-face at baseline and over the telephone two years later. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility were assessed using a 15-item structured questionnaire, and the sum scores categorized into tertiles (0, 1 and 2 or more barriers). Autonomy in participation outdoors was assessed with the 'Impact on Participation and Autonomy' (IPA) questionnaire using the autonomy outdoors subscale (score range 0-20, higher scores indicating more restricted autonomy). Scores for autonomy in participation outdoors were available for 848 participants at baseline (mean 6.2, SD = 3.8) and for 748 participants at the two-year follow-up (mean 6.7, SD = 3.9). At baseline, those reporting multiple environmental barriers had the most restricted autonomy, while those reporting no environmental barriers had the least restricted autonomy (p autonomy in participation outdoors declined more among those reporting multiple environmental barriers compared to those reporting none (age- and sex-adjusted group*time β = .629, s.e. = .277, p = .023). Adjustment for cognitive functioning, education, number of chronic conditions and change in walking difficulty did not influence the association. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility accelerate the decline in autonomy in participation outdoors among older community-dwelling people. Understanding factors affecting autonomy can help in finding ways to support the sense of autonomy as people age.

  8. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  9. Geometric and Colour Data Fusion for Outdoor 3D Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chacón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture, we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields.

  10. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant.

  11. Radon survey in outdoor workplaces of the Tsugaru area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    We previously surveyed indoor Rn concentration in homes throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1991 to 1995, and found a mean Rn concentration of 9 Bq m -3 . For accurate evaluation of radiation dose from Rn, its concentration not only in the home but also in workplaces and schools is important, since workers and students spend approximately one-third of the day in these places. Then, we obtained indoor Rn concentrations in several indoor workplaces and schools in Aomori Prefecture. Now, measurements of Rn in outdoor workplaces have been planned for the prefecture during a two-year period. Results for half the prefecture, the Tsugaru area, are described here. Passive Rn detectors using polycarbonate film were employed for long-term monitoring. Diurnal variations of Rn and its daughter nuclides were measured by an active Rn detector with an ionization chamber and a working level meter, respectively. The mean Rn concentration obtained with the passive detectors was approximately 6 Bq m -3 in the outdoor workplaces, and lower than that in the indoor workplaces and school (14 Bq m -3 ). The Rn concentrations for fishing boats and harbors were slightly lower than typical values and some data for forests were higher than other workplaces. The diurnal variations, i.e. higher concentrations at night and lower ones during the day, were observed by the active detectors. (author)

  12. Technique for Outdoor Test on Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sansoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor experimentation of solar cells is essential to maximize their performance and to assess utilization requirements and limits. More generally tests with direct exposure to the sun are useful to understand the behavior of components and new materials for solar applications in real working conditions. Insolation and ambient factors are uncontrollable but can be monitored to know the environmental situation of the solar exposure experiment. A parallel characterization of the photocells can be performed in laboratory under controllable and reproducible conditions. A methodology to execute solar exposure tests is proposed and practically applied on photovoltaic cells for a solar cogeneration system. The cells are measured with concentrated solar light obtained utilizing a large Fresnel lens mounted on a sun tracker. Outdoor measurements monitor the effects of the exposure of two multijunction photovoltaic cells to focused sunlight. The main result is the continuous acquisition of the V-I (voltage-current curve for the cells in different conditions of solar concentration and temperature of exercise to assess their behavior. The research investigates electrical power extracted, efficiency, temperatures reached, and possible damages of the photovoltaic cell.

  13. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Information and communication technology solutions for outdoor navigation in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Babiloni, Claudio; Hoey, Jesse; Kaye, Jeffrey; Kirste, Thomas; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2016-06-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is potentially mature enough to empower outdoor and social activities in dementia. However, actual ICT-based devices have limited functionality and impact, mainly limited to safety. What is an ideal operational framework to enhance this field to support outdoor and social activities? Review of literature and cross-disciplinary expert discussion. A situation-aware ICT requires a flexible fine-tuning by stakeholders of system usability and complexity of function, and of user safety and autonomy. It should operate by artificial intelligence/machine learning and should reflect harmonized stakeholder values, social context, and user residual cognitive functions. ICT services should be proposed at the prodromal stage of dementia and should be carefully validated within the life space of users in terms of quality of life, social activities, and costs. The operational framework has the potential to produce ICT and services with high clinical impact but requires substantial investment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of natural radioactivity levels using gamma dosimetry outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josineide M.N.; Santos Júnior, José A.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Silva, Arykerne N.C.; Santos Junior, Otávio P.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Fernández, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Radiometric studies have been increasingly needed as an alternative to evaluate possible effects of natural radioactivity in humans, considering that the responses to health problems, in the main, depart from the environment of individuals, survival practices and human development. The present study aimed at the realization of the outdoor radiometry in the municipality of Paraíba, Brazil, to determine a value that can express and guide a reference for radiometry local, making it possible to describe some impact on the health of the population. The results were obtained by 'in situ' measurements using a gamma detector, calibrated to measure the dosimetric quantity of the effective environmental dose rate. Monitoring data ranged from 0.06 to 0.38 mSv/y, with a mean and deviation of 0.20 ± 0.04 mSv/y, whose trend measurement can be assumed to be representative of the effective dose rate of the environment outdoor, characterizing the area as low background radiation, whose parameter dosimetric and means evaluated, did not provide justification to impact on the increase in the occurrences of diseases in the local population. (author)

  16. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Radon survey in outdoor workplaces of the Nanbu area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Naoyuki; Koyama, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    We previously surveyed indoor Rn concentration in homes throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1991 to 1995, and found a mean Rn concentration of 9 Bq m -3 . For accurate evaluation of radiation dose from Rn, its concentration not only in the home but also in workplaces and schools is important, since workers and students spend approximately one-third of the day in these places. Then, we obtained indoor Rn concentrations in several workplaces and schools in Aomori Prefecture. Now, measurements of outdoor Rn in workplaces have been planned for the prefecture during a two year period. The results for half the prefecture, the Nanbu area are described here. Passive Rn detectors using polycarbonate film were employed for long-term monitoring. Diurnal variations of Rn and its daughter nuclides were measured by an active Rn detector with an ionization chamber and a working level meter, respectively. The geometric mean Rn concentration obtained with the passive detectors was approximately 3 Bq m -3 in the outdoor workplaces, and lower than that in the indoor workplaces and school (14 Bq m -3 ). The Rn concentrations in fishing boats and harbors were slightly lower than typical values and some data for forests were higher than other workplaces. The diurnal variations which were higher at night and lower during the day were observed by the active detectors. (author)

  18. Air ion concentrations in various urban outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xuan; Jayaratne, Rohan; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-06-01

    Atmospheric ions are produced by many natural and anthropogenic sources and their concentrations vary widely between different environments. There is very little information on their concentrations in different types of urban environments, how they compare across these environments and their dominant sources. In this study, we measured airborne concentrations of small ions, particles and net particle charge at 32 different outdoor sites in and around a major city in Australia and identified the main ion sources. Sites were classified into seven groups as follows: park, woodland, city centre, residential, freeway, power lines and power substation. Generally, parks were situated away from ion sources and represented the urban background value of about 270 ions cm -3. Median concentrations at all other groups were significantly higher than in the parks. We show that motor vehicles and power transmission systems are two major ion sources in urban areas. Power lines and substations constituted strong unipolar sources, while motor vehicle exhaust constituted strong bipolar sources. The small ion concentration in urban residential areas was about 960 cm -3. At sites where ion sources were co-located with particle sources, ion concentrations were inhibited due to the ion-particle attachment process. These results improved our understanding on air ion distribution and its interaction with particles in the urban outdoor environment.

  19. Investigation of natural radioactivity levels using gamma dosimetry outdoors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josineide M.N.; Santos Júnior, José A.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Silva, Arykerne N.C.; Santos Junior, Otávio P.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fernández, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V., E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: ary_casado@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: zahily.herrerofernandez@ufpe.br, E-mail: lino.valcarcel@ufpe.br, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br [Center for Applied Technology and Nuclear Development, Havana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    Radiometric studies have been increasingly needed as an alternative to evaluate possible effects of natural radioactivity in humans, considering that the responses to health problems, in the main, depart from the environment of individuals, survival practices and human development. The present study aimed at the realization of the outdoor radiometry in the municipality of Paraíba, Brazil, to determine a value that can express and guide a reference for radiometry local, making it possible to describe some impact on the health of the population. The results were obtained by 'in situ' measurements using a gamma detector, calibrated to measure the dosimetric quantity of the effective environmental dose rate. Monitoring data ranged from 0.06 to 0.38 mSv/y, with a mean and deviation of 0.20 ± 0.04 mSv/y, whose trend measurement can be assumed to be representative of the effective dose rate of the environment outdoor, characterizing the area as low background radiation, whose parameter dosimetric and means evaluated, did not provide justification to impact on the increase in the occurrences of diseases in the local population. (author)

  20. Outdoor air pollution, genetic susceptibility, and asthma management: opportunities for intervention to reduce the burden of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Frank D

    2009-03-01

    Outdoor air pollution at levels occurring in many urban areas around the world has substantial adverse effects on health. Children in general, and children with asthma in particular, are sensitive to the adverse effects of outdoor air pollutants, including ozone, nitrogen oxides, and respirable particulate matter. A growing number of studies also show that children living in environments near traffic have increased risks of new-onset asthma, asthma symptoms, exacerbations, school absences, and asthma-related hospitalizations. The large population of children exposed to high levels of outdoor air pollutants and the substantial risks for adverse health effects present unexploited opportunities to reduce the burden of asthma. Because the evidence indicates significant adverse effects of air pollution at current levels, there is clearly a need to reduce levels of regulated pollutants such as ozone, as well as unregulated pollutants in tailpipe emissions from motor vehicles. Achieving this long-term goal requires the active involvement of physicians and medical providers to ensure that the health of children is at the top of the list of competing priorities for regulatory policy decision-making. Clinical approaches include treatment to control asthma and patient education to reduce adverse effects of the disease. Reduction in exposures also can be approached at a policy level through changes in schools and school bus operations. Beyond clinical and public health approaches to reduce exposure, another strategy to be used before clean air goals are met is to decrease the susceptibility of children to air pollution. Emerging research indicates that dietary supplementation for individuals with low antioxidant levels is one promising approach to reducing susceptibility to air pollution. A second approach involves induction of enzymatic antioxidant defenses, especially for individuals with at-risk genetic variants of key antioxidant enzymes.

  1. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 ± 0.1 mSv.y -1 . For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 ± 0.12 mSv.y -1 . (author)

  2. Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing growth with digestate from biogas plant in outdoor bag photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, F; Venditti, A; Bianco, A; Guarcini, L; Bottari, E; Festa, M R; Cogliani, E; Pignatelli, V

    2016-01-01

    Digestate coming from an Anaerobic Digestion unit in a Biogas Plant, feeded on cow manure and vegetable waste from markets, has been used. About 8-35 L polyethylene transparent bags have been employed as cultivation container, outdoor. Different aliquots of digestate, alone or mixed with commercial liquid fertiliser, were employed to cultivate in batch Scenedesus dimorphus, a freshwater green microalga, in the ENEA facilities of Casaccia Research Center, near Rome, Italy. The cultivation period was June-July 2013. The average daily yields of dry microalgae biomass varied from 20 mg/L/d to 60 mg/L/d, mean 38.2 mg/L/d. Final dry biomass concentration varied from 0.18 to 1.29 g/L, mean 0.55 g/L. S. dimorphus proved to be very efficient in removing N and P from the culture medium. Another fact emerged from these trials is that S. dimorphus inner composition resulted to be variable in response to the tested different culture conditions.

  3. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  4. Allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Hummelshøj, Lone; Plantinga, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is the outcome of a complex interplay between the allergen and the host in a given environmental context. The first barrier encountered by an allergen on its way to sensitization is the mucosal epithelial layer. Allergic inflammatory diseases are accompanied by increased pe...

  5. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research FacilityFacilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  6. ‘Getting Children Outdoors again’ - Outdoor Play for children in a rural North West of Ireland setting: A civic engagement Project

    OpenAIRE

    McGonagle, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Children’s’ Outdoor play nowadays is the preferred approach to playing indoors which has become a constant focus of influences and powers of technology. Children spend hours on social media sites, isolated playing video games and lost in technologically powered screens (Larson et al, 2011). As a results of this disengagement with outdoors activities, children fall victims to many problems including obesity, social exclusion, and in some cases behavioural issues Fresh air and exercise are prob...

  7. An Investigation of Mobile Technologies and Web 2.0 Tools Use in Outdoor Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Doris U.; Shepherd, Craig E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how instructors and learners in residential outdoor education programs utilized mobile technologies and Web 2.0 applications. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with instructors, support staff, and administrators at a nonprofit institution that provides outdoor education programs. Sixty-five participants in those…

  8. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household...

  9. Innovative Outdoor Fieldwork Pedagogies in the Higher Education Sector: Optimising the Use of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn J.; Munge, Brendon

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor fieldwork has been a long-standing pedagogy in the higher education sector, across a range of disciplines. Based on a review of the literature, this paper explores the use of outdoor fieldwork in the 21st century university with particular reference to the way technology contributes to student learning. Research has indicated that…

  10. Judgment and Decision Making in Outdoor Adventure Leadership: A Dual-Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Clinton A.

    2016-01-01

    From an examination of the current textbooks and literature concerning judgment and decision-making models used in outdoor adventure leadership, it is easy to see that they are still deeply rooted in the classical decision-making theory. In this article, I will (a) outline the importance of good judgment and decision making in an outdoor adventure…

  11. Recreation visitor preferences for and perceptions of outdoor recreation setting attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1994, a comprehensive national survey was conducted by the USDA Forest Service (FS), Southern Research Station, to measure visitor preferences for, and perceptions of, setting attributes at a variety of outdoor recreation sites. Over 11,000 visitors at 31 outdoor recreation sites across the country were interviewed in this study. The study was entitled...

  12. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  13. Examining the Fruits of the Outdoor Education Tree from a Gender Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia

    This paper describes a longitudinal study of a residential outdoor education school program in Australia. Specifically, the research tracked 409 ninth-grade students for up to 24 months to determine the impact on boys and girls of an extended-stay outdoor education program. The program is located at Timbertop, a coeducational school in a…

  14. Predictors of Change in Body Image in Female Participants of an Outdoor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kate; Foland, Jody; Foley, John T.; Kniffin, Mike; Bailey, JoEllen

    2016-01-01

    Body image is an ever-changing phenomenon that has a profound effect on women's quality of life. Research related to body image is expansive, but few researchers have focused on how outdoor education may influence body image. This study examines predictors of change in body image of female participants of an outdoor education program. Twenty-eight…

  15. Promoting Physical Activity and Science Learning in an Outdoor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kevin E.; Yan, Zi; McInnis, Kyle J.

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor education programs have been shown to have a positive effect on the educational, physical and emotional development of youth. They are increasingly being used to foster a sense of community in schools and to provide students with learning opportunities related to the environment. This article describes an integrated outdoor education…

  16. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children : A large-scale cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. Purpose: This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were

  17. Outdoor Education and Mobile Learning: An Autobiographical Narrative Using Application-Based Information and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeff, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Although mobile learning using smartphones and applications or apps have the potential to inform and educate individuals in an outdoor environment, users may find that connectivity issues and basic knowledge of outdoor environments, including both physical and emotional, could be limited by what this technology provided. This study provided my…

  18. Entering the Fray: The Role of Outdoor Education in Providing Nature-Based Experiences that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Robbie

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on different bodies of knowledge in order to review the potential role of outdoor education in providing nature-based experiences that might contribute to sustainable living. A pragmatic perspective is adopted to critique what outdoor education is, and then what it might be. Phenomenology is used to challenge the belief that…

  19. Outdoor Education and School Curriculum Distinctiveness: More than Content, More than Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, John

    2016-01-01

    For many years now, those of us engaged with outdoor education curriculum work in Australia have been debating questions which orbit around the issue of defining outdoor education. We claim to be doing so in order to clarify what we are pursuing educationally, our purpose, not only for ourselves but for others, so that we can legitimately stake…

  20. The Place of Experience and the Experience of Place: Intersections between Sustainability Education and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allen

    2013-01-01

    As social, economic and environmental issues have become more prominent in the 21st century, there has been increased critical scrutiny into the ways that outdoor learning interacts with sustainability issues and concepts. As a result, a number of discourses have emerged which interrogate human/nature relationships in traditional outdoor education…