WorldWideScience

Sample records for outdoor environments illustrate

  1. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  2. Slam estimation in dynamic outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheyuan; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi; コ, シンテイ; ウチムラ, ケイイチ; 胡, 振程; 内村, 圭一

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different approaches to estimate simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in dynamic outdoor environments. SLAM has been intensively researched in recent years in the field of robotics and intelligent vehicles, many approaches have been proposed including occupancy grid mapping method (Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer and Fuzzy Logic), Localization estimation method (edge or point features based direct scan matching techniques, probabilistic likelihood, EK...

  3. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar

    2015-05-01

    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration.

  4. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  5. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  6. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  7. Providing Virtual Execution Environments: A Twofold Illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Grehant, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Platform virtualization helps solving major grid computing challenges: share resource with flexible, user-controlled and custom execution environments and in the meanwhile, isolate failures and malicious code. Grid resource management tools will evolve to embrace support for virtual resource. We present two open source projects that transparently supply virtual execution environments. Tycoon has been developed at HP Labs to optimise resource usage in creating an economy where users bid to access virtual machines and compete for CPU cycles. SmartDomains provides a peer-to-peer layer that automates virtual machines deployment using a description language and deployment engine from HP Labs. These projects demonstrate both client-server and peer-to-peer approaches to virtual resource management. The first case makes extensive use of virtual machines features for dynamic resource allocation. The second translates virtual machines capabilities into a sophisticated language where resource management components can b...

  8. Terrain Mapping and Classification in Outdoor Environments Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Yukinobu Hata; Denis Fernando Wolf; Gustavo Pessin; Fernando Osório

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional terrain mapping and classification technique to allow the operation of mobile robots in outdoor environments using laser range finders. We propose the use of a multi-layer perceptron neural network to classify the terrain into navigable, partially navigable, and non-navigable. The maps generated by our approach can be used for path planning, navigation, and local obstacle avoidance. Experimental tests using an outdoor robot and a laser sensor demonstra...

  9. Built environment, parents' perception, and children's vigorous outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Grize, Leticia; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Sennhauser, Felix H; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the combined effects and relative importance of socio-cultural factors as well as parents' subjectively perceived and objectively assessed environment on time children spent vigorously playing outdoors. Cross-sectional study conducted in Berne, Biel-Bienne, and Payerne (Switzerland) during the school year 2004/2005. Included 1345 parental questionnaires from children out of three age groups (6/7, 9/10, and 13/14 years). A total of 1081 (80%) provided a home address, which could be linked to environmental data using a geographic information system (GIS). GIS-derived main street density in a buffer of 100 m around the home was inversely associated with time playing outdoors in adolescents and younger children, but only in more urbanized areas. In addition and independently of GIS-based main street density, parental concern about traffic safety was associated with less time playing outdoors in primary school children. Girls, adolescents, and children from the French speaking part of the country spent less time playing outdoors. A non-Swiss nationality and having younger siblings increased time playing vigorously outdoors in adolescents. In addition to socio-cultural factors, parents' perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors were significantly associated with the time spent vigorously playing outdoors. These associations differed by age group. Copyright (c) 2010 The Institute For Cancer Prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Planetariums as a Source of Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyma, Aksu; Umdu Topsakal, Ünsal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to study the effect of using planetariums as an outdoor learning environment regarding students' opinions. Therefore, descriptive qualitative research was used. The participants were from a school in Istanbul. Ten students, 4 male and 6 female, participated in a planetarium visit to a museum. The data of the study were…

  11. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  12. Radon concentration in outdoor occupational environments in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sakurai, N.; Inaba, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration in outdoor workplaces were measured in Aomori Prefecture, Japan as a part of a program on measurement of natural radiation background dose to people in the prefecture where Japan's first nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction. 222 Rn concentrations were measured in 116 outdoor workplaces by passive Rn detectors for 10 months, which represented agricultural, forestry, fishery and construction/transportation workplaces. The 222 Rn concentrations in outdoor workplaces were generally lower than those in indoor environments. The dose to workers was estimated by using the results of the passive detectors as well as diurnal variation of 222 Rn and equilibrium factor measured with active-type detectors. The average dose from 222 Rn and its progenies to people in Aomori Prefecture was estimated as 0.39 mSv x y -1 based on the obtained results and results in indoor environments. The contribution of 222 Rn in outdoor workplaces to the total dose was 3.3% because of low occupancy ratio. (author)

  13. Screening the working environment in outdoor pig systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Q; Torén, A; Salomon, E

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated how well organic growing-fattening pig systems provided a safe and healthy working environment and identified areas where improvements are needed. The study formed part of a larger project aimed at identifying strategies for creating a good animal and working environment and resource-efficient nutrient management in outdoor pig systems. Field studies were carried out at six Swedish farms in two types of outdoor pig systems (mobile and stationary). A method known as WEST (Work Environment Screening Tool) and a modified version of WEST, called WEST-agriculture (WEST-AG), were utilized for screening. Together, the two methods covered six factors of the working environment. The results were expressed in WEST-AG points and WEST points, an economic measure of the risk of impacts on health and productivity expressed as Swedish Krona (SEK) per thousand working hours. The results demonstrated that the risk of injury and ergonomic load during manual feeding and watering was much higher than during semi-automatic feeding and watering at farms with the mobile system. The study also identified other health-risk areas and provided valuable information for further improvement of the working environment in different outdoor pig systems.

  14. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate Vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden......More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor......, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment....

  15. High-rise Buildings versus Outdoor Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-sha Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a brief description of the over quick urbanization sinceChongqing, one of the biggest cities in China, has been a municipality directly under theCentral Government in 1997, excessive development and exceeding increase of high-risebuildings because of its special geographical position which finally leads to the worseningof the urban outdoor thermal environment. Then, this paper makes a bright balance to thefield measurement and simulated results of the wind speed field, temperature field of onemultifunctional high-rise building in Chongqing university located in the city center, andthe contrasted results validate the correctness of CFD in the outdoor thermal environmentalsimulation, expose the disadvantages of high-rise buildings on the aspects of blocking thewind field, decreasing wind speed which results in accumulation of the air-conditioningheat revolving around and periscian region where sunshine can not rip into. Finally, inorder to improve the urban outdoor thermal environment near the high-rise buildingsespecially for the angle of natural ventilation, this paper simulates the wind environment indifferent architectural compositions and architectural layouts by CFD, and the simulatedresults show that freestyle and tower buildings which can guarantee the wind speed andtake the air-conditioning heat away are much suitable and reasonable for the specialChongqing geography. These conclusions can also be used as a reference in othermountain cities, especially for the one with a great number of populations.

  16. Air ion concentrations in various urban outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xuan; Jayaratne, Rohan; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-06-01

    Atmospheric ions are produced by many natural and anthropogenic sources and their concentrations vary widely between different environments. There is very little information on their concentrations in different types of urban environments, how they compare across these environments and their dominant sources. In this study, we measured airborne concentrations of small ions, particles and net particle charge at 32 different outdoor sites in and around a major city in Australia and identified the main ion sources. Sites were classified into seven groups as follows: park, woodland, city centre, residential, freeway, power lines and power substation. Generally, parks were situated away from ion sources and represented the urban background value of about 270 ions cm -3. Median concentrations at all other groups were significantly higher than in the parks. We show that motor vehicles and power transmission systems are two major ion sources in urban areas. Power lines and substations constituted strong unipolar sources, while motor vehicle exhaust constituted strong bipolar sources. The small ion concentration in urban residential areas was about 960 cm -3. At sites where ion sources were co-located with particle sources, ion concentrations were inhibited due to the ion-particle attachment process. These results improved our understanding on air ion distribution and its interaction with particles in the urban outdoor environment.

  17. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Fig. 1 : Nicolas Poussin, Ravissement de saint Paul (version Scarron), Paris, musée du Louvre. Fig. 4 : Nicolas Poussin, Ravissement de saint Paul (version Scarron), restitution du format d’origine : environ 128 x 96 cm (détail de la fig. 1). Fig. 5 : Giovanni Lanfranco, Ravissement de la Madeleine, Naples, museo nazionale Capodimonte. Fig. 6 : Nicolas Poussin, Ravissement de saint Paul (version Chantelou), Sarasota, Ringling Museum of Art. Fig. 7 : Nicolas Poussin, Assomption, Paris, mus...

  18. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  19. Sandboxes, Loose Parts, and Playground Equipment: A Descriptive Exploration of Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather; Smith, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine outdoor environments to understand whether or not young children had access to play materials and loose parts to enhance their playful experiences. This study sought to gather the availability of SAFE and quality play opportunities in early childhood outdoor environments. The study took place in one state of…

  20. Does spending time outdoors reduce stress? A review of real-time stress response to outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Sara F. Jacoby; Eugenia C. South

    2018-01-01

    Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review...

  1. The Power of Outdoor Play and Play in Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.; Oh, JiHyun; Kenney, Elizabeth; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Young children's outdoor play serves important and diverse purposes, including physical exercise and opportunities for growth in all developmental areas. Unfortunately, the amount of time that children spend engaged in unstructured, child-directed outdoor play has diminished significantly in the past generation. In this article, the authors…

  2. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  3. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin

    2013-01-01

    the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses...... of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation....... The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect...

  4. Prediction and reduction of aircraft noise in outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Bao N.

    absorption mechanism due to the source's motion. To help mitigate the noise that propagates to the ground, multi-layered acoustic treatments can be applied to provide good performance over a wide range of frequencies. An accurate representation of material properties for each of the constituent layers is needed in the design of such treatments. The parameter of interest is the specific acoustic impedance, which can be obtained via inversion of acoustic transfer function measurements. However, several different impedance values can correspond to the same sound field predictions. The boundary loss factor F (associated with spherical wave reflection) is the source of this ambiguity. A method for identifying the family of solutions and selecting the physically meaningful branch is proposed to resolve this non-uniqueness issue. Accurate deduction of the acoustic impedance depends on precise measurements of the acoustic transfer function. However, measurement uncertainties exists in both the magnitude and the phase of the acoustic transfer function. The ASA/ANSI S1.18 standard impedance deduction method uses phase information, which can be unreliable in many outdoor environments. An improved technique which only relies on magnitude information is developed in this dissertation. A selection of optimal geometries become necessary to reduce the sensitivity of the deduced impedance to small variations in the measured data. A graphical approach is provided which offers greater insight into the optimization problem. A downhill simplex algorithm has been implemented to automate the impedance deduction procedure. Physical constraints are applied to limit the search region and to eliminate rogue solutions. Several case studies consisting of both indoor and outdoor acoustical measurements are presented to validate the proposed technique. The current analysis is limited to locally reacting materials where the acoustic impedance does not depend on the incidence angle of the reflected wave.

  5. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Kurazumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach.

  6. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach. PMID:23861691

  7. The quality of the outdoor environment influences childrens health -- a cross-sectional study of preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, M; Boldemann, C; Sahlin, U; Mårtensson, F; Raustorp, A; Blennow, M

    2013-01-01

    To test how the quality of the outdoor environment of child day care centres (DCCs) influences children's health. The environment was assessed using the Outdoor Play Environmental Categories (OPEC) tool, time spent outdoors and physical activity as measured by pedometer. 172/253 (68%) of children aged 3.0-5.9 from nine DCCs participated in Southern Sweden. Health data collected were body mass index, waist circumference, saliva cortisol, length of night sleep during study, and symptoms and well-being which were scored (1-week diary - 121 parent responders). Also, parent-rated well-being and health of their child were scored (questionnaire, 132 parent responders). MANOVA, ANOVA and principal component analyses were performed to identify impacts of the outdoor environment on health. High-quality outdoor environment at DCCs is associated with several health aspects in children such as leaner body, longer night sleep, better well-being and higher mid-morning saliva cortisol levels. The quality of the outdoor environment at DCCs influenced the health and well-being of preschool children and should be given more attention among health care professionals and community planners. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  8. The relationship between perceived health and physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and outdoors in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-11-01

    A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and public health. National survey data (n = 2,070) from Finland was analysed using structural regression analyses. Perceived general health, emotional well-being, and sleep quality were regressed on the weekly frequency of physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and in nature. Socioeconomic factors and other plausible confounders were controlled for. Emotional well-being showed the most consistent positive connection to physical activity in nature, whereas general health was positively associated with physical activity in both built and natural outdoor settings. Better sleep quality was weakly connected to frequent physical activity in nature, but the connection was outweighed by other factors. The results indicate that nature provides an added value to the known benefits of physical activity. Repeated exercise in nature is, in particular, connected to better emotional well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  9. Natural radioactivity in the Dutch outdoor environment. The explanation of uncomprehended variations in the background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands and many other countries research in the field of natural radioactivity is focused on the prevention of radon in the indoor environment. However, also the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the outdoor environment is an interesting subject to be studied. The natural background radiation in the outdoor environment, in particular its variations, hinders the verification of radiation level standards, caused by human activities. An analysis of the data of the Dutch National Monitoring Network for Radioactivity (LMR) provided more insight into those variations. This article is a summary of the authors' thesis on the subject. 5 figs., 8 refs

  10. Application of computational fluid dynamics in building performance simulation for the outdoor environment: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Stathopoulos, T.; Carmeliet, J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the application of CFD in building performance simulation for the outdoor environment, focused on four topics: (1) pedestrian wind environment around buildings, (2) wind-driven rain on building facades, (3) convective heat transfer coefficients at exterior building

  11. OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS AT CRISIS SHELTERS: User Needs and Preferences with Respect to Design and Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Lygum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify implications for the design of outdoor environments at crisis shelters for women and children survivors of domestic violence. To address this aim, landscape analyses and interviews with staff were conducted at three Danish cases. The findings are presented in descriptions of the three cases in terms of the number of residents, context, building type and the characteristics of outdoor environments. Furthermore, a thematic content analysis of the interviews resulted in five categories that offer a nuanced insight into how the different types of outdoor environments support crisis shelter functions. The categories are: Protection against perpetrators of violence and helping residents to feel safe; Accessibility in the design, straightforward activities and staff guidance; Being outside and the positive distractions of nature; Space for all; Room to play and relieve children’s feelings. Finally, the findings were summarized to give an overview of implications for design.

  12. Robustness of Visual Place Cells in Dynamic Indoor and Outdoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giovannangeli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model of visual place cells (PCs based on precise neurobiological data is presented. The robustness of the model in real indoor and outdoor environments is tested. Results show that the interplay between neurobiological modelling and robotic experiments can promote the understanding of the neural structures and the achievement of robust robot navigation algorithms. Short Term Memory (STM, soft competition and sparse coding are important for both landmark identification and computation of PC activities. The extension of the paradigm to outdoor environments has confirmed the robustness of the vision-based model and pointed to improvements in order to further foster its performance.

  13. Outdoor-indoor air pollution in urban environment: Challenges and opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Y.C. eLeung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continual improvement in our quality of life, indoor air quality has become an important area of concern in the 21st century. Indoor air quality is affected by many factors including the type and running conditions of indoor pollution sources, ventilation conditions, as well as indoor activities. Studies revealed that the outdoor environment is also an important factor that cannot be neglected for indoor air quality studies. In this review, the indoor and outdoor air pollution relationships obtained from different studies are discussed in order to identify the key factors affecting the indoor air quality. As climate change is recognized as imposing impacts on the environment, how it affects the indoor air quality and the health impacts to the occupants will be evaluated in this paper. The major challenges and opportunities in indoor/outdoor air pollution studies will be highlighted.

  14. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  15. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  16. Clinical use of sensory gardens and outdoor environments in norwegian nursing homes: a cross-sectional e-mail survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Kirkevold, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Gardens and outdoor environments offer multiple therapeutic possibilities for the residents in nursing homes. Web-based questionnaires were sent to 488 nursing home leaders and 121 leaders responded. The clinical impressions of the leaders and staff regarding the benefits of sensory gardens (SGs) to the residents were consistent with previous research. SGs facilitated taking residents outdoors, offered convenient topics for communication and facilitated social privacy for relatives. For improved clinical use of SGs and outdoor environments, systematic assessment of residents' interests, performance and experiences when outdoors, implementation of seasonal clinical programmes and educational programmes for leaders and staff are recommended.

  17. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Boev, Blazo [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Zunic, Zora S. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' ' Vinca' ' , Belgrade (Serbia); Ivanova, Kremena; Tsenova, Martina [National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ristova, Mimoza [University in Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematic, Institute of Physics, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Ajka, Sorsa [Croatian Geological Survey, Zagreb (Croatia); Bossew, Peter [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m{sup 3} for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported. (orig.)

  18. The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Brown, Daniel K; Wood, Carly; Sandercock, Gavin R; Barton, Jo L

    2013-01-03

    The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review considers the declining levels of physical activity, particularly in the Western world, and how the environment may help motivate and facilitate physical activity. It also addresses the additional physiological and mental health benefits that appear to occur when exercise is performed in an outdoor environment. However, people's connectedness to nature appears to be changing and this has important implications as to how humans are now interacting with nature. Barriers exist, and it is important that these are considered when discussing how to make exercise in the outdoors accessible and beneficial for all. The synergistic combination of exercise and exposure to nature and thus the 'great outdoors' could be used as a powerful tool to help fight the growing incidence of both physical inactivity and non-communicable disease.

  19. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  20. Adapting Speech Recognition in Augmented Reality for Mobile Devices in Outdoor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Pascoal, Rui; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Batista, Fernando; de Almeida, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the process of integrating automatic speech recognition (ASR) into a mobile application and explores the benefits and challenges of integrating speech with augmented reality (AR) in outdoor environments. The augmented reality allows end-users to interact with the information displayed and perform tasks, while increasing the user’s perception about the real world by adding virtual information to it. Speech is the most natural way of communication: it allows hands-free inte...

  1. Concept mapping applied to the intersection between older adults' outdoor walking and the built and social environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heather M; Schiller, Claire; Winters, Meghan; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Clarke, Philippa; Curran, Eileen; Donaldson, Meghan G; Pitman, Beverley; Scott, Vicky; McKay, Heather A; Ashe, Maureen C

    2013-12-01

    For older adults, the ability to navigate walking routes in the outdoor environment allows them to remain active and socially engaged, facilitating community participation and independence. In order to enhance outdoor walking, it is important to understand the interaction of older adults within their local environments and the influence of broader stakeholder priorities that impact these environments. Thus, we aimed to synthesize perspectives from stakeholders to identify elements of the built and social environments that influence older adults' ability to walk outdoors. We applied a concept mapping approach with the input of diverse stakeholders (N=75) from British Columbia, Canada in 2012. A seven-cluster map best represented areas that influence older adults' outdoor walking. Priority areas identified included sidewalks, crosswalks, and neighborhood features. Individual perceptions and elements of the built and social environments intersect to influence walking behaviors, although targeted studies that address this area are needed. © 2013.

  2. Comparison of Methods of Sampling for Toxocara Species and Fecal Coliforms in an Outdoor Day Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carabin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare three sampling methods and to pretest methods for the determination of fecal coliform (FC counts and Toxocara species from sand in the day care outdoor environment.

  3. An Influence of Outdoor Recreation Participants’ Perceived Restorative Environment on Wellness Effect, Satisfaction and Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jin-OK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years in Korea, the participants in outdoor recreation have significantly increased, and relevant industries have also shown a great growth. This phenomenon is to pursue outdoor recreation based on nature as a way of maintaining healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to explore how perceived restorative environment influences wellness, satisfaction, and loyalty by researching climbers in the National Park. The data were collected at four times only on weekends from 12th July to 20th July 2014 at the entrance of Mt. Dobong in Mt. Bukhand National Park in Seoul. Researchers selected every 5th visitors with systematic sampling. Out of 420 collected questionnaires, except from 20 questionnaires which include unanswered items, 400 questionnaires were used for empirical analysis. The result of the analysis by using SEM shows that perceived restorative environment has a critical influence on wellness, and this wellness also affects satisfaction and loyalty. This result of the research provides a useful insight into how policy makers and practitioners in the National Parks, urban parks and Ministry of Health and Welfare develop the places for outdoor recreation based on nature in order to pursue wellness as a way of the improvement of the public health.

  4. Localization of Outdoor Mobile Robots Using Curb Features in Urban Road Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsuk Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban road environments that have pavement and curb are characterized as semistructured road environments. In semistructured road environments, the curb provides useful information for robot navigation. In this paper, we present a practical localization method for outdoor mobile robots using the curb features in semistructured road environments. The curb features are especially useful in urban environment, where the GPS failures take place frequently. A curb extraction is conducted on the basis of the Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA to minimize false detection. We adopt the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF to combine the curb information with odometry and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS. The uncertainty models for the sensors are quantitatively analyzed to provide a practical solution.

  5. Examining the interaction between food outlets and outdoor food advertisements with primary school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Pearce, Jamie; Day, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Schools are commonly seen as a site of intervention to improve children's nutrition, and prevent excess weight gain. Schools may have limited influence over children's diets; however, with home and community environments also exerting an influence within schools. This study considered the environment of food outlets and outdoor food advertisements surrounding four case study primary schools in New Zealand, and the impact of that external environment on within-school food environments. The shortest travel route between school and home addresses, and the number of food outlets and advertisements passed on that route, was calculated for each student. Interviews with school management were conducted. The schools with a higher percentage of students passing food outlets and advertisements considered that their presence impacted on efforts within schools to improve the food environment. Limiting students' exposure to food outlets and outdoor food adverts through travel route planning, reducing advertising, or limiting the location of food outlets surrounding schools could be explored as intervention options to support schools in promoting nutrition.

  6. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  7. Restorative green outdoor environments at acute care hospitals - case studies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Shukor, Shureen Faris Binti

    The PhD thesis is based on research which was conducted between 2009 and 2012. It deals with green outdoor environments (GOEs) at acute care hospitals in the capital region of Denmark. The aim of this PhD study is to gain deeper knowledge about the design and use of GOEs which supports mental...... the buildings. The majority of users are satisfied with the existing GOEs and the results gained from the PRS indicate that they regard the GOEs as having potential for mental restoration. The important contributions of this PhD study are that it highlights the importance of having GOE at acute care hospitals...

  8. Proposition of Regression Equations to Determine Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Tropical and Humid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is about field experimentation in order to construct regression equations of perception of thermalcomfort for outdoor activities under hot and humid environment. Relationships between thermal-comfort perceptions, micro climate variables (temperatures and humidity and body parameters (activity, clothing, body measure have been observed and analyzed. 180 adults, men, and women participated as samples/respondents. This study is limited for situation where wind velocity is about 1 m/s, which touch the body of the respondents/samples. From questionnaires and field measurements, three regression equations have been developed, each for activity of normal walking, brisk walking, and sitting.

  9. Outdoor air pollution, family and neighborhood environment, and asthma in LA FANS children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Qian, Lei; Ritz, Beate

    2009-03-01

    We examined associations between outdoor air pollution and childhood asthma, using measures of SES, neighborhood quality, and social support from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LA FANS). We linked residential census tracts for 3114 children to government air monitoring stations and estimated average pollutant concentrations for the year before interview. CO and NO(2) levels increased and O(3) levels decreased as neighborhood quality decreased, yet correlations were low. Pollutant levels were not correlated with neighborhood support. Even after adjustment for social environment characteristics, LA FANS children living in high O(3), PM(10), and CO areas appeared to have worse asthma morbidity.

  10. ROBUST PERSON TRACKING WITH MULTIPLE NON-OVERLAPPING CAMERAS IN AN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hellwig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is to combine multiple cameras for a robust tracking of persons in an outdoor environment. Although surveillance is a well established field, many algorithms apply various constraints like overlapping fields of view or precise calibration of the cameras to improve results. An application of these developed systems in a realistic outdoor environment is often difficult. Our aim is to be widely independent from the camera setup and the observed scene, in order to use existing cameras. Thereby our algorithm needs to be capable to work with both overlapping and non-overlapping fields of views. We propose an algorithm that allows flexible combination of different static cameras with varying properties. Another requirement of a practical application is that the algorithm is able to work online. Our system is able to process the data during runtime and to provide results immediately. In addition to seeking flexibility in the camera setup, we present a specific approach that combines state of the art algorithms in order to be robust to environment influences. We present results that indicate a good performance of our introduced algorithm in different scenarios. We show its robustness to different types of image artifacts. In addition we demonstrate that our algorithm is able to match persons between cameras in a non-overlapping scenario.

  11. Preschool outdoor play environment may combine promotion of children´s physical activity and sun protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldemann, Cecilia; Dal, Henrik; Mårtensson, Fredrika

    2011-01-01

    -exposure lower, 26% vs. 43% of available UV during outdoor stay. In Raleigh, step count/minute was 12.3 and UV-exposure of available UV 27% during outdoor stay. Conclusions.—Step count/minute was lower in Raleigh than in Malmö, but in Malmö children at low-scored environments ran a higher risk of sunburn than...

  12. A Robust Method for Detecting Parking Areas in Both Indoor and Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Zong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an automatic parking system has been installed in many vehicles recently, it is still hard for the system to confirm by itself whether a vacant parking area truly exists or not. In this paper, we introduced a robust vision-based vacancy parking area detecting method for both indoor and outdoor environments. The main contribution of this paper is given as follows. First, an automatic image stitching method is proposed. Secondly, the problem of environment illuminating change and line color difference is considered and solved. Thirdly, the proposed algorithm is insensitive to the shadow and scene diversity, which means the detecting result satisfies most of the environment. Finally, a vehicle model is considered for tracking and reconfirming the detecting results to eliminate most of the false positives.

  13. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (Pbehavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  14. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments (3–5 years old children)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments, and assesses the respective risks for 3–5-years old children. Eighteen gaseous and particulate (PM_1 and PM_2_._5) PAHs were collected indoors and outdoors during 63 days at preschools in Portugal. Gaseous PAHs accounted for 94–98% of total concentration (Σ_P_A_H_s). PAHs with 5–6 rings were predominantly found in PM_1 (54–74% particulate Σ_P_A_H_s). Lighter PAHs originated mainly from indoor sources whereas congeners with 4–6 rings resulted mostly from outdoor emissions penetration (motor vehicle, fuel burning). Total cancer risks of children were negligible according to USEPA, but exceeded (8–13 times) WHO health-based guideline. Carcinogenic risks due to indoor exposure were higher than for outdoors (4–18 times). - Highlights: • Lighter PAHs originate from indoor sources, 4–6 rings PAHs result from outdoors. • Gaseous PAHs account for the majority of PAH content in indoor air of preschools. • Lifetime lung cancer risk values exceed WHO health-based guideline level of 10"−"5. • Carcinogenic risks due to preschool indoor exposure are higher than for outdoors. - This work fills gap providing information on levels, phase distribution (gas, PM_1, PM_2_._5) and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool settings.

  15. The occurrence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in organic pigs and their outdoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and species distribution of thermophilic Campylobacter was investigated in organic outdoor pigs. An increased exposure of outdoor pigs to C jejuni from the environment may cause a shift from a normal dominance of C coli to more C jejuni, which may imply a concern of reduced food...... (0.3-46%). C. jejuni and C coli were isolated from 10% and 29% of the environmental samples, respectively, while crow-birds and rats harboured C. jejuni. Individual pigs hosted several strains (up to nine serotypes). The paddock environment was contaminated with C. coli serotypes similar to pig...... isolates, while most of the C. jejuni serotypes differed. C. jejuni isolates of different origin comprised few similar serotypes, just one identical genotype was common between pigs, environment and birds. In conclusion, the occurrence of C jejuni varied considerably between the three groups of outdoor...

  16. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Influence of the Characteristics of Mathematical Outdoor Activities in Mobile Environments on Students' Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research attempted to find out how the characteristics of outdoor activities carried out with the mobile phone influence students' emotions. The research findings point at the following components related to the activity as influencing students' emotions: The activity novelty, the activity theme (related to everyday life, related to a new subject related to the students themselves or to an issue or a subject that the students like to do, etc., the activity conditions (its physical part is easy/uneasy to perform, resources are available, etc., the outer environment conditions (hot, warm, cold, etc., the roles which the activity enables (these roles may or may not satisfy a student, the learning method enabled in the activity (exploring mathematical ideas independently, exploring mathematics collaboratively, etc., the challenge or competition associated with the activity (it needs persistence, attention, etc.. These components show that taking care of students' leaning emotions in outdoor mathematical activities can be achieved through paying attention to different aspects of the activity which are outlined above.

  18. [The community succession of sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Meng-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Lai, Yue; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2014-06-01

    To explore the growing development and community succession of main sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area and to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). From early May to August in 2013, in Forensic Medical Examination Center of Shenzhen Public Security Bureau, the main insect species and the decomposition process were observed in two adult pig carcasses of simulative indoor and outdoor environment. The different decomposition stages and the community succession of insects were recorded. The indoor and outdoor pig carcasses showed skeleton 412.5 and 325 hours after death, respectively. The main species of flies on pig carcasses were Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya chani. The main species of beetles were Crecphilus maxillosus, Necrobia ruficollis, Saprinus splendens and Dermestes maculatu. The dominant species of flies in the outdoor pig carcasses obviously produced the second generations due to the effect of mass rainfall, nor in the indoor pig carcasses. There are regular patterns on the community succession of insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area. The activity patterns of seven typical insects and their larva show important value for estimating PMI.

  19. Integrated multi-sensor fusion for mapping and localization in outdoor environments for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Thomas; Petereit, Janko

    2014-05-01

    An integrated multi-sensor fusion framework for localization and mapping for autonomous navigation in unstructured outdoor environments based on extended Kalman filters (EKF) is presented. The sensors for localization include an inertial measurement unit, a GPS, a fiber optic gyroscope, and wheel odometry. Additionally a 3D LIDAR is used for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). A 3D map is built while concurrently a localization in a so far established 2D map is estimated with the current scan of the LIDAR. Despite of longer run-time of the SLAM algorithm compared to the EKF update, a high update rate is still guaranteed by sophisticatedly joining and synchronizing two parallel localization estimators.

  20. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Hoshiba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  1. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    2017-01-01

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators. PMID:29099790

  2. Design of UAV-Embedded Microphone Array System for Sound Source Localization in Outdoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Kotaro; Washizaki, Kai; Wakabayashi, Mizuho; Ishiki, Takahiro; Kumon, Makoto; Bando, Yoshiaki; Gabriel, Daniel; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G

    2017-11-03

    In search and rescue activities, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) should exploit sound information to compensate for poor visual information. This paper describes the design and implementation of a UAV-embedded microphone array system for sound source localization in outdoor environments. Four critical development problems included water-resistance of the microphone array, efficiency in assembling, reliability of wireless communication, and sufficiency of visualization tools for operators. To solve these problems, we developed a spherical microphone array system (SMAS) consisting of a microphone array, a stable wireless network communication system, and intuitive visualization tools. The performance of SMAS was evaluated with simulated data and a demonstration in the field. Results confirmed that the SMAS provides highly accurate localization, water resistance, prompt assembly, stable wireless communication, and intuitive information for observers and operators.

  3. Metallic structural materials in the nuclear environment: some problems illustrating new methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The structural components of the nuclear industry are submitted to a number of aggressions, mechanical, chemical and physical (irradiation). As a consequence, the problem of durability and ageing of such structures is a key issue. The understanding of the phenomena involved implies the description and modelling of atomic scale events (irradiation point defects) resulting in fluxes of matter (diffusion under irradiation), in the dynamic evolution of structural defects (dislocation loops, cavities,...), with major consequences on mechanical properties (yield stress, fracture behaviour), with, in addition, phenomena coupled between mechanical behaviour and chemical environment. It is therefore the totality of materials science which is involved in understanding the behaviour of metallic structural materials in the nuclear environment. The aim of the present paper is to illustrate some examples currently under investigation, and some of the new approaches involved in the understanding of mechanical behaviour (a scale transition from the atomic to the macroscopic). The input from large computer simulations as well as the value of simple 'back of the envelope' calculations, plus the need for cautious experimental studies will be illustrated. The theme of the ageing of materials, central to this paper, finds applications in many industrial situations. (author)

  4. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper.

  5. A Movement-Assisted Deployment of Collaborating Autonomous Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Sikora, Andrzej; Marks, Michał

    2016-09-14

    Using mobile robots or unmanned vehicles to assist optimal wireless sensors deployment in a working space can significantly enhance the capability to investigate unknown environments. This paper addresses the issues of the application of numerical optimization and computer simulation techniques to on-line calculation of a wireless sensor network topology for monitoring and tracking purposes. We focus on the design of a self-organizing and collaborative mobile network that enables a continuous data transmission to the data sink (base station) and automatically adapts its behavior to changes in the environment to achieve a common goal. The pre-defined and self-configuring approaches to the mobile-based deployment of sensors are compared and discussed. A family of novel algorithms for the optimal placement of mobile wireless devices for permanent monitoring of indoor and outdoor dynamic environments is described. They employ a network connectivity-maintaining mobility model utilizing the concept of the virtual potential function for calculating the motion trajectories of platforms carrying sensors. Their quality and utility have been justified through simulation experiments and are discussed in the final part of the paper.

  6. Long-term perceptions of outdoor thermal environments in an elementary school in a hot-humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wen-Mei; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Tan, Ning-Xin; Liu, Mu-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on thermal comfort in school environments have focused more on indoor thermal environments than outdoor ones, thus providing a limited understanding of occupants' long-term thermal perceptions. Taiwan is located in a subtropical region, where it can be stiflingly hot outside in summer. This highlights the need to ensure proper thermal comfort on campus. In the present study, thermal environment parameters were measured and collected in several outdoor spaces of an elementary school in southern Taiwan. In addition, a questionnaire was used to explore occupants' long-term thermal perceptions of these spaces. During summer months, the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) of these outdoor spaces in over 60% of the daytime in summer between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. was higher than 38 °C PET, indicating high heat stress. The results of occupants' long-term perceptions of the thermal comfort of these spaces suggested that dissatisfaction with thermal comfort was associated more with solar radiation than with wind speed. Finally, this study simulated a campus environment where more trees are planted and compared the thermal comfort indices before and after the simulation. The results indicated that this solution contributed to a decrease in the PET of these environments, thereby alleviating high heat stress. This study can inform the improvement of microclimates and thermal comfort during campus layout planning. Planting trees judiciously across a campus increases outdoor shades and creates outdoor spaces that are more comfortable and adaptable to hot weather conditions, thereby ensuring frequent use of these spaces.

  7. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  8. Testing and evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Stephen; Russler, Pat; Clipp, Brian; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Bennett, Matthew; Mauger, Jennifer; Church, William; Towles, Herman; MacCabe, Stephen; Webb, Jeffrey; Lupo, Jasper; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Dunn, Enrique; Leslie, Christopher; Welch, Greg

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes performance evaluation of a wearable augmented reality system for natural outdoor environments. Applied Research Associates (ARA), as prime integrator on the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program, is developing a soldier-worn system to provide intuitive `heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a novel pose estimation capability, a helmet-mounted see-through display, and a wearable processing unit to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (e.g., navigation waypoints, sensor points of interest, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. We achieve accurate pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, terrain data, and computer-vision inputs. We leverage a helmet-mounted camera and custom computer vision algorithms to provide terrain-based measurements of absolute orientation (i.e., orientation of the helmet with respect to the earth). These orientation measurements, which leverage mountainous terrain horizon geometry and mission planning landmarks, enable our system to operate robustly in the presence of external and body-worn magnetic disturbances. Current field testing activities across a variety of mountainous environments indicate that we can achieve high icon geo-registration accuracy (<10mrad) using these vision-based methods.

  9. Incorporating a Wheeled Vehicle Model in a New Monocular Visual Odometry Algorithm for Dynamic Outdoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhua; Xiong, Guangming; Chen, Huiyan; Lee, Dah-Jye

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments. PMID:25256109

  10. Effects of a Green Space Layout on the Outdoor Thermal Environment at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to address the existing urban design needs and computer-aided thermal engineering and explore the optimal green space layout to obtain an acceptable thermal environment at the neighborhood scale through a series of building energy and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The building-energy analysis software eQUEST and weather database TMY2 were adopted to analyze the electric energy consumed by air conditioners and the analysis results were incorporated to derive the heat dissipated from air conditioners. Then, the PHOENICS CFD software was used to analyze how the green space layout influences outdoor thermal environment based on the heat dissipated from air conditioners and the solar heat reemitted from the built surfaces. The results show that a green space located in the center of this investigated area and at the far side of the downstream of a summer monsoon is the recommended layout. The layouts, with green space in the center, can decrease the highest temperature by 0.36 °C.

  11. Incorporating a Wheeled Vehicle Model in a New Monocular Visual Odometry Algorithm for Dynamic Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monocular visual odometry algorithm that incorporates a wheeled vehicle model for ground vehicles. The main innovation of this algorithm is to use the single-track bicycle model to interpret the relationship between the yaw rate and side slip angle, which are the two most important parameters that describe the motion of a wheeled vehicle. Additionally, the pitch angle is also considered since the planar-motion hypothesis often fails due to the dynamic characteristics of wheel suspensions and tires in real-world environments. Linearization is used to calculate a closed-form solution of the motion parameters that works as a hypothesis generator in a RAndom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC scheme to reduce the complexity in solving equations involving trigonometric. All inliers found are used to refine the winner solution through minimizing the reprojection error. Finally, the algorithm is applied to real-time on-board visual localization applications. Its performance is evaluated by comparing against the state-of-the-art monocular visual odometry methods using both synthetic data and publicly available datasets over several kilometers in dynamic outdoor environments.

  12. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  13. Childcare outdoor renovation as a built environment health promotion strategy: evaluating the preventing obesity by design intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Nilda G; Moore, Robin C; Smith, William R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Preventing Obesity by Design (POD), a childcare center outdoor renovation intervention. Pre-post intervention evaluation. North Carolina licensed childcare centers (N = 27). Preschool children. Outdoor renovation, teacher training. Behavior mapping, Preschool Outdoor Environment Measurement Scale (POEMS), center director interview. Descriptive statistics, ordinary least squares and logistic regressions calculated to assess levels of association between environmental change, children's physical activity (PA), social behaviors, and environmental quality. Qualitative interview data analyzed to help understand intervention impact. Behavior mapping showed that site layout attributes, such as the form (i.e., "single loop" and "double loop") of pathways (functioning as circulation routes and wheeled toy settings), are associated with higher levels of PA. Teacher interaction was associated with decreased children's PA. Absence of teacher or lack of child/child interaction was associated with increased PA. POEMS assessment of environmental quality was higher after renovation. POEMS domains (Physical Space and Teacher/Caregiver Roles) were positively associated with PA. After renovation, 68% of center directors reported positive changes in children's behavior and 40% mentioned edible plant installations as greatest success. Built environment renovation of childcare center outdoors, including looped pathways installation, coupled with teacher training, may support increased PA. Renovation, including food gardens, may be a key to success for preschool health promotion and support change in childcare policy.

  14. The Relationship between Perceived Health and Physical Activity Indoors, Outdoors in Built Environments, and Outdoors in Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, Tytti P; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Korpela, Kalevi M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A body of evidence shows that both physical activity and exposure to nature are connected to improved general and mental health. Experimental studies have consistently found short term positive effects of physical activity in nature compared with built environments. This study explores whether these benefits are also evident in everyday life, perceived over repeated contact with nature. The topic is important from the perspectives of city planning, individual well-being, and publi...

  15. Natural outdoor environments and mental health: Stress as a possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Valentín, Antònia; Martínez, David; Smith, Graham; Hurst, Gemma; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Masterson, Daniel; van den Berg, Magdalena; Ambròs, Albert; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Dedele, Audrius; Ellis, Naomi; Grazulevicius, Tomas; Voorsmit, Martin; Cirach, Marta; Cirac-Claveras, Judith; Swart, Wim; Clasquin, Eddy; Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Maas, Jolanda; Jerret, Michael; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher J; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    Better mental health has been associated with exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE). However, comprehensive studies including several indicators of exposure and outcomes, potential effect modifiers and mediators are scarce. We used novel, objective measures to explore the relationships between exposure to NOE (i.e. residential availability and contact) and different indicators of mental health, and possible modifiers and mediators. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in: Barcelona, Spain; Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom; Doetinchem, Netherlands; Kaunas, Lithuania. Participants' exposure to NOE (including both surrounding greenness and green and/or blue spaces) was measured in terms of (a) amount in their residential environment (using Geographical Information Systems) and (b) their contact with NOE (using smartphone data collected over seven days). Self-reported information was collected for mental health (psychological wellbeing, sleep quality, vitality, and somatisation), and potential effect modifiers (gender, age, education level, and city) and mediators (perceived stress and social contacts), with additional objective NOE physical activity (potential mediator) derived from smartphone accelerometers. Analysis of data from 406 participants showed no statistically significant associations linking mental health and residential NOE exposure. However, NOE contact, especially surrounding greenness, was statistically significantly tied to better mental health. There were indications that these relationships were stronger for males, younger people, low-medium educated, and Doetinchem residents. Perceived stress was a mediator of most associations, and physical activity and social contacts were not. Our findings indicate that contact with NOE benefits mental health. Our results also suggest that having contact with NOE that can facilitate stress reduction could be particularly beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contrasts in spatial and temporal variability of oxidative capacity and elemental composition in moxibustion, indoor and outdoor environments in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jian; Lim, Min Yee; Hwang, Chaxi; Zhao, Baixiao; Shao, Longyi

    2015-01-01

    Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy that burns moxa floss which produces a substantial amount of PM 10 into the environment, thus spawning safety concerns about health impacts of the smoke. We compared the oxidative capacity and elemental composition of moxibustion-derived and ambient PM 10 in summer and winter to provide a source-, spatial- and temporal-comparison of PM 10 biological responses. The PM 10 oxidative capacity was 2.04 and 1.45 fold lower, and dose-dependent slope gradient was 2.36 and 1.76 fold lower in moxibustion environment than indoor or outdoor. Oxidative damage was highly correlated with iron, cesium, aluminum and cobalt in indoor, but moxibustion environment displayed low associations. The total elemental concentration was also lower in moxibustion environment than indoor (2.28 fold) or outdoor (2.79 fold). The source-to-dose modeling and slope gradient analysis in this study can be used as a model for future source-, spatial- and temporal-related moxibustion safety evaluation studies. - Highlights: • Source-, spatial- and temporal-comparisons of PM 10 of moxa smoke and ambient air. • Moxibustion environment had the lowest oxidative capacity temporally and spatially. • Total elemental concentration was also lowest in moxibustion environment. • Low correlations between metals and oxidative damage in moxibustion environment. • Moxibustion-derived PM 10 may not be as injurious to human health as thought. - Moxibustion-derived PM 10 had the lowest oxidative capacity and total elemental concentration when compared with indoor and outdoor environments

  17. A survey on distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus flavus from indoor and outdoor hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Asghar; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Allameh, Abdolamir; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Jamali, Mojdeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, genetic diversity and mycotoxin profiles of Aspergillus flavus isolated from air (indoors and outdoors), levels (surfaces), and soils of five hospitals in Southwest Iran were examined. From a total of 146 Aspergillus colonies, 63 isolates were finally identified as A. flavus by a combination of colony morphology, microscopic criteria, and mycotoxin profiles. No Aspergillus parasiticus was isolated from examined samples. Chromatographic analyses of A. flavus isolates cultured on yeast extract-sucrose broth by tip culture method showed that approximately 10% and 45% of the isolates were able to produce aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), respectively. Around 40% of the isolates produced sclerotia on Czapek-Dox agar. The isolates were classified into four chemotypes based on the ability to produce AF and CPA that majority of them (55.5%) belonged to chemotype IV comprising non-mycotoxigenic isolates. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated by a combination of four selected primers were used to assess genetic relatedness of 16 selected toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates. The resulting dendrogram demonstrated the formation of two separate clusters for the A. flavus comprised both mycotoxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates in a random distribution. The obtained results in this study showed that RAPD profiling is a promising and efficient tool to determine intra-specific genetic variation among A. flavus populations from hospital environments. A. flavus isolates, either toxigenic or non-toxigenic, should be considered as potential threats for hospitalized patients due to their obvious role in the etiology of nosocomial aspergillosis.

  18. THE IMPACT OF CONSTRUCTION AND GENTRIFICATION ON AN OUTDOOR TRANS SEX WORK ENVIRONMENT: VIOLENCE, DISPLACEMENT AND POLICING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tara; Krüsi, Andrea; Pierre, Leslie; Small, Will; Shannon, Kate

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how environmental and structural changes to a trans outdoor work environment impacted sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. The issue of changes to the work area arose during qualitative interviews with 33 trans sex workers. In response, ethnographic walks that incorporated photography were undertaken with trans sex workers. Changes to the work environment were found to increase vulnerabilities to client violence, displace trans sex workers, and affect policing practices. Within a criminalized context, construction and gentrification enhanced vulnerabilities to violence and harassment from police and residents.

  19. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  20. Estimated work ability in warm outdoor environments depends on the chosen heat stress assessment metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Fiala, Dusan; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2018-03-01

    With a view to occupational effects of climate change, we performed a simulation study on the influence of different heat stress assessment metrics on estimated workability (WA) of labour in warm outdoor environments. Whole-day shifts with varying workloads were simulated using as input meteorological records for the hottest month from four cities with prevailing hot (Dallas, New Delhi) or warm-humid conditions (Managua, Osaka), respectively. In addition, we considered the effects of adaptive strategies like shielding against solar radiation and different work-rest schedules assuming an acclimated person wearing light work clothes (0.6 clo). We assessed WA according to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) by means of an empirical relation of worker performance from field studies (Hothaps), and as allowed work hours using safety threshold limits proposed by the corresponding standards. Using the physiological models Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)-Fiala, we calculated WA as the percentage of working hours with body core temperature and cumulated sweat loss below standard limits (38 °C and 7.5% of body weight, respectively) recommended by ISO 7933 and below conservative (38 °C; 3%) and liberal (38.2 °C; 7.5%) limits in comparison. ANOVA results showed that the different metrics, workload, time of day and climate type determined the largest part of WA variance. WBGT-based metrics were highly correlated and indicated slightly more constrained WA for moderate workload, but were less restrictive with high workload and for afternoon work hours compared to PHS and UTCI-Fiala. Though PHS showed unrealistic dynamic responses to rest from work compared to UTCI-Fiala, differences in WA assessed by the physiological models largely depended on the applied limit criteria. In conclusion, our study showed that the choice of the heat stress assessment metric impacts notably on the estimated WA. Whereas PHS and UTCI-Fiala can account for

  1. Free range hens use the range more when the outdoor environment is enriched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, T A D; Glatz, P C

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown). Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000-6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07) for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55%) were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30%) while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (prange (43% vs. 24%) and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt areas than the control areas, with slightly

  2. Estimated work ability in warm outdoor environments depends on the chosen heat stress assessment metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Fiala, Dusan; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2018-03-01

    With a view to occupational effects of climate change, we performed a simulation study on the influence of different heat stress assessment metrics on estimated workability (WA) of labour in warm outdoor environments. Whole-day shifts with varying workloads were simulated using as input meteorological records for the hottest month from four cities with prevailing hot (Dallas, New Delhi) or warm-humid conditions (Managua, Osaka), respectively. In addition, we considered the effects of adaptive strategies like shielding against solar radiation and different work-rest schedules assuming an acclimated person wearing light work clothes (0.6 clo). We assessed WA according to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) by means of an empirical relation of worker performance from field studies (Hothaps), and as allowed work hours using safety threshold limits proposed by the corresponding standards. Using the physiological models Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)-Fiala, we calculated WA as the percentage of working hours with body core temperature and cumulated sweat loss below standard limits (38 °C and 7.5% of body weight, respectively) recommended by ISO 7933 and below conservative (38 °C; 3%) and liberal (38.2 °C; 7.5%) limits in comparison. ANOVA results showed that the different metrics, workload, time of day and climate type determined the largest part of WA variance. WBGT-based metrics were highly correlated and indicated slightly more constrained WA for moderate workload, but were less restrictive with high workload and for afternoon work hours compared to PHS and UTCI-Fiala. Though PHS showed unrealistic dynamic responses to rest from work compared to UTCI-Fiala, differences in WA assessed by the physiological models largely depended on the applied limit criteria. In conclusion, our study showed that the choice of the heat stress assessment metric impacts notably on the estimated WA. Whereas PHS and UTCI-Fiala can account for

  3. The COURAGE Built Environment Outdoor Checklist: an objective built environment instrument to investigate the impact of the environment on health and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Bucciarelli, Paola; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Chatterji, Somnath; Galas, Aleksander; Meriläinen-Porras, Satu; Frisoni, Giovanni; Russo, Emanuela; Minicuci, Nadia; Power, Mick; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    A tool to assess the built environment, which takes into account issues of disability, accessibility and the need for data comparable across countries and populations, is much needed. The Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) in Europe Built Environment Outdoor Checklist (CBE-OUT) helps us to understand when features of the neighbourhood environment have either a positive or negative impact on the accessibility of neighbourhoods for healthy ageing. The CBE-OUT is composed of 128 items that can be recorded when present in the evaluated environment. Audits were performed in households randomly selected from each cluster of the sample for Finland, Poland and Spain, following precise rules defined by experts. Global scores were computed both section by section and in the overall checklist, rescaling the resulting scores from 0 (negative environment) to 100 (positive). The total number of completed CBE-OUT checklists was 2452 (Finland, 245; Poland, 972; and Spain, 1235). Mean global score for our sample is 49.3, suggesting an environment composed both of facilitating and hindering features. Significant differences were observed in the built environment features of the three countries and in particular between Finland and the other two. The assessment of features of built environment is crucial when thinking about ageing and enhanced participation. The COURAGE in Europe project developed this tool to collect information on built environment in an objective evaluation of environmental features and is a recommended methodology for future studies. The CBE-OUT checklist is an objective evaluation of the built environment and is centred on technical measurement of features present in the environment and has its foundations in the concepts of disability and accessibility operating in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model. The CBE-OUT checklist can be analysed using both the total score and the single section score

  4. Dynamic modeling of human thermal comfort after the transition from an indoor to an outdoor hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Flocas, Helena A; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Thermal comfort under non-steady-state conditions primarily deals with rapid environmental transients and significant alterations of the meteorological conditions, activity, or clothing pattern within the time scale of some minutes. In such cases, thermal history plays an important role in respect to time, and thus, a dynamic approach is appropriate. The present study aims to investigate the dynamic thermal adaptation process of a human individual, after his transition from a typical indoor climate to an outdoor hot environment. Three scenarios of thermal transients have been considered for a range of hot outdoor environmental conditions, employing the dynamic two-node IMEM model. The differences among them concern the radiation field, the activity level, and the body position. The temporal pattern of body temperatures as well as the range of skin wettedness and of water loss have been investigated and compared among the scenarios and the environmental conditions considered. The structure and the temporal course of human energy fluxes as well as the identification of the contribution of body temperatures to energy fluxes have also been studied and compared. In general, the simulation results indicate that the response of a person, coming from the same neutral indoor climate, varies depending on the scenario followed by the individual while being outdoors. The combination of radiation field (shade or not) with the kind of activity (sitting or walking) and the outdoor conditions differentiates significantly the thermal state of the human body. Therefore, 75% of the skin wettedness values do not exceed the thermal comfort limit at rest for a sitting individual under the shade. This percentage decreases dramatically, less than 25%, under direct solar radiation and exceeds 75% for a walking person under direct solar radiation.

  5. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF 0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  6. Changes in Sunlight and Outdoor Thermal Environment Conditions Based on the Layout Plan of Flat Type Apartment Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjin Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growths lead to population increases in large cities. This has brought about the growing necessity for apartment housing which has resulted in higher density populations living in high-rise apartment complexes. Therefore, the urban microclimate is aggravated due to the increasing ratio of artificial coverage and substandard daylight availability. To achieve a comfortable living environment and improve urban microclimates, a process considering the daylight availability and the outdoor thermal environment is required when designing apartment housing complexes. This study selected a total of 27 valid cases using an orthogonal array, L27(313 design of experiments (DOE. As a result of significance probability obtained in DOE analysis, the design factors that have an effect on the outdoor thermal environment and daylight availability were found to be building coverage ratio, distance between buildings, and azimuth. The rankings of the effect of design factors were shown to be in the order of azimuth > building coverage ratio > distance between buildings > floor area ratio > width/depth ratio. The surface temperature of the whole building decreased by 0.3 °C and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT decreased by 1.1 °C as a result of applying the greenery coverage ratio to apartment complexes. Heat Island Potential (HIP also showed a decrease of 5.4 °C (at noon.

  7. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-07-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  8. Free Range Hens Use the Range More When the Outdoor Environment Is Enriched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. D. Nagle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of using forage, shade and shelterbelts in attracting birds into the range, three trials were undertaken with free range layers both on a research facility and on commercial farms. Each of the trials on the free range research facility in South Australia used a total of 120 laying hens (Hyline Brown. Birds were housed in an eco-shelter which had 6 internal pens of equal size with a free range area adjoining the shelter. The on-farm trials were undertaken on commercial free range layer farms in the Darling Downs in Southeast Queensland with bird numbers on farms ranging from 2,000–6,800 hens. The first research trial examined the role of shaded areas in the range; the second trial examined the role of forage and the third trial examined the influence of shelterbelts in the range. These treatments were compared to a free range area with no enrichment. Aggressive feather pecking was only observed on a few occasions in all of the trials due to the low bird numbers housed. Enriching the free range environment attracted more birds into the range. Shaded areas were used by 18% of the hens with a tendency (p = 0.07 for more hens to be in the paddock. When forage was provided in paddocks more control birds (55% were observed in the range in morning than in the afternoon (30% while for the forage treatments 45% of the birds were in the range both during the morning and afternoon. When shelterbelts were provided there was a significantly (p<0.05 higher % of birds in the range (43% vs. 24% and greater numbers of birds were observed in areas further away from the poultry house. The results from the on-farm trials mirrored the research trials. Overall 3 times more hens used the shaded areas than the non shaded areas, with slightly more using the shade in the morning than in the afternoon. As the environmental temperature increased the number of birds using the outdoor shade also increased. Overall 17 times more hens used the shelterbelt

  9. Microbial Air Contamination in Indoor and Outdoor Environment of Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring a good air quality in pig farms is important for the health of animals and human workers. The aim of this study was the assessment of the microbiological quality of the air inside the pig houses and outside of these. The study was accomplished in two pig-fattening farms in Cluj County. The microbiological air quality was assessed in the cold and warm season, by determination of the total counts of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The bacterial and fungal counts varied in the air of the investigated farms. In relation to the season the mean counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher (P 0.05 were found between the values of the parameters determined from the indoor air and those obtained outside, from a distance of 5 m from the pig houses. The numbers of the bacteria and fungi in the outdoor air lowered as the distance from the farms increased, the differences being significant at 25 and 50 m (P < 0.05. The results of the study show a high bacterial contamination of the indoor and outdoor air of the pig farms.

  10. Cross-Scale Variation in Biodiversity-Environment Links Illustrated by Coastal Sandflat Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Kraan

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in the composition of communities is the product of many biotic and environmental interactions. A neglected factor in the analysis of community distribution patterns is the multi-scale nature of the data, which has implications for understanding ecological processes and the development of conservation and environmental management practice. Drawing on recently established multivariate spatial analyses, we investigate whether including relationships between spatial structure and abiotic variables enable us to better discern patterns of species and communities across scales. Data comprised 1200 macrozoobenthic samples collected over an array of distances (30 cm to 1 km in three New Zealand harbours, as well as commonly used abiotic variables, such as sediment characteristics and chlorophyll a concentrations, measured at the same scales. Moran's eigenvector mapping was used to extract spatial scales at which communities were structured. Benthic communities, representing primarily bivalves, polychaetes and crustaceans, were spatially structured at four spatial scales, i.e. >100 m, 50-100 m, 50-15 m, and < 15 m. A broad selection of abiotic variables contributed to the large-scale variation, whereas a more limited set explained part of the fine-scale community structure. Across all scales, less than 30% of the variation in spatial structure was captured by our analysis. The large number of species (48 making up the 10 highest species scores based on redundancy analyses illustrate the variability of species-scale associations. Our results emphasise that abiotic variables and biodiversity are related at all scales investigated and stress the importance of assessing the relationship between environmental variables and the abundance and distribution of biological assemblages across a range of different scales.

  11. The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Brown, Daniel K; Wood, Carly; Sandercock, Gavin R; Barton, Jo L

    2013-01-01

    The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review considers the declining levels of physical activity, particularly in the Western world, and how the environment may help motivate and faci...

  12. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection, Location and Grasping Objects Using a Stereo Sensor on UAV in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramon Soria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position. This feature-based model was proved to be robust to both occlusions and the presence of outliers. The use of stereo cameras improves the learning stage, providing 3D information and helping to filter features in the online stage. An experimental system was derived using a rotary-wing UAV and a small manipulator for final proof of concept. The robotic arm is designed with three degrees of freedom and is lightweight due to payload limitations of the UAV. The system has been validated with different objects, both indoors and outdoors.

  14. Laser-based pedestrian tracking in outdoor environments by multiple mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-29

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.

  15. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Kruize, H.; Gidlow, C.; Andrusaityte, S.; Anto, J.M.; Basagana, X.; Cirach, M.; Dadvand, P.; Danileviciute, A.; Donaire-Gonzalez, D.; Garcia, J.; Jerrett, M.; Jones, M.; Julvez, J.; van Kempen, E.; van Kamp, I.; Maas, J.; Seto, E.; Smith, G.; Triguero, M.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Wright, J.; Zufferey, J.; van den Hazel, P.J.; Lawrence, R.; Grazuleviciene, R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in

  16. The impact of mass transfer limitations on size distributions of particle associated SVOCs in outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong; Zhang, Yinping [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Weschler, Charles J., E-mail: weschlch@rwjms.rutgers.edu [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); International Center for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-11-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) partition between the gas phase and airborne particles. The size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs impacts their fate in outdoor and indoor environments, as well as human exposure to these compounds and subsequent health risks. Allen et al. (1996) previously proposed that the rate of mass transfer can impact polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) partitioning among different sized particles, especially for time scales relevant to urban aerosols. The present study quantitatively builds on this idea, presenting a model that incorporates dynamic SVOC/particle interaction and applying this model to typical outdoor and indoor scenarios. The model indicates that the impact of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of a particle-associated SVOC can be evaluated by the ratio of the time to achieve gas–particle equilibrium relative to the residence time of particles. The higher this ratio, the greater the influence of mass transfer limitations on the size distribution of particle-associated SVOCs. The influence of such constraints is largest on the fraction of particle-associated SVOCs in the coarse mode (> 2 μm). Predictions from the model have been found to be in reasonable agreement with size distributions measured for PAHs at roadside and suburban locations in Japan. The model also quantitatively explains shifts in the size distributions of particle associated SVOCs compared to those for particle mass, and the manner in which these shifts vary with temperature and an SVOC's molecular weight. - Highlights: • Rate of mass transfer can impact SVOC partitioning among different sized particles. • Model was developed that incorporates dynamic SVOC/particle sorption. • Key parameters: mass-transfer coefficients, partition coefficient, residence time • Model explains observed SVOC size distribution shifts with temperature and MW. • Largest impact of mass transfer constraints: SVOC sorption to coarse

  17. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Trong, Than; Riera, Florence; Rinaldi, Kévin; Briki, Walid; Hue, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions. Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol) beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature) (28.7°C±0. 5°C), Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C) or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C). Trial time, core temperature (Tco), heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) were assessed. Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol. A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone). Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE) between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  18. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  19. Using narrative-based design scaffolds within a mobile learning environment to support learning outdoors with young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Brian J.

    This study aims to advance learning outdoors with mobile devices. As part of the ongoing Tree Investigators design-based research study, this research investigated a mobile application to support observation, identification, and explanation of the tree life cycle within an authentic, outdoor setting. Recognizing the scientific and conceptual complexity of this topic for young children, the design incorporated technological and design scaffolds within a narrative-based learning environment. In an effort to support learning, 14 participants (aged 5-9) were guided through the mobile app on tree life cycles by a comic-strip pedagogical agent, "Nutty the Squirrel", as they looked to explore and understand through guided observational practices and artifact creation tasks. In comparison to previous iterations of this DBR study, the overall patterns of talk found in this study were similar, with perceptual and conceptual talk being the first and second most frequently coded categories, respectively. However, this study coded considerably more instances of affective talk. This finding of the higher frequency of affective talk could possibly be explained by the relatively younger age of this iteration's participants, in conjunction with the introduced pedagogical agent, who elicited playfulness and delight from the children. The results also indicated a significant improvement when comparing the pretest results (mean score of .86) with the posttest results (mean score of 4.07, out of 5). Learners were not only able to recall the phases of a tree life cycle, but list them in the correct order. The comparison reports a significant increase, showing evidence of increased knowledge and appropriation of scientific vocabulary. The finding suggests the narrative was effective in structuring the complex material into a story for sense making. Future research with narratives should consider a design to promote learner agency through more interactions with the pedagogical agent and a

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor and outdoor environments – A review on occurrence and human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) constitute an important group of brominated flame retardants that have been massively produced and extensively used in numerous everyday products, providing longer escape times in case of fire and thus saving lives, as well as reducing the damage of property. In recent years, PBDEs have been recognized as significant pollutants of the indoor environment. This article provides a synthesis and critical evaluation of the state of the knowledge about the occurrence of PBDEs in the indoor environment (air and dust in homes, workplaces and cars) in different countries in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, as well as about the human exposure via indoor air inhalation and dust ingestion in comparison to outdoor air inhalation and dietary intake. - Although dietary intake is major human exposure route to PBDEs, there is sufficient body of evidence for the ubiquitous presence of these compounds in indoor air and dust, therefore for the potential for significant exposure at work, at home, as well as in closed means of transport.

  1. The roles of the outdoors and occupants in contributing to a potential pan-microbiome of the built environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marcus H Y; Lee, Patrick K H

    2016-05-24

    Recent high-throughput sequencing technology has led to an expansion of knowledge regarding the microbial communities (microbiome) across various built environments (BEs). The microbiome of the BE is dependent upon building factors and conditions that govern how outdoor microbes enter and persist in the BE. Additionally, occupants are crucial in shaping the microbiome of the BE by releasing human-associated microorganisms and resuspending microbes on floors and surfaces. Therefore, both the outdoors and occupants act as major sources of microorganisms found in the BE. However, most characterizations of the microbiome of the BE have been conducted in the Western world. Notably, outdoor locations and population groups present geographical variations in outdoor and human microbiomes, respectively. Given the influences of the outdoor and human microbiomes on BE microbiology, and the geographical variations in outdoor and human microbiomes, it is likely that the microbiomes of BEs also vary by location. The summation of microbiomes between BEs contribute to a potential BE pan-microbiome, which will both consist of microbes that are ubiquitous in indoor environments around the world, and microbes that appear to be endemic to particular geographical locations. Importantly, the BE pan-microbiome can potentially question the global application of our current views on indoor microbiology. In this review, we first provide an assessment on the roles of building and occupant properties on shaping the microbiome of the BE. This is then followed by a description of geographical variations in the microbiomes of the outdoors and humans, the two main sources of microbes in BEs. We present evidence of differences in microbiomes of BEs around the world, demonstrating the existence of a global pan-microbiome of the BE that is larger than the microbiome of any single indoor environment. Finally, we discuss the significance of understanding the BE pan-microbiome and identifying universal

  2. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  3. The mediating effects of values on the relationship between outdoor recreation participation and pro-environment behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan D. Bright; Susan C. Barro

    2000-01-01

    Environmental awareness has increased in the past two decades. One factor believed to influence this awareness is outdoor recreation participation. We examined whether participation in outdoor recreation predicts pro-environmental behavior and whether environmental values mediate the relationship. A survey of residents of Washington state measured (a) participation in...

  4. Survival and transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in an outdoor organic pig farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Stockmarr, Anders

    2006-01-01

    It was investigated how organic rearing conditions influence the Salmonella enterica infection dynamics in pigs and whether Salmonella persists in the paddock environment. Pigs inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were grouped with Salmonella-negative tracer pigs. Bacteriological...... the seroprevalence. Salmonella persisted in the paddock environment, as Salmonella was isolated from 46% of soil and water samples (n = 294). After removal of pigs, Salmonella was found in soil samples for up to. 5 weeks and in shelter huts during the entire test period (7 weeks). Subsequent introduction...... of Salmonella-negative pigs into four naturally Salmonella-contaminated paddocks caused Salmonella infections of pigs in two paddocks. In one of these paddocks, all tracer pigs (n = 10) became infected, coinciding with a previous high Salmonella infection rate and high Salmonella excretion level. Our results...

  5. The great outdoors? Exploring the mental health benefits of natural environments

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, David G.; Craig, Tony

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that exposure to natural environments can be associated with mental health benefits. Proximity to greenspace has been associated with lower levels of stress (Thompson et al., 2012) and reduced symptomology for depression and anxiety (Beyer et al., 2014), while interacting with nature can improve cognition for children with attention deficits (Taylor and Kuo, 2009) and individuals with depression (Berman et al., 2012). A recent epidemiological study has sho...

  6. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in an Outdoor Urban Arid Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect humans from heat stress risks, thermal comfort and heat stress potential were evaluated under arid environment, which had never been made for such climate. The thermal indices THI, WBGT, PET, and UTCI were used to evaluate thermal comfort and heat stress. RayMan software model was used to estimate the PET, and the UTCI calculator was used for UTCI. Dry and wet bulb temperatures (Td, Tw, natural wet bulb temperature (Tnw, and globe temperature (Tg were measured in a summer day to be used in the calculation. The results showed the following. (i The thermal sensation and heat stress levels can be evaluated by either the PET or UTCI scales, and both are valid for extremely high temperature in the arid environment. (ii In the comfort zone, around 75% of individuals would be satisfied with the surrounding environment and feel comfortable during the whole day. (iii Persons are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel uncomfortable most of the daytime in summer. (iv Heat fatigue is expected with prolonged exposure to sun light and activity. (v During the daytime, humans should schedule their activities according to the highest permissible values of the WBGT to avoid thermal shock.

  7. Effects of climate change on the persistence and dispersal of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the outdoor environment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Rosalee S; Chu, Eric

    2016-08-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Over the coming century, warming trends such as increased duration and frequency of heat waves and hot extremes are expected in some areas, as well as increased intensity of some storm systems. Climate-induced trends will impact the persistence and dispersal of foodborne pathogens in myriad ways, especially for environmentally ubiquitous and/or zoonotic microorganisms. Animal hosts of foodborne pathogens are also expected to be impacted by climate change through the introduction of increased physiological stress and, in some cases, altered geographic ranges and seasonality. This review article examines the effects of climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, drought and wind, on the environmental dispersal and persistence of bacterial foodborne pathogens, namely, Bacillus cereus, Brucella, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica. These relationships are then used to predict how future climatic changes will impact the activity of these microorganisms in the outdoor environment and associated food safety issues. The development of predictive models that quantify these complex relationships will also be discussed, as well as the potential impacts of climate change on transmission of foodborne disease from animal hosts.

  8. Aerosol transport simulations in indoor and outdoor environments using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazuri, Andrea C.

    This dissertation focuses on aerosol transport modeling in occupational environments and mining sites in Arizona using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The impacts of human exposure in both environments are explored with the emphasis on turbulence, wind speed, wind direction and particle sizes. Final emissions simulations involved the digitalization process of available elevation contour plots of one of the mining sites to account for realistic topographical features. The digital elevation map (DEM) of one of the sites was imported to COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSRTM for subsequent turbulence and particle simulations. Simulation results that include realistic topography show considerable deviations of wind direction. Inter-element correlation results using metal and metalloid size resolved concentration data using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) under given wind speeds and directions provided guidance on groups of metals that coexist throughout mining activities. Groups between Fe-Mg, Cr-Fe, Al-Sc, Sc-Fe, and Mg-Al are strongly correlated for unrestricted wind directions and speeds, suggesting that the source may be of soil origin (e.g. ore and tailings); also, groups of elements where Cu is present, in the coarse fraction range, may come from mechanical action mining activities and saltation phenomenon. Besides, MOUDI data under low wind speeds (Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used as a source apportionment tool to identify areas that have an effect over specific sampling points and susceptible regions under certain meteorological conditions, and these conclusions can be supported with inter-element correlation matrices and lead isotope analysis, especially since there is limited access to the mining sites. Additional results concluded that grid adaption is a powerful tool that allows to refine specific regions that require lots of detail and therefore better resolve flow detail, provides higher number of locations with monotonic convergence than the

  9. Monitoring of airborne biological particles in outdoor atmosphere. Part 2: Metagenomics applied to urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rastrojo, Alberto; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-06-01

    The air we breathe contains microscopic biological particles such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and pollen, some of them with relevant clinic importance. These organisms and/or their propagules have been traditionally studied by different disciplines and diverse methodologies like culture and microscopy. These techniques require time, expertise and also have some important biases. As a consequence, our knowledge on the total diversity and the relationships between the different biological entities present in the air is far from being complete. Currently, metagenomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) may resolve this shortage of information and have been recently applied to metropolitan areas. Although the procedures and methods are not totally standardized yet, the first studies from urban air samples confirm the previous results obtained by culture and microscopy regarding abundance and variation of these biological particles. However, DNA-sequence analyses call into question some preceding ideas and also provide new interesting insights into diversity and their spatial distribution inside the cities. Here, we review the procedures, results and perspectives of the recent works that apply NGS to study the main biological particles present in the air of urban environments. [Int Microbiol 19(2):69-80(2016)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  10. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  11. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Triguero-Mas

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii the possible mechanisms explaining these effects.People (n = 26 with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park, blue (Castelldefels beach and urban (Eixample neighbourhood environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD, attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task, stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF, high frequency power (HF, ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF, and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF. We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience.When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79 points difference], and salivary cortisol [-0.21 (-0

  12. Health promoting outdoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Anna Ulrika Karlsson; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face......-to-face interviews followed by a self-administered questionnaire, including the SF-36, which measures eight dimensions of health and the Perceived Stress Scale, which measures self-reported stress. A total of 11,238 respondents completed the interview and returned the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed to investigate the association between distance to green space and self-perceived stress. RESULTS: Danes living more than 1 km away from the nearest green space report poorer health and health-related quality of life, i.e. lower mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of health...

  13. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  14. Assessing pollinators’ use of floral resource subsidies in agri-environment schemes: An illustration using Phacelia tanacetifolia and honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Sprague

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Honeybees (Apis mellifera L. are frequently used in agriculture for pollination services because of their abundance, generalist floral preferences, ease of management and hive transport. However, their populations are declining in many countries. Agri-Environment Schemes (AES are being implemented in agricultural systems to combat the decline in populations of pollinators and other insects. Despite AES being increasingly embedded in policy and budgets, scientific assessments of many of these schemes still are lacking, and only a few studies have examined the extent to which insect pollinators use the floral enhancements that are part of AES and on which floral components they feed (i.e., pollen and/or nectar. Methods In the present work, we used a combination of observations on honeybee foraging for nectar/pollen from the Californian annual plant Phacelia tanacetifolia in the field, collection of pollen pellets from hives, and pollen identification, to assess the value of adding phacelia to an agro-ecosystem to benefit honeybees. Results It was found that phacelia pollen was almost never taken by honeybees. The work here demonstrates that honeybees may not use the floral enhancements added to a landscape as expected and points to the need for more careful assessments of what resources are used by honeybees in AES and understanding the role, if any, which AES play in enhancing pollinator fitness. Discussion We recommend using the methodology in this paper to explore the efficacy of AES before particular flowering species are adopted more widely to give a more complete illustration of the actual efficacy of AES.

  15. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Antó, Josep Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

    2014-04-16

    Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas.

  16. Medical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as medical books, journals, magazines, pharma or biotech marketing, films, online video, exhibits, posters, wall charts, educational ... of the health career profession with strong communication skills, medical illustrators work closely with clients to interpret ...

  17. The Social Construction of Place Meaning: Exploring Multiple Meanings of Place as an Outdoor Teaching and Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gkoutis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    This investigation explores the meanings primary school teachers who apply outdoor learning and teaching methods associate withthe places that encompass their teaching practices. A symbolic interactionist framework coupled with a social constructionistorientation was employed to analyze data collected from semi-structured interviews and photo elicitation techniques. The findingsillustrated that meaning ascribed to place derived from the interactional processes between the study’s respondents ...

  18. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  19. Outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8–25 percent). The activity projected to...

  20. Understanding the impact of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act on hospitality establishments' outdoor environments: a survey of restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Mutti, Seema; Dubray, Jolene; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-04-01

    The Smoke-Free Ontario Act (SFOA) came into effect in May 2006 and included restrictions to outdoor hospitality areas by only permitting smoking on a patio if the area had no roof. (1) To assess the impact of the SFOA on the prevalence of smoke-free patios in Ontario and (2) to determine the proportion of venues where structural alterations were made rather than going smoke-free in order to achieve compliance with the SFOA. A telephone survey of 403 hospitality sector operators/owners in four clustered samples of Ontario, Canada. Based on completed surveys, the SFOA resulted in an increase in prevalence of smoke-free patios, from 5% (n=21) to 25% (n=99). Of the patios where smoking was permitted before the SFOA (n=382), 42% (n=161) had physical structures that would make smoking not permissible under the new act. Operators of half of these venues (n=80) made their patios smoke-free, with most indicating they had no choice given the costs or physical limitations to changing their outdoor environment. The other half (n=81) reported making physical changes, including removing roof structures to achieve compliance. The SFOA resulted in greater protection from outdoor secondhand smoke; however, most patios still permitted smoking. Half of the venues that complied with the SFOA by going smoke-free did so involuntarily because of structural and/or financial limitations. The majority of venue operators preferred to permit smoking on their patios, and only made their patios smoke-free when they were required to do so by law.

  1. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure levels in different European outdoor urban environments in comparison with regulatory limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Joseph, Wout; Huss, Anke; Verloock, Leen; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Röösli, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Concerns of the general public about potential adverse health effects caused by radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) led authorities to introduce precautionary exposure limits, which vary considerably between regions. It may be speculated that precautionary limits affect the base station network in a manner that mean population exposure unintentionally increases. The objectives of this multicentre study were to compare mean exposure levels in outdoor areas across four different European cities and to compare with regulatory RF-EMF exposure levels in the corresponding areas. We performed measurements in the cities of Amsterdam (the Netherlands, regulatory limits for mobile phone base station frequency bands: 41-61 V/m), Basel (Switzerland, 4-6 V/m), Ghent (Belgium, 3-4.5 V/m) and Brussels (Belgium, 2.9-4.3 V/m) using a portable measurement device. Measurements were conducted in three different types of outdoor areas (central and non-central residential areas and downtown), between 2011 and 2012 at 12 different days. On each day, measurements were taken every 4s for approximately 15 to 30 min per area. Measurements per urban environment were repeated 12 times during 1 year. Arithmetic mean values for mobile phone base station exposure ranged between 0.22 V/m (Basel) and 0.41 V/m (Amsterdam) in all outdoor areas combined. The 95th percentile for total RF-EMF exposure varied between 0.46 V/m (Basel) and 0.82 V/m (Amsterdam) and the 99th percentile between 0.81 V/m (Basel) and 1.20 V/m (Brussels). All exposure levels were far below international reference levels proposed by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection). Our study did not find indications that lowering the regulatory limit results in higher mobile phone base station exposure levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of Science Teachers' Opinions about Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Ulas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to discover what science teachers' opinions about outdoor education learning environments are. Outdoor education learning environments contribute to problem-solving, critical and creative thinking skills of students. For this reason, outdoor education learning environments are very important for students to learn by…

  3. Teaching in the Field: What Teacher Professional Life Histories Tell About How They Learn to Teach in the Outdoor Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feille, Kelly K.

    2017-06-01

    This research investigates the professional life histories of upper elementary science teachers who were identified as effective both within the classroom and in the outdoor learning environment (OLE). The narratives of five teachers, collected through semistructured and open-ended interviews, provided the data for the study. Professional life histories were constructed for each teacher participant and an analysis of the teacher narratives identified the themes of teacher development across the voices of the participants. Narrative reasoning was used to unify those themes into a hypothetical professional life history as reported in this manuscript. Implications of this research can be realized for stakeholders in the preparation of pre-service teachers as well as the development of in-service teachers. Future research regarding the early induction years of new teachers, impacts of inclusion of the OLE in pre-service teacher instruction, and teacher experiences regarding professional development relating to efforts to include the OLE in formal education should be investigated.

  4. Activity size distributions of some naturally occurring radionuclides 7Be, 40K and 212Pb in indoor and outdoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.

    2005-01-01

    The activity size distributions of natural radionuclides 7 Be and 40 K were measured outdoor in El-Minia city, Egypt by means of gamma spectroscopy. A low-pressure Berner cascade impactor was used as a sampling device. The activity size distribution of both 7 Be and 40 K was described by one log-normal distribution, which was represented by the accumulation mode. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 7 Be and 40 K was determined to be 530 and 1550nm with a relative geometric standard deviation (δ, which was defined as the dispersion of the peak) of 2.4 and 2, respectively. The same sampling device (Berner impactor) and a screen diffusion battery were used to measure the activity size distribution, activity concentration and unattached fraction (f P ) of 212 Pb in indoor air of El-Minia City, Egypt. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of the accumulation mode for attached 212 Pb was determined to be 250nm with a mean geometric standard deviation (δ) of 2.6. The mean value of the specific concentration of 212 Pb associated with that mode was determined to be 460+/-20mBqm -3 . The activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) of unattached 212 Pb was determined to be 1.25nm with δ of 1.4. A mean unattached fraction (f p ) of 0.13+/-0.02 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 1.8x10 3 cm -3 . The mean activity concentration of unattached 212 Pb was found to be 19+/-3mBqm -3 . It was found that the aerosol concentration played an important role in varying the unattached, attached activity concentration and unattached fraction (f P )

  5. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  6. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  7. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1 ~ 0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement. PMID:24311976

  8. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1 measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2 implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people’s environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3 constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV, two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  9. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  10. Real-Time fusion of visual images and laser data images for safe navigation in outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    García-Alegre Sánchez, María C.; Martín, David; Guinea García-Alegre, Domingo M.; Guinea Díaz, Domingo

    2011-01-01

    [EN]In recent years, two dimensional laser range finders mounted on vehicles is becoming a fruitful solution to achieve safety and environment recognition requirements (Keicher & Seufert, 2000), (Stentz et al., 2002), (DARPA, 2007). They provide real-time accurate range measurements in large angular fields at a fixed height above the ground plane, and enable robots and vehicles to perform more confidently a variety of tasks by fusing images from visual cameras with range data (...

  11. Changes in Sunlight and Outdoor Thermal Environment Conditions Based on the Layout Plan of Flat Type Apartment Houses

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Sukjin; Yoon, Seonghwan

    2015-01-01

    Economic growths lead to population increases in large cities. This has brought about the growing necessity for apartment housing which has resulted in higher density populations living in high-rise apartment complexes. Therefore, the urban microclimate is aggravated due to the increasing ratio of artificial coverage and substandard daylight availability. To achieve a comfortable living environment and improve urban microclimates, a process considering the daylight availability and the outdo...

  12. WildSense: Monitoring Interactions among Wild Deer in Harsh Outdoor Environments Using a Delay-Tolerant WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologists and ecologists often monitor the spread of disease among deer in the wild by using tracking systems that record their movement patterns, locations, and interaction behavior. The existing commercial systems for monitoring wild deer utilize collars with GPS sensors, deployed on captured and rereleased deer. The GPS sensors record location data every few hours, enabling researchers to approximate the interaction behavior of tracked deer with their GPS locations. However, the coarse granularity of periodically recorded GPS location data provides only limited precision for determining deer interaction behavior. We have designed a novel system to monitor wild deer interaction behavior more precisely in harsh wilderness environments. Our system combines the functionalities of both GPS and RF-radio sensors with low-cost and minimal-resource motes. We designed and built our system to be able to operate robustly for a period of up to several months for continual tracking and monitoring of the locations and interaction behaviors of wild deer in harsh environments. We successfully deployed six deer collars on six wild deer that were captured and rereleased in the Soapstone Prairie Natural Area of northern Colorado over a one-month period. In this paper, we describe how we designed and built this system and evaluate its successful operation in a wilderness area.

  13. LEVELS OF EXTREMELY LOW-FREQUENCY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM OVERHEAD POWER LINES IN THE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT OF RAMALLAH CITY-PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuasbi, Falastine; Lahham, Adnan; Abdel-Raziq, Issam Rashid

    2018-05-01

    In this study, levels of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields originated from overhead power lines were investigated in the outdoor environment in Ramallah city, Palestine. Spot measurements were applied to record fields intensities over 6-min period. The Spectrum Analyzer NF-5035 was used to perform measurements at 1 m above ground level and directly underneath 40 randomly selected power lines distributed fairly within the city. Levels of electric fields varied depending on the line's category (power line, transformer or distributor), a minimum mean electric field of 3.9 V/m was found under a distributor line, and a maximum of 769.4 V/m under a high-voltage power line (66 kV). However, results of electric fields showed a log-normal distribution with the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of 35.9 and 2.8 V/m, respectively. Magnetic fields measured at power lines, on contrast, were not log-normally distributed; the minimum and maximum mean magnetic fields under power lines were 0.89 and 3.5 μT, respectively. As a result, none of the measured fields exceeded the ICNIRP's guidelines recommended for general public exposures to extremely low-frequency fields.

  14. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  15. Federal outdoor recreation trends: effects on economic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Donald B.K. English

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor recreation is a central way that people interact with the natural environment. Federal land agencies are key providers of settings, facilities, and landscapes for recreation. Outdoor recreation is also an important driver of economic activity in rural communities near recreation destinations and across the United States. Future participation in outdoor...

  16. The home electronic media environment and parental safety concerns: relationships with outdoor time after school and over the weekend among 9-11 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2018-04-05

    Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The odds of spending > 1 h outdoors after school, and > 2 h outdoors on a weekend were computed, according to demographic variables, screen-based behaviours, media access, and parental safety concerns. Interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES) were explored. Boys, low SES participants, and children who played on their computer for  1 h outside after school than girls, high SES children and those playing on a computer for ≥2 h, respectively. Counterintuitive results were found for access to media devices and crime-related safety concerns as both of these were positively associated with time spent outdoors after school. A significant interaction for traffic-related concerns*sex was found; higher road safety concerns were associated with lower odds of outdoor time after school in boys only. Age was associated with weekend outdoor time, which interacted with sex and SES; older children were more likely to spend > 2 h outside on weekends but this was only significant among girls and high SES participants. Our results suggest that specific groups of children are less likely to spend their free time outside, and it would seem that only prolonged recreational computer use has a negative association with children's outdoor time after school. Further research is needed to explore potential underlying mechanisms, and parental safety concerns in more detail.

  17. Prevalence, persistence, and phenotypic variation of Aspergillus fumigatus in the outdoor environment in Manchester, UK, over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshareef, Fadwa; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients, is considered to be the world's most dangerous mould. It is widely distributed in the environment, and airborne asexual conidia serve as the main mode of transport for pulmonary lung infection. It is important to monitor seasonal airborne conidia levels when assessing the risk of acquiring this infection. In this study, air was sampled for total viable fungal spores and viable A. fumigatus conidia monthly over a 2-year period (2009 and 2010) close to Manchester, UK, city center. Total viable airborne fungal counts varied seasonally, peaking in the summer and autumn for both years and reaching levels of approximately 1100-1400 colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3); counts were strongly positively correlated to mean temperature (R(2) = 0.697). By contrast, A. fumigatus viable airborne counts were not seasonally associated; persistent low levels were between 3 and 20 CFU/m(3) and were not correlated with mean temperature (R(2) = 0.018). A total of 220 isolates of A. fumigatus were recovered on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 45°C, and internal transcribed spacer sequencing and restriction digestion of a partial polymerase chain reaction amplicon of the β-tubulin gene (benA) of 34 randomly selected isolates were used to confirm the isolates as A. fumigatus. When the colony radial growth rates (Kr) were determined, the highest rates were observed on PDA, followed by Vogel's medium supplemented with phosphatidylcholine and Vogel's medium alone. Clinical isolates had a significantly higher mean colony Kr on PDA compared with environmental isolates.

  18. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with medulloblastoma in an African-American boy: A rare case illustrating gene-environment interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korczak, J.F.; Goldstein, A.M. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kase, R.G. [Westat Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    We present an 8-year-old African-American boy with medulloblastoma and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) who exhibited the radiosensitive response of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) formation in the area irradiated for medulloblastoma. Such a response is well-documented in Caucasian NBCCS patients with medulloblastoma. The propositus was diagnosed with medulloblastoma at the age of 2 years and underwent surgery, chemotherapy, and craniospinal irradiation. At the age of 6 years, he was diagnosed with NBCCS following his presentation with a large odontogenic keratocyst of the mandible, pits of the palms and soles and numerous BCCs in the area of the back and neck that had been irradiated previously for medulloblastoma. Examination of other relatives showed that the propositus mother also had NBCCS but was more mildly affected; in particular, she had no BCCs. This case illustrates complex gene-environment interaction, in that increased skin pigmentation in African-Americans is presumably protective against ultraviolet, but not ionizing, radiation. This case and other similar cases in the literature show the importance of considering NBCCS in the differential diagnosis of any patient who presents with a medulloblastoma, especially before the age of 5 years, and of examining other close relatives for signs of NBCCS to determine the patient`s at-risk status. Finally, for individuals who are radiosensitive, protocols that utilize chemotherapy in lieu of radiotherapy should be considered. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D status and serum bioavailable 25(OH)D of young Asian Indian males working in outdoor and indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ravinder; Saha, Soma; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Singh, Namrata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    Urban Asian Indians generally have low serum 25(OH)D. Information on serum bioavailable 25(OH)D and the effect of prolonged sun-exposure in them is not known. We assessed serum 25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D in males with varying durations of sun-exposure in Delhi during August-September. Serum 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), bioavailable 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D index, iPTH, ionized calcium and sun-index were assessed in outdoor, mixed outdoor-indoor and indoor workers (n = 88, 32 and 74, respectively). The mean sun-index (12.0 ± 6.25, 4.3 ± 2.20 and 0.7 ± 0.62, respectively; P < 0.001) was highest outdoors and lowest indoors. Serum 25(OH)D (29.0 ± 8.61, 19.1 ± 5.73 and 10.9 ± 4.19 ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001), bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index were maximum in outdoor workers followed by mixed-exposure and indoor workers. Their mean serum DBP levels (241.2 ± 88.77, 239.3 ± 83.40 and 216.6 ± 63.93 µg/ml, respectively; P = 0.12) were comparable. Mean serum iPTH was significantly lower in outdoor than indoor workers and showed inverse correlations with serum 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index (r = -0.401, -0.269 and -0.236, respectively; P < 0.001 in all). Daily dietary-calorie intake was higher and calcium lower in outdoor than indoor workers. On regression analysis, sun-exposure was the only significant variable, increasing serum 25(OH)D by 2.03 ng/ml per hour of sun-exposure (95 % confidence interval 1.77-2.28; P < 0.001). Outdoor workers with prolonged sun-exposure were vitamin D-sufficient, with higher serum bioavailable 25(OH)D than the indoor workers during summer. Use of serum DBP levels did not affect the interpretation of their vitamin D status.

  1. Improving the Physical Activity and Outdoor Play Environment of Family Child Care Homes in Nebraska Through Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Danae; Dev, Dipti; Guo, Yage; Hulse, Emily; Rida, Zainab; Sedani, Ami; Coyle, Brian

    2018-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the Go Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment in Child Care (Go NAP SACC) intervention was effective in improving best practices in the areas of infant and child physical activity and outdoor play and learning in family child care homes (FCCHs) in Nebraska. FCCHs (n = 201) participated in a pre-post evaluation using the Infant and Child Physical Activity and Outdoor Play and Learning assessments from the Go NAP SACC validated measure to assess compliance with best practices. At post, FCCHs demonstrated significant differences in 85% of the Infant and Child Physical Activity items (17 of 20) and 80% of the Outdoor Play and Learning items (12 of 15). Significant differences in best practices between urban and rural FCCH providers were also found. Go NAP SACC appears to be an effective intervention in Nebraska as, after participation in the initiative, providers were improving child care physical activity best practices. Additional research is needed to objectively determine if these changes resulted in objective improvements in children's physical activity levels. Further, efforts are needed to develop and/or identify geographic-specific resources for continued improvement.

  2. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W.; James, J. Joy; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children’s outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children’s HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included. PMID:29152542

  3. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; James, J Joy; Battista, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children's HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included.

  4. Illustrative and descriptive format of pedagogic strategies and resources for the instruction of blind and low vision students in inclusive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Osmar Seabra Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The participation of all in a Physical Education class requires pedagogical resources and proper and/or adapted teaching strategies to each group of participants. The aim of this study was to: identify, interpret and categorize the suggestions found in the literature on teaching strategies and learning resources offered to teach blind and visually impaired students. The specific objectives were: 1 Presentation of teaching strategies and learning resources in an illustrative manual, and 2 A description of the illustrations, which can be read in Braille, enabling accessibility to the blind. The re - sults were obtained by the: 1 selection of propositions that describing teaching stra - tegies and pedagogic resources in literature, 2 the classification and categorization of the propositions, 3 development of the illustrative manual, and 4 description of the figures in the manual. The material produced will serve as a tool for academics, teachers, coaches of adapted sports, and for the daily use of teachers.

  5. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  6. Rationale and study protocol for the 'eCoFit' randomized controlled trial: Integrating smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to improve health-related fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with, Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynska, Magdalena; Lubans, David R; Cohen, Kristen E; Smith, Jordan J; Robards, Sara L; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence and risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has dramatically increased over the past decade. Physical activity (PA) has significant benefits for the treatment and prevention of T2D. The aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based PA intervention to improve aerobic and muscular fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. The eCoFit pilot intervention will be evaluated using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. The 20-week (Phases 1 and 2) multi-component intervention was guided by Social Cognitive Theory, Health Action Process Approach Model, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy strategies. Phase 1 (Weeks 1-10) includes: i) 5 group face-to-face sessions consisting of outdoor training and cognitive mentoring; and ii) the use of the eCoFit smartphone application with a description of where and how to use the outdoor environment to be more physically active. Phase 2 (Weeks 11-20) includes the use of the eCoFit smartphone application only. Assessments are to be conducted at baseline, 10-weeks (primary end-point) and 20-weeks (secondary end-point) post-baseline. Primary outcomes are cardio-respiratory fitness and muscular fitness (lower body). Secondary outcomes include physical, behavioral, mental health and quality of life, and social-cognitive outcomes. eCoFit is an innovative, multi-component intervention, which integrates smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to promote aerobic and resistance training PA among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. The findings will be used to guide future interventions and to develop and implement effective community-based prevention programs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12615000990527. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Illustrator CC digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A complete training package lets you learn Adobe Illustrator CC at your own speed Adobe Illustrator is the leading drawing and illustration software used to create artwork for a variety of media. This book-and-DVD package provides 13 self-paced lessons that get you up to speed on the latest version of Illustrator (Creative Cloud). Step-by-step instructions in the full-color book are supported by video tutorials on the DVD. Together, these tools will help you learn Adobe Illustrator basics, essential skills, and all the new capabilities in Illustrator CC-in no time.  Includes step-by-step in

  8. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  9. Prediction of Wind Environment and Indoor/Outdoor Relationships for PM2.5 in Different Building–Tree Grouping Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airflow behavior and indoor/outdoor PM2.5 dispersion in different building–tree grouping patterns depend significantly on the building–tree layouts and orientation towards the prevailing wind. By using a standard k-ε model and a revised generalized drift flux model, this study evaluated airflow fields and indoor/outdoor relationships for PM2.5 resulting from partly wind-induced natural ventilation in four hypothetical building–tree grouping patterns. Results showed that: (1 Patterns provide a variety of natural ventilation potential that relies on the wind influence, and buildings that deflect wind on the windward facade and separate airflow on the leeward facade have better ventilation potential; (2 Patterns where buildings and trees form a central space and a windward opening side towards the prevailing wind offer the best ventilation conditions; (3 Under the assumption that transported pollution sources are diluted through the inlet, the aerodynamics and deposition effects of trees cause the lower floors of a multi-storey building to be exposed to lower PM2.5 compared with upper floors, and lower indoor PM2.5 values were found close to the tree canopy; (4 Wind pressure differences across each flat showed a poor correlation (R2 = 0.059, with indoor PM2.5 concentrations; and (5 Patterns with the long facade of buildings and trees perpendicular to the prevailing wind have the lowest indoor PM2.5 concentrations.

  10. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  11. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  12. Perspectives of Elementary School Teachers on Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan, Ozcan; Cicek, Volkan; Atabay, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor education stands out as one of the methods to deliver the desired educational outcomes taking the needs of the students, teachers and the curricular objectives into consideration. Outdoor education focuses on experimental, hands-on learning in real-life environments through senses, e.g., through visual, auditory, and tactile means,…

  13. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  14. Provisions for Outdoor Play and Learning in Slovene Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez

    2013-01-01

    This study examined play and learning in the natural environment and on the playgrounds of Slovene preschools. It included 140 preschool teachers and 264 parents of children who attended preschools in 21 Slovene towns. Data were collected through questionnaires with questions referring to time spent outdoors, children's outdoor activities,…

  15. On approximate reasoning and minimal models for the development of robust outdoor vehicle navigation schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-11-01

    Outdoor sensor-based operation of autonomous robots has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. Two basic principles, or philosophies, and their associated methodologies are proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. The first principle is based on the concept of ``minimal model`` for accomplishing given tasks and proposes to utilize only the minimum level of information and precision necessary to accomplish elemental functions of complex tasks. This approach diverges completely from the direction taken by most artificial vision studies which conventionally call for crisp and detailed analysis of every available component in the perception data. The paper will first review the basic concepts of this approach and will discuss its pragmatic feasibility when embodied in a behaviorist framework. The second principle which is proposed deals with implicit representation of uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and approximate reasoning, rather than explicit (crisp) representation through calculation and conventional propagation techniques. A framework which merges these principles and approaches is presented, and its application to the problem of sensor-based outdoor navigation of a mobile robot is discussed. Results of navigation experiments with a real car in actual outdoor environments are also discussed to illustrate the feasibility of the overall concept.

  16. On approximate reasoning and minimal models for the development of robust outdoor vehicle navigation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor sensor-based operation of autonomous robots has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. Two basic principles, or philosophies, and their associated methodologies are proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. The first principle is based on the concept of ''minimal model'' for accomplishing given tasks and proposes to utilize only the minimum level of information and precision necessary to accomplish elemental functions of complex tasks. This approach diverges completely from the direction taken by most artificial vision studies which conventionally call for crisp and detailed analysis of every available component in the perception data. The paper will first review the basic concepts of this approach and will discuss its pragmatic feasibility when embodied in a behaviorist framework. The second principle which is proposed deals with implicit representation of uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and approximate reasoning, rather than explicit (crisp) representation through calculation and conventional propagation techniques. A framework which merges these principles and approaches is presented, and its application to the problem of sensor-based outdoor navigation of a mobile robot is discussed. Results of navigation experiments with a real car in actual outdoor environments are also discussed to illustrate the feasibility of the overall concept

  17. Rainwater, a tool for development and maintenance of nature in the city - Three development projects illustrating the water as a support of natural processes in urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Piel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of manage urban stormwater are gradually taken into account by planners and landscapers. If the ecological potential of the temporary retention techniques is correctly operated in peri-urban areas, it is too little valued in a dense urban environment. Dense urban environment where the demand of nature is becoming stronger.Presented three projects in dense urban areas, where rainwater is treated as support nature, and as a factor in natural processes.These projects also aim to show how the problem of flood is a support social, legal, and financial, to implement these natural processes, so necessary in urban areas.

  18. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Törmäkangas, Timo; Leinonen, Raija; Heikkinen, Eino; Rantanen, Taina

    2009-04-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation. Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses. Community and research center. Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up. Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period. At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively). Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.

  19. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad

  20. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  1. Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

  2. Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment. Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilidis, Georgios A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Kazos, Elias A; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the results of a measurement campaign aiming to assess cancer risk among two special groups of population: policemen and laboratory technicians exposed to the toxic substances, benzene and formaldehyde are presented. The exposure is compared to general population risk. The results show that policemen working outdoor (traffic regulation, patrol on foot or in vehicles, etc.) are exposed at a significantly higher benzene concentration (3-5 times) than the general population, while the exposure to carbonyls is in general lower. The laboratory technicians appear to be highly exposed to formaldehyde while no significant variation of benzene exposure in comparison to the general population is recorded. The assessment revealed that laboratory technicians and policemen run a 20% and 1% higher cancer risk respectively compared to the general population. Indoor working place air quality is more significant in assessing cancer risk in these two categories of professionals, due to the higher Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) of formaldehyde compared to benzene. Since the origin of the danger to laboratory technicians is clear (use of chemicals necessary for the experiments), in policemen the presence of carbonyls in indoor air concentrations due to smoking or used materials constitute a danger equal to the exposure to traffic originated air pollutants.

  3. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  4. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  5. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  6. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  7. Textile Art as Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Floyd C.

    1998-01-01

    Used in picture-book illustration, such techniques as embroidery, applique, wood-block printing, batik, and quilting reflect cultural heritages and add richly textured images to this annotated list of titles for children from preschool through junior high. (Author)

  8. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  9. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  10. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  11. Innovation and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Within our fast-paced, fluid society, it is arguable that outdoor education needs to be innovative to play a useful role in young people's overall educational enterprise. A critical view, however, would suggest that we must beware of accepting technological innovation for its own sake. Innovations (or improvements) in education can take the form…

  12. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  13. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  16. Signs of the Times: An Outdoor Education Project with Profoundly Deaf and Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Describes a British outdoor program in which 11- and 12-year-old students were placed in mixed groups containing several ethnic groups and hearing and deaf children. Includes children's comments on outdoor activities, their relationships with other children, and communication problems and their resolution. An adjacent page illustrates 12 British…

  17. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  18. Radiology illustrated. Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Offers a practical approach to image interpretation for spinal disorders. Includes numerous high-quality radiographic images and schematic illustrations. Will serve as a self-learning book covering daily routine cases from the basic to the advanced. Radiology Illustrated: Spine is an up-to-date, superbly illustrated reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. Common, critical, and rare but distinctive spinal disorders are described succinctly with the aid of images highlighting important features and informative schematic illustrations. The first part of the book, on common spinal disorders, is for radiology residents and other clinicians who are embarking on the interpretation of spinal images. A range of key disorders are then presented, including infectious spondylitis, cervical trauma, spinal cord disorders, spinal tumors, congenital disorders, uncommon degenerative disorders, inflammatory arthritides, and vascular malformations. The third part is devoted to rare but clinically significant spinal disorders with characteristic imaging features, and the book closes by presenting practical tips that will assist in the interpretation of confusing cases.

  19. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  20. A Review of Criteria for Outdoor Classroom in Selected Tertiary Educational Institutions in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheran, Y.; Fadzidah, A.; Nur Fadhilah, R.; Farha, S.

    2017-12-01

    A proper design outdoor environment in higher institutions contributes to the students’ learning performances and produce better learning outcomes. Campus surrounding has the potential to provide an informal outdoor learning environment, especially when it has the existing physical element, like open spaces and natural features, that may support the learning process. However, scholarly discourses on environmental aspects in tertiary education have minimal environmental inputs to fulfill students’ needs for outdoor exposure. Universities have always emphasized on traditional instructional methods in classroom settings, without concerning the importance of outdoor classroom towards students’ learning needs. Moreover, the inconvenience and discomfort outdoor surrounding in campus environment offers a minimal opportunity for students to study outside the classroom, and students eventually do not favor to utilize the spaces because no learning facility is provided. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the appropriate criteria of outdoor areas that could be converted to be outdoor classrooms in tertiary institutions. This paper presents a review of scholars’ work in regards to the characteristics of the outdoor classrooms that could be designed as part of contemporary effective learning space, for the development of students’ learning performances. The information gathered from this study will become useful knowledge in promoting effective outdoor classroom and create successful outdoor learning space in landscape campus design. It I hoped that the finding of this study could provide guidelines on how outdoor classrooms should be designed to improve students’ academic achievement.

  1. The Scientist as Illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2016-04-01

    Proficiency in art and illustration was once considered an essential skill for biologists, because text alone often could not suffice to describe observations of biological systems. With modern imaging technology, it is no longer necessary to illustrate what we can see by eye. However, in molecular and cellular biology, our understanding of biological processes is dependent on our ability to synthesize diverse data to generate a hypothesis. Creating visual models of these hypotheses is important for generating new ideas and for communicating to our peers and to the public. Here, I discuss the benefits of creating visual models in molecular and cellular biology and consider steps to enable researchers to become more effective visual communicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing an audit checklist to assess outdoor falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group.

  3. Social indicators and outdoor recreation: the forgotten sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Peine; Robert W. Marans; Charles C. Harris

    1980-01-01

    Following a brief historical overview of the social indicators movement, outdoor recreation measures which can be considered as social indicators are discussed. Such indicators are largely derived from social surveys. Illustrative data from 53 such surveys are presented. Despite the availability of such data, there have been few attempts to adapt them as established...

  4. The Mica Creek Experimental Watershed: An Outdoor Laboratory for the Investigation of Hydrologic Processes in a Continental/Maritime Mountainous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, T. E.; Gravelle, J.; Hubbart, J.; Warnsing, A.; Du, E.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Cundy, T.

    2004-12-01

    Experimental catchments have proven to be extremely useful for investigations focused on fundamental hydrologic processes and on the impacts of land cover change on hydrologic regimes and water quality. Recent studies have illustrated how watershed responses to experimental treatments vary greatly between watersheds with differing physical, ecological and hydroclimatic characteristics. Meteorological and hydrological data within catchments are needed to help identify how hydrologic mechanisms may be altered by land cover alterations, and to both constrain and develop spatially-distributed physically based models. Existing instrumentation at the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho is a fourth-order catchment that is undergoing expansion to produce a comprehensive dataset for model development and testing. The experimental catchments encompass a 28 km2 area spanning elevations from 975 to 1725 m msl. Snow processes dominate the hydrology of the catchment and climate conditions in the winter alternate between cold, dry continental and warm, moist maritime weather systems. Landcover is dominated by 80 year old second growth conifer forests, with partially cut (thinned) and clear-cut sub-catchments. Climate and precipitation data are collected at a SNOTEL site, three primary, and seven supplemental meteorological stations stratified by elevation and canopy cover. Manual snow depth measurements are recorded every 1-2 weeks during snowmelt, stratified by aspect, elevation and canopy cover. An air temperature transect spans three second-order sub-catchments to track air temperature lapse rate dynamics. Precipitation gauge arrays are installed within thinned and closed-canopy stands to track throughfall and interception loss. Nine paired and nested sub-catchments are monitored for flow, temperature, sediment, and nutrients. Hydroclimatic data are augmented by LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery for determination of canopy and topographic structure

  5. Integrating smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor physical environment to improve fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with, Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from the 'eCoFit' randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wilczynska, Magdalena; Cohen, Kristen E; Smith, Jordan J; Lubans, David R

    2017-12-01

    The risk and prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has dramatically increased over the past decade. The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a physical activity intervention to improve aerobic and muscular fitness among adults at risk of, or diagnosed with T2D. A 20-week, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the University of Newcastle (June-December 2015). Adults were randomized to the intervention (n=42) or wait-list control group (n=42). The theory-based intervention included: Phase 1 (weeks 1-10) integrated group sessions (outdoor physical activity and cognitive mentoring), and the eCoFit smartphone application (app). Phase 2 (weeks 11-20) only included the eCoFit app. Participants were assessed at baseline, 10weeks and 20weeks. Linear mixed models (intention-to-treat) were used to determine group-by-time interactions at 10weeks (primary time-point) and 20weeks for the primary outcomes. Several secondary outcomes were also assessed. After 10weeks, significant group-by-time effects were observed for aerobic fitness (4.5mL/kg/min; 95% CI [1.3, 7.7], d=0.68) and muscular fitness (lower body) (3.4 reps, 95% CI [2.7, 4.2], d=1.45). Intervention effects for secondary outcomes included significant increased physical activity (1330steps/week), improved upper body muscular fitness (5 reps; arm-curl test), improved functionality (-1.8s; timed-up and go test) reduced waist circumference (2.8cm) and systolic blood pressure (-10.4mmHg). After 20weeks, significant effects were observed for lower body muscular fitness and health outcomes. eCoFit is an innovative lifestyle intervention which integrates smartphone technology, social support, and the outdoor environment to improve aerobic and muscular fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing integrated indoor/outdoor mobility in a smart campus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sospedra, Joaquín; Avariento, Joan; Rambla Risueño, David; Montoliu Colás, Raúl; Casteleyn, Sven; Benedito Bordonau, Mauri; Gould Carlson, Michael; Huerta Guijarro, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A Smart City relies on six key factors: Smart Governance, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart Mobility. This paper focuses on Smart Mobility by improving one of its key components: positioning. We developed and deployed a novel indoor positioning system (IPS) that is combined with an outdoor positioning system to support seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and wayfinding. The positioning system is implemented as a service in our broader cartography-based ...

  7. A grieving process illustrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Rory

    2018-03-01

    The sudden death of Pablo Picasso's closest friend Carlos Casagemas in 1901 came as a great shock to the young Picasso. From a young age, Picasso had ruminated on life and death; however, this was his first experience of bereavement. Following the death of Casagemas, Picasso's paintings can be seen as a diary of his grieving process and clearly illustrate the five stages of the grieving process as outlined by Kubler-Ross in ' On Death and Dying ' (1969). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on Integration of Indoor and Outdoor Positioning in Professional Athletic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GNSS is widely used in professional athletic training as an outdoor location based services, and the indoor positioning technology has gradually flourished in the gymnasium. To keep up with the demand for athletic training in indoor and outdoor environment, integration of indoor and outdoor positioning technology can achieve a seamless indoor/outdoor position solution. The proposed method uses GPS/BEIDOU with IMU-MEMS technology for outdoor positioning and UWB with IMU-MEMS technology for indoor positioning to provide high precision positioning services. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve meter level position accuracy in outdoor environment and centimeter level position accuracy in indoor environment, it can provide precise and real-time positioning service for effective athletic training aid.

  10. The Past and Future Trends of Heat Stress Based On Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Outdoor Environment of Tehran City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi Mohraz, Majid; Ghahri, Asghar; Karimi, Mehrdad; Golbabaei, Farideh

    2016-06-01

    The workers who are working in the open and warm environments are at risk of health effects of climate and heat changes. It is expected that the risk is increase with global warming. This study aimed to investigate the changes of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index in the past and to predict their trend of future changes in Tehran, capital of Iran. The meteorological data recorded in Tehran, Iran during the statistical period between 1961 and 2009 were obtained from the Iran Meteorological Organization and based on them, WBGT index was calculated and processed using Man-Kendall correlation test. The results of Man-Kendall correlation test showed that the trend of changes of annual mean WBGT during the statistical period under study (1961-2009) has been significantly increasing. In addition, the result of proposed predictive model estimated that an increase of about 1.55 degree in WBGT index will be seen over 40 years from 2009 to 2050 in Tehran. Climate change in Tehran has had an effect on person's exposure to heat stresses consistent with global warming.

  11. The Short Term Effectiveness of an Outdoor Environmental Education on Environmental Awareness and Sensitivity of In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is mostly mentioned in terms of environmental education. The aim of this research is to determine the short term effectiveness of an outdoor environmental education program on biodiversity awareness, environmental awareness and sensitivity to natural environment. The data is collected from an outdoor environmental education…

  12. Outdoor Education and Mobile Learning: An Autobiographical Narrative Using Application-Based Information and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeff, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Although mobile learning using smartphones and applications or apps have the potential to inform and educate individuals in an outdoor environment, users may find that connectivity issues and basic knowledge of outdoor environments, including both physical and emotional, could be limited by what this technology provided. This study provided my…

  13. Radiology illustrated. Pediatric radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-One (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-11-01

    Depicts characteristic imaging findings of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. Will serve as an ideal diagnostic reference in daily practice. Offers an excellent teaching aid, with numerous high-quality illustrations. This case-based atlas presents images depicting the findings typically observed when imaging a variety of common and uncommon diseases in the pediatric age group. The cases are organized according to anatomic region, covering disorders of the brain, spinal cord, head and neck, chest, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, genitourinary system, and musculoskeletal system. Cases are presented in a form resembling teaching files, and the images are accompanied by concise informative text. The goal is to provide a diagnostic reference suitable for use in daily routine by both practicing radiologists and radiology residents or fellows. The atlas will also serve as a teaching aide and a study resource, and will offer pediatricians and surgeons guidance on the clinical applications of pediatric imaging.

  14. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  15. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  16. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  17. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  18. Radiology illustrated. Chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Joungho; Chung, Man Pyo; Jeong, Yeon Joo

    2014-01-01

    Pattern approach to the diagnosis of lung diseases based on CT scan appearances. Guide to quick and reliable differential diagnosis. CT-pathology correlation. Emphasis on state-of-the-art MDCT. The purpose of this atlas is to illustrate how to achieve reliable diagnoses when confronted by the different abnormalities, or ''disease patterns'', that may be visualized on CT scans of the chest. The task of pattern recognition has been greatly facilitated by the advent of multidetector CT (MDCT), and the focus of the book is very much on the role of state-of-the-art MDCT. A wide range of disease patterns and distributions are covered, with emphasis on the typical imaging characteristics of the various focal and diffuse lung diseases. In addition, clinical information relevant to differential diagnosis is provided and the underlying gross and microscopic pathology is depicted, permitting CT-pathology correlation. The entire information relevant to each disease pattern is also tabulated for ease of reference. This book will be an invaluable handy tool that will enable the reader to quickly and easily reach a diagnosis appropriate to the pattern of lung abnormality identified on CT scans.

  19. Structures that Include a Semi-Outdoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papachristou, C.; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment of buildings with a second "skin" and semi-outdoor space is examined in the present study. A literature review was conducted on similar structures and only a few studies were found focusing on the thermal environment. Two different building case studies were chosen with di...

  20. Design of outdoor urban spaces for thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet J. Plumley

    1977-01-01

    Microclimates in outdoor urban spaces may be modified by controlling the wind and radiant environments in these spaces. Design guidelines were developed to specify how radiant environments may be selected or modified to provide conditions for thermal comfort. Fanger's human-thermal-comfort model was used to determine comfortable levels of radiant-heat exchange for...

  1. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, ...

  2. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-22

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users' current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station's signal strength in different environments, and identified the users' current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  3. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users’ current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM communication cellular base station’s signal strength in different environments, and identified the users’ current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability.

  4. Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate

    2014-05-19

    Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was

  5. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological

  6. Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, James

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

  7. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  8. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  9. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless...

  10. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  11. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  12. Promoting Physical Activity and Science Learning in an Outdoor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kevin E.; Yan, Zi; McInnis, Kyle J.

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor education programs have been shown to have a positive effect on the educational, physical and emotional development of youth. They are increasingly being used to foster a sense of community in schools and to provide students with learning opportunities related to the environment. This article describes an integrated outdoor education…

  13. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children : A large-scale cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. Purpose: This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were

  14. Using deep learning to quantify the beauty of outdoor places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2017-07-01

    Beautiful outdoor locations are protected by governments and have recently been shown to be associated with better health. But what makes an outdoor space beautiful? Does a beautiful outdoor location differ from an outdoor location that is simply natural? Here, we explore whether ratings of over 200 000 images of Great Britain from the online game Scenic-Or-Not , combined with hundreds of image features extracted using the Places Convolutional Neural Network, might help us understand what beautiful outdoor spaces are composed of. We discover that, as well as natural features such as 'Coast', 'Mountain' and 'Canal Natural', man-made structures such as 'Tower', 'Castle' and 'Viaduct' lead to places being considered more scenic. Importantly, while scenes containing 'Trees' tend to rate highly, places containing more bland natural green features such as 'Grass' and 'Athletic Fields' are considered less scenic. We also find that a neural network can be trained to automatically identify scenic places, and that this network highlights both natural and built locations. Our findings demonstrate how online data combined with neural networks can provide a deeper understanding of what environments we might find beautiful and offer quantitative insights for policymakers charged with design and protection of our built and natural environments.

  15. Planning for outdoor play: Government and family decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, Julia J; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bundy, Anita C; Froude, Elspeth; Villeneuve, Michelle A

    2018-03-08

    Despite indisputable developmental benefits of outdoor play, children with disabilities can experience play inequity. Play decisions are multifactorial; influenced by children's skills and their familial and community environments. Government agencies have responsibilities for equity and inclusion of people with disabilities; including in play. This multiple-perspective case study aimed to understand outdoor play decision-making for children with disabilities from the perspectives and interactions of: local government and families of primary school-aged children with disabilities. Five mothers, four local government employees, and two not-for-profit organization representatives participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive and iterative analyzes involved first understanding perspectives of individuals, then stakeholders (local government and families), and finally similarities and differences through cross-case analysis. Local government focused more on physical access, than social inclusion. Local government met only minimal requirements and had little engagement with families. This resulted in poor understanding and action around family needs and preferences when designing public outdoor play spaces. To increase meaningful choice and participation in outdoor play, government understanding of family values and agency around engagement with local government needs to improve. Supporting familial collective capabilities requires understanding interactions between individuals, play, disability, and outdoor play environments.

  16. Trends in Illustration: A digital approach to large format illustrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of this, this study uses Adobe Photoshop CS4, a digital draw and paint tool, to illustrate some of the notable folktales in Igbo oral tradition. Vector and Raster techniques of computer graphics will be employed and discussed. Basic information on digital illustration will also be enumerated in the project. This piece of ...

  17. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  18. Outdoor fitness routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a sport you enjoy, such as bicycling, hiking, jogging, rowing, tennis, or Frisbee. Make chores a ... L, Lin BB, Gaston KJ, Fuller RA. The benefits of natural environments for physical activity. Sports Med . ...

  19. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  20. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Facettes multiples de la mangrove Divers faciès végétaux de la mangrove Rhizophora et Avicennia. © Cormier. Avicennia et Laguncularia. © Cormier. Mangrove : un écosystème forestier parcouru de bolons. © Cormier. Écosystème à mangrove (du rebord de plateau au bolon, y compris rizières de mangrove et tannes). Cormier © Orstom. Faune typique de la mangrove Monodactylus (Psettia sebae). Vidy © Orstom. Crabes violonistes (Uca spp.) Intès © Orstom. Les Rivières du Sud : des mangroves densémen...

  1. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Fig. 5 – Détail de la carte des formations superficielles du plateau insulaire de la Guadeloupe(Augris et al., 1992) Fig. 6 – Détail de la carte des formations superficielles du plateau insulaire de la Martinique(Augris et al., 2000) Baie échancrée, récif frangeant, récif barrière, et mangrove sur la côte est de la Martinique.© Ifremer/A. Guillou Mangrove à Rhizophora mangle dans le Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin (Gùadeloupe).© M. Louis Pente externe d'un récif corallien en bon état de santé (Mar...

  2. Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    1/ Atelier de Neri di Bici (attr.), Saint Yves rendant la justice, XVe siècle (Florence, Opera del Duomo) 2/ Le Sodoma,Saint Yves rendant la justice, 1507 (San Gimignano, fresque du Palais communal) 3/ Jacopo da Empoli, Saint Yves entre la veuve et l’orphelin, 1616 (Florence, galerie Pitti) 4/ Jacopo da Empoli, Saint Luc recommandant saint Yves à la Vierge, v. 1630 (Paris, Musée du Louvre) 5/ Giacomo Triga, La Vierge et les saints Yves, Gilles et Gimnesius, 1723 (Rome, église Santa Lucia ...

  3. Incorporating Outdoor Education into the Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhu

    2015-01-01

    Low motivation to participate in traditional or team sports, apathy toward competitive environments, and a low rate of transfer of skills to lifetime activities and wellness can be barriers for student pursuits of lifelong fitness. Adding an outdoor component can be a solution for some of these problems, while still accomplishing the National…

  4. Conceptualizing Skill within a Participatory Ecological Approach to Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    To answer calls for an ecological approach to outdoor adventure that can respond to the crisis of sustainability, this paper suggests greater theoretical and empirical attention to skill and skill development as shaping participant interactions with and experiences of environments, landscapes, places, and inhabitants. The paper reviews calls for…

  5. Sense of place in outdoor-pursuits trip groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Anderson B. Young; Lynn S. Anderson; Timothy S. O' Connell; Mary Breunig

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that sense of community and group cohesion increase significantly over time in outdoor-pursuits trip groups. This study sought to understand similar development of sense of place. Do people simultaneously become more attached to or dependent on the natural environment as they grow closer to each other? Results from a study of college students...

  6. A Socio-Environmental Case for Skill in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the crisis of sustainability, this paper revisits understandings of human--environment relations established through skill-based outdoor activities that are used commonly among adventure recreation, education, and tourism. Reconsidering a predominant focus on risk and a persistent tension between technical and environmental…

  7. Everyone needs the health benefits of being outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulatt, Ian

    2017-08-02

    A study by researchers at the University of Warwick has shown that for many older people in care homes it takes a great effort to get outdoors. This isn't due to a lack of will but rather the environment they are living in and the restrictions placed on them, which range from needing permission to go outside to inadequate seating in gardens.

  8. An Examination of Perceived Constraints to Outdoor Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.T. Green; J.M. Bowker; X. Wang; H.K. Cordell; Cassandra Y. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether different social and marginalized groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, immigrants, low income, less educated) perceive more constraints or barriers to outdoor recreation participation than White middle-class males. Logistic regressions were applied to data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment...

  9. A Teacher's Guide To: Indians and the Outdoor Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, C. M.

    As a basic teacher's guide to the study of plants in their environment, this document serves primarily as a starting point for outdoor education with an American Indian emphasis in the State of South Dakota. The State is divided into three broad environmental categories or "biotic communities" (Prairie and Plains, Woodlands, and Wet…

  10. Creating a digital medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the steps required to complete a medical illustration in a digital format using Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. The project example is the surgical procedure for the release of the glenohumeral joint for the condition known as 'frozen shoulder'. The purpose is to demonstrate one method which an artist can use within digital media to create a colour illustration such as the release of the glenohumeral joint. Included is a general overview as how to deal with the administration of a medical illustration commission through the experience of a professional freelance artist.

  11. Psychological implications of outdoor adventure model of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a synthetic analysis of the Outdoor Adventure Education model in the context of three elementary components: the environment – in relation to the theory of space from the perspective of sociological and pedagogical theory of space; personal perspective and growth as well as social development – in relation to psychological phenomena that accompany the individual and group involved in the process of Outdoor Adventure Education. The aim is to present how these processes determine the effects of education and what personalities’ elements are involved.

  12. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  13. A constraints-based approach to the acquisition of expertise in outdoor adventure sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, Keith; Brymer, Eric; Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A constraints-based framework enables a new understanding of expertise in outdoor adventure sports by considering performer-environment couplings through emergent and self-organizing behaviours in relation to interacting constraints. Expert adventure athletes, conceptualized as complex, dynamical

  14. Thermal Perception in the Mediterranean Area: Comparing the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI to Other Outdoor Thermal Comfort Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Golasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor thermal comfort is an essential factor of people’s everyday life and deeply affects the habitability of outdoor spaces. However the indices used for its evaluation were usually developed for indoor environments assuming still air conditions and absence of solar radiation and were only later adapted to outdoor spaces. For this reason, in a previous study the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI was developed, which is an empirical index able to estimate the thermal perception of people living in the Mediterranean area. In this study it was compared numerically (by using the data obtained through a field survey with other selected thermal indices. This comparison, performed in terms of Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, association Gamma, percentage of correct predictions and cross-tabulation analysis, led to identify the MOCI as the most suitable index to examine outdoor thermal comfort in the interested area. As a matter of fact it showed a total percentage of correct predictions of 35.5%. Good performances were reported even in thermophysiological indices as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Moreover it was revealed that adaptation and acclimatization phenomena tend to have a certain influence as well.

  15. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  16. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....

  17. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  18. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  19. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  20. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  1. Expanding & strengthening outdoor recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter S. Hopkins

    1971-01-01

    Though the Forest Service has pioneered in outdoor recreation research, the funding for recreation research has been inadequate. Specific needs for research are outlined. There is a need to define recreation and recreation research in terms that busy legislators can understand.

  2. A Study of Visual Descriptors for Outdoor Navigation Using Google Street View Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, L.; Payá, L.; Reinoso, O.; Jiménez, L. M.; Ballesta, M.

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis between several methods to describe outdoor panoramic images is presented. The main objective consists in studying the performance of these methods in the localization process of a mobile robot (vehicle) in an outdoor environment, when a visual map that contains images acquired from different positions of the environment is available. With this aim, we make use of the database provided by Google Street View, which contains spherical panoramic images captured in urban en...

  3. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  4. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  5. Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center. Program Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    Describing Department of Defense Dependents Schools Europe (DODDSEUR) use of Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center, this document is directed to sponsors wishing to take groups to Hinterbrand for one or more of the five program options (outdoor education week, teacher weekend, school-designed outdoor education program, administrative faculty…

  6. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  7. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing...

  8. Illustrations of the twin paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide a more intuitive understanding of the twin paradox, several illustrations of this are presented. In one of these, each of the twins is equipped with a lamp whose monochromatic light can be observed by the other. In other illustrations the travelling twin uses an Einstein train instead of a space ship, all the cars of the train and all stations along the route of the train being equipped with clocks. (author)

  9. A Study of Visual Descriptors for Outdoor Navigation Using Google Street View Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis between several methods to describe outdoor panoramic images is presented. The main objective consists in studying the performance of these methods in the localization process of a mobile robot (vehicle in an outdoor environment, when a visual map that contains images acquired from different positions of the environment is available. With this aim, we make use of the database provided by Google Street View, which contains spherical panoramic images captured in urban environments and their GPS position. The main benefit of using these images resides in the fact that it permits testing any novel localization algorithm in countless outdoor environments anywhere in the world and under realistic capture conditions. The main contribution of this work consists in performing a comparative evaluation of different methods to describe images to solve the localization problem in an outdoor dense map using only visual information. We have tested our algorithms using several sets of panoramic images captured in different outdoor environments. The results obtained in the work can be useful to select an appropriate description method for visual navigation tasks in outdoor environments using the Google Street View database and taking into consideration both the accuracy in localization and the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  10. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of th...

  11. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Kazumi; Nagata, Izumi; Sueki, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m 2 /day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m 2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m 2 /day. • More than 500 Bq/m 2 /day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  12. URBAN OUTDOOR ADVERTISING AS A VARIETY OF SMALL ARCHITECTURAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA H. P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The statement of the problem. The outdoor advertising is the highly developed industry in the leading countries of the world that uses the latest technologies. It largely determines the appearance and visual comfort of the urban environment. The city's outdoor advertising and visual information should correspond to the character of human vital activity. The basic requirements for them are ensuring effective advertising and operational orientation in the maze of streets and squares of the city, informing about the location of the objects, creating an image of a modern city. The city has always been a place striking because of the synthesis of arts. The outdoor advertising market development in Ukraine coincided with the beginning of the process of market reforms in the 90-ies, and in less than ten years its volume has reached considerable proportions. The small and large outdoor advertising objects continue to win the city more space with the rapid development of the country market economy. The concept of small architectural forms (IRF in the urban environment arose long time ago and it is understood as structures, equipment, and decorative exterior amenities, complementing the main urban development. The LFA include: kiosks, vending machines, street lamps (or landscape lamps as they are fashionably called now, stands for posters and advertisements, stairs, fences, fountains, obelisks, memorial plaques, urban street furniture, litter bins, sports design play structures, street planters, park benches, etc. This is a whole balanced set of elements of the urban environment. This directly affects the ergonomics, the usability of elements and products and their durability. The purpose of the article is to study the diversity of IRFs as well as the development and the implementation of the city outdoor advertising concept.

  13. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  14. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  15. Radiology illustrated. Uroradiology. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    2012-01-01

    Uroradiology is an up-to-date, image-oriented reference in the style of a teaching file that has been designed specifically to be of value in clinical practice. All aspects of the imaging of urologic diseases are covered, and case studies illustrate the findings obtained with the relevant imaging modalities in both common and uncommon conditions. Most chapters focus on a particular clinical problem, but normal findings, congenital anomalies, and interventions are also discussed and illustrated. In this second edition, the range and quality of the illustrations have been enhanced, and many schematic drawings have been added to help readers memorize characteristic imaging findings through pattern recognition. The accompanying text is concise and informative. Besides serving as an outstanding aid to differential diagnosis, this book will provide a user-friendly review tool for certification or recertification in radiology. (orig.)

  16. PARENTS ATTITUDE ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.

  17. Illustrating and Designing Quranic Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenoar, Lubna

    2009-01-01

    Selected verses from Abdullah Yusuf Ali's English language translation of the meaning of the Quran have been used as a literary text to teach both descriptive and figurative imagery (including similes, metaphors and symbols) to students at the undergraduate level in an Islamic institution. The technique--Illustrating and Designing for teaching…

  18. "The Strawberry Generation… They Are Too Pampered": Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives on Outdoor Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, Matthew; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Ho, Susanna; Ching, Chew Ting

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores pre-service PE teachers' conceptions of outdoor education (OE) in Singapore. Survey questionnaires were administered to 120 pre-service teachers; 14 teachers participated in follow-up semi-structured interviews. The findings indicate that OE is predominantly situated within the outdoor camp environment. Pre-service teachers…

  19. McDonaldization and commercial outdoor recreation and tourism in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera J. Zegre; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger; Randall S. Rosenberger

    2012-01-01

    This article uses perceptions of commercial tour operators in Juneau, Alaska, to examine the extent to which the commercial outdoor recreation and tourism industry in this area reflects principles of McDonaldization—efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. Data from interviews with 23 operators suggest that this industry in Juneau illustrates these...

  20. Comparative Indoor and Outdoor Degradation of Organic Photovoltaic Cells via Inter-laboratory Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Charles; Ferguson, Gretta Mae; Hermenau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We report on the degradation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells in both indoor and outdoor environments. Eight different research groups contributed state of the art OPV cells to be studied at Pomona College. Power conversion efficiency and fill factor were determined from IV curves collected...... at regular intervals over six to eight months. Similarly prepared devices were measured indoors, outdoors, and after dark storage. Device architectures are compared. Cells kept indoors performed better than outdoors due to the lack of temperature and humidity extremes. Encapsulated cells performed better due...

  1. Correspondence between Children's Indoor and Outdoor Play in Japanese Preschool Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Toshiya; Koda, Naoko; Minami, Tetsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between children's indoor and outdoor play in a preschool environment to investigate whether the children maintained a tendency to engage in a particular type of play irrespective of the environment, or whether they changed the type of play according to the environment. Play behaviours of 18 three-year-old…

  2. Towards an understanding of an outdoor education program: Listening to participants' stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, Shannon Dee

    Today, human beings spend more than 90% of their lives indoors (Evans, 2003). Not long ago, both urban and rural children grew up mostly outdoors, and had direct experiences with plants, animals, and the ways in which the necessities of daily life were grown, made, and used. When they were not helping with household work, children spent much of their time exploring the outdoor environment, relatively free from adult interference. The lives of children today are much different. Children now have fewer opportunities for unstructured play and regular contact with the natural world. Outdoor education programs are one tool that can provide children with continued access to the natural world. This study was conducted to determine how outdoor education program participants interpret their experiences in the natural world, how participant engagement with an outdoor education program shapes their perception of the natural world, and how participant interpretation of an outdoor education program shapes their actions for caring for the natural world when they return home. Using qualitative research methods, my study was conducted with four sixth-grade students participating in a four-day residential outdoor education program. The participants, two females and two males, were given cameras to document the most important aspects of their outdoor education experience. The pictures were used to stimulate conversation and encourage reflection during the interview process. Data sources consisted of a pre-program interview with each student, daily interviews with students while they were participating in the outdoor education program, and a post-program interview conducted one week after the program ended. Critical incident technique analysis was used to delineate the most critical elements of each participant's outdoor education experience. My study found that participants interpreted their outdoor education program as a positive experience. Classes that were challenging and gave

  3. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...... to the application in question. In this way results providing a certain level of accuracy are obtained using methods which are balanced with the accuracy of the input data. Advanced measurement techniques are looked into and suggestions for future research are made...

  4. Mobile Phones and Outdoor Advertising: Measurable Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...

  5. Outdoor surviving experiment with three green house enchytraeid species (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boros, G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Some enchytraeid species of tropical, subtropical or Mediterranean origin can appear in artificial environments,e.g. green houses due to the worldwide commercial network. Since the used soil from green houses is often disposed outdoors, aquestion raised that these exotic enchytraeid species could survive under continental climate conditions. In this experiment two ofthe resettled green house species survived outdoors the winter frost and the arid summer season in Hungary.

  6. Comparative Indoor and Outdoor Degradation of Organic Photovoltaic Cells via Inter-laboratory Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Charles; Ferguson, Gretta; Hermenau, Martin; Voroshazi, Eszter; Galagan, Yulia; Zimmermann, Birger; Rösch, Roland; Angmo, Dechan; Teran-Escobar, Gerardo; Uhrich, Christian; Andriessen, Ronn; Hoppe, Harald; Würfel, Uli; Lira-Cantu, Monica; Krebs, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    We report on the degradation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells in both indoor and outdoor environments. Eight different research groups contributed state of the art OPV cells to be studied at Pomona College. Power conversion efficiency and fill factor were determined from IV curves collected at regular intervals over six to eight months. Similarly prepared devices were measured indoors, outdoors, and after dark storage. Device architectures are compared. Cells kept indoors performed better ...

  7. Automated Mobile System for Accurate Outdoor Tree Crop Enumeration Using an Uncalibrated Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Thuy Tuong Nguyen; David C. Slaughter; Bradley D. Hanson; Andrew Barber; Amy Freitas; Daniel Robles; Erin Whelan

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an automated computer vision system for outdoor tree crop enumeration in a seedling nursery. The complete system incorporates both hardware components (including an embedded microcontroller, an odometry encoder, and an uncalibrated digital color camera) and software algorithms (including microcontroller algorithms and the proposed algorithm for tree crop enumeration) required to obtain robust performance in a natural outdoor environment. The enumeration system uses a t...

  8. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.

  9. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Gibbons, Rebecca; Gray, Casey; Ishikawa, Takuro; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Chabot, Guylaine; Fuselli, Pamela; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed. PMID:26062038

  10. Dairy cow preference for different types of outdoor access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Anne-Marieke C; Weary, Daniel M; Costa, Joao H C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2018-02-01

    Dairy cows display a partial preference for being outside, but little is known about what aspects of the outdoor environment are important to cows. The primary aim of this study was to test the preference of lactating dairy cattle for pasture versus an outdoor sand pack during the night. A secondary aim was to determine whether feeding and perching behavior changed when cows were provided outdoor access. A third objective was to investigate how the lying behavior of cows changed when given access to different outdoor areas. Ninety-six lactating pregnant cows were assigned to 8 groups of 12 animals each. After a baseline phase of 2 d in which cows were kept inside the freestall barn, cows were habituated to the outdoor areas by providing them access to each of the 2 options for 24 h. Cows were then given access, in random order by group, to either the pasture (pasture phase) or the sand pack (sand phase). As we tested the 2 outdoor options using space allowances consistent with what would be practical on commercial dairy farms, the space provided on pasture was larger (21,000 m 2 ) than that provided on the sand pack (144 m 2 ). Cows were tested at night (for 2 nights in each condition), from 2000 h until morning milking at approximately 0800 h, as preference to be outdoors is strongest at this time. During the next 3 nights cows were given access to both outside options simultaneously (choice phase). Feeding and perching behaviors were recorded when cows were indoors during the day and night periods. Lying behavior was automatically recorded by HOBO data loggers (Onset, Bourne, MA). Cows spent more time outside in the pasture phase (90.0 ± 5.9%) compared with the sand phase (44.4 ± 6.3%). When provided simultaneous access to both options, cows spent more time on pasture than on the sand pack (90.5 ± 2.6% vs. 0.8 ± 0.5%, respectively). Time spent feeding indoors during the day did not change regardless of what type of outdoor access was provided, but there was a

  11. United States of America: outdoor recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.Ken Cordell; G.Theodore Green; V.R. Leeworthy; R. Stephens; M.J. Fly; Carter J. Betz

    2005-01-01

    the first nationwide survey of outdoor recreation in the USA was conducted in 1960 for the outdoor recreation resources review commission (ORRC, 1962; Cordell et al., 1996). since that time, seven additional national surveys have been conducted, in 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1983, 1995, and 2000/01 - summary details are presented in Table 16.1.

  12. The "F" Word: Feminism in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…

  13. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  14. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  15. Een toekomst voor outdoor fitness in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske

    De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen

  16. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's natural... launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative. Building on input from tens of thousands of people across... engine of growth. As part of our National Travel and Tourism Strategy, my Administration is working to...

  17. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  18. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  19. University Outdoor Activities: an integral approach in the professional formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ofelia Armas-Álvarez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is lead to establish the theoretical foundations of the university outdoor labour from the organizational forms of the teaching process that favour the knowledge acquisition and the development of necessary skills in the students to promote culture in the different moments where they have connection with the society by means of the participation of the subjects and disciplines of the current programs that allow to organize systematic and articulated activities, appropriately planned, able to satisfy the necessities and to achieve the purpose of getting the preparation and integral cultural formation, as well as the their appropriate projection in the social environment that demands the contemporary society from the university professionals. In the work they are determined the content and skills that the student requires to promote Physical Culture in correspondence with their professional performance. It is designed a plan of activities to carry out the university outdoor labour from the organizational forms of the teaching process.

  20. Time Spent Outdoors, Depressive Symptoms, and Variation by Race and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-09-01

    Numerous studies have explored neighborhood environmental correlates of mental illnesses, presuming that the time individuals spend in their environment can confer benefit or harm based on environmental characteristics. However, few population-based studies have directly examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and mental health, and little work has been done to explore how experiences differ by race and ethnicity. Though some have proposed "doses of outdoor time" to improve health, the absence of information about the benefits conferred by particular "doses," and expected baseline levels of outdoor time, are needed to inform the development of recommendations and interventions. This study examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression among a population-based sample of American adults, characterized current levels of time spent outdoors by race and ethnicity, and examined how the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression varies by race and ethnicity. Descriptive statistics and survey regression models were used to examine data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2009-2012. Findings provide evidence that time spent outdoors is associated with fewer depressive symptoms, but this benefit may not be equally distributed by race and ethnicity. Descriptive analyses also reveal differences in time spent outdoors among different racial and ethnic groups. Study findings support the notion that increasing time spent outdoors may result in mental health benefits. However, this study questions whether that benefit is experienced equally among different groups, particularly given differences in occupational experiences and environmental characteristics of neighborhoods. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radon parameters in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20

  2. Do Inequalities in Neighborhood Walkability Drive Disparities in Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandieh, Razieh; Flacke, J.; Martínez-Martín, J.A.; Jones, Phil; Van Maarseveen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called "walkability". This

  3. Preservice History and Social Studies Teachers' Perceptions of Outdoor History Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Creating positive attitude and behaviors in individuals towards the environment he/she lives in, outdoor teaching aims at bringing the individual together with unwritten evidences by making use of historical environment and resources when considered especially within the scope history and social studies teaching. Using relational screening model,…

  4. Do Inequalities in Neighborhood Walkability Drive Disparities in Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Zandieh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called “walkability”. This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density relevant to neighborhood walkability. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (≥65 years, and used a Geographic Information System (GIS and walking interviews (with a sub-sample to objectively and subjectively measure neighborhood built environment attributes. Outdoor walking levels were measured by using the Geographic Positioning System (GPS technology. Data on personal characteristics was collected by completing a questionnaire. The results show that inequalities in certain land-use intensity (i.e., green spaces, recreation centers, schools and industries in high- versus low-deprivation areas may influence disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels. Modifying neighborhood land use intensity may help to encourage outdoor walking in high-deprivation areas.

  5. Do Inequalities in Neighborhood Walkability Drive Disparities in Older Adults' Outdoor Walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Razieh; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; Jones, Phil; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2017-07-07

    Older residents of high-deprivation areas walk less than those of low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that neighborhood built environment may support and encourage outdoor walking. The extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking is called "walkability". This study examines inequalities in neighborhood walkability in high- versus low-deprivation areas and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels. For this purpose, it focuses on specific neighborhood built environment attributes (residential density, land-use mix and intensity, street connectivity, and retail density) relevant to neighborhood walkability. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (≥65 years), and used a Geographic Information System (GIS) and walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to objectively and subjectively measure neighborhood built environment attributes. Outdoor walking levels were measured by using the Geographic Positioning System (GPS) technology. Data on personal characteristics was collected by completing a questionnaire. The results show that inequalities in certain land-use intensity (i.e., green spaces, recreation centers, schools and industries) in high- versus low-deprivation areas may influence disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels. Modifying neighborhood land use intensity may help to encourage outdoor walking in high-deprivation areas.

  6. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  7. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  8. OUTDOOR SPACE QUALITY: CASE STUDY OF A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS PLAZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Aydin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studied the concept of campus plaza, i.e. the outdoor space of the Selcuk University located in Konya, Turkey. The objective of the study in which the survey, observation and photographic methods were used, was to examine the plaza as an outdoor space providing individual and social benefits to campus people and to determine the principles regarding the establishment of this space. Two hundred forty-three students participating in the survey were asked about the outdoor spaces they use in the campus area, the qualities of the plaza, their purposes and the frequency of plaza use, and a descriptive analysis was performed to determine the plaza’s quality. Additionally, a correlation analysis was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the landscape accessory and the manner in which the users’ senses were affected by the experienced space (profiles of the space. At the end of this study, two main components determining the campus plaza’s quality were found: (i qualities of the physical environment (climatic features, location of plaza, its relation with the surrounding structuring, pedestrian / vehicle relation in terms of accessibility, fixed elements / equipment in the area, quality of open space area, quality of landscape accessory and area’s being in good repair (ii user characteristics. User characteristics also comprised two quality criteria: (i the behavioural and functional quality, (ii the visual quality.

  9. Outdoor thermal comfort and behaviour in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inavonna, I.; Hardiman, G.; Purnomo, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor comfort is important due to the public spaces functions. Open spaces provide thermal comfort and a pleasant experience to improve the city life quality effectively. The influence of thermal comfort in outdoor activities is a complex problem. This paper presents a literature review and discussion of aspects of physical, psychology, and social behaviour toward outdoor thermal comfort. The valuation is determined not only by the “physical state” but also by the “state of mind”. The assessment is static and objective (i.e., physical and physiological characteristics) that it should be measured. Furthermore, an effective model to provide the knowledge of climatic conditions, as well as the dynamic and subjective aspects (i.e., psychological and social characteristics and behaviour), requires a comprehensive interview and observation. The model will be examined to describe the behaviour that is a reflection of perception and behaviour toward the environment. The adaptation process will constantly evolve so that it becomes a continuous cause between human behaviour and the spatial setting of the formation, which is eventually known as places and not just spaces. This evolutionary process is a civic art form.

  10. Taking a Hike and Hucking the Stout: The Troublesome Legacy of the Sublime in Outdoor Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Drennig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As Henry Thoreau noted in the 1850s, the simple act of walking can be loaded with political and spiritual meaning. Today, taking a hike as an act of engaging in outdoor recreation is equally non-trivial, and therefore subject of the following analysis. As this paper argues, outdoors recreation is still influenced by the legacy of the Sublime and its construction of wilderness. This troublesome legacy means that the cultural self-representation of outdoor sports – and the practice itself – lays claim to the environment in ways that are socially and sometimes even ethni-cally exclusive. This essay uses William Cronon’s critique of the cultural constructedness of wilderness as a point of departure to see how Western notions of sublime nature have an impact on spatial practice. The elevation of specific parts of the environ-ment into the category of wilderness prescribes certain uses and meanings as na-ture is made into an antidote against the ills of industrial civilization, and a place where the alienated individual can return to a more authentic self. This view then has become a troublesome legacy, informing the cultural self-representation of those uses of “wilderness” that are known as outdoor recreation. In its cultural production, outdoors recreation constructs “healthy” and “athlet-ic” bodies exercising in natural settings and finding refuge from the everyday al-ienation of postmodern society. Yet these bodies are conspicuously white, and the obligatory equipment and fashion expensive. Outdoor recreation is a privileged assertion of leisure, often denoting an urban, affluent, and white, background of the practitioner. These practitioners then lay exclusive claim on the landscapes they use. As trivial as taking a hike or any other form of outdoors recreation may thus seem, they put a cultural legacy into practice that is anything but trivial.

  11. Targeting Hispanic adolescents with outdoor food & beverage advertising around schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A L; Pasch, K E

    2017-02-09

    Although some research has focused on the food environment and food marketing, little has examined outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising, particularly its relationship to the Hispanic composition in schools. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of outdoor FB advertising was greater around middle and high schools with a majority Hispanic population as compared to schools with a lower Hispanic population. All FB advertisements located within a half-mile of 47 schools in Central Texas were documented. Advertisements were coded as free standing or on establishments. Advertisements were coded for theme including price (emphasizing price) and deals/value meals (promoting discounted price/meal deals). These two themes were combined to create an overall price promotion variable. In order to determine if the prevalence of FB advertising varied by the Hispanic composition of the students in the school, data from the Texas Education Agency was used to create a variable which dichotomized the schools into two groups: schools that reported ≥60% Hispanic students or 'Hispanic schools' (n = 21) and schools that reported advertising was greater around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Hispanic schools had more overall outdoor FB advertisements as compared to non-Hispanic schools (p = 0.02). Similarly, we found significantly more outdoor FB establishment (p = 0.02) and price promotion (p = 0.05) around Hispanic schools as compared to non-Hispanic schools. Differences in freestanding advertisements by school type approached significance (p = 0.07) with Hispanic schools having more freestanding FB advertisements on average. Further research is needed that documents the content of these advertisements and determines the extent to which these advertisements affect Hispanic and other racial/ethnic minority youth's attitudes and behaviors toward the consumption of these products.

  12. Education for sustainable development using indoor and outdoor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigon, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    Environmental education became an important part of our development in the last years. We put a lot of effort into a task how to improve students'values, skills, understanding and how to significantly enhance their learning and achievements regarding ecological problems. At the same time we also know that environmental learning is easier when our students have the opportunity to feel, see, touch, taste and smell the nature. Therefore teachers in my school develop regular access to the outdoors as a learning resource. Students understand the impact of their activities on the environment and they also like to participate in the nature protection. My school (Biotechnical Centre)is an example of educational centre where different research and development programes are strongly oriented to the sustainable development. Students are educated to become experts in biotechnology, agronomy, food technology and horticulture. At the same time they are educated how to care for the nature. The institution itself cooperates with different fields of economy (farms, food - baker industry, floristry, country design etc.). For these reasons the environmental education is an essential dimension of basic education focused on a sphere of interaction that lies at the root of personal and social development. We try to develop different outdoor activities through all the school year. These activities are: analyse the water quality; research waste water treatment plants; exploration of new food sources (like aquaponics - where fish and plants grow together); collecting plants with medical activities; care for the plants in the school yard; growing new plants in the poly tunnel; learning about unknown plants - especially when visiting national and regional parks; selling different things in the school shop - also for local citizens; participating in the world wide activity - "Keep the country tidy" etc. Students and teachers enjoy to participate in different outdoor activities; we both

  13. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  14. Towards Consensus on the Nature of Outdoor Education. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter; Loynes, Chris

    1997-01-01

    At a European conference in Finland, various outdoor education organizations drafted a statement of intent for the newly created European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education. Their common view of outdoor education is that it strives to stimulate personal and social development experientially through some experience of the outdoors. Discusses…

  15. BRIDGING OUTDOOR AND INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATION FOR ASSESSING AND AIDING SUSTAINABLE URBAN NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban dwellers in cities located in hot-arid or hothumid regions have greater needs to live in between outdoor and indoor environments. The sustainability of urban building design in these regions cannot be fully assessed by indoor environmental simulation not taking into account the microclimatic factors of the surrounding urban neighbourhood. We find that the current suites of outdoor and indoor simulation software do not connect with each other to give us a holistic understanding of both outdoor and indoor simulation results. This paper reports on our current development of a methodological framework for bridging the current gap between outdoor and indoor environmental simulation. Our objective is that assessment of sustainability at an urban neighbourhood level can be carried out more holistically, and hence achieving more valid environmental simulations from an urban  dwelling point of view. The outdoor-indoor coupling methodology is currently modelled on a digital work flow among three key software platforms: (1 ENVImet for urban neighbourhood outdoor simulation, (2 Ecotect for building indoor simulation, (3 uCampus for combined outdoor-indoor 3D visualisation modelling of an entire urban neighbourhood including its individual buildings. A case study of a new neighbourhood development proposed for New Cairo is presented to demonstrate how indoor environmental simulation can be grounded on outdoor environmental simulation of the urban neighbourhood. Graphical outputs from this outdoorindoor coupling approach to neighbourhood simulation can be further brought together onto a Web-based 3D virtual reality modelling platform to enable wider accessibility.

  16. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  17. The little book of maths outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This is a unique book that supports the current thinking behind outdoor learning. It features over 40 ideas for outdoor activities that support mathematics in the early years and the specific areas of learning in the revised EYFS. All the ideas are tried and tested by Terry and this book will prove to be popular in the early years and well into Key stage 1.

  18. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  19. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Fronka, A.; Moucka, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  20. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  1. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  2. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…

  3. Blind's Eye: Employing Google Directions API for Outdoor Navigation of Visually Impaired Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABA FEROZMEMON

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vision plays a paramount role in our everyday life and assists human in almost every walk of life. The people lacking vision sense require assistance to move freely. The inability of unassisted navigation and orientation in outdoor environments is one of the most important constraints for people with visual impairment. Motivated by this problem, we developed a simplified and user friendly navigation system that allows visually impaired pedestrians to reach their desired outdoor location. We designed a Braille keyboard to allow the blind user to input their destination. The proposed system makes use of Google Directions API (Application Program Interface to generate the right path to a destination. The visually impaired pedestrians have to wear a vibration belt to keep them on the track. The evaluation exposes shortcomings of Google Directions API when used for navigating the visually impaired pedestrians in an outdoor environment.

  4. Host outdoor exposure variability affects the transmission and spread of Zika virus: Insights for epidemic control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ajelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus transmission dynamics in urban environments follow a complex spatiotemporal pattern that appears unpredictable and barely related to high mosquito density areas. In this context, human activity patterns likely have a major role in Zika transmission dynamics. This paper examines the effect of host variability in the amount of time spent outdoors on Zika epidemiology in an urban environment.First, we performed a survey on time spent outdoors by residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida. Second, we analyzed both the survey and previously published national data on outdoors time in the U.S. to provide estimates of the distribution of the time spent outdoors. Third, we performed a computational modeling evaluation of Zika transmission dynamics, based on the time spent outdoors by each person. Our analysis reveals a strong heterogeneity of the host population in terms of time spent outdoors-data are well captured by skewed gamma distributions. Our model-based evaluation shows that in a heterogeneous population, Zika would cause a lower number of infections than in a more homogenous host population (up to 4-fold differences, but, at the same time, the epidemic would spread much faster. We estimated that in highly heterogeneous host populations the timing of the implementation of vector control measures is the major factor for limiting the number of Zika infections.Our findings highlight the need of considering host variability in exposure time for managing mosquito-borne infections and call for the revision of the triggers for vector control strategies, which should integrate mosquito density data and human outdoor activity patterns in specific areas.

  5. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  6. 45 CFR 1170.13 - Illustrative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illustrative examples. 1170.13 Section 1170.13... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 1170.13 Illustrative examples. (a) The following examples will illustrate the application of the foregoing provisions to some of the activities...

  7. Integration of Kinect and Low-Cost Gnss for Outdoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaria, D.; Pinto, L.; Reguzzoni, M.; Rossi, L.

    2016-06-01

    Since its launch on the market, Microsoft Kinect sensor has represented a great revolution in the field of low cost navigation, especially for indoor robotic applications. In fact, this system is endowed with a depth camera, as well as a visual RGB camera, at a cost of about 200. The characteristics and the potentiality of the Kinect sensor have been widely studied for indoor applications. The second generation of this sensor has been announced to be capable of acquiring data even outdoors, under direct sunlight. The task of navigating passing from an indoor to an outdoor environment (and vice versa) is very demanding because the sensors that work properly in one environment are typically unsuitable in the other one. In this sense the Kinect could represent an interesting device allowing bridging the navigation solution between outdoor and indoor. In this work the accuracy and the field of application of the new generation of Kinect sensor have been tested outdoor, considering different lighting conditions and the reflective properties of the emitted ray on different materials. Moreover, an integrated system with a low cost GNSS receiver has been studied, with the aim of taking advantage of the GNSS positioning when the satellite visibility conditions are good enough. A kinematic test has been performed outdoor by using a Kinect sensor and a GNSS receiver and it is here presented.

  8. Effect of urban design on microclimate and thermal comfort outdoors in warm-humid Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Johansson, Erik; Thorsson, Sofia; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Maria Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Due to the complexity of built environment, urban design patterns considerably affect the microclimate and outdoor thermal comfort in a given urban morphology. Variables such as building heights and orientations, spaces between buildings, plot coverage alter solar access, wind speed and direction at street level. To improve microclimate and comfort conditions urban design elements including vegetation and shading devices can be used. In warm-humid Dar es Salaam, the climate consideration in urban design has received little attention although the urban planning authorities try to develop the quality of planning and design. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between urban design, urban microclimate, and outdoor comfort in four built-up areas with different morphologies including low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. The study mainly concentrates on the warm season but a comparison with the thermal comfort conditions in the cool season is made for one of the areas. Air temperature, wind speed, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) are simulated using ENVI-met to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the existing urban design. An analysis of the distribution of MRT in the areas showed that the area with low-rise buildings had the highest frequency of high MRTs and the lowest frequency of low MRTs. The study illustrates that areas with low-rise buildings lead to more stressful urban spaces than areas with high-rise buildings. It is also shown that the use of dense trees helps to enhance the thermal comfort conditions, i.e., reduce heat stress. However, vegetation might negatively affect the wind ventilation. Nevertheless, a sensitivity analysis shows that the provision of shade is a more efficient way to reduce PET than increases in wind speed, given the prevailing sun and wind conditions in Dar es Salaam. To mitigate heat stress in Dar es Salaam, a set of recommendations and guidelines on

  9. Introduction to Numerical Computation - analysis and Matlab illustrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elden, Lars; Wittmeyer-Koch, Linde; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    In a modern programming environment like eg MATLAB it is possible by simple commands to perform advanced calculations on a personal computer. In order to use such a powerful tool efiiciently it is necessary to have an overview of available numerical methods and algorithms and to know about...... are illustrated by examples in MATLAB....

  10. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  11. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  12. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  13. A Dynamical Systems Theory Examination of Social Connections in Outdoor Recreation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental time period in which social connections are an important aspect to fostering positive growth and identity. Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) programs are strategically positioned to help in this developmental process because of the novel social environment, however, little is known about how these types of social…

  14. The Return Home: Transitioning from a 28-Day Remote Outdoor Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNatty, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges for students transitioning from the remote Te Kahu (pseudonym) outdoor education programme back into their home and school city environments. Students must develop methods of coping and readjust to society to continue the personal growth and process the learning affected through the 28-day programme. The…

  15. A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

    Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

  16. The Policies and Practice of Preschoolers' Outdoor Play: A Chinese Perspective on Greeting the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Kong, Zhaowei; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) scholars and health professionals worldwide share a common concern about the decline in children's physical development and activity due to lack of access to good quality outdoor environments. Early childhood education and care facilities across the world have been affected by trends that are limiting…

  17. The effect of a school-based outdoor education program on Visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of an education programme developed based on the school-based outdoor education approach on the academic achievement of visual arts teachers, as well as their self-efficacy beliefs for using museums and the natural environment. The aim is likewise to explore the ...

  18. Comparative Indoor and Outdoor Degradation of Organic Photovoltaic Cells via Inter-laboratory Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Charles; Ferguson, Gretta Mae; Hermenau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the degradation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells in both indoor and outdoor environments. Eight different research groups contributed state of the art OPV cells to be studied at Pomona College. Power conversion efficiency, fill factor, and IV curves were collected at regular inter...

  19. Comparative indoor and outdoor degradation of organic photovoltaic cells via inter-laboratory collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, C.; Ferguson, G.M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Rösch, R.; Angmo, D.; Teran-Escobar, G.; Uhrich, C.; Andriessen, R.; Hoppe, H.; Würfel, U.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Krebs, F.C.; Tanenbaum, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the degradation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells in both indoor and outdoor environments. Eight different research groups contributed state of the art OPV cells to be studied at Pomona College. Power conversion efficiency and fill factor were determined from IV curves collected at

  20. Comparative indoor and outdoor degradation of organic photovoltaic cells via inter-laboratory collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, C.; Ferguson, G.M.; Hermenau, M.; Voroshazi, E.; Galagan, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Rosch, R.; Angamo, D.; Teran, G.; Uhrich, C.; Andriessen, R.; Hoppe, H.; Wurfel, U.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Krebs, F.; Tanenbaum, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the degradation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells in both indoor and outdoor environments. Eight different research groups contributed state of the art OPV cells to be studied at Pomona College. Power conversion efficiency, fill factor, and IV curves were collected at regular

  1. A Weekend in the Country: The Outdoors, the Earth & Drama Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Chris

    1999-01-01

    A group of British graduate students in drama and movement therapy spent a weekend outdoors engaging in adventure, dramatic, and creative activities that focused on the symbolism of the Earth and increasing awareness of the self, the environment, and spirituality. (SV)

  2. 78 FR 59475 - Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines; Outdoor Developed Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... species; the environment; or archaeological, cultural, historical, or other significant natural features... participate in outdoor recreation activities with their families and friends. The benefits are difficult to... Architectural Barriers Act Guidelines by cross-referencing Appendices C and D.\\5\\ Since these [[Page 59479...

  3. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  4. Investigation of natural radioactivity levels using gamma dosimetry outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josineide M.N.; Santos Júnior, José A.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Silva, Arykerne N.C.; Santos Junior, Otávio P.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Fernández, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Radiometric studies have been increasingly needed as an alternative to evaluate possible effects of natural radioactivity in humans, considering that the responses to health problems, in the main, depart from the environment of individuals, survival practices and human development. The present study aimed at the realization of the outdoor radiometry in the municipality of Paraíba, Brazil, to determine a value that can express and guide a reference for radiometry local, making it possible to describe some impact on the health of the population. The results were obtained by 'in situ' measurements using a gamma detector, calibrated to measure the dosimetric quantity of the effective environmental dose rate. Monitoring data ranged from 0.06 to 0.38 mSv/y, with a mean and deviation of 0.20 ± 0.04 mSv/y, whose trend measurement can be assumed to be representative of the effective dose rate of the environment outdoor, characterizing the area as low background radiation, whose parameter dosimetric and means evaluated, did not provide justification to impact on the increase in the occurrences of diseases in the local population. (author)

  5. Investigation of natural radioactivity levels using gamma dosimetry outdoors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josineide M.N.; Santos Júnior, José A.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Silva, Arykerne N.C.; Santos Junior, Otávio P.; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fernández, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V., E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: ary_casado@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: zahily.herrerofernandez@ufpe.br, E-mail: lino.valcarcel@ufpe.br, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br [Center for Applied Technology and Nuclear Development, Havana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    Radiometric studies have been increasingly needed as an alternative to evaluate possible effects of natural radioactivity in humans, considering that the responses to health problems, in the main, depart from the environment of individuals, survival practices and human development. The present study aimed at the realization of the outdoor radiometry in the municipality of Paraíba, Brazil, to determine a value that can express and guide a reference for radiometry local, making it possible to describe some impact on the health of the population. The results were obtained by 'in situ' measurements using a gamma detector, calibrated to measure the dosimetric quantity of the effective environmental dose rate. Monitoring data ranged from 0.06 to 0.38 mSv/y, with a mean and deviation of 0.20 ± 0.04 mSv/y, whose trend measurement can be assumed to be representative of the effective dose rate of the environment outdoor, characterizing the area as low background radiation, whose parameter dosimetric and means evaluated, did not provide justification to impact on the increase in the occurrences of diseases in the local population. (author)

  6. Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-03-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥ 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

  8. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shaptala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The method for determination of heat and mass loses based on the theory of similarity criteria equations is used. Findings. The main types of heat and mass losses of outdoor pool were analyzed. The most significant types were allocated and mathematically described. Namely: by evaporation of water from the surface of the pool, by natural and forced convection, by radiation to the environment, heat consumption for water heating. Originality. The mathematical model of heat and mass exchange process of the outdoor swimming pool was developed, which allows calculating the basic heat and mass loses that occur during its exploitation. Practical value. The method of determining heat and mass loses of outdoor swimming pool as a software system was developed and implemented. It is based on the mathematical model proposed by the authors. This method can be used for the conceptual design of energy-efficient structures of outdoor pools, to assess their use of energy-intensive and selecting the optimum energy-saving measures. A further step in research in this area is the experimental validation of the method of calculation of heat losses in outdoor swimming pools with its use as an example the pool of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan. The outdoor pool, with water heating- up from the boiler room of the university, is operated year-round.

  9. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  10. Outdoor ultraviolet exposure of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.; Gibson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)

  11. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  12. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  13. Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors in houses of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Garcia, P.

    1992-01-01

    Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors have been obtained in houses from Mexico City, with the purpose of relating them with the local environment. Measurements were performed both outdoors and indoors in 60 unifamiliar houses. Track detectors, LR-115, Type II, were used in several detection arrangements during four recording periods with times of exposure of three months each, with the purpose of analyzing the fluctuations due to seasonal changes. Data were obtained about the construction materials were the detection systems were located in order to establish a correlation of radon levels with the climatic parameters and the construction materials. The results of radon concentrations both indoors or outdoors were lower than the international recommendations (148 Bq/m 3 ) (Author)

  14. Comparative Indoor and Outdoor Degradation of Organic Photovoltaic Cells via Inter-laboratory Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Owens

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the degradation of organic photovoltaic (OPV cells in both indoor and outdoor environments. Eight different research groups contributed state of the art OPV cells to be studied at Pomona College. Power conversion efficiency and fill factor were determined from IV curves collected at regular intervals over six to eight months. Similarly prepared devices were measured indoors, outdoors, and after dark storage. Device architectures are compared. Cells kept indoors performed better than outdoors due to the lack of temperature and humidity extremes. Encapsulated cells performed better due to the minimal oxidation. Some devices showed steady aging but many failed catastrophically due to corrosion of electrodes not active device layers. Degradation of cells kept in dark storage was minimal over periods up to one year.

  15. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  16. Development of an outdoor MRI system for measuring flow in a living tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Akiyoshi; Kose, Katsumi; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    An outdoor MRI system for noninvasive, long-term measurements of sap flow in a living tree in its natural environment has been developed. An open-access, 0.2 T permanent magnet with a 160 mm gap was combined with a radiofrequency probe, planar gradient coils, electromagnetic shielding, several electrical units, and a waterproofing box. Two-dimensional cross-sectional images were acquired for a ring-porous tree, and the anatomical structures, including xylem and phloem, were identified. The MRI flow measurements demonstrated the diurnal changes in flow velocity in the stem on a per-pixel basis. These results demonstrate that our outdoor MRI system is a powerful tool for studies of water transport in outdoor trees.

  17. Health benefits from improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    China is at its most critical stage of outdoor air quality management. In order to prevent further deterioration of air quality and to protect human health, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts to reduce ambient air pollution. Unlike previous literature reviews on the widespread hazards of air pollution on health, this review article firstly summarized the existing evidence of human health benefits from intermittently improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China. Contents of this paper provide concrete and direct clue that improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China, and confirm from a new perspective that it is worthwhile for China to shift its development strategy from economic growth to environmental economic sustainability. Greater emphasis on sustainable environment design, consistently strict regulatory enforcement, and specific monitoring actions should be regarded in China to decrease the health risks and to avoid long-term environmental threats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health benefits from improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    China is at its most critical stage of outdoor air quality management. In order to prevent further deterioration of air quality and to protect human health, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts to reduce ambient air pollution. Unlike previous literature reviews on the widespread hazards of air pollution on health, this review article firstly summarized the existing evidence of human health benefits from intermittently improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China. Contents of this paper provide concrete and direct clue that improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China, and confirm from a new perspective that it is worthwhile for China to shift its development strategy from economic growth to environmental economic sustainability. Greater emphasis on sustainable environment design, consistently strict regulatory enforcement, and specific monitoring actions should be regarded in China to decrease the health risks and to avoid long-term environmental threats. - Highlights: • Firstly reviews the health benefits of improvement in outdoor air quality in China. • Reduction in air pollution generates various health benefits in China. • Chinese government should consider environmental economic sustainability. • Future research on health benefits of air quality improvement is proposed. - Improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China. It is worthwhile for China to consider environmental economic sustainability.

  19. Cultivating lived-body consciousness: Enhancing cognition and emotion through outdoor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorburn Malcolm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through using school-based outdoor learning as the research context, the paper analyses the connections between bodily experiences and the embodied mind. Recent theorizing in outdoor learning, in reflecting phenomenology and Deweyian influences, has teased out how the relationships between the self, others and nature (environment can be extended to include embodied experiences. This would, it is argued, add something extra to either the intrinsic pursuit of enjoying practical experiences or the instrumental quest for subject knowledge gains via cognitive- informed analytical cycles of action and reflection. While generally sympathetic to this critique, we consider there is a cognitive and emotional need for embodied experiences to demonstrate that they can be suitably contemplative as well. Through drawing upon Tiberius (2008 naturalist-informed theorizing, the paper reviews the part bodily experiences in outdoor learning can play in cultivating stable values and in developing reasoning practices that provide insights into how personal responsibility can be exercised in relation to how we live. Through referencing the Scottish policy context, the paper exemplifies how learning outdoors can flourish on the basis of a joint body-mind focus; where pupils review their relations with others and nature, as well as valuing times when they are absorbed in experiences which fully engage their personal interests, skills and capacities. To enhance the prospects of these learning gains occurring we provide a self-check set of questions for teachers to review to as part of appraisal of learning and teaching outdoors

  20. Adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Baiz, N; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2012-09-01

    Compared to the rest of the population, the elderly are potentially highly susceptible to the effects of outdoor air pollution due to normal and pathological ageing. The purpose of the present review was to gather data on the effects on respiratory health of outdoor air pollution in the elderly, on whom data are scarce. These show statistically significant short-term and chronic adverse effects of various outdoor air pollutants on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the elderly. When exposed to air pollution, the elderly experience more hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and higher COPD mortality than others. Previous studies also indicate that research on the health effects of air pollution in the elderly has been affected by methodological problems in terms of exposure and health effect assessments. Few pollutants have been considered, and exposure assessment has been based mostly on background air pollution and more rarely on objective measurements and modelling. Significant progress needs to be made through the development of 'hybrid' models utilising the strengths of information on exposure in various environments to several air pollutants, coupled with daily activity exposure patterns. Investigations of chronic effects of air pollution and of multi-pollutant mixtures are needed to better understand the role of air pollution in the elderly. Lastly, smoking, occupation, comorbidities, treatment and the neighbourhood context should be considered as confounders or modifiers of such a role. In this context, the underlying biological, physiological and toxicological mechanisms need to be explored to better understand the phenomenon through a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. "Illustrating the Machinery of Life": Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a…

  2. 48 CFR 9904.401-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-60 Illustrations. (a) The following examples are illustrative...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.404-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which must be...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.409-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.409-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.409-60 Illustrations. The following examples are illustrative of...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.402-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which are incurred...

  6. The Role of Outdoor Art in Urban Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, G. M.; Kesling, M.; Ryan, T.; Fraser, J.; McDonald, F.; Rollings, A.; Miss, M.; Kanpetch, B.; Trueblood, M.

    2015-12-01

    Finding ways to engage youth in inadvertent learning about nature and the environment is challenging, particularly in urban areas where environmental literacy is profoundly limited by access to safe and representative spaces. Termed the Nature Deficit Disorder, the lack of contact and connection between people and their environment leads to a less than holistic approach to environmental management at the personal and governmental levels. One of the challenges is developing ways to engage youth in science learning not by bringing them indoors to a science museum but rather by taking the science museum outdoors. Funded by the NSF Informal Science Learning program, we launched a collaborative between scientists and artists to understand the nature and impact of environmental learning through outdoor art and science programming, called StreamLines. Launched in 2014 and now near full deployment, the program is part of a bigger initiative in Indianapolis (Reconnecting to Our Waterways) to embrace the multiple waterways that traverse the city as a valuable community and health resource. This collaborative is designed to function on multiple levels. An Artist and Scientists Roundtable engages practitioners in regular conversations supplemented by external readings to share how practitioners use concepts and tools from the "opposite" side to inform their work and scholarship. Physical installations of iconic art at individual sites reflect the environmental conditions at individual sites are designed as tools for explicit and implicit learning and exploration about the environment. Music, poetry, and dance programming developed for individual sites portray cogent characteristics of place and are meant to allow visitors to see how artists engage with and draw from the environment for inspiration. A research approach unpins all of these efforts, utilizing a set of different sample populations to explore environmental education and potential advocacy after interactions with

  7. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  8. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served

  9. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects marine mammals by restricting animals and... effective natural barrier that restricts the marine mammals to the facility and restricts entry by animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.103 Section 3...

  10. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  11. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  12. Sustainability in outdoor recreation and tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Kelly Bricker; Jeremy Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and tourism represents a major service by which the public identifies with and better understands natural resources, even to the extent that it can foster environmental stewardship (for example, see Winter and Chavez 2008). Yet, myriad threats to recreation and tourism exist which need to be addressed. Addressing these threats can be...

  13. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  14. Outdoor i integrationsarbejde - et nyt EU projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt

    2014-01-01

    Beskriver opstarten af det internationale projekt, hvor omgivelserne anvendes i læreprocesser for nytilkomne. Samarbejdspartnere er Linköbing Universitet i Sverige, Novia Yrkeshøgskola i Finland, Bologna Universitet i Italien. Projektet vil udvikle læreplan til anvendelse for undervisere af nytil...... nytilkomne, hvor Outdoor learning i naturen og de kulturelle omgivelser anvendes....

  15. Establishing the Competence of Outdoor Training Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Bertie

    1997-01-01

    The United Kingdom lacks a framework of nationally recognized professional qualifications for outdoor trainers and facilitators. Various definitions of competence are examined, and suggestions are offered for improving approaches to establishing staff competence. Includes a model of personal development dimensions, and compares U.K. and U.S.…

  16. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... protecting an iconic vast public land, or by creating a community garden or an urban park. Last year, I was... leaders, students, and community groups led to a report unveiled in February, America's Great Outdoors: A Promise to Future Generations, which lays the foundation for smarter, more community-driven action to...

  17. Playing with Power: An Outdoor Classroom Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood-Bird, Eden

    2017-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, discovery of how preschool-aged children use play to wield their individual power in the outdoors is documented in a single classroom. Embedded as a participant-researcher and working from constructivist and critical theory orientations, the researcher seeks to understand how children use their play to construct the…

  18. Issues in Outdoor Recreation: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Clayne R., Comp.; Thorstenson, Clark T., Comp.

    This book is a compilation of selected writings on the subject of outdoor recreation. It is addressed to students specializing in recreation and resource management, and teachers, conservationists, and the public in general. Seven chapters contain articles discussing issues, facts, and concerns in the field of recreation and represent various…

  19. Learning Leadership: Becoming an Outdoor Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Elisabeth; Lynch, Pip

    2018-01-01

    Recent leadership research has demonstrated a need for better understanding the process of becominga leader because it might be qualitatively different to being a leader. If so, there is likely to be a need for pedagogies designed deliberately to support first-time outdoor leadership experiences and any such pedagogies must be informed by the…

  20. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  1. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  2. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  3. Designing interactive outdoor games for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile outdoor games for groups of children have emerged recently as a credible technological proposition and as an area of research and development that promises substantial benefits for children regarding a more active lifestyle and the development of social skills. This chapter examines

  4. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  5. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  6. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  7. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  8. Outdoor Education in Senior Schooling: Clarifying the Body of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Australia has a state-based educational system. In some of these states, outdoor education exists as part of the formal accredited secondary school curriculum. In this paper I analyse the content of these senior secondary school outdoor courses as a means to help delineate and describe the body of knowledge of outdoor education. I suggest outdoor…

  9. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

  10. The Perceived Life Impact of a University Outdoor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesworth, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the outdoors provides lasting educational experiences. Most students retain information best when doing an activity, and the outdoors allows for these opportunities. Outdoor education (OE) is a large, multi-disciplinary field cultivated from many roots. Since OE offers such vivid learning opportunities, it is an important area for…

  11. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was

  12. Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

  13. People participation in natural outdoors recreation activities and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the visitors believe natural outdoor recreation in the south-west of the country ... These identified benefits of Natural Outdoors Recreational in the course of the ... promotion, employment, urban aesthetic, healthy livings and improve tourism ... outdoor recreation centres to augment medical service in improving life span ...

  14. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  15. 222Rn and decay products in outdoor and indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1984-05-01

    Radon-222 (radon) and radon daughter (RnD) measurement methodologies are analysed from both theoretical and experimental points of view. It is shown that exhalation from enclosed porous materials can be described in terms of the time-dependent diffusion theory. Deficiencies in the established accumulator method of radon exhalation measurement are shown. By the existing methods, the true free exhalation rate of thin samples may be underestimated by a factor of (1+α- 1 ), in radon-tight accumulators (α is the outer to inner volume ratio of the sample). The term back-diffusion is clarified and shown applicable to steady-state conditions only. The wire-screen technique is utilized to separate aerosol-attached and unattached RnD in a 3 m 3 radon cell. The effect of air-filtration on the RnDs is expressed as individual activity concentrations as well as in terms of effective dose equivalent rate, H. H has been reduced by a factor between 1.3 and 2.5 for the small-sized areosol particles used (surface area median less than 100 nm), at the filtration rate constant 5 h- 1 . The exact reduction value is dependent on initial aerosol load, type of filter, and dose model (Jacobi-Eisfeld and James-Birchall in this investigation). The concentration of radon and Pb-210 in the Arctic summer air averaged 75+-21 and 0.075+-0.028 mBq m- 3 , during the Swedish Ymer-80 expedition. It is shown that steadystate equilibrium models are unsuitable for estimation of the mean aerosol residence time in ocean air. A good qualitative agreement between radon-levels and the time since the air mass left larger land areas was found. The radon-222 and long-lived daughter (Pb-210, Po-210) measurements are insensitive to ship- and local contaminations. (author)

  16. Mobile Robot Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance in Unstructured Outdoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    to pull information from the network, it subscribes to a specific topic and is able to receive the messages that are published to that topic. In order...total artificial potential field is characterized “as the sum of an attractive potential pulling the robot toward the goal…and a repulsive potential...of robot laser_max = 20; % robot laser view horizon goaldist = 0.5; % distance metric for reaching goal goali = 1

  17. Transformations of Aerosol Particles from an Outdoor to Indoor Environment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talbot, Nicholas; Kubelová, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub; Cusack, Michael; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Zíková, Naděžda; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2017), s. 653-665 ISSN 1680-8584 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosols * shrinking * dissociation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.606, year: 2016

  18. Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

  19. The Outdoor MEDIA DOT: The development and inter-rater reliability of a tool designed to measure food and beverage outlets and outdoor advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-07-01

    Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently collect primary data within the food environment. For the reliability study, two teams of data collectors documented all FB advertising and establishments within one half-mile of six middle schools. Inter-rater reliability was calculated overall and by advertisement or establishment category using percent agreement. A total of 824 advertisements (n=233), establishment advertisements (n=499), and establishments (n=92) were documented (range=8-229 per school). Overall inter-rater reliability of the developed tool ranged from 69-89% for advertisements and establishments. Results suggest that the developed tool is highly reliable and effective for documenting the outdoor FB environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Indoor and Outdoor Surface-Growing Fungi Contamination at Higher Institutional Buildings in a Malaysian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, C. M.; Sunar, N. M.; Leman, A. M.; Khalid, A.; Ali, R.; Zaidi, E.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Surface-growing indoor and outdoor fungi were assessed using swabbing method to investigate the indoor contamination. The painted wall surface samples were collected from two institutional buildings (B1 and B2) of a university in southern Peninsular Malaysia; indoors and outdoors. The mould concentrations varied widely between indoor and outdoor surface samples of both buildings. The total indoor surface-growing mould concentration (8776.49 CFU/cm2) is significantly higher (pair quality parameters (relative humidity, temperature and air velocity) were also measured indoors and outdoors during the study and violation of the guideline provided by ICOP-IAQ 2010 were proven in indoor environment in both buildings. The results of this assessment showed that the indoor environments of both institutional buildings were contaminated by the surface-growing mould. It also suggested the faulty designs and/or usages of building material in these institutional buildings contributed toward the contamination. An innovative solution is needed to correct the problems.

  1. Outdoor Growth Characterization of an Unknown Microalga Screened from Contaminated Chlorella Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhao Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor microalgae cultivation process is threatened by many issues, such as pest pollution and complex, changeable weather. Therefore, it is difficult to have identical growth rate for the microalgae cells and to keep their continuous growth. Outdoor cultivation requires the algae strains not only to have a strong ability to accumulate oil, but also to adapt to the complicated external environment. Using 18S rRNA technology, one wild strain Scenedesmus sp. FS was isolated and identified from the culture of Chlorella zofingiensis. Upon contamination by Scenedesmus sp., the species could quickly replace Chlorella zofingiensis G1 and occupy ecological niche in the outdoor column photobioreactors. The results indicated that Scenedesmus sp. FS showed high alkali resistance. It also showed that even under the condition of a low inoculum rate (OD680, 0.08, Scenedesmus sp. FS could still grow in the outdoor raceway pond under a high alkaline environment. Even under unoptimized conditions, the oil content of Scenedesmus sp. FS could reach more than 22% and C16–C18 content could reach up to 79.68%, showing that this species has the potential for the biodiesel production in the near future.

  2. Illustrations of vacuum polarization by solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, R.; Wilczek, F.

    1984-01-01

    The value and limitations of the adiabatic method for calculating induced charges are discussed in a general way and illustrated in some simple models in 1+1 dimensions. The relevance of the size of solitons is emphasized

  3. Illustrations in Text: A Retentional Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the results of a study of the retentional role of illustrations in a text and their effect on enhancing long-term memory with 15-year-old secondary school students. Seven references are listed. (CHC)

  4. Teaching a Person with Memory Impairment Smartphone Use for Emergencies during Outdoors Walking: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H. Maze

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Safety issues arise during the performance of activities as dementia advances. Occupational therapists collaborate with dementia clients and their caregivers to find solutions and strategies to prolong safe activity participation. Additionally, occupational therapists teach through demonstration showing engagement in specific activities may no longer be safe. We present the case of a 70-year-old male with mild dementia. His caregiver believes he needs to use a smartphone for safety during outdoors walking; the client’s enjoyed and valued occupation. This case report illustrates smartphone use may be difficult to learn for a person with mild dementia. It highlights the need for the caregiver and person with dementia to receive education together for best understanding. New technologies for community mobility such as outdoors walking are considered.

  5. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  6. An Aerial-Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments.

  7. Impact of Middle Eastern dust storms on indoor and outdoor composition of bioaerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Zahra; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Sorooshian, Armin; Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Maleki, Heidar

    2016-08-01

    The presence of microbes in airborne aerosol particles, especially dust, is a major public health concern in desert regions. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effect of dust storms on indoor and outdoor microbial air quality at a hospital on the western side of Iran (city of Ahvaz), which is notorious for being highly vulnerable to dust emissions. Air samples were collected inside and outside of the hospital environment for six months, with the unique advantage of this study being that the region and duration of measurements allow for a clear comparison between dusty and normal days. On normal days, the average concentrations (outdoor/indoor) of bacteria and fungi were 423/329 cfu m-3 and 596/386 cfu m-3, respectively, which increased to 1257/406 cfu m-3 and 1116/550 cfu m-3 on dust event days. Indoor/Outdoor ratios for bacteria and fungi are lower on dust event days (0.26-0.60) versus normal days (0.44-0.95). Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Streptomyces spp., and Staphylococcus spp. were the dominant bacteria both indoors and outdoors on normal and dust event days. Gram positive bacteria exhibited higher concentrations than Gram negative bacteria in both outdoor and indoor air samples as well as during both normal and dust event days. The data suggest that Gram positive bacteria are more resistant to undesirable outdoor conditions (e.g., high incident solar radiation) as compared to Gram negative ones. These results have implications for other populated arid regions where more stringent control of indoor air quality can greatly benefit public health.

  8. An illustrated landslide handbook for developing nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As landslides continue to be a hazard that account for large numbers of human and animal casualties, property loss, and infrastructure damage, as well as impacts on the natural environment, it is incumbent on developed nations that resources be allocated to educate affected populations in less developed nations, and provide them with tools to effectively manage this hazard. Given that the engineering, planning and zoning, and mitigation techniques for landslide hazard reduction are more accessible to developed nations, it is crucial that such landslide hazard management tools be communicated to less developed nations in a language that is not overly technical, and provides information on basic scientific explanations on where, why and how landslides occur. The experiences of the United States, Canada, and many other nations demonstrate that, landslide science education, and techniques for reducing damaging landslide impacts may be presented in a manner that can be understood by the layperson. There are various methods through which this may be accomplished–community-level education, technology transfer, and active one-on-one outreach to national and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who disseminate information throughout the general population. The population at large can also benefit from the dissemination of landslide information directly to individual community members. The United States Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada have just published and will distribute a universal landslide handbook that can be easily made available to emergency managers, local governments, and individuals. The handbook, “The Landslide Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Landslides” is initially published as U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1325, in English, available in print, and accessible on the internet. It is liberally illustrated with schematics and photographs, and provides the means for a basic understanding of landslides, with

  9. Secondhand smoke exposure levels in outdoor hospitality venues: a qualitative and quantitative review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J; Chapman, Simon

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the evidence on whether outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) is present in hospitality venues at high levels enough to potentially pose health risks, particularly among employees. Searches in PubMed and Web of Science included combinations of environmental tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, or passive smoke AND outdoor, yielding 217 and 5,199 results, respectively through June, 2012. Sixteen studies were selected that reported measuring any outdoor SHS exposures (particulate matter (PM) or other SHS indicators). The SHS measurement methods were assessed for inclusion of extraneous variables that may affect levels or the corroboration of measurements with known standards. The magnitude of SHS exposure (PM2.5) depends on the number of smokers present, measurement proximity, outdoor enclosures, and wind. Annual excess PM2.5 exposure of full-time waitstaff at outdoor smoking environments could average 4.0 to 12.2 μg/m3 under variable smoking conditions. Although highly transitory, outdoor SHS exposures could occasionally exceed annual ambient air quality exposure guidelines. Personal monitoring studies of waitstaff are warranted to corroborate these modeled estimates.

  10. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  11. Vehicle emissions and effects on air quality: indoors and outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.; Gee, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    Vehicle emissions of non-regulated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as benzene, can form a major contribution to pollution of the indoor as well as the outdoor environment. Several of these compounds are considered to be a health risk and are important factors in the production of photochemical smog. The introduction of unleaded and particularly 'super unleaded' fuels has significantly increased levels of aromatic compounds in petrol world-wide and has led to changes in fuel composition with respect to olefins and the use of oxygenates. Increased aromatics, olefins and other compounds in fuels used in vehicles not fitted with catalytic converters have shown to increase emissions of benzene, 1,4-budatiene and other VOCs as well as contributing to increases in photochemical smog precursors. Increases in VOC levels in ambient air clearly produce increased indoor air pollution, particularly in naturally ventilated buildings. (author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 30 refs

  12. Efisiensi Energi Jaringan Homogeneous Wcdma/3g Pada Lingkungan Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linawati Linawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication technology and applications have developed fast recently. Hence this development will take energy consumption significantly. Many studies have been done on energy efficiency on cellular network. The studies are more focused on energy usage of the base station, as the base station is the component of cellular station which takes the most energy consumption. Therefore this study analyzes energy efficiency on homogeneous network of WCDMA/3G for outdoor environment. Energy consumption of three macro base stations is compared with energy consumption of 12 micro base stations. This comparison analysis has been conducted on the same Area Spectral Efficiency (ASE. The results show that the macro base stations are more efficient for energy usage than the micro base stations. However based on ASE requirements, the micro base stations are more efficient than the macro base stations on both busy hours and non-busy hour.

  13. Obstacole in implementarea activitatilor de tip outdoor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    2013-01-01

    It is never easy to implement new ways of teaching, and during this process the changing agent will often face a number of different barriers. Which kind of barriers depends of course what kind of changes we are talking about. There are a number of countries where teachers have tried to implement...... outdoor learning, and some of these experiences will be described in this article....

  14. Marketingová komunikace Outdoor Training Clubu

    OpenAIRE

    Soukeníková, Karla

    2017-01-01

    Title: Outdoor Training Club's Marketing Communication Goals: The aim of the thesis is to evaluate current club's marketing communication and come up with the suggestions of how to improve marketing communication, which would be benefit for the club and it helps acquire new potential customers. Methods: Electronic and written questionnaire, informal semi-structured interviews, document analysis. Results: Based on research and interview with the owner, I found that the current marketing commun...

  15. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Mehu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 'Hygiene, Health and Environment' of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, 'runoff' and 'stagnation', and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO 2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials

  16. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  17. Outdoor human thermal perception in various climates: A comprehensive review of approaches, methods and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchter, Oded; Cohen, Pninit; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-08-01

    Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain. A comprehensive literature review identified 110 peer-reviewed articles which investigated in-situ thermal conditions versus subjective thermal perception during 2001-2017. It seems that out of 165 human thermal indices that have been developed, only 4 (PET, PMV, UTCI, SET*) are widely in use for outdoor thermal perception studies. Examination of the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions for selective indices in different climatic zones shows that the range of the thermal comfort or dis-comfort is affected by the outdoor thermal environment. For the PET index, the "neutral" range for hot climates of 24-26°C is agreed by 95% of the studies where for cold climate, the "neutral" range of 15-20°C is agreed by 89% of the studies. For the UTCI, the "no thermal stress" category is common to all climates. The "no stress category" of 16-23°C is agreed by 80% of the case studies, while 100% of the case studies agreed that the range is between 18 and 23°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Does the environmental background (intensive v. outdoor systems) influence the behaviour of piglets at weaning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y Y W; Pluske, J R; Fleming, P A

    2015-08-01

    Under intensive pig husbandry, outdoor systems offer a more complex physical and social environment compared with indoor systems (farrowing sheds). As the rearing environment affects behavioural development, it can, therefore, influence behavioural responses of pigs to stressful environments in later stages of production. We tested how the rearing environment influenced behavioural responses to a novel arena test in piglets on the day that they were weaned and mixed into large groups. We recorded video footage and compared the behavioural responses of 30 outdoor-raised and 30 farrowing shed-raised piglets tested in an experimental arena and sequentially exposed to four challenges (each for 5 min) on the day of weaning. Quantitative and qualitative behavioural measures were recorded using time budgets and scoring demeanour or 'qualitative behavioural expression' (using Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA)). When held in isolation (challenge 1), both groups were scored as more 'scared/worried', while outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating and jumping against the arena walls. Both groups interacted with a plastic ball (challenge 2: exposure to a novel object) during which they were scored as more 'playful/curious' than other challenges. When a food bowl was introduced (challenge 3), farrowing shed-raised piglets were more interested in playing with the food bowl itself, whereas outdoor-raised piglets spent more time eating the feed. Finally, there were no significant differences in social behaviour (challenge 4: introduction of another piglet) between the two groups in terms of the latency to contact each other, amount of time recorded engaged in aggressive/non-aggressive social interactions or QBA scores. Although piglets spent 30% of their time interacting with the other piglet, and half of this time (47%) was engaged in negative interactions (pushing, biting), the levels of aggression were not different between the two groups. Overall, outdoor

  19. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images and Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2001-12-01

    We present techniques for using mainstream graphics software, specifically Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, for producing composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used with numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce printed and web-based news, education and public presentation products as well as illustrations for technical publication. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels. These features, along with its user-oriented, visual interface, provide convenient tools to produce high-quality, full-color images and graphics for printed and on-line publication and presentation.

  20. Associations of maternal influences with outdoor play and screen time of two-year-olds: Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate if maternal influences are associated with children's outdoor playtime and screen time at the age of 2 years. A cross-sectional study with 497 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia during 2007-2010. Maternal influences included their own physical activity and screen time, television rules for their child, perceived neighbourhood environment, parental self-efficacy and parenting style (warmth and hostility). Children's outdoor playtime, screen time and maternal influences were collected through face-to-face interviews with participating mothers when the children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between maternal influences and children's outdoor play and screen time. Mothers with low levels of parental hostility and high perceived safe outdoor play environment were more likely to have children playing outdoor for ≥ 2 h/day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68-4.20, P maternal influences were independently associated with children's outdoor play or screen time at an early stage of life. Therefore, different intervention strategies are needed to increase children's outdoor playtime and decrease their screen time. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  2. The illustrated A brief history of time

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    This is Stephen Hawking's updated, expanded and illustrated edition of his celebrated work which includes the most recent developments in the field, many of which were forecast by him. At the same time, he explains his complex theories through a fresh visual dimension. Over one hunded and fifty stunning colour illustrations have been specially commissioned for this purpose to help the reader understand what have become popular mythic images of our century, but which nonetheless remain difficult, abstract ideas to grasp. It includes a new introduction written specially for this edition.

  3. Assessment of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in an Educational, Research and Treatment Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital environments contain different types of microorganisms. Airborne fungi are one of these microbes and the major source of hospital indoor contamination that will be able to cause airborne fungal diseases. In the current study, the total count and diversity of the airborne filamentous and yeasts fungi were investigated in indoor and outdoor air of selective wards of Emam Reza Educational, Research and Treatment Center. This cross-sectional study was performed during the fall season. One hundred and ninety-two environmental samples of indoor and outdoor air from hematology, infectious diseases, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU wards were collected by open plate technique (on Sabouraud dextrose agar media once a week. The cultures were then examined and evaluated according to macroscopic and microscopic examination criteria. In this study, 67 (62.03% of indoor samples and 81 (96.42% of outdoor samples were positive for fungi. The most isolated fungi were yeast species (17.12%, Penicillium spp. (16.34%, Alternaria spp. (14.39%, Aspergillus niger (11.28%, A. flavus (8.95%, respectively. Almost all of the wards showed high rates of contamination by various fungi. However, the analysis of the data showed that indoor air of hematology ward had the highest fungal pollution. In contrast, the outdoor air of ENT had the highest fungal pollution. Thus, these results demonstrated that the cleansing and disinfection procedures in the hospital wards should be improved yet.

  4. THERMAL ADAPTATION, CAMPUS GREENING AND OUTDOOR USE IN LAUTECH CAMPUS, OGBOMOSO, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Adeniran ADEDEJI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The interwoven relationship between the use of indoors and outdoors in the tropics as means of thermal adaptation has long been recognized. In the case of outdoors, this is achieved by green intervention of shading trees as adaptive mechanisms through behavioural thermoregulation. Unfortunately, the indoor academic spaces of LAUTECH campus was not provided with necessary outdoor academic learning environment in the general site planning of the campus for use at peak indoor thermal dissatisfaction period considering the tropical climatic setting of the university. The students’ departmental and faculty associations tried to provide parks for themselves as alternatives which on casual observation are of substandard quality and poorly maintained because of lack of institutional coordination and low funding. This study examined the quality and use of these parks for thermal comfort through behavioral adjustment from subjective field evidence with the goal of improvement. To achieve this, twelve parks were selected within the campus. Questionnaires containing use and quality variables were administered randomly upon 160 users of these parks. The data obtained was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Results show that the quality of the parks, weather condition, period of the day, and personal psychological reasons of users has great influence on the use of the parks. The study concludes with policy recommendations on improvement of the quality of the parks and the campus outdoors and greenery in general.

  5. A nationwide survey of radon concentration in Japan. Indoor, outdoor and workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya; Oikawa, Shinji; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Abukawa, Johji; Higuchi, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace radon concentrations were surveyed in Japan. These surveys were conducted to estimate the natural radiation dose due to radon and its progeny for the general public. The radon concentration was measured using passive type radon monitor. The number of radon monitors were installed at indoor, outdoor and workplace for 940 houses, 705 points and 705 sites, respectively. The radon concentration was measured for one year at each measurement site. Annual mean radon concentration was obtained from four quarters measurements of 47 prefectures in Japan. The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace annual mean radon concentration were 15.5 Bq m -3 , 6.1 Bq m -3 and 20.8 Bq m -3 , respectively. Their radon concentration shows approximately a logarithmic normal distribution. Workplace showed relatively high radon concentration compared with other environments, may be due to construction materials and low ventilation rate. The indoor radon concentration found to be seasonal variation and architectural dependences. Seasonal variation and regional distribution of outdoor radon concentration was also observed. From the results of these radon surveys, the annual effective dose to the general public due to radon and its progeny was estimated to be 0.49 mSv y -1 in Japan. (author)

  6. A Segmentation Analysis of an Illustrator's Quilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Joseph; Scherban, Dwight M.

    2007-01-01

    Jerry Pinkney's pencils and watercolors have created an indelible niche in African American children's literature, celebrating a magical world where children's thoughts flow freely back in time and across space. His illustrations have been repeatedly recognized by multiple awards and honor book citations (Brodie, 1998), including the Coretta Scott…

  7. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Li, Er; Dong, Weiming; Wonka, Peter; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces

  8. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  9. Illustrative Line Styles for Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Hendrik; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible illustrative line style model for the visualization of streamline data. Our model partitions view-oriented line strips into parallel bands whose basic visual properties can be controlled independently. We thus extend previous line stylization techniques specifically for

  10. Flow Visualization using Illustrative Line Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Hendrik; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Isenberg, Tobias; Bekker, Paulus

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible illustrative line style model for the visualization of streamline data. Our model partitions view- oriented line strips into parallel bands whose basic visual properties can be controlled independently. We thus extend previous line stylization techniques specifically for

  11. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  12. Simple Laboratory Experiment for Illustrating Soil Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattey, J. A.; Johnson, G. V.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to illustrate the effect of food source and added nutrients (N) on microbial activity in the soil. Supplies include air-dried soil, dried plant material, sources of carbon and nitrogen, a trap such as KOH, colored water, and a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Includes a diagram of an incubation chamber to demonstrate microbial…

  13. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  14. 48 CFR 9904.408-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-60 Illustrations. (a) Company A's vacation plan provides that...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.403-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.403-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-60 Illustrations. (a) The following table lists some typical...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.407-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-60 Illustrations. (a) Contractor A's written practice is to set...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.406-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-60 Illustrations. (a) A contractor allocates general management...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.410-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.410-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410-60 Illustrations. (a) Business Unit A has been including the...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.405-60 - Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-60 Illustrations. (a) An auditor recommends disallowance of...

  20. 13 CFR 112.7 - Illustrative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative applications. 112.7 Section 112.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY... or recruitment advertising, employment, layoff or termination, upgrading, demotion, or transfer...

  1. Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality? A cohort study based on iron-ore mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2016-01-01

    A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models were used to generate smoothed estimates of standardized mortality ratios and adjusted rate ratios, both models by cumulative exposure time in outdoor work. The adjusted rate ratio between employment classified as outdoor work ≥25 years and outdoor work 0-4 years was 1.62 (95 % CI 1.07-2.42). The subgroup underground work ≥15 years deviated most in occurrence of cerebrovascular disease mortality compared with the external reference population: SMR (0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.85)). Employment in outdoor environments was associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality. In contrast, work in tempered underground employment was associated with a protecting effect.

  2. Creating a Learning Continuum: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Prior Knowledge, Outdoor Education, and Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlobohm, Trisha Leigh

    Outdoor School is a cherished educational tradition in the Portland, OR region. This program's success is attributed to its presumed ability to positively impact affective and cognitive student outcomes. Residential programs such as Outdoor School are considered to be an important supplement to the classroom model of learning because they offer an authentic, contextually rich learning environment. References to relevant literature support the idea that student gains in affective and cognitive domains occur as a result of the multi-sensory, enjoyable, hands-on nature of outdoor learning. The sample population for this study was 115 sixth graders from a demographically diverse Portland, OR school district. This study used an instrument developed by the Common Measures System that was administered to students as part of Outdoor School's professional and program development project. The affective student outcome data measured by the Common Measures instrument was complemented by a formative assessment probe ascertaining prior knowledge of the definition of plants and field notes detailing Field Study instructor lesson content. This first part of this study examined the changes that take place in students' attitudes toward science as a result of attending Outdoor School. The second part took a look at how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants field study aligned with NGSS MS-LS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices. The third section of the study compared how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants Field Study and students' prior knowledge of what defines a plant aligned with NGSS MS-LS DCIs. The intent of the research was to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of how students' attitudes toward science are influenced by participating in an outdoor education program and contribute to the development of a continuum between classroom and outdoor school learning using Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices as a framework. Results of

  3. Pengaruh Outdoor Learning Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Matematis Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Cristi Crismono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah Outdoor Learning berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Mengacu pada teori perkembangan kognitifnya penggunaan Outdoor Learning dengan memanfaatkan lingkungan sekitar pada media pembelajaran dan semua aktifitas belajar yang dilakukan oleh siswa di bawah pengawasan dan bimbingan guru. Penggunaan sumber belajar yang bersifat kontektual mampu mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Data penelitian dapat diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes yang terdiri dari seperangkat soal uraian untuk mengukur dan mengetahui  kemampuan  awal  matematika  berupa  kemampuan  berpikir  kritis siswa. Hasil analisis pengaruh penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa yang telah dilakukan diketahui bahwa terdapat pengaruh positif penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Kesimpulan dari peneitian ini adalah metode Outdoor learning berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa.

  4. Real-time Pedestrian Crossing Recognition for Assistive Outdoor Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, Simone; Frigerio, Alessandro; Fanucci, Luca; Li, William

    2015-01-01

    Navigation in urban environments can be difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired. In this project, we present a system and algorithms for recognizing pedestrian crossings in outdoor environments. Our goal is to provide navigation cues for crossing the street and reaching an island or sidewalk safely. Using a state-of-the-art Multisense S7S sensor, we collected 3D pointcloud data for real-time detection of pedestrian crossing and generation of directional guidance. We demonstrate improvements to a baseline, monocular-camera-based system by integrating 3D spatial prior information extracted from the pointcloud. Our system's parameters can be set to the actual dimensions of real-world settings, which enables robustness of occlusion and perspective transformation. The system works especially well in non-occlusion situations, and is reasonably accurate under different kind of conditions. As well, our large dataset of pedestrian crossings, organized by different types and situations of pedestrian crossings in order to reflect real-word environments, is publicly available in a commonly used format (ROS bagfiles) for further research.

  5. Is outdoor vector control needed for malaria elimination? An individual-based modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Müller, Günter C; Marshall, John M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Qualls, Whitney A; Hlaing, WayWay M; Schlein, Yosef; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Beier, John C

    2017-07-03

    Residual malaria transmission has been reported in many areas even with adequate indoor vector control coverage, such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The increased insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes has resulted in reduced efficacy of the widely used indoor tools and has been linked with an increase in outdoor malaria transmission. There are considerations of incorporating outdoor interventions into integrated vector management (IVM) to achieve malaria elimination; however, more information on the combination of tools for effective control is needed to determine their utilization. A spatial individual-based model was modified to simulate the environment and malaria transmission activities in a hypothetical, isolated African village setting. LLINs and outdoor attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) stations were used as examples of indoor and outdoor interventions, respectively. Different interventions and lengths of efficacy periods were tested. Simulations continued for 420 days, and each simulation scenario was repeated 50 times. Mosquito populations, entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs), probabilities of local mosquito extinction, and proportion of time when the annual EIR was reduced below one were compared between different intervention types and efficacy periods. In the village setting with clustered houses, the combinational intervention of 50% LLINs plus outdoor ATSBs significantly reduced mosquito population and EIR in short term, increased the probability of local mosquito extinction, and increased the time when annual EIR is less than one per person compared to 50% LLINs alone; outdoor ATSBs alone significantly reduced mosquito population in short term, increased the probability of mosquito extinction, and increased the time when annual EIR is less than one compared to 50% LLINs alone, but there was no significant difference in EIR in short term between 50% LLINs and outdoor ATSBs. In the village setting with dispersed houses, the

  6. Grain Size Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Outdoor Dust in Chengdu, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengqin; Pi, Lu; Luo, Yan; Geng, Meng; Hu, Wenli; Li, Zhi; Su, Shijun; Gan, Zhiwei; Ding, Sanglan

    2016-04-01

    A total of 27 outdoor dust samples from roads, parks, and high spots were collected and analyzed to investigate the contamination of 11 metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in Chengdu, China. The results showed that the samples from the high spots exhibited the highest heavy metal level compared with those from the roads and the parks, except for Ni, Cu, and Pb. The dust was classified into five grain size fractions. The mean loads of each grain size fraction of 11 determined metals displayed similar distribution, and the contribution of median size (63-125, 125-250, 250-500 μm) fractions accounted for more than 70% of overall heavy metal loads. The health risk posed by the determined metals to human via dust ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation was investigated. Oral and respiratory bioaccessible parts of the metals in dust were extracted using simulated stomach solution and composite lung serum. The mean bioaccessibilities of 11 investigated metals in the gastric solution were much higher than those in the composite lung serum, especially Zn, Cd, and Pb. Ingestion was the most important exposure pathway with percentage greater than 70% for both children and adults. Risk evaluation results illustrated that children in Chengdu might suffer noncarcinogenic risk when exposed to outdoor dust. Given that the cancer risk values of Pb and Cr larger than 1 × 10(-4), potential carcinogenic risk might occur for Chengdu residents through outdoor dust intake.

  7. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  8. Outdoor Education Course - The New Product of a Company Offer

    OpenAIRE

    Beránek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    and Key Words Title: Outdoor Education Course- The New Product of a Company Offer Aim: Analysis and evaluation of needs and attitudes of the present company clients of Firma na zážitky, s.r.o. company in the outdoor education field to frame a pilot project of an outdoor course programme. Method: Method of questionnare was used to analyse and evaluate needs and attitudes ofthe company clients. Results: A project of outdoor course programme was created according to results of realized research....

  9. Illustrating answers: an evaluation of automatically retrieved illustrations of answers to medical questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, W.E.; Theune, Mariet; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, F.

    In this paper we discuss and evaluate a method for automatic text illustration, applied to answers to medical questions. Our method for selecting illustrations is based on the idea that similarities between the answers and picture-related text (the picture’s caption or the section/paragraph that

  10. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  11. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  12. The Outdoor Classroom: School Camping as Education in NSW 1890-1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    At all levels of education in New South Wales outdoor experiences and outdoor education are a prominent part of the curriculum. This emphasis on the outdoors begins early. Outdoor activities are an important part of most primary schools whether they are public or private. Likewise at secondary level and at university outdoor education is still an…

  13. A Guide to Outdoor Education Resources and Programs for the Handicapped. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

    The resource guide is designed to assist educators, park resource persons, and parents of disabled children in locating and identifying sources of information for developing, implementing, and evaluating outdoor education programs for all disabled children and youth. The guide has two main parts. The first part contains an annotated bibliography…

  14. Selling pictures: the illustrated auction catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pergam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay is based upon a survey of reproductions in auction catalogues – from their first appearance in the early eighteenth century until their more consistent use in the second decade of the twentieth century. Examining the role of these illustrations sheds light on how auctions functioned; it was not just the works of art that were traded, but knowledge about those works of art became currency to be exchanged. In contrast to the high end engravings and photographs of luxury illustrated art books, reproductions in auction catalogues – publications produced as ephemeral marketing tools – were of noticeably lower quality. This study of the status of reproductions, therefore, investigates the evolving understanding of art knowledge, both aesthetic and economic, and the interdependence of the market and connoisseurship.

  15. Crédit des illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Illustration de couverture : Lyon, cathédrale Saint-Jean, culée de l’arc-boutant 2/3 : David (XIIIe siècle) surgissant de l’échafaudage (XXIe siècle). Photo Jean-Pierre Gobillot. Illustration de la quatrième de couverture : Lyon, cathédrale Saint-Jean, arcature extérieure de l’abside, chapiteau central. Dessin Ghislaine Macabéo. Photos Jean-Pierre Gobillot : fig. 1, 2, 10, 13, 14, 16, 23, 28, 29, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41, 46, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 67, 76a, 78, 80, 82, 83, 88, 90, 97, 105, 106, 11...

  16. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Michael

    Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might revolve around the sun? How did Christopher Columbus abuse his knowledge of a lunar eclipse predicted by an astronomical almanac? Packed with anecdotes and intriguing detail, this book describes how we observed the sky and interpreted what we saw at different periods of history; how this influenced our beliefs and mythology; and how great astronomers contributed to what we now know. The result is a lively and highly visual history of astronomy - a compelling read for specialists and non-specialists alike.

  17. Illustrative visualization of 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellner, Juergen; Buchholz, Henrik; Nienhaus, Marc; Kirsch, Florian

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents an illustrative visualization technique that provides expressive representations of large-scale 3D city models, inspired by the tradition of artistic and cartographic visualizations typically found in bird"s-eye view and panoramic maps. We define a collection of city model components and a real-time multi-pass rendering algorithm that achieves comprehensible, abstract 3D city model depictions based on edge enhancement, color-based and shadow-based depth cues, and procedural facade texturing. Illustrative visualization provides an effective visual interface to urban spatial information and associated thematic information complementing visual interfaces based on the Virtual Reality paradigm, offering a huge potential for graphics design. Primary application areas include city and landscape planning, cartoon worlds in computer games, and tourist information systems.

  18. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  19. Astronomical knowledge transmission through illustrated Aratea manuscripts

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This carefully researched monograph is a historical investigation of the illustrated Aratea astronomical manuscript and its many interpretations over the centuries. Aratus' 270 B.C.E. Greek poem describing the constellations and astrological phenomena was translated and copied over 800 years into illuminated manuscripts that preserved and illustrated these ancient stories about the constellations. The Aratea survives in its entirety due to multiple translations from Greek to Latin and even to Arabic, with many illuminated versions being commissioned over the ages. The survey encompasses four interrelated disciplines: history of literature, history of myth, history of science, and history of art. Aratea manuscripts by their nature are a meeting place of these distinct branches, and the culling of information from historical literature and from the manuscripts themselves focuses on a wider, holistic view; a narrow approach could not provide a proper prospective. What is most essential to know about this work is...

  20. Outdoor fate and environmental impact of polymer solar cells through leaching and emission to rainwater and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa, Nieves; Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Reis Benatto, Dos Gisele A.; Lenz, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C.

    2016-01-01

    The emission of silver and zinc to the aqueous environment (rain, fog, dew) from polymer solar cells installed outdoors is presented. Studies included pristine solar cells and solar cells subjected to mechanical damage under natural weather conditions in Denmark. We find the emission of silver and

  1. Outdoor fate and environmental impact of polymer solar cells through leaching and emission to rainwater and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis

    2016-01-01

    The emission of silver and zinc to the aqueous environment (rain, fog, dew) from polymer solar cells installed outdoors is presented. Studies included pristine solar cells and solar cells subjected to mechanical damage under natural weather conditions in Denmark. We find the emission of silver...

  2. Some illustrative examples of model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the view of model uncertainty proposed by Apostolakis. We then present several illustrative examples related to model uncertainty, some of which are not well handled by this formalism. Thus, Apostolakis' approach seems to be well suited to describing some types of model uncertainty, but not all. Since a comprehensive approach for characterizing and quantifying model uncertainty is not yet available, it is hoped that the examples presented here will service as a springboard for further discussion

  3. Atlas of Illustrative Cases of Tattoo Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattoos, and tattoo complications as well, are colorful and visually flashy. A clinical outlook provides important clues to diagnosis by pattern recognition. This atlas,which is a report of 79 case illustrations, is made as a practical tool and vade mecum for the clinician. The atlas can be used in the office and as a bedside tool. It includes characteristic photos, and each case is accompanied with a brief medical history, a comment with learning points, the final diagnosis, and a review of therapeutic options. This spectrum of cases illustrates the different diagnostic entities according to the newly proposed Bispebjerg University Hospital ('Tattoo Clinic') diagnostic system of tattoo complications, a system reported to the 11th revision of the WHO disease classification system. Cases include allergies predominantly seen in red tattoos manifesting the characteristic patterns of plaque elevation, excessive hyperkeratosis, ulcerating reactions, urticaria, and generalized skin rash. Each type of reaction has typical clues to diagnosis and a typical disease course. 'Cross-sensitivity' allergic reactions in old tattoos of the same color as the trigger tattoo are also illustrated. Reactions in black tattoos are dominated by a pattern with papulonodular reactions, which are nonallergic anddue to pigment agglomeration in the skin. Reactions may be granulomatous and a marker of systemic sarcoidosis, sometimes associated with a general outbreak in the skin in black tattoos, e.g. 'rush phenomenon'. Bacterial infections are also illustrated. The technical hazards of tattooing and sequels as well as unwanted effects of tattoo removal by lasers are shown along with severe scarring following tattoo removal by caustics. This atlas is a tutorial in modern medical and surgical treatments of tattoo complications. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  5. Development of a versatile experimental setup for the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of construction materials under realistic outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, S; Portela, R; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Sánchez, B

    2014-10-01

    The interest on outdoor photocatalytic materials is growing in the last years. Nevertheless, most of the experimental devices designed for the assessment of their performance operate at controlled laboratory conditions, i.e., pollutant concentration, temperature, UV irradiation, and water vapor contents, far from those of real outdoor environments. The aim of the present study was the design and development of an experimental device for the continuous test of photocatalytic outdoor materials under sun irradiation using real outdoor air as feed, with the concomitant fluctuation of pollutant concentration, temperature, and water vapor content. A three-port measurement system based on two UV-transparent chambers was designed and built. A test chamber contained the photoactive element and a reference chamber to place the substrate without the photoactive element were employed. The third sampling point, placed outdoors, allowed the characterization of the surrounding air, which feeds the test chambers. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and UV-A irradiance were monitored at each sampling point with specific sensors. NO x concentration was measured by a chemiluminescence NO x analyzer. Three automatic valves allowed the consecutive analysis of the concentration at the three points at fixed time intervals. The reliability of the analytical system was demonstrated by comparing the NO x concentration data with those obtained at the nearest weather station to the experimental device location. The use of a chamber-based reaction system leads to an attenuation of NO x and atmospheric parameter profiles, but maintaining the general trends. The air characterization results showed the wide operating window under which the photoactive materials should work outdoors, depending on the traffic intensity and the season, which are reproduced inside the test chambers. The designed system allows the measurement of the photoactivity of outdoor materials or the comparison of several

  6. Enviromental gamma rate in outdoor and indoor of Kermanshah provience in different seasons, (2010-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Chopani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background radiation exists naturally in the environment and affects all living organisms. Assessment of these radiations is important because they cause somatic & genetic damages. This survey was carried out to determine the environmental gamma rate was measured in different seasons in Kermanshah towns, and the effective dose for the residents of these regions was calculated. Methods: gamma dose rate was determined by Geiger Muller detector (RADOS CO, RDS-120.To this end, six and seven stations were selected in outdoor and indoor areas, respectively. In other towns‚ however, the measurements were performed at one station in outdoor center of each town. Results: The mean values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates in Kermanshah were 99.96 and 118.6 nSv/h, respectively and the mean values of environmental gamma in outdoor areas of Islamabad-e-Gharb‚ Songhor‚ Sahneh‚ Gilan-e-Gharb, Sarpol-e-Zahab‚ Ghasr-e-Shirin‚ Harsin‚ Paveh‚ Ravansar and Javanrood towns were 99.96 ‚ 120.5 ‚ 143 ‚ 115.7 ‚ 71.7 ‚ 76.2 ‚ 82 ‚ 108.5 ‚ 95.7‚ 95.7 and 106 nSv/h, respectively. Also, the highest and the lowest annual effective dose were reported for Songhor (0.88 mSv/y and Gilan-e-Gharb (0.44mSv/y, respectively. Conclusion: The outdoor annual effective doses for the residents of Kermanshah‚ Islamabad-e-Gharb‚ Sahneh‚ Gilan-e-Gharb‚ Sarpol-e-Zahab‚ Ghasr-e-Shirin‚ Harsin‚ Paveh‚ Ravansar and Javanrood were lower than the global value (0.76 mSv/y except for Songhor with 16% higher dose.

  7. Monitoring an outdoor smoking area by means of PM2.5 measurement and vegetal biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Fleck, Alan; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Barbosa, Fernando; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão; Amantea, Sergio Luis; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2016-11-01

    The extension of pollutant accumulation in plant leaves associated with its genotoxicity is a common approach to predict the quality of outdoor environments. However, this approach has not been used to evaluate the environmental quality of outdoor smoking areas. This study aims to evaluate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by assessing particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) levels, the pollen abortion assay, and trace elements accumulated in plant leaves in an outdoor smoking area of a hospital. For this, PM 2.5 was measured by active monitoring with a real time aerosol monitor for 10 days. Eugenia uniflora trees were used for pollen abortion and accumulated element assays. Accumulated elements were also assessed in Tradescantia pallida leaves. The median concentration of PM 2.5 in the smoking area in all days of monitoring was 66 versus 34 μg/m 3 in the control area (P Eugenia uniflora were in higher concentration in the smoking area when compared to control area. Smoking area also showed higher rate of aborted grains (26.1 ± 10.7 %) compared with control (17.6 ± 4.5 %) (P = 0.003). Under the study conditions, vegetal biomonitoring proved to be an effective tool for assessing ETS exposure in outdoor areas. Therefore, vegetal biomonitoring of ETS could be a complement to conventional analyses and also proved to be a cheap and easy-handling tool to assess the risk of ETS exposure in outdoor areas.

  8. A comprehensive air quality investigation at an aquatic centre: Indoor/outdoor comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, Evangelos I; Panaras, Giorgos; Bartzis, John G

    2018-06-01

    Air quality and comfort parameters in a naturally ventilated aquatic centre were studied in relation to the outdoor pollution levels. Simultaneous measurements of PM 2.5, as well as of volatile organic compounds, were carried out for the indoor and outdoor environment of the aquatic centre. The chemical analysis of ionic species and trace elements associated with particulate matter was also performed. In addition, automated analyzer for NO 2 and O 3 was used in order to record the indoor and outdoor levels of these pollutants. Analysis of diurnal variation of the pollutants' concentration was applied to the collected data, allowing the identification of potential variation on the sources affecting the indoor air quality. PM 2.5 concentration was almost two times higher indoors than outdoors with average values of 13.96 and 6.78 μg/m 3 , respectively. Concerning the ion fraction of PM 2.5, SO 4 2- and Ca 2+ were the ions with higher concentration indoors with values of 1.06 and 0.93 μg/m 3 , respectively, while the percentage of Cl - to the PM 2.5 fraction of the indoor atmosphere (9%) was too high than outdoor ones (1%). These results showed that indoor air of swimming pool concerning PM 2.5 and ionic species is mainly affected by the chlorination process along with the comfort conditions (high relative humidity) created during the operation of the facility. The common volatile organic compound concentrations at indoor air are generally in higher levels, compared to the outdoor air with p,m-xylene and toluene to be the substances with the higher concentration for indoor and outdoor area, respectively (7.80 and 1.57 μg/m 3 ); nevertheless, values were rather low compared with the findings of other studies. Also, they clearly demonstrate a diurnal variation as a result of poor ventilation during night. As it was expected, chloroform showed the highest concentration compared to the other volatile organic compounds with values ranging from 3.35 to 135.89 μg/m 3

  9. LightSavers : accelerating advanced outdoor lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, B.; Pickering, M.

    2010-01-15

    This paper provided an update to the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) LightSavers program. The program was designed to accelerate market transformation for light emitting diode (LED) and advanced lighting management systems in outdoor lighting applications. It is expected that the program will result in significant electricity savings and emissions reductions within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and other Ontario municipalities. The first phase of the program established advanced outdoor lighting pilot programs in parking lots, garages, and pathway lighting applications that were guided by a common monitoring protocol to ensure useful and reliable assessment of the pilot programs. The TAF has since developed a strategy to strengthen public understanding and support for the use of advanced lighting, and continues to address policy issues that may impact the future of LED lighting programs. The TAF has also activated an electronic newsletter, delivered public workshops, and has been represented at several conferences. A working partnership has been established with Toronto Hydro Energy Services. Five pilot sites have been installed and have begun to provide monitoring data. Details of the pilot programs were provided. 16 figs.

  10. Indoor versus outdoor time in preschoolers at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Zhou, Chuan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2013-01-01

    Being outdoors may have health benefits including being more physically active. Understanding the relationship between outdoor time and health is hampered by the difficulty of measuring outdoor time. To examine the accuracy and validity of light-sensor and GPS methods for quantifying outdoor time among those aged 3-5 years at child care. A total of 45 children (mean age 4.5 years, 64% boys) from five child care centers wore portable accelerometers with built-in light sensors and a separate GPS device around their waists during child care, providing 80,648 episodes (15 seconds each) for analysis. Direct observation (gold standard) of children being outdoors versus indoors was conducted for 2 days at each center. GPS signal-to-noise ratios, processed through the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System were used to define indoor versus outdoor locations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to determine thresholds for defining being indoors versus outdoors. Data were collected in Fall 2011, analyzed in 2012. Mean observed outdoor time was 63 [±44; range: 18-152] minutes/day. Mean light-sensor levels were significantly higher outdoors. The area under the ROC curve for location based on light sensor for all weather conditions was 0.82 (range: 0.70 on partly cloudy days to 0.97 on sunny days); for GPS, it was 0.89. The light sensor had a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 86%. GPS had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 88%. A light sensor and a GPS device both distinguish indoor from outdoor time for preschoolers with moderate to high levels of accuracy. These devices can increase the feasibility and lower the cost of measuring outdoor time in studies of preschool children. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  12. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challoner, Avril; Pilla, Francesco; Gill, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    NO₂ and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person's well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM), to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO₂ indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO₂ exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  13. Atlas of Illustrative Cases of Tattoo Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    proposed Bispebjerg University Hospital ('Tattoo Clinic') diagnostic system of tattoo complications, a system reported to the 11th revision of the WHO disease classification system. Cases include allergies predominantly seen in red tattoos manifesting the characteristic patterns of plaque elevation......'. Bacterial infections are also illustrated. The technical hazards of tattooing and sequels as well as unwanted effects of tattoo removal by lasers are shown along with severe scarring following tattoo removal by caustics. This atlas is a tutorial in modern medical and surgical treatments of tattoo...

  14. Illustrated & Dissected: Professor Richard Sawdon Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Alternative Gallery feature introduces the photographic artist Professor Richard Sawdon Smith. Professor Sawdon Smith's work stems around a fascination with representations of anatomy that have been fuelled by his experience as a hospital patient. The work has allowed him to explore ideas through the use of medical illustrations which include early anatomical drawings, personal medical photography and facial modelling. The work highlights how such imagery can be used in the context of a patient seeking understanding and acceptance of ill health and disease using the body as a canvas on which to translate the experience.

  15. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  16. Socio-Psychological Impact of Outdoor Sculptures in Nigeria Urban Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Francis Ebunola Oladugbagbe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One major element that finds expression at road intersections, parks, gardens, square and open spaces in the urban landscape are outdoor sculptures. Of great significance is the historical information they disseminate, the visual impressions they convey and the aesthetic value they add to the quality of the city. From 1960s and after the civil war, the uses of sculptures for embellishments in public places have increased tremendously in Nigeria. However, outdoor sculpture for the purpose of recreation and relaxation in our built environment has not been adequately addressed scholastically in Nigeria. This paper, therefore, focuses on the social values derivable from the use of sculpture in urban design and the losses that could accrue to the social system if not adequately managed. The values of these sculptures to the socio-psychological development of Nigerians and the beautification of the urban environment are equally emphasized. The study shows that incorporating sculptures into public places without doubt will heighten public appreciation and aesthetic perception and make Nigerian cities unique and vibrant.Keywords: Nigeria urban cities; socio-psychological impact; outdoor sculptures.

  17. Outdoor thermal comfort in public space in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Arroyo, Ivette; Bengs, Christer

    2018-03-01

    The thermal environment outdoors affects human comfort and health. Mental and physical performance is reduced at high levels of air temperature being a problem especially in tropical climates. This paper deals with human comfort in the warm-humid city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The main aim was to examine the influence of urban micrometeorological conditions on people's subjective thermal perception and to compare it with two thermal comfort indices: the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the standard effective temperature (SET*). The outdoor thermal comfort was assessed through micrometeorological measurements of air temperature, humidity, mean radiant temperature and wind speed together with a questionnaire survey consisting of 544 interviews conducted in five public places of the city during both the dry and rainy seasons. The neutral and preferred values as well as the upper comfort limits of PET and SET* were determined. For both indices, the neutral values and upper thermal comfort limits were lower during the rainy season, whereas the preferred values were higher during the rainy season. Regardless of season, the neutral values of PET and SET* are above the theoretical neutral value of each index. The results show that local people accept thermal conditions which are above acceptable comfort limits in temperate climates and that the subjective thermal perception varies within a wide range. It is clear, however, that the majority of the people in Guayaquil experience the outdoor thermal environment during daytime as too warm, and therefore, it is important to promote an urban design which creates shade and ventilation.

  18. Color-Image Classification Using MRFs for an Outdoor Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Alencastre-Miranda

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest to use color-image classification (in several phases using Markov Random Fields (MRFs in order to understand natural images from outdoor environment's scenes for a mobile robot. We skip preprocessing phase having same results and better performance. In segmentation phase, we implement a color segmentation method considering I3 color space measure average in little image's cells obtained from a single split step. In classification phase, a MRF was used to identify regions as one of three selected classes; here, we consider at the same time the intrinsic color features of the image and the neighborhood system between image's cells. Finally, we use region growing and contextual information to correct misclassification errors. We have implemented and tested those phases with several images taken at our campus' gardens. We include some results in off-line processing mode and in on-line execution mode on an outdoor mobile robot. The vision system has been used for reactive exploration in an outdoor environment.

  19. Numerical modelling evaluation for the microclimate of an outdoor urban form in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Elnabawi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve outdoor thermal comfort it is necessary to understand the interactions between the prevailing climate, the urban form and roughness. The near surface boundary layer is directly influenced by local irradiative and convective exchange processes due to the presence of a variety of different surfaces, sheltering elements and obstacles to air flow leading to distinctive micro-scale climates. The paper presents a micro-scale numerical model for an outdoor urban form for a hot summer’s day in Al-Muizz street located at the Islamic quarter of Cairo, where a few studies have attempted to study these conditions in vernacular settings in hot arid areas where the continuously evolving urban patterns and shaded environments were perceived to produce more pedestrian friendly outdoor environments. In situ measurements are used to validate the ENVI-met results which showed an overall agreement with the observed ones, representing adequate mean radiant temperature (Tmrt which is one of the most important meteorological parameters governing human energy balance and has therefore a strong influence on thermal sensation of the pedestrians using the open public spaces and generating a micro-climatic map as an initial step in addressing the urgent need for a modelling platform accessible to urban designers, architects, and decision makers towards sustainable urban forms.

  20. RPA Assessment of Outdoor Recreation: Past, Current, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the outdoor recreation sections of the Renewable Resource Planning Act (RPA) Assessments conducted to date are reviewed. Current policy and mangement applications of the outsdoor recreation results published in 1989 Assessment are discussed also. The paper concludes with suggestions for the assemssment of outdoor recreation in future RPA Assessements...

  1. Characteristics of wilderness users in outdoor recreation assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann

    1989-01-01

    Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel...

  2. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  3. Developing Approaches to Outdoor Education that Promote Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Social, economic, and environmental issues facing 21st century societies compel a transformative shift towards sustainability in all spheres of life, including education. The challenges this holds for outdoor education programs and practices is significant. If outdoor education theory and practice is to make a greater contribution to…

  4. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  5. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  6. Is Outdoor Education a Discipline? Provocations and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; Potter, Tom G.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is often undervalued. As such, we believe there is merit in critiquing the field and focusing more attention on its value and importance. This paper seeks to offer a critical exploration of "if" and "how" outdoor education is a discipline. The paper begins with a brief overview of the literature that seeks to…

  7. Outdoor Education Academic Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brent J.; Seaman, Jayson; Trauntvein, Nate

    2017-01-01

    The growth of outdoor adventure programs developed, in part, from the Outward Bound movement in the 1970s (MacArthur, 1979; Outward Bound, 1968), which created a demand for specialized collegiate training. Since the inaugural conference on outdoor pursuits in higher education at Appalachian State University in 1974 (Smathers, 1974), approximately…

  8. Outdoor skaber særlig professionel identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt; Lybæk-Hansen, Esper

    2015-01-01

    På pædagoguddannelsen i Horsens tilbydes årligt en toning af pædagoguddannelsen i Outdoor - en beskrivelse......På pædagoguddannelsen i Horsens tilbydes årligt en toning af pædagoguddannelsen i Outdoor - en beskrivelse...

  9. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White

    2009-01-01

    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  10. Health Benefits of Outdoor Recreation: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Donna; Ewert, Alan

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews literature related to the positive effects of outdoor education. The following dimensions of health, and the benefits associated with each, are discussed: emotional, social, physical, intellectual, and spiritual. A model of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation is presented, and implications for health education are…

  11. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  12. Motivations, attitudes, preferences, and satisfactions among outdoor recreationists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Alan D. Bright; Erin Smith; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is presented in two sections. The first by Bright and Tarrant describes visitor preferences and examines users' perceptions of encountering other visitors in outdoor recreation settings. The second by Tarrant and others reviews visitor preferences for, and satisfactions with, outdoor recreation experiences.

  13. Getting the Most Out of Journaling: Strategies for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor educators often ask students to write journals without training them in journal writing. A workshop in journal writing for university students in outdoor education courses covers how to write entries related to specific content areas; an understanding of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Thinking and how it applies to journal writing; and…

  14. Affordances of outdoor settings for children in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    were observed during times for ‘free play’ in their usual outdoor settings: traditional playground and forest (12 visits, respectively). Modified classes of outdoor features are suggested along with new practical class names: open ground, sloping terrain, shielded places, rigid fixtures, moving...

  15. Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

    2011-01-01

    Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

  16. Outdoor Recreation and Adventure Tourism: Unique but Allied Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew W.; Kang, H. K.; Lewis, T. Grant

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and adventure tourism are overlapping industries serving similar clientele. While descriptive marketing research exists for both industries (George Washington University School of Business [GW], Adventure Travel Trade Association [ATTA], & Xola Consulting [XC], 2010; Outdoor Foundation [OF], 2014), there is no clear…

  17. Infusing Outdoor Field Experiences into the Secondary Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ginny

    1984-01-01

    To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…

  18. The ODELIA Study on Noise Limits for Outdoor Machinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Carletti, E.; Spellerberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the ODELIA study for the European Commission an assessment of the outdoor equipment noise directive 2000/14/EC and its amendment 2005/88/EC has been performed. The directive requires noise marking for 57 types of equipment used outdoors, and sets noise limits for 22 of these. Since the limits

  19. Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortill, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

  20. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  1. The Implementation of Mobile Learning in Outdoor Education: Application of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  2. The effect of an outdoor setting on the transfer of earth science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jerry Marvin

    prepared for future learning of advanced geology concepts than the indoor treatment group. Because the environment chosen for this study was by nature one that contained variables outside the control of the researcher, it can only be speculated that the outdoor environment was the agent of transfer. Subsequent studies need to be done to substantiate this hypothesis.

  3. Measurements of MIMO Indoor Channels at 1800 MHz with Multiple Indoor and Outdoor Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldén Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several configurations for multiple base stations in indoor MIMO systems and compares their performance. The results are based on channel measurements realized with a MIMO testbed. The receiver was moved along several routes and floors on an office building. Both outdoor and indoor locations are considered for the transmitters or base stations, which allow the analysis of not only indoor but also outdoor-to-indoor environment. The use of 2 base stations with different system level combinations of the two is analyzed. We show that the configuration with base station selection provides almost as good performance as a full water-filling scheme when the 2 base stations are placed at different locations. Also the spatial correlation properties for the different configurations are analyzed and the importance of considering path loss when evaluating capacity is highlighted.

  4. The use of physical activity, sport and outdoor life as tools of psychosocial intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Andersson, Eva; Best, James

    2018-01-01

    The core values in the Nordic welfare model are health equality and social inclusion. Individuals with mental disorders and/or a history of substance use disorder are often excluded from the core value of equality. Psychosocial interventions such as physical activity and outdoor life can have...... several benefits for those suffering from mental disorders. Firstly, such interventions can have therapeutic effects. Secondly, they show benefits for somatic health and the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. Finally, they can provide an environment for experiencing self-efficacy, lead to improved...... quality of life, and promote the development and building of social relationships. This paper provides a critical review of current evidence for physical activity and outdoor life as psychosocial interventions in psychiatric and substance misuse treatment, with specific examples from Norway, Sweden...

  5. Indoor-outdoor relationship of fungal aerosols in domestic homes situated in humid-warm climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ACeron Palma, I. M.; Lopez Pacheco, M.; Perez Sanchez, M. M.; Quintal Franco, C.; Giacoman Vallejos, G.; Ponce Caballero, C.

    2009-01-01

    Among the different kinds of bio aerosols, fungi represent a heterogeneous group, which plays an important role in human pathology. These microorganisms can be the cause of a variety of infectious diseases as well as allergic and toxic effects. Therefore, it is necessary to assess their composition and concentrations indoors, outdoors and in domestic environments. The study of indoor-air quality is a relatively new activity in the world, and very recent in Mexico. The aim of this study was to establish the relation between indoors and outdoors fungal aerosols in domestic homes. Air samples were collected, using the 6-stage Andersen impactor, inside and outside thirty domestic homes of Merida city, in Yucatan, Mexico. (Author)

  6. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  7. Autoimmune pancreatitis: An illustrated guide to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, R.D.; Rofe, C.J.; Bryant, T.J.C.; Hacking, C.N.; Stedman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) remains one of the rarer forms of pancreatitis but has become increasingly well recognized and widely diagnosed as it is an important differential, particularly due to the dramatic response to appropriate therapy. It is now best considered as part of a multisystem disease and the notion of “IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease” has become widely recognized as the number of extra-pancreatic associations of AIP grows. More recently AIP has been classified into two subtypes: lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) with distinct geographical, age and sex distributions for the two subtypes, in addition to different pathological characteristics. The role of imaging is crucial in AIP and should be considered in conjunction with clinical, serological, and histopathological findings to make the diagnosis. Radiologists are uniquely placed to raise the possibility of AIP and aid the exclusion of significant differentials to allow the initiation of appropriate management and avoidance of unnecessary intervention. Radiological investigation may reveal a number of characteristic imaging findings in AIP but appearances can vary considerably and the focal form of AIP may appear as a pancreatic mass, imitating pancreatic carcinoma. This review will illustrate typical and atypical appearances of AIP on all imaging modes. Emphasis will be placed on the imaging features that are likely to prove useful in discriminating AIP from other causes prior to histopathological confirmation. In addition, examples of relevant differential diagnoses are discussed and illustrated

  8. Airborne particle-bound brominated flame retardants: Levels, size distribution and indoor-outdoor exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue-Shan; Yang, Wan-Dong; Li, Xiu-Wen; Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The quality of indoor environments has a significant impact on public health. Usually, an indoor environment is treated as a static box, in which physicochemical reactions of indoor air contaminants are negligible. This results in conservative estimates for primary indoor air pollutant concentrations, while also ignoring secondary pollutants. Thus, understanding the relationship between indoor and outdoor particles and particle-bound pollutants is of great significance. For this reason, we collected simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements of the size distribution of airborne brominated flame retardant (BFR) congeners. The time-dependent concentrations of indoor particles and particle-bound BFRs were then estimated with the mass balance model, accounting for the outdoor concentration, indoor source strength, infiltration, penetration, deposition and indoor resuspension. Based on qualitative observation, the size distributions of ΣPBDE and ΣHBCD were characterized by bimodal peaks. According to our results, particle-bound BDE209 and γ-HBCD underwent degradation. Regardless of the surface adsorption capability of particles and the physicochemical properties of the target compounds, the concentration of BFRs in particles of different size fractions seemed to be governed by the particle distribution. Based on our estimations, for airborne particles and particle-bound BFRs, a window-open ventilated room only takes a quarter of the time to reach an equilibrium between the concentration of pollutants inside and outside compared to a closed room. Unfortunately, indoor pollutants and outdoor pollutants always exist simultaneously, which poses a window-open-or-closed dilemma to achieve proper ventilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Particle Swarm Optimization for Outdoor Lighting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor lighting is an essential service for modern life. However, the high influence of this type of facility on energy consumption makes it necessary to take extra care in the design phase. Therefore, this manuscript describes an algorithm to help light designers to get, in an easy way, the best configuration parameters and to improve energy efficiency, while ensuring a minimum level of overall uniformity. To make this possible, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. These algorithms are well established, and are simple and effective to solve optimization problems. To take into account the most influential parameters on lighting and energy efficiency, 500 simulations were performed using DIALux software (4.10.0.2, DIAL, Ludenscheid, Germany. Next, the relation between these parameters was studied using to data mining software. Subsequently, we conducted two experiments for setting parameters that enabled the best configuration algorithm in order to improve efficiency in the proposed process optimization.

  10. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Let's Walk Outdoors! Self-Paced Walking Outdoors Improves Future Intention to Exercise in Women With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinski, Kleverton; Machado, Daniel G S; Lirani, Luciana S; DaSilva, Sergio G; Costa, Eduardo C; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Elsangedy, Hassan M

    2017-04-01

    In order to examine whether environmental settings influence psychological and physiological responses of women with obesity during self-paced walking, 38 women performed two exercise sessions (treadmill and outdoors) for 30 min, where oxygen uptake, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, affect, attentional focus, enjoyment, and future intentions to walk were analyzed. Physiological responses were similar during both sessions. However, during outdoor exercise, participants displayed higher externally focused attention, positive affect, and lower ratings of perceived exertion, followed by greater enjoyment and future intention to participate in outdoor walking. The more externally focused attention predicted greater future intentions to participate in walking. Therefore, women with obesity self-selected an appropriate exercise intensity to improve fitness and health in both environmental settings. Also, self-paced outdoor walking presented improved psychological responses. Health care professionals should consider promoting outdoor forms of exercise to maximize psychological benefits and promote long-term adherence to a physically active lifestyle.

  12. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-06-11

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Chemical constituents from Aspidosperma illustre (Apocynaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Lara F.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Vieira, Ivo J. Curcino

    2010-01-01

    A new natural product oleanane-type triterpene, olean-12-ene-11α-methoxy-3β-acetate (10) was isolated from Aspidosperma illustre, together with β-amyrin (3), lupeol (4), β-amyrin acetate (5), lupeol acetate (6), olean-12-ene-28-hydroxy-3α-tetradecanoate (7), olean-12-ene-28-carboxy-3α-hexadecanoate (8), ursolic acid (9) triterpenes, and two monoterpenic indole alkaloids, b-yoimbine (1) and 1,2-dehydroaspidospermidine (2). These compounds were characterized on their spectral data basis, mainly one- ( 1 H, 13 C, APT) and two-dimensional ( 1 H- 1 H-COSY, 1 H- 1 HNOESY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR, and mass spectra, involving also comparison with data from the literature. (author)

  14. Uncertainty relation and probability. Numerical illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Umetsu, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainty relation and the probability interpretation of quantum mechanics are intrinsically connected, as is evidenced by the evaluation of standard deviations. It is thus natural to ask if one can associate a very small uncertainty product of suitably sampled events with a very small probability. We have shown elsewhere that some examples of the evasion of the uncertainty relation noted in the past are in fact understood in this way. We here numerically illustrate that a very small uncertainty product is realized if one performs a suitable sampling of measured data that occur with a very small probability. We introduce a notion of cyclic measurements. It is also shown that our analysis is consistent with the Landau-Pollak-type uncertainty relation. It is suggested that the present analysis may help reconcile the contradicting views about the 'standard quantum limit' in the detection of gravitational waves. (author)

  15. Adobe Illustrator CS2 crash course

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Amado

    2007-01-01

    Introdução ao Adobe Illustrator.Compilação de informações, links e tutorial passo-a-passo para a iniciação a este softwarelt;p>FBAUP, Pedro Amado, 2007-01-22Versão 0.1 (alfa). Actualizada em 2007-01-22.Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-Uso Não-Comercial-Partilha nos termos da mesma Licença 2.5 Portugal. Para ver uma cópia destalicença, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/pt/ ou envie uma cartapara Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott ...

  16. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  17. Investigation of Mountaineering and Outdoor Sports Clubs with Activity Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak GÜRER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current study aims to identify activity areas of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs in Turkey that organize activities regularly. Universe of the study was composed of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs that were active between the dates of 11 March 2012 and 5 January 2013. This study and the sample included 49 active outdoor sports clubs that could be reached in the region. Data were collected via surveys. Obtained data were analyzed and interpreted with the help of statistical package program (SPSS 16.0. Frequencies and percentage distributions were provided. Criteria for the provision of outdoor sports activities in clubs include requests from members and geographical conditions of the area. It is observed that those clubs provide outdoor walks approximately for 21-40 members. There are clubs without trainers. Clubs provide mountaineering and rock climbing activities the most. Aegean and Marmara Regions are more active compared to other regions. In general, most of the clubs are active in areas such as mountaineering, rock climbing and outdoor walks. It is suggested that local administrations and federations support outdoor sports clubs

  18. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  19. Inorganic and carbonaceous components in indoor/outdoor particulate matter in two residential houses in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Mihalis; Aleksandropoulou, Victoria; Hanssen, Jan Erik; Dye, Christian; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2008-03-01

    A detailed analysis of indoor/outdoor physicochemical aerosol properties has been performed. Aerosol measurements were taken at two dwellings, one in the city center and the other in the suburbs of the Oslo metropolitan area, during summer/fall and winter/spring periods of 2002-2003. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the chemical characteristics (water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components) of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles and their indoor/outdoor relationship. Results demonstrate that the carbonaceous species were dominant in all fractions of the PM10 particles (cut off size: 0.09-11.31 microm) during all measurement periods, except winter 2003, when increased concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were predominant because of sea salt transport. The concentration of organic carbon was higher in the fine and coarse PM10 fractions indoors, whereas elemental carbon was higher indoors only in the coarse fraction. In regards to the carbonaceous species, local traffic and secondary organic aerosol formation were, probably, the main sources outdoors, whereas indoors combustion activities such as preparation of food, burning of candles, and cigarette smoking were the main sources. In contrast, the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were higher outdoors than indoors. The variability of water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations outdoors was related to changes in emissions from local anthropogenic sources, long-range transport of particles, sea salt emissions, and resuspension of roadside and soil dusts. In the indoor environment the infiltration of the outdoor air indoors was the major source of inorganic ions.

  20. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.