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Sample records for outcrop succulent talinum

  1. Tritium turnover in succulent plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Gogate, S.S.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of turnover rates for tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and tissue bound tritium (TBT) were carried out in three succulent plants, Opuntia sp., E. Trigona and E. Mili using tritiated water as tracer. The estimated half-times were 52, 57.5 and 80 days for TFWT and 212, 318 and 132 days for TBT in the stems of the above plants respectively. Opuntia sp. showed significant incorporation of TBT, 10% of TFWT on weight basis, while the other two plants showed lesser incorporation, 2-3% of TFWT. However, the leaves of E. Mili indicated the same level of fixation of TBT as the stem of Opuntia sp. (author)

  2. Growth and yield response to plant density of water leaf ( Talinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different planting spaces (15cm x 15cm, 20cm x 20cm, 25cm x 25cm and 30cm x 30cm) on the growth and yield of Talinum triangulare (Water leaf) were investigated in two cropping seasons from 2012 to 2013 (rainy and dry seasons) at University of Port Harcourt Teaching and Research farm, Port Harcourt, ...

  3. Talinum triangulare Whole wheat meal fortified with soy flour consumed with Talinum triangulare (gbure) soup glycemic index and the test human subjects' lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaleku, Sunday Adeola; Omueti, Olusola D; Emaleku, Godsent Oluwakemi

    2017-08-24

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are some of the leading causes of death in the world, and diet has roles in their etiology. This research study therefore investigates the glycemic index (GI) of soy flour fortified whole wheat meal (SFFWWM) consumed with Talinum triangulare (gbure) soup and the effects of the meal on the lipid profiles of the test human subjects. The control human subjects and test human subjects were fed D-glucose (DG) and whole wheat meal (WWM) with Talinum triangulare soup respectively on the first day of the experiment, and SFFWWM with the same soup the next day (for test subjects only) after 10-12h overnight fasting. Blood glucose levels of the subjects were taken before and 2h after meals' consumption at 30min interval and blood samples collected for lipid profiles evaluations. The result of the study showed that; SFFWWM consumed with Talinum trianguilare soup has a non-significant lower GI than WWM consumed with the same soup, but a significant lower GI than DG at (P<0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in lipid profiles of the test human subjects between when they consumed WWM and SFFWWM with the soup however, SFFWWM reduced TC, TG, LDL-C and VDL-C and increased HDL-C and TP than WMM at (P<0.05). In addition, GI is positively correlated with TC, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C, but is negatively correlated with TP and HDL-C. It can therefore be concluded that; fortifying WWM with soy flour would reduce the risk factors of CVDs and DM, the diseases recently claiming thousands of today. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lead toxicity, defense strategies and associated indicative biomarkers in Talinum triangulare grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Sytar, Oksana

    2012-11-01

    Talinum species have been used to investigate a variety of environmental problems for e.g. determination of metal pollution index and total petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils, stabilization and reclamation of heavy metals (HMs) in dump sites, removal of HMs from storm water-runoff and green roof leachates. Species of Talinum are popular leaf vegetables having nutrient antinutrient properties. In this study, Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd (Ceylon spinach) grown hydroponically were exposed to different concentrations of lead (Pb) (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mM) to investigate the biomarkers of toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, cell death, photosynthetic pigments, sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and elemental analysis have been investigated. The results showed that Pb in roots and shoots gradually increased as the function of Pb exposure; however Pb concentration in leaves was below detectable level. Chlorophylls and SQDG contents increased at 0.25 mM of Pb treatment in comparison to control at all treated durations, thereafter decreased. Levels of carotenoid, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxidation increased in Pb treated plants compared to control. Water content, cells death and elemental analysis suggested the damage of transport system interfering with nutrient transport causing cell death. The present study also explained that Pb imposed indirect oxidative stress in leaves is characterized by decreases in GSH/GSSG ratio with increased doses of Pb treatment. Lead-induced oxidative stress was alleviated by carotenoids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and glutathione suggesting that these defense responses as potential biomarkers for detecting Pb toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pollination and seed dispersal in the endangered succulent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dwarf succulent euphorbia Euphorbia brevitorta (Euphorbiaceae) is a localized and potentially threatened endemic species with limited distributed across rocky grasslands in central and southern Kenya. The pollination ecology and seed dispersal of E. brevitorta was investigated by direct observation. Euphorbia ...

  6. Predicting the extent of succulent thicket under current and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the distribution records of the facultative CAM succulent shrub Portulacaria afra, and high resolution climate response surfaces, we developed a spatially explicit model of the potential distribution of the species in the Thicket Biome of the eastern and southern Cape, South Africa. The resultant map shows a ...

  7. EFEK ANTIFERTILITAS EKSTRAK AKAR SOM JAWA (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus L. JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetri Widiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Talinum paniculatum Gaertn commonly is used as aphrodisiac herb. Phytosterol, saponin, flavonoid and tannin of the herb have a certain bioactivity and may affect to the body system. The objective of this research was to examine the antifertility effects of sam jawa (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. root extract (SJRE on male mice (Mus musculus L.. Twenty male mice were divided into 4 groups randomly with 5 replications. SJRE was dissolved in aquadest and given orally everyday for 34 days. The treatment dosages were 0 (control, 100,200, and 300 mg/kg BW. At 35th day mice were sacrificed and sectioned to remove testes and epididymis spermatozoas. Testes were sectioned using paraffin method and stained using Haematoxyllin-Eosin. Spermatogenic cells in each seminiferous tubule were counted to investigated spermatogenesis activity of testes. Epididymis sperm suspension was used to investigate sperm quality i.e: morphology, velocity and motility. Quantitatives data were analized using ANOVA and continued DMRT on 5% significance level. The result showed SJRE had antifertility effects on male mice (Mus musculus L. could inhibit spermatogenesis (decrease the spermatogenic cells count and decrease the sperm quality (increase percentage of abnormal sperm, decrease sperm motility and also decrease sperm velocity.

  8. Tolerance of combined submergence and salinity in the halophytic stem-succulent Tecticornia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, T D; Vos, H; Pedersen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    pergranulata subsp. pergranulata (syn. Halosarcia pergranulata subsp. pergranulata). Growth and total sugars in succulent stems were assessed as a function of time after submergence. Underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration, total sugars, glycinebetaine, Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+), in succulent stems, were...... assessed in a NaCl dose-response experiment. KEY RESULTS: Submerged plants ceased to grow, and tissue sugars declined. Photosynthesis by succulent stems was reduced markedly when underwater, as compared with in air. Capacity for underwater net photosynthesis (P(N)) was not affected by 10-400 mM Na......Cl, but it was reduced by 30 % at 800 mM. Dark respiration, underwater, increased in succulent stems at 200-800 mM NaCl, as compared with those at 10 mM NaCl. On an ethanol-insoluble dry mass basis, K(+) concentration in succulent stems of submerged plants was equal to that in drained controls, across all Na...

  9. Monosaccharide analysis of succulent leaf tissue in Aloe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grace, Olwen Megan; Dzajic, Amra; Jäger, Anna

    2013-01-01

    in the genus Aloe using a predictive phylogenetic approach. Methodology – Monosaccharide composition was assessed in 31species, representing the morphological and taxonomic diversity of Aloe sensu stricto. Leaf mesophyll polysaccharides were partially hydrolysed in a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-SilA assay......Introduction – The succulent leaf mesophyll in Aloe species supports a burgeoning natural products industry, particularly in Africa. Comparative data necessary to prioritise species with economic potential have been lacking. Objective – To survey leaf mesophyll monosaccharide composition....... Oximes and trimethylsilyl ether products were detected by GC-MS. Constituent monosaccharides accounting for the greatest variation among species were identified by principal component analysis. Two plant DNA barcoding regions were sequenced in 28 of the sampled species and the resulting maximum...

  10. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in some (non-Cactaceae) succulent plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2010-01-01

    The water-accumulating leaves of crassulacean acid metabolism plants belonging to five different families were investigated for the presence of biominerals by infrared spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. Spectroscopic results revealed that the mineral present in succulent species of Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, and Asphodelaceae was calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O). Crystals were predominantly found as raphides or solitary crystals of various morphologies. However, representative Crassulaceae members and a succulent species of Asteraceae did not show the presence of biominerals. Overall, these results suggest no correlation between calcium oxalate generation and crassulacean acid metabolism in succulent plants.

  11. Drought, climate change and vegetation response in the succulent karoo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Hoffman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For the winter-rainfall region of South Africa, the frequency of drought is predicted to increase over the next 100 years, with dire consequences for the vegetation of this biodiversity hotspot. We analysed historical 20th century rainfall records for six rainfall stations within the succulent karoo biome to determine if the signal of increasing drought frequency is already apparent, and whether mean annual rainfall is decreasing. We found no evidence for a decrease either in mean annual rainfall or in the incidence of drought, as measured by the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI over the 20th century. Evidence points to a drying trend from 1900–1950 while no significant trend in rainfall and drought was found at most stations from 1951–2000. In a second analysis we synthesised the information concerning the response of adult succulent karoo biome plants and seedlings to extended drought conditions. General findings are that responses to drought differ between species, and that longevity is an important life history trait related to drought survival. Growth form is a poor predictor of drought response across the biome. There was a range of responses to drought among adult plants of various growth forms, and among non-succulent seedlings. Leaf-succulent seedlings, however, exhibited phenomenal drought resistance, the majority surviving drought long after all the experimentally comparative non-succulent seedlings had died. Our synthesis showed that previous studies on the impact of drought on succulent karoo biome plants differ greatly in terms of their location, sampling design, measured values and plant responses. A suite of coordinated long-term field observations, experiments and models are therefore needed to assess the response of succulent karoo biome species to key drought events as they occur over time and to integrate this information into conservation planning.

  12. Chloroplast Genome of the Folk Medicine and Vegetable Plant Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.: Gene Organization, Comparative and Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Li, Yuan; Yang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Boyang

    2018-04-09

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes. Fifty one (51) repeat units and ninety two (92) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were found in the genome. The pseudogene rpl23 (Ribosomal protein L23) was insert AATT than other Caryophyllale species by sequence alignment, which located in IRs region. The gene of trnK-UUU (tRNA-Lys) and rpl16 (Ribosomal protein L16) have larger introns in T. paniculatum , and the existence of matK (maturase K) genes, which usually located in the introns of trnK-UUU , rich sequence divergence in Caryophyllale. Complete cp genome comparison with other eight Caryophyllales species indicated that the differences between T. paniculatum and P. oleracea were very slight, and the most highly divergent regions occurred in intergenic spacers. Comparisons of IR boundaries among nine Caryophyllales species showed that T. paniculatum have larger IRs region and the contraction is relatively slight. The phylogenetic analysis among 35 Caryophyllales species and two outgroup species revealed that T. paniculatum and P. oleracea do not belong to the same family. All these results give good opportunities for future identification, barcoding of Talinum species, understanding the evolutionary mode of Caryophyllale cp genome and molecular breeding of T. paniculatum with high pharmaceutical efficacy.

  13. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after Agrobacterium infiltration, difficulties arise due to the thin leaf structure. Thick leaved succulents, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Hylotelephium telephium, were tested as alternatives. A xyloglucanase, as well as a xyloglucanase inhibitor protein was successfully produced. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. VALIDATION AND THERAPEUTIC USE OF SUCCULENT PLANT PARTS - OPENING OF A NEW HORIZON OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of use of plants for medicinal purposes is very old. In the ancient civilizations, the crude plant parts were mostly used in such purposes. In the ongoing research, solvent extracted parts of the plants are validated for their reported efficacy with an intention to identify the active principles for production of those at a large scale to use them commercially as medicines. This contemporary method may be added with validation of reported medicinal plants at their fresh, succulent form with all the available principles within them. The validated medicinal plants may be used in many purposes after performing studies related with toxicity, dose etc. Organic animal farms may be created by using fresh inputs of the added medicinal plant garden, replacing the inorganic medicines. Commercialization of succulent medicinal plant part extracts may be performed by export oriented agro-medicine business with the assistance of different cooling systems.

  15. Evolutionary history and leaf succulence as explanations for medicinal use in aloes and the global popularity of Aloe vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grace, Olwen Megan; Buerki, Sven; Symonds, Matthew RE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera supports a substantial global trade yet its wild origins, and explanations for its popularity over 500 related Aloe species in one of the world’s largest succulent groups, have remained uncertain. We developed an explicit phylogenetic framework to explore links between...... the rich traditions of medicinal use and leaf succulence in aloes. Results: The phylogenetic hypothesis clarifies the origins of Aloe vera to the Arabian Peninsula at the northernmost limits of the range for aloes. The genus Aloe originated in southern Africa ~16 million years ago and underwent two major...... succulence among aloes has yielded new explanations for the extraordinary market dominance of Aloe vera. The industry preference for Aloe vera appears to be due to its proximity to important historic trade routes, and early introduction to trade and cultivation. Well-developed succulent leaf mesophyll tissue...

  16. Will a decreasing winter rainfall cause a shift in Succulent Karoo boundaries? Evidence from competition and vegetation-change analyses.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shiponeni, NN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecotone between the Namaqualand shrublands (Succulent Karoo biome) and Bushmanland Arid Grassland (Nama-Karoo biome) is characterised by transitional (ecotonal) physiognomy (grassland-shrubland mosaic, and grass and shrubs intermingling in arid...

  17. Oxygen dynamics during submergence in the halophytic stem succulent Halosarcia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Vos, Harrie; Colmer, Timothy David

    2006-01-01

    This study elucidated O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged Halosarcia pergranulata (Salicornioideae), a perennial halophytic stem succulent that grows on flood-prone mudflats of salt lakes. Oxygen within shoots and roots was measured using microelectrodes, for plants when waterlogged...... the roots, at least during the first several hours (the time period measured) after submergence or when light periods followed darkness. The influence of light on tissue O2 dynamics was confirmed in an experiment on a submerged plant in a salt lake in south-western Australia. In the late afternoon, partial...... pressure of O2 (pO2) in the succulent stem was 23.2 kPa (i.e. ~10% above that in the air), while in the roots, it was 6.2-9.8 kPa. Upon sunset, the pO2 in the succulent stems declined within 1 h to below detection, but then showed some fluctuations with the pO2 increasing to at most 2.5 kPa during...

  18. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  19. Сhlorenchyma in stem of succulent plants from the genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    S.О. Kalashnyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of photosynthesis execution by stems causes the structural and functional changes in plants. The stems of majority of succulent plants of the genus Euphorbia L. are covered only with the epidermis for a long time. In plants of some species the palisade parenchyma can appear which can be considered as a secondary or consequential tool to perform photosynthesis function by their stems. The anatomical structure of green annual stems of 23 Euphorbia species was examined. For 12 of them the palisade parenchyma has been established. The palisade parenchyma in the stem differs from such in the leaf by cells form and size as well as cells arrangement. The presence or absence of palisade parenchyma in the primary cortex indicates the level of specialization of stem tissues to perform the assimilation function. As the degree of development of palisade parenchyma depends on the amount of solar radiation, the presence and number of palisade parenchyma does not directly confirm the adaptation to the growth in conditions of a certain degree of aridity. Its appearance is could be caused also by growth under high insolation. Undoubtedly, appearance of palisade parenchyma in the stems of stem-succulent plants is correlated with reduction of leaves and probably is consequence of this.

  20. Movement of Water from Old to Young Leaves in Three Species of Succulents

    Science.gov (United States)

    RABAS, A. R.; MARTIN, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    A hypothetical adaptive response of succulent plants to drought‐stress is the redistribution of water from old to young leaves. We examined the effects of possible movement of water from old to young leaves in three succulent species, Carpobrotus edulis (weak CAM‐inducible), Kalanchoe tubiflora (CAM) and Sedum spectabile (possibly a CAM‐cycler or CAM‐inducible). Old leaves were removed from plants, and photosynthesis, transpiration, f. wt : d. wt ratios, diurnal acid fluctuations, stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentrations of the remaining young leaves were measured during drought‐stress. Comparison was made with plants retaining old leaves. There was no evidence that water moved from old to young leaves during drought‐stress as previously hypothesized. Only in drought‐stressed plants of K. tubiflora, were photosynthetic and transpiration rates of young leaves greater on shoots with old leaves removed compared with attached. There was a trend in all species for greater fluctuations in acidity in young leaves on shoots that lacked older leaves. For two of the three species studied, the f. wt : d. wt ratios of young leaves were greater under drought‐stress, on shoots with old leaves removed than with them attached. Absence of old leaves may reduce competition for water with young leaves, which consequently have higher water content and greater photosynthetic rates. PMID:12907468

  1. Beyond aridification: multiple explanations for the elevated diversification of cacti in the New World Succulent Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Tania; Brown, Joseph W; Schlumpberger, Boris O; Eguiarte, Luis E; Magallón, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Succulent plants are widely distributed, reaching their highest diversity in arid and semi-arid regions. Their origin and diversification is thought to be associated with a global expansion of aridity. We test this hypothesis by investigating the tempo and pattern of Cactaceae diversification. Our results contribute to the understanding of the evolution of New World Succulent Biomes. We use the most taxonomically complete dataset currently available for Cactaceae. We estimate divergence times and utilize Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods that account for nonrandom taxonomic sampling, possible extinction scenarios and phylogenetic uncertainty to analyze diversification rates, and evolution of growth form and pollination syndrome. Cactaceae originated shortly after the Eocene-Oligocene global drop in CO2 , and radiation of its richest genera coincided with the expansion of aridity in North America during the late Miocene. A significant correlation between growth form and pollination syndrome was found, as well as a clear state dependence between diversification rate, and pollination and growth-form evolution. This study suggests a complex picture underlying the diversification of Cactaceae. It not only responded to the availability of new niches resulting from aridification, but also to the correlated evolution of novel growth forms and reproductive strategies. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Evolutionary history and leaf succulence as explanations for medicinal use in aloes and the global popularity of Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Olwen M; Buerki, Sven; Symonds, Matthew R E; Forest, Félix; van Wyk, Abraham E; Smith, Gideon F; Klopper, Ronell R; Bjorå, Charlotte S; Neale, Sophie; Demissew, Sebsebe; Simmonds, Monique S J; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-02-26

    Aloe vera supports a substantial global trade yet its wild origins, and explanations for its popularity over 500 related Aloe species in one of the world's largest succulent groups, have remained uncertain. We developed an explicit phylogenetic framework to explore links between the rich traditions of medicinal use and leaf succulence in aloes. The phylogenetic hypothesis clarifies the origins of Aloe vera to the Arabian Peninsula at the northernmost limits of the range for aloes. The genus Aloe originated in southern Africa ~16 million years ago and underwent two major radiations driven by different speciation processes, giving rise to the extraordinary diversity known today. Large, succulent leaves typical of medicinal aloes arose during the most recent diversification ~10 million years ago and are strongly correlated to the phylogeny and to the likelihood of a species being used for medicine. A significant, albeit weak, phylogenetic signal is evident in the medicinal uses of aloes, suggesting that the properties for which they are valued do not occur randomly across the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic investigation of plant use and leaf succulence among aloes has yielded new explanations for the extraordinary market dominance of Aloe vera. The industry preference for Aloe vera appears to be due to its proximity to important historic trade routes, and early introduction to trade and cultivation. Well-developed succulent leaf mesophyll tissue, an adaptive feature that likely contributed to the ecological success of the genus Aloe, is the main predictor for medicinal use among Aloe species, whereas evolutionary loss of succulence tends to be associated with losses of medicinal use. Phylogenetic analyses of plant use offer potential to understand patterns in the value of global plant diversity.

  3. Vegetation of the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, South Africa Part 2: Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga van der Merwe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion lies within the Succulent Karoo Hotspot that stretches along the western side of the Republic of South Africa and Namibia. This project, carried out to document the botanical diversity in the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, was part of a project identified as a priority during the SKEP (Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme initiative in this Hotspot. Botanical surveys were conducted in an area covering over three million hectares. Satellite images of the area and topocadastral, land type and geology maps were used to stratify the area into relatively homogeneous units. An analysis of the floristic data of 390 sample plots identified two major floristic units, i.e. the Fynbos Biome related vegetation and the Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation. A description of the vegetation related to the Succulent Karoo Biome is presented in this article. Seven associations, 16 subassociations and several mosaic vegetation units, consisting of more than one vegetation unit, were identified and mapped. Various threats to the vegetation in the region were identified during the survey and are briefly discussed.

  4. Field guide to Muddy Formation outcrops, Crook County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this research program are to (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline bamer reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. This report contains the data and analyses collected from outcrop exposures of the Muddy Formation, located in Crook County, Wyoming, 40 miles south of Bell Creek oil field. The outcrop data set contains permeability, porosity, petrographic, grain size and geologic data from 1-inch-diameter core plugs chilled from the outcrop face, as well as geological descriptions and sedimentological interpretations of the outcrop exposures. The outcrop data set provides information about facies characteristics and geometries and the spatial distribution of permeability and porosity on interwell scales. Appendices within this report include a micropaleontological analyses of selected outcrop samples, an annotated bibliography of papers on the Muddy Formation in the Powder River Basin, and over 950 permeability and porosity values measured from 1-inch-diameter core plugs drilled from the outcrop. All data contained in this resort are available in electronic format upon request. The core plugs drilled from the outcrop are available for measurement.

  5. The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance of salt marsh rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, Harry N

    1970-09-01

    The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance and ecology of salt marsh rodents is dependent upon an evaluation of the composition of the available sources and the physiological properties of their potential consumers. Studies of the osmotic properties of succulent halophytes from southern California coastal salt marshes are presented, together with experiments regarding the utilization of Common Pickleweed (Salicornia virginica L.) by indigenous populations of cricetid rodents (harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis limicola Von Bloecker, and meadow-mouse Microtus californicus stephensi Von Bloecker). These data are discussed in relation to other available information concerning the ecology of coastal salt marshes, particularly in western North America.Extruded sap of Common Pickleweed was found to have a mean total osmotic pressure (TOP) of 1,450 mOsm/liter, with an average chloride ion content of 876 mEq/liter (about 70% of the TOP). A related species, Salicornia subterminale, had a slightly lower TOP (1,300 mOsm/liter), of which about 29% was accounted for by chloride ion concentration. Sea Blight (Suaeda fruticosa) was the only species in which the TOP correlated with the distance from the tide level; sap TOP increased away from the lagoon's edge. In both Sea Blight and Common Pickle weed, TOP was not directly related to chloride content, indicating the importance of other osmotically active solutes.Harvest mice were placed on three experimental regimes: 1) millet seeds only, 2) pickleweed only, and 3) pickleweed and millet seed. Meadow mice were tested on the last regime only. Harvest mice survived best on a strict millet seed diet; when Salicornia was consumed to a detectable extent, the mice did not survive. Meadow mice, however, could survive using Salicornia as a dietary source in conjunction with seeds. Kidney electrolyte concentrating abilities indicated that harvest mice should be able to utilize pickleweed; this was not confirmed in my

  6. Digital Knowledge of Kenyan Succulent Flora and Priorities for Future Inventory and Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Wabuyele

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity inventory in Kenya has been ongoing for about a century and a half, coinciding with the arrival of naturalists from Europe, America, and elsewhere outside Africa. Since the first collections in the mid-to-late 1800s, there has been a steady increase of plant surveys, frequency of inventory, and discovery of new species that have considerably increased knowledge of faunal and floristic elements. However, as in all other countries, such historical biological collection activities are more often than not, ad hoc, resulting in gaps in knowledge of species and their habitats. While Kenya is relatively rich botanically, with a succulent flora of about 428 taxa, it is apparent that the list is understated owing to, among other factors, difficulty of preparing herbarium material and restricted access to some sites. This study investigated completeness of geographic knowledge of succulent plants in Kenya, with the aim of establishing species distribution patterns and identifying gaps that will guide and justify priority setting for future work on the group. Species data were filtered from the general BRAHMS database at the East African Herbarium and cleaned via an iterative series of inspections and visualizations designed to detect and document inconsistencies in taxonomic concepts, geographic coordinates, and dates of collection. Eight grid squares fulfilled criteria for completeness of inventory: one in the city of Mombasa, one in the Kulal–Nyiro complex, one in Garissa, one in Baringo, and four grid squares in the Nairobi–Nakuru–Laikipia area. Poorly-known areas, mostly in the west, north, and north-eastern regions of the country, were extremely isolated from well-known sites, both geographically and environmentally. These localities should be prioritised for future inventory as they are likely to yield species new to science, species new to the national flora, and/or contribute new knowledge on habitats. To avoid inconsistencies

  7. Data from selected Almond Formation outcrops -- Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.R.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-12-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline barrier reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana, that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. A report similar to this one presents the Muddy Formation outcrop data and analyses performed in the course of this study (Rawn-Schatzinger, 1993). Two outcrop localities, RG and RH, previously described by Roehler (1988) provided good exposures of the Upper Almond shoreline barrier facies and were studied during 1990--1991. Core from core well No. 2 drilled approximately 0.3 miles downdip of outcrop RG was obtained for study. The results of the core study will be reported in a separate volume. Outcrops RH and RG, located about 2 miles apart were selected for detailed description and drilling of core plugs. One 257-ft-thick section was measured at outcrop RG, and three sections {approximately}145 ft thick located 490 and 655 feet apart were measured at the outcrop RH. Cross-sections of these described profiles were constructed to determine lateral facies continuity and changes. This report contains the data and analyses from the studied outcrops.

  8. Anatomy of myxospermic diaspores of selected species in the Succulent Karoo, Namaqualand, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Makouate

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions encountered in arid ecosystems differ vastly from those in more mesic ecosystems. Dispersal strategies in arid environments reflect these differences and many mechanisms have evolved that restrict or hinder dispersal. Myxospermy is a trait developed by plant species from arid regions to restrict diaspore dispersal by means of an anchorage mechanism. Several of the abundant plant species in Namaqualand, within the arid Succulent Karoo Biome, display myxospermy. Diaspores of these species produce copious amounts of mucilage when they are moistened and are anchored to the soil once the mucilage dries out again. This study investigated the origin of the mucilaginous layer of 12 species anatomically, using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The mucilage production of the species investigated could best be grouped into three types: 1, epidermal and sub-epidermal cells of seeds and achenes; 2, specialized tissue in wings or the pappus of achenes; and 3, mucilage excreting hairs. Previous systems for classifying the different types of mucilage production did not recognize the mucilaginous nature of wings or a pappus. A short note on the composition of the mucilage is included.

  9. Maternal habitat affects germination requirements of Anabasis setifera, a succulent shrub of the Arabian deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali El-Keblawy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of maternal habitat on light and temperature requirements during germination were assessed for the succulent desert shrub Anabasis setifera. Seeds were collected from the Mediterranean habitats of Egypt and the hyper-arid subtropical habitats of the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Seeds from the two populations were germinated in three temperature treatments in both a light/dark regime and continuous darkness. Seeds from the Egyptian population germinated significantly greater and faster than those of UAE. Seeds stored for four months at room temperatures have little dormancy and germinate at wide range of temperatures and light conditions, but seeds stored four months in the natural habitat lost their ability to germinate and rotted 10 days after incubation. The germination response to temperature depended on the habitat type. Seeds of the Egyptian population attained a significantly greater germination at lower temperatures, compared with seeds from the UAE population, but there was no difference in germination between the two populations at higher temperatures. Germination of A. setifera was very fast; most seeds germinated within four days. These results reflect the adaptive strategy of germination in both populations, and may help explain the wide distribution of this species in different climatic regions.

  10. COMPARATIVE HAEMOSTATIC EFFICACY OF SUCCULENT LEAF EXTRACTS AND LATEX OF SOME WOUND HEALING PLANTS ON FRESH WOUND OF RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicinal report of haemostatic activity of six medicinal plants was validated by a study of the effect of succulent leaf extract of plant parts on the punch wound of rabbit for the first time. It was found that the succulent leave extracts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke, Barleria lupulina Lindl., Blumea lacera Dc., Croton bonplandianum Baill, Glinus lotoides Lin. and Mikania scandens (L Willd. can induce haemostasis in fresh wounds as compared to automatic haemostasis (120.00 ±2.91 seconds. The fresh leave extract of Mikania scandens took 25.00 ±1.87 seconds for haemostatic activity. Artemisia nilagirica (35.00 ± 1.50 seconds, Barleria lupulina (30.00 ±2.34 seconds, Blumea lacera (38.00 ±1.87 seconds, Glinus lotoides (35.00 ±2.29 seconds are having better action than Croton bonplandianum (leaf extract, which took 40.00 ±2.69 seconds time for haemostasis. The latex collected from the wounded small branches of living Croton bonplandianum plant is having highest efficacy in causing haemostasis (10.00 ±1.22 seconds, better than the positive control of Tincture Ferric per Chloride (13.00 ±2.54 seconds. The dermal toxicity study reveals that the application of the fresh plant extract on the skin of rat failed to produce any detrimental effect. The plant extracts collected from succulent plant leaves and particularly the latex collected from the living Croton bonplandianum Baill. plant can be used as haemostatic agents.

  11. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  12. The relationship of seismic velocity structure and surface fracture characteristics of basalt outcrops to rippability estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, S.E.; Dougherty, M.E.; Pelton, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Seismic velocity has been shown in previous engineering studies to be related to the fracture characteristics and rippability of rock outcrops. However, common methods of measuring seismic velocity in outcrops do not take into account the many possible travel paths for wave propagation and the fact that velocity zones may exist within an outcrop. Presented here are the results of using raytracing inversion of first-arrival travel-time data to map P-velocity structure in basalt outcrops, and also the investigation of the relationship of the mapped velocities to observed surface fractures and hand-sample P-velocities. It is shown that basalt outcrops commonly consist of an irregular near-surface low-velocity zone underlain by higher velocity material; that velocity gradients can exist in outcrops; that hand-sample velocity measurements are typically higher than outcrop-scale measurements; and that the characteristics of surface fractures are empirically related to near-surface P-velocity. All of these findings are relevant to the estimated rippability of rock in geotechnical engineering. The data for this study are derived from eleven sites on basalt outcrops of the Troodos Ophiolite in Cyprus. The basalt types include pillow basalts, massive flows, and a pillow breccia. A commonly available raytracing inversion program (RAYINVR) was used to produce a velocity profile of each outcrop. Different velocity zones were detailed by inverting observed travel times to produce a model of outcrop velocity structure which produces rippability profiles for each outcrop. 16 refs., 9 figs

  13. Turbidite Systems in Brazil: From Outcrops to Deep Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ´Avila, R. S. F.; Arienti, L. M.; Vesely, F. F.; Santos, S. F.; Voelcker, H. E.

    2012-04-01

    Reliable depositional models depend on careful observation of rocks, to allow the correct description and interpretation of facies and facies associations and their formative processes. They are of paramount importance to characterize deep water depositional systems, which still are the most important siliciclastic reservoirs for the oil industry. Turbidite sandstone reservoirs are responsible for almost 80% of petroleum produced from Brazilian Basins. A comprehensive characterization of these systems, depicting the main differences in terms of their geometries and facies will be presented. In Brazilian basins most of the turbidites were originated from extremely catastrophic flows, essentially linked to fluvio-deltaic influx that generates very dense hyperpycnal flows. Based on outcrop and subsurface data, two main zones with characteristic geometries and facies associations are commonly identified in turbidite systems: the transference zone and the depositional zone. Erosion and bypass dominate in the transference zone, which frequently occur as submarine canyons and channels. Turbidite channels can contain residual conglomeratic facies and coarser sandstone facies. The depositional area comprises lobes that constitute a major exploratory target because of their greater lateral continuity and the concentration of clean reservoirs. Turbidite lobes can be tabular or lenticular deposits associated with channelized bodies. Taking into account outcrop and subsurface data we can distinguish five main turbidite systems: foredeep turbidite systems, prodelta turbidite systems, mixed turbidite systems, meandering channels turbidite systems and channel-levee turbidite systems. In the Brazilian margin, deep water turbidites and other gravity-flow deposits are commonly associated with bottom current deposits, largely in Tertiary strata. Such bottom current deposits, often called contourites, are also important petroleum reservoirs, commonly mistaken as turbidites. Integration

  14. The use of outcrop data in fault prediction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Oeystein

    1997-12-31

    This thesis begins by describing deformation structures formed by gravitational sliding in partially lithified sediments by studying the spatial variation in frequency of deformation structures, as well as their geometries and kinematics, the sequential development of an ancient slide is outlined. This study brings to light a complex deformation history which was associated with block gliding, involving folding, listric faulting, small-scale boudinage and clastic dyke injection. The collapse deformation which is documented in the basal part of a gliding sheet is described for the first time. Further, rift-related normal faults formed in a continental sequence of normal beds are described and there is a focus on the scaling behaviour of faults in variably cemented sandstones. It is shown that the displacement population coefficients of faults are influenced by the local lithology and hence scaling of faults is not uniform on all scales and is variable in different parts of a rock volume. The scaling behaviour of small faults is linked to mechanical heterogeneities in the rock and to the deformation style. It is shown that small faults occur in an aureole around larger faults. Strain and scaling of the small faults were measured in different structural positions relative to the major faults. The local strain field is found to be variable and can be correlated with drag folding along the master faults. A modeling approach is presented for prediction of small faults in a hydrocarbon reservoir. By modeling an outcrop bedding surface on a seismic workstation, outcrop data could be compared with seismic data. Further, well data were used to test the relationships inferred from the analogue outcrops. The study shows that seismic ductile strain can be correlated with the distribution of small faults. Moreover, the use of horizontal structural well data is shown to calibrate the structural interpretation of faulted seismic horizons. 133 refs., 64 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Outcrop Gamma-ray Analysis of the Cretaceous mesaverde Group: Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, Jennie; Dunbar, Robyn Wright

    2001-04-25

    This report presents the results of an outcrop gamma-ray survey of six selected measured sections included in the original report. The primary objective of this second study is to provide a baseline to correlate from the outcrop and reservoir model into Mesaverde strata in the San Juan Basin subsurface. Outcrop logs were generated using a GAD-6 gamma-ray spectrometer that simultaneously recorded total counts, potassium, uranium, and thorium data.

  16. Isotopic niche variation in a higher trophic level ectotherm: highlighting the role of succulent plants in desert food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis of animal tissues allows description of isotopic niches, whose axes in an n-dimensional space are the isotopic ratios, compared to a standard, of different isotope systems (e.g. δ(13C, δ(15N. Isotopic niches are informative about where an animal, population or species lives and about what it consumes. Here we describe inter- and intrapopulation isotopic niche (bidimensional δ(13C-δ(15N space of the Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra, an arthropodivorous small lizard, in ten localities of Baja California Sur (Mexico. These localities range from extreme arid to subtropical conditions. Between 13 and 20 individuals were sampled at each locality and 1 cm of tail-tip was collected for isotope analysis. As expected, interpopulation niche width variation was much larger than intrapopulation one. Besides, isotopic variation was not related to age, sex or individual size of lizards. This suggests geographic variation of the isotopic niche was related to changes in the basal resources that fuel the trophic web at each locality. The position of Bayesian isotope ellipses in the δ-space indicated that whiptails in more arid localities were enriched in 13C, suggesting most of the carbon they ingested came from CAM succulent plants (cacti, agaves and in minor degree in C4 grasses. Contrarily, whiptails in subtropical areas were depleted in 13C, as they received more carbon from C3 scrubs and trees. Localities closer to sea-level tended to be enriched in 15N, but a clear influence of marine subsidies was detected only at individual level. The study contributes to identify the origin and pathways through which energy flows across the trophic webs of North American deserts.

  17. Humidity-dependent wound sealing in succulent leaves of Delosperma cooperi - An adaptation to seasonal drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Olga; Schlechtendahl, Mark; Borm, Florian; Kampowski, Tim; Speck, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    During evolution, plants evolved various reactions to wounding. Fast wound sealing and subsequent healing represent a selective advantage of particular importance for plants growing in arid habitats. An effective self-sealing function by internal deformation has been found in the succulent leaves of Delosperma cooperi. After a transversal incision, the entire leaf bends until the wound is closed. Our results indicate that the underlying sealing principle is a combination of hydraulic shrinking and swelling as the main driving forces and growth-induced mechanical pre-stresses in the tissues. Hydraulic effects were measured in terms of the relative bending angle over 55 minutes under various humidity conditions. The higher the relative air humidity, the lower the bending angle. Negative bending angles were found when a droplet of liquid water was applied to the wound. The statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences of the single main effects such as "humidity conditions in the wound region" and "time after wounding" and their interaction effect. The centripetal arrangement of five tissue layers with various thicknesses and significantly different mechanical properties might play an additional role with regard to mechanically driven effects. Injury disturbs the mechanical equilibrium, with pre-stresses leading to internal deformation until a new equilibrium is reached. In the context of self-sealing by internal deformation, the highly flexible wide-band tracheids, which form a net of vascular bundles, are regarded as paedomorphic tracheids, which are specialised to prevent cell collapse under drought stress and allow for building growth-induced mechanical pre-stresses.

  18. Isotopic Niche Variation in a Higher Trophic Level Ectotherm: Highlighting the Role of Succulent Plants in Desert Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes, Miguel; Blazquez, Ma Carmen; Fedriani, Jose Maria; Granados, Arsenio; Soriano, Laura; Delgado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of animal tissues allows description of isotopic niches, whose axes in an n-dimensional space are the isotopic ratios, compared to a standard, of different isotope systems (e.g. δ13C, δ15N). Isotopic niches are informative about where an animal, population or species lives and about what it consumes. Here we describe inter- and intrapopulation isotopic niche (bidimensional δ13C-δ15N space) of the Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), an arthropodivorous small lizard, in ten localities of Baja California Sur (Mexico). These localities range from extreme arid to subtropical conditions. Between 13 and 20 individuals were sampled at each locality and 1 cm of tail-tip was collected for isotope analysis. As expected, interpopulation niche width variation was much larger than intrapopulation one. Besides, isotopic variation was not related to age, sex or individual size of lizards. This suggests geographic variation of the isotopic niche was related to changes in the basal resources that fuel the trophic web at each locality. The position of Bayesian isotope ellipses in the δ-space indicated that whiptails in more arid localities were enriched in 13C, suggesting most of the carbon they ingested came from CAM succulent plants (cacti, agaves) and in minor degree in C4 grasses. Contrarily, whiptails in subtropical areas were depleted in 13C, as they received more carbon from C3 scrubs and trees. Localities closer to sea-level tended to be enriched in 15N, but a clear influence of marine subsidies was detected only at individual level. The study contributes to identify the origin and pathways through which energy flows across the trophic webs of North American deserts. PMID:25973609

  19. Constructing Artificial Rock Outcrops as Tools for Fostering Earth and Environmental Science Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, I. M.; Hall, F.; Buxton, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth and Environmental Science Education Group at the University of New Orleans has created an innovative visualization teaching tool. Through funding made available by the National Science Foundation a 12'x10'x5' artificial rock outcrop was fabricated at the University of New Orleans. An accompanying curriculum, which includes a series of artificial rock outcrop labs, was also created for the outcrop. The labs incorporated fundamental concepts from the geosciences and the field of science education. The overarching philosophy behind the unity of the content knowledge and the pedagogy was to develop a more inclusive and deliberate teaching approach that utilized strategies known to enhance student learning in the sciences. The artificial outcrop lab series emphasized the following geoscience topics: relative dating, rock movement, and depositional environments. The series also integrated pedagogical ideas such as inquiry-based learning, conceptual mapping, constructivist teaching, pattern recognition, and contextualized knowledge development. Each component of the curriculum was purposefully designed to address what the body of research in science education reveals as critical to science teaching and learning. After developing the artificial rock outcrop curriculum a pilot study was done with 40 pre-service elementary education undergraduates. In the pilot study students completed the following assessments: three outcrop labs, journal reflections for each lab, pre/post attitude surveys, group video-recordings, and preconception and final interviews. Data from these assessments were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The following conclusions were revealed from the data: student's attitudes towards learning earth science increased after working with the artificial rock outcrop, students conceptual understanding of the concepts were clearer after working with the outcrop, students were able to answer multifaceted, higher order questions

  20. Fluorine and Lithium at the Kimberley Outcrop, Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, O.; Vaniman, D. T.; Le Deit, L.; Clegg, S. M.; Lanza, N. L.; Lasue, J.; Bish, D. L.; Mangold, N.; Wiens, R. C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; hide

    2015-01-01

    ChemCam is an active remote sensing instrument which has operated successfully on MSL since landing in August, 2012. Its laser pulses remove dust and to profile through weathering coatings of rocks up to 7 m away. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) produces emission spectra of materials ablated from the samples in electronically excited states. As the plasma cools, elements can recombine and molecular emission lines are observed. Recent experiments have shown that some of these molecular emissions can be much brighter than the associated atomic lines, especially when halo-gens and rare earth elements are present. We observed these molecular emissions in some of the ChemCam spectra and report the first detection of chlorine and fluorine with ChemCam. It is also the first time ever that fluorine has been detected on the surface of Mars. Among all the F-bearing observations, one third are observed in the Kimberley outcrop. We will dis-cuss the potential mineralogies related to these observations as well as the related elemental correlations and propose interpretations.

  1. Impacts on coralligenous outcrop biodiversity of a dramatic coastal storm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Teixidó

    Full Text Available Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008 and after the impact (2009-2010 at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRACT OF SUCCULENT LEAVES OF LIVING PLANT WITH METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BERLERIA LUPULINA LINDL. AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROBES BY DISC DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berleria lupulina Lindl. was evaluated for its reported antimicrobial activity in a novel way. The extract of succulent leaves collected from living plant was studied along with conventional methanolic and watery extracts made from the dry leaves of the plant. The extracts were tested on three pathogenic bacteria and the antimicrobial activity was tested both by conventional single disc diffusion method and a novel Spectrophotometric method. In disc diffusion study, it was found that the methanolic extract (100 mg/ml. and 200 mg/ ml. diluted in 70% of methanol and extract of succulent leaves can induce 12 mm, 13 mm and 14 mm diameter zone of inhibition comparable with 24 mm of Ceftriaxone against Escherichia coli. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus were 13 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 25 mm and against Salmonella enteritides were 12 mm, 14 mm, 15 mm and 28 mm correspondingly. The watery extract made from the dry plant and the methanolic extract diluted in water failed to induce any inhibition in growth of the organisms. In spectrophotometric study, the methanolic extract showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. or above against Salmonella enteritides and Staphylococcus aureus. But against Escherichia coli, effective control was found in 20 mg/ml concentration. The fresh extract of the plant showed antimicrobial efficacy in the concentration of 16.5%. The anti microbial efficacy above that concentration cannot be detected in the available spectrophotometrical method for presence of color material in that fresh extract.

  3. Succulent species differ substantially in their tolerance and phytoextraction potential when grown in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjun; Sale, Peter W G; Clark, Gary J; Liu, Wuxing; Doronila, Augustine I; Kolev, Spas D; Tang, Caixian

    2015-12-01

    Plants for the phytoextraction of heavy metals should have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of such metals and exhibit multiple tolerance traits to cope with adverse conditions such as coexistence of multiple heavy metals, high salinity, and drought which are the characteristics of many contaminated soils. This study compared 14 succulent species for their phytoextraction potential of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. There were species variations in metal tolerance and accumulation. Among the 14 succulent species, an Australian native halophyte Carpobrotus rossii exhibited the highest relative growth rate (20.6-26.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)) and highest tolerance index (78-93%), whilst Sedum "Autumn Joy" had the lowest relative growth rate (8.3-13.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)), and Crassula multicava showed the lowest tolerance indices (phytoextraction of these heavy metals than other species. These findings suggest that Carpobrotus rossii is a promising candidate for phytoextraction of multiple heavy metals, and the aquatic or semiterrestrial Crassula helmsii is suitable for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from polluted waters or wetlands.

  4. Humus soil as a critical driver of flora conversion on karst rock outcrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiai; Shen, Youxin; He, Beibei; Zhao, Zhimeng

    2017-10-03

    Rock outcrop is an important habitat supporting plant communities in karst landscape. However, information on the restoration of higher biotic populations on outcrops is limited. Here, we investigated the diversity, biomass changes of higher vascular plants (VP) and humus soil (HS) on karst outcrops during a restoration process. We surveyed VP on rock outcrops and measured HS reserved by various rock microhabitats in a rock desertification ecosystem (RDE), an anthropogenic forest ecosystem (AFE), and a secondary forest ecosystem (SFE) in Shilin County, southwest China. HS metrics (e.g. quantity and nutrients content) and VP metrics (e.g. richness, diversity and biomass) were higher at AFE than at RDE, but lower than at SFE, suggesting that the restoration of soil subsystem vegetation increased HS properties and favored the succession of VP on rock outcrops. There was significantly positive correlation between VP metrics and HS amount, indicating that the succession of VP was strongly affected by availability and heterogeneity of HS in various rock microhabitats. Thus, floral succession of rock subsystem was slow owing to the limited resources on outcrops, although the vegetation was restored in soil subsystem.

  5. Integration of 3D photogrammetric outcrop models in the reservoir modelling workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Remy; Joseph, Philippe; Lerat, Olivier; Schmitz, Julien; Doligez, Brigitte; Jardin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    3D technologies are now widely used in geosciences to reconstruct outcrops in 3D. The technology used for the 3D reconstruction is usually based on Lidar, which provides very precise models. Such datasets offer the possibility to build well-constrained outcrop analogue models for reservoir study purposes. The photogrammetry is an alternate methodology which principles are based in determining the geometric properties of an object from photographic pictures taken from different angles. Outcrop data acquisition is easy, and this methodology allows constructing 3D outcrop models with many advantages such as: - light and fast acquisition, - moderate processing time (depending on the size of the area of interest), - integration of field data and 3D outcrops into the reservoir modelling tools. Whatever the method, the advantages of digital outcrop model are numerous as already highlighted by Hodgetts (2013), McCaffrey et al. (2005) and Pringle et al. (2006): collection of data from otherwise inaccessible areas, access to different angles of view, increase of the possible measurements, attributes analysis, fast rate of data collection, and of course training and communication. This paper proposes a workflow where 3D geocellular models are built by integrating all sources of information from outcrops (surface picking, sedimentological sections, structural and sedimentary dips…). The 3D geomodels that are reconstructed can be used at the reservoir scale, in order to compare the outcrop information with subsurface models: the detailed facies models of the outcrops are transferred into petrophysical and acoustic models, which are used to test different scenarios of seismic and fluid flow modelling. The detailed 3D models are also used to test new techniques of static reservoir modelling, based either on geostatistical approaches or on deterministic (process-based) simulation techniques. A modelling workflow has been designed to model reservoir geometries and properties from

  6. Forsmark Bedrock mapping. Stage 1 (2002) - Outcrop data including fracture data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.B.; Bergman, T.; Andersson, J.; Hermansson, T.; Wahlgren, C.H.; Albrecht, L.; Mikko, H.

    2003-02-01

    Infra-red aerial photographs over the study area, taken at a height of 2700 m, were interpreted in order to locate either the position of outcrops where the bedrock is exposed at the Earth's surface or sites where the bedrock lies beneath a thin (< 50 cm) cover of Quaternary deposits. These data were critical for the planning and execution of the field activities. It was aimed to map all the outcrops in the mainland part of the study area during stage 1 of the project. These data will be integrated with both bedrock analytical data and the interpretations obtained from the study of airborne geophysical data in order to produce a bedrock map over the study area. In order to gain some information on the regional variation in the frequency and orientation of fractures over the candidate area, a documentation of the position and strike and dip of fractures longer than 100 cm was carried out at 44 outcrops. This work will also help in the selection of outcrops where detailed fracture analysis will be carried out during a later stage of the site investigation programme. Field work associated with stage 1 of the project initiated in the candidate area during June 2002. Field activities then continued in the coastal area to the northeast, in the area north of 6700000 N to the northwest of the candidate area and in the inland area to the southwest. Field activities ceased during September 2002. Both descriptive and numerical data from the 1054 observation points have been included in an outcrop database. Primarily on account of the complexity of the outcrops visited and, as a consequence, the longer time required for the field activities, a large part of the area south of road 76 was not mapped during 2002

  7. Forsmark Bedrock mapping. Stage 1 (2002) - Outcrop data including fracture data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.B.; Bergman, T.; Andersson, J.; Hermansson, T.; Wahlgren, C.H.; Albrecht, L.; Mikko, H. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    Infra-red aerial photographs over the study area, taken at a height of 2700 m, were interpreted in order to locate either the position of outcrops where the bedrock is exposed at the Earth's surface or sites where the bedrock lies beneath a thin (< 50 cm) cover of Quaternary deposits. These data were critical for the planning and execution of the field activities. It was aimed to map all the outcrops in the mainland part of the study area during stage 1 of the project. These data will be integrated with both bedrock analytical data and the interpretations obtained from the study of airborne geophysical data in order to produce a bedrock map over the study area. In order to gain some information on the regional variation in the frequency and orientation of fractures over the candidate area, a documentation of the position and strike and dip of fractures longer than 100 cm was carried out at 44 outcrops. This work will also help in the selection of outcrops where detailed fracture analysis will be carried out during a later stage of the site investigation programme. Field work associated with stage 1 of the project initiated in the candidate area during June 2002. Field activities then continued in the coastal area to the northeast, in the area north of 6700000 N to the northwest of the candidate area and in the inland area to the southwest. Field activities ceased during September 2002. Both descriptive and numerical data from the 1054 observation points have been included in an outcrop database. Primarily on account of the complexity of the outcrops visited and, as a consequence, the longer time required for the field activities, a large part of the area south of road 76 was not mapped during 2002.

  8. Detailed petrographic-structural study of an outcrop of Crystalline Basement of Montevideo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascale, A.; Oyhantçabal, P.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis of detailed outcrop Punta Virgilo, located on the S E coast of the department of Montevideo are presented. The investigated outcrop includes gneisses, amphibolite s and several generations of pegmatite and aplite dikes of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement, plus a set of dikes emplaced lamprófido exhumed once the area. Petrographic and microstructural studies of metamorphic units allowed to determine the conditions of metamorphism and deformation temperature between 520-720 ° C and pressure between 2 and 6 kbar (depth of 10 to 23 km)

  9. 3D documentation of outcrop by laser scanner – Filtration of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kisztner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with separation of vegetation from 3D data acquired by Terrestrial Laser Scanning for detecting more complex geological structures. Separation of vegetation is not an easy task. In many cases, the outcrop is not clear and the vegetation outgrows the outcrop. Therefore the separation of vegetation from 3D data is a task which requires adjustment of algorithms from image processing and remote sensing. By using cluster analysis and analysis of spectral behaviour we can detect vegetation from the rest of the scene and erase these points from the scene for detection of geological structures.

  10. An integrated workflow for stress and flow modelling using outcrop-derived discrete fracture networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisdom, Kevin; Nick, Hamid; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    stresssensitive fracture permeability and matrix flow to determine the full permeability tensor. The applicability of this workflow is illustrated using an outcropping carbonate pavement in the Potiguar basin in Brazil, from which 1082 fractures are digitised. The permeability tensor for a range of matrix...

  11. Using outcrop data for geological well test modelling in fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aljuboori, F.; Corbett, P.; Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Geiger, S.

    2015-01-01

    Outcrop fracture data sets can now be acquired with ever more accuracy using drone technology augmented by field observations. These models can be used to form realistic, deterministic models of fractured reservoirs. Fractured well test models are traditionally seen to be finite or infinite

  12. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    -particle connections and less altered particle shapes. The non-carbonate mineralogy of outcrop chalks is dominated by quartz, occasionally opal-CT and clinoptilolite, and the clay mineral smectite. In offshore chalks quartz still dominates, opal-CT has recrystallized into submicron-size quartz crystals and smectite...

  13. Two distinctive new species of Commicarpus (Nyctaginaceae) from gypsum outcrops in eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; Weber, Odile

    2016-01-01

    During field trips in 2013 and 2014, two distinctive plants belonging to the genus Commicarpus were collected in the Lele Hills, Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia, on outcrops of sedimentary rock belonging to the Gorrahei Formation with high contents of gypsum. The plants are here described as two new...

  14. Applications of outcrop gamma-ray logging to field development and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, D.W.; Slatt, R.M.; Gillespie, R.H.; D'Agostino, A.E.; Scheihing, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Gamma-ray logs of outcrops have been generated using two techniques. These techniques demonstrate the applicability of outcrop logging to better understand reservoir facies architecture and exploration type problems. The first logging technique employs the use of a standard logging truck and gamma-ray sonde. The truck is positioned near the top of the cliff face and the sonde is lowered to the bottom of the cliff. Gamma-ray counts are recorded as the sonde is raised at a constant rate. The second logging technique employs the use of a commercially available, hand-held, gamma-ray scintillometer. The tool measures total radiation at the outcrop. Equally-spaced measurements are made along the section and are displayed as a function of depth below a reference point. In this paper examples of gamma-ray logging experiments conducted on turbidities of the Jackfork Group (Pennsylvanian) in central and southern Arkansas are discussed, as are application of outcrop gamma-ray logging in the Long Beach Unit of Wilmington Oil Field, California, and Point Mugu (Santa Barbara Channel), California

  15. Outcropping analogs and multiscale fracture patterns in the Jandaíra formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertotti, G.; Bezerra, F.H.; Bisdom, K.; Cazarin, C.; Reijmer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Outcropping analogs can provide key information on the 3D organization of fracture networks affecting carbonate reservoirs. Such information, however, needs to be integrated in a consistent work flow which includes i) 3D geometric model of the reservoir architecture, ii) mechanic modeling to

  16. An Outcrop-based Detailed Geological Model to Test Automated Interpretation of Seismic Inversion Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, R.; Sharma, S.; Luthi, S.M.; Gisolf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, Tetyukhina et al. (2014) developed a geological and petrophysical model based on the Book Cliffs outcrops that contained eight lithotypes. For reservoir modelling purposes, this model is judged to be too coarse because in the same lithotype it contains reservoir and non-reservoir

  17. Rock outcrops reduce temperature-induced stress for tropical conifer by decoupling regional climate in the semiarid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locosselli, Giuliano Maselli; Cardim, Ricardo Henrique; Ceccantini, Gregório

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to understand the effect of rock outcrops on the growth of Podocarpus lambertii within a microrefuge. Our hypothesis holds that the growth and survival of this species depend on the regional climate decoupling provided by rock outcrops. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the microclimate of (1) surrounding vegetation, (2) rock outcrop corridors, and (3) adjacencies. We assessed population structure by collecting data of specimen stem diameter and height. We also assessed differences between vegetation associated or not with outcrops using satellite imaging. For dendrochronological analyses, we sampled 42 individuals. Tree rings of 31 individuals were dated, and climate-growth relationships were tested. Rock outcrops produce a favorable microclimate by reducing average temperature by 4.9 °C and increasing average air humidity by 12 %. They also reduce the variability of atmospheric temperature by 42 % and air humidity by 20 % supporting a vegetation with higher leaf area index. Within this vegetation, specimen height was strongly constrained by the outcrop height. Although temperature and precipitation modulate this species growth, temperature-induced stress is the key limiting growth factor for this population of P. lambertii. We conclude that this species growth and survival depend on the presence of rock outcrops. These topography elements decouple regional climate in a favorable way for this species growth. However, these benefits are restricted to the areas sheltered by rock outcrops. Although this microrefuge supported P. lambertii growth so far, it is unclear whether this protection would be sufficient to withstand the stress of future climate changes.

  18. How Students and Field Geologists Reason in Integrating Spatial Observations from Outcrops to Visualize a 3-D Geological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Agrawal, Shruti; Liben, Lynn S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologists and undergraduate students observed eight artificial "rock outcrops" in a realistically scaled field area, and then tried to envision a geological structure that might plausibly be formed by the layered rocks in the set of outcrops. Students were videotaped as they selected which of fourteen 3-D models they thought best…

  19. A geostatistical model of facies-architecture and internal heterogeneity of Rotliegend-reservoirs developed from outcrop-analogues. Outcrop-analogue study Cutler Group (Utah/USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmen, A.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this DGMK study was the collection of data that document the distribution of facies units within mixed fluvial/aeolian deposits. The Cutler Group of southeastern Utah was chosen as an outcrop analog since it contains all major lithofacies common within such deposits (aeolian dunes and interdunes, fluvial channel-films as well as lacustrine and Sabkha deposits). Because of the outstanding outcrop quality in this region, numerous detailed datasets could be collected, which allowed the visualization of size, distribution, and sedimentological inventory of the different facies in various ''paleogeographical'' maps and diagrams. A genetic model, which explains the presence of correlative horizons and cyclic patterns of deposition, could be developed. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung dieses DGMK-Forschungsvorhabens war es, quantitative Daten zur Verteilung fazieller Einheiten innerhalb eines gemischt fluviatil/aeolischen Ablagerungsraums zu gewinnen. Die Cutler Group im Suedosten des amerikanischen Bundesstaates Utah wurde als Aufschlussanalog gewaehlt, in welchem die typischen Ablagerungen eines solchen Deposystems vorhanden sind (aeolische Duenen und -Interduenen, fluviatile Rinnenfuellungen, sowie lakustrine und Sabkha-Ablagerungen). Aufgrund der hervorragenden Aufschlusssituation konnten detaillierte Datensaetze gewonnen werden, welche die Darstellung von Groesse, bevorzugter Ausrichtung und Sedimentologie potentieller Heterogenitaetselemente entweder direkt als ''paleogeographische'' Karten, oder in statistischer Form ermoeglichten. Ein genetisches Modell erklaert die Zyklizitaet der Ablagerungen und die Anwesenheit von weitraeumig korrelierbaren Horizonten. (orig.)

  20. Pluvial lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States: a view from the outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Adams, Kenneth D.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bacon, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Paleo-lakes in the western United States provide geomorphic and hydrologic records of climate and drainage-basin change at multiple time scales extending back to the Miocene. Recent reviews and studies of paleo-lake records have focused on interpretations of proxies in lake sediment cores from the northern and central parts of the Great Basin. In this review, emphasis is placed on equally important studies of lake history during the past ∼30 years that were derived from outcrop exposures and geomorphology, in some cases combined with cores. Outcrop and core records have different strengths and weaknesses that must be recognized and exploited in the interpretation of paleohydrology and paleoclimate. Outcrops and landforms can yield direct evidence of lake level, facies changes that record details of lake-level fluctuations, and geologic events such as catastrophic floods, drainage-basin changes, and isostatic rebound. Cores can potentially yield continuous records when sampled in stable parts of lake basins and can provide proxies for changes in lake level, water temperature and chemistry, and ecological conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, proxies such as stable isotopes may be influenced by several competing factors the relative effects of which may be difficult to assess, and interpretations may be confounded by geologic events within the drainage basin that were unrecorded or not recognized in a core. The best evidence for documenting absolute lake-level changes lies within the shore, nearshore, and deltaic sediments that were deposited across piedmonts and at the mouths of streams as lake level rose and fell. We review the different shorezone environments and resulting deposits used in such reconstructions and discuss potential estimation errors. Lake-level studies based on deposits and landforms have provided paleohydrologic records ranging from general changes during the past million years to centennial-scale details of fluctuations during the

  1. Outcrop Analysis of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group: Jicarilla Apache Reservation, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgley, Jennie; Dunbar, Robin Wright

    2001-04-24

    Field work for this project was conducted during July and April 1998, at which time fourteen measured sections were described and correlated on or adjacent to Jicarilla Apache Reservation lands. A fifteenth section, described east of the main field area, is included in this report, although its distant location precluded use in the correlations and cross sections presented herein. Ground-based photo mosaics were shot for much of the exposed Mesaverde outcrop belt and were used to assist in correlation. Outcrop gamma-ray surveys at six of the fifteen measured sections using a GAD-6 scintillometer was conducted. The raw gamma-ray data are included in this report, however, analysis of those data is part of the ongoing Phase Two of this project.

  2. Migrated hydrocarbons in outcrop samples: revised petroleum exploration directions in the Tarim Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Maowen; Snowdon, Lloyd [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Xiao, Zhongyao [CNPC Tarim Petroleum Exploration Bureau, Kuerle, Xinjiang (China); Lin, Renzi [Petroleum Univ., Changping, Beijing (China); Wang, Peirong; Hou, Dujie [Jianghan Petroleum Univ., Hubei (China); Zhang, Linye [SINOPEC Shengli Petroleum Bureau, Dongying, Shandong (China); Zhang, Shuichang; Liang, Digang [Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

    2000-07-01

    The application of age-specific biomarker distributions established from mature exploration areas of the Tarim Basin, northwestern China, indicates that most Carboniferous-Permian outcrop samples in the eastern segment of the Southwest Depression, previously believed to have significant petroleum source potential, in fact contain migrated hydrocarbons derived from Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. New geochemical results have led to a major revision of petroleum exploration directions in this area. (Author)

  3. Searching pristine source of two gabbric plutons outcroping in Central Sierras Pampeanas Range, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daziano, C.; Ayala, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the study of two gabbric plutons outcrop ing throughout Central Sierras Pampeanas range (Cordoba province, Argentina). San Lorenzo hill gabbric plutons is in the Upper proterozoic age whereas Cañada del Puerto belongs to the Early proterozoic.They are stock-type igneous bodies and they are intrusive s in an Upper Precambrian crystalline basement; it is mainly composed by gneisses, migmatites, schistes, marbles, amphibolite s, tact's, serpentinites and related rocks

  4. A conceptual sedimentological-geostatistical model of aquifer heterogeneity based on outcrop studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Three outcrop studies were conducted in deposits of different depositional environments. At each site, permeability measurements were obtained with an air-minipermeameter developed as part of this study. In addition, the geological units were mapped with either surveying, photographs, or both. Geostatistical analysis of the permeability data was performed to estimate the characteristics of the probability distribution function and the spatial correlation structure. The information obtained from the geological mapping was then compared with the results of the geostatistical analysis for any relationships that may exist. The main field site was located in the Albuquerque Basin of central New Mexico at an outcrop of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones Formation. The second study was conducted on the walls of waste pits in alluvial fan deposits at the Nevada Test Site. The third study was conducted on an outcrop of an eolian deposit (miocene) south of Socorro, New Mexico. The results of the three studies were then used to construct a conceptual model relating depositional environment to geostatistical models of heterogeneity. The model presented is largely qualitative but provides a basis for further hypothesis formulation and testing

  5. A conceptual sedimentological-geostatistical model of aquifer heterogeneity based on outcrop studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Three outcrop studies were conducted in deposits of different depositional environments. At each site, permeability measurements were obtained with an air-minipermeameter developed as part of this study. In addition, the geological units were mapped with either surveying, photographs, or both. Geostatistical analysis of the permeability data was performed to estimate the characteristics of the probability distribution function and the spatial correlation structure. The information obtained from the geological mapping was then compared with the results of the geostatistical analysis for any relationships that may exist. The main field site was located in the Albuquerque Basin of central New Mexico at an outcrop of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones Formation. The second study was conducted on the walls of waste pits in alluvial fan deposits at the Nevada Test Site. The third study was conducted on an outcrop of an eolian deposit (miocene) south of Socorro, New Mexico. The results of the three studies were then used to construct a conceptual model relating depositional environment to geostatistical models of heterogeneity. The model presented is largely qualitative but provides a basis for further hypothesis formulation and testing.

  6. Outcrop - core correlation and seismic modeling of the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit, Fort McMurray area, northeast Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, F.J. [Alberta Geological Survey, Calgary, AB (Canada); Langenberg, C.W.; Cotterill, D.C.; Berhane, H. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lawton, D.; Cunningham, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    A joint study between the Alberta Geological Survey and the University of Calgary was conducted which involved a detailed facies analysis of cores and outcrops from the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in Alberta`s Steepbank area. A unified facies classification for the deposit was developed. Larger scale facies associations were also determined, as well as proxy sonic logs for outcrops used in seismic modeling. The cores which were displayed exhibited detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis of 10 outcrops in the area. 7 refs.

  7. Net-infiltration map of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop area in western Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying groundwater resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area.Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map.Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm/yr are

  8. Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Ortega, Margarita; Rosas, Ulises; Reyes-Santiago, Jerónimo

    2017-03-31

    In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas. Here, we quantified the carbon sequestration capabilities of two ornamental succulent plant species, Sedum dendroideum and Sedum rubrotinctum, which require low maintenance, and little or no irrigation. To obtain a detailed picture of these plants' carbon sequestration capabilities, we measured carbon uptake on the Sedum plants by quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and fixation as organic acids, during the day and across the year, on a green roof located in Southern Mexico City. The species displayed their typical CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Moreover, our quantification allowed us to conservatively estimate that a newly planted green roof of Sedum sequesters approximately 180,000,000 ppm of carbon dioxide per year in a green roof of 100 square meters in the short term. The patterns of CAM and carbon dioxide sequestration were highly robust to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation between seasons, and therefore we speculate that carbon sequestration would be comparable in any given year of a newly planted green roof. Older green roof would require regular trimming to mantain their carbon sink properties, but their carbon sequestration capabilities remain to be quantified. Nevertheless, we propose that Sedum green roofs can be part of the long-term solutions to mitigate the air pollution crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan area, and other "megacities" with marked seasonal drought.

  9. Using Outcrop Exposures on the Road to Yellowknife Bay to Build a Stratigraphic Column, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, K. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Sumner, D.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Milliken, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Gupta, S.; Williams, R. M. E.; Kah, L. C.; Lewis, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Since landing in Gale Crater on August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover has driven 450 m east, descending approximately 15 m in elevation from the Bradbury landing site to Yellowknife Bay. Outcrop exposure along this drive has been discontinuous, but isolated outcrops may represent windows into underlying inplace stratigraphy. This study presents an inventory of outcrops targeted by Curiosity (Figs. 1-2), grouped by lithological properties observed in Mastcam and Navcam imagery. Outcrop locations are placed in a stratigraphic context using orbital imagery and first principles of stratigraphy. The stratigraphic models presented here represent an essential first step in understanding the relative age relationships of lithological units encountered at the Curiosity landing site. Such observations will provide crucial context for assessing habitability potential of ancient Gale crater environments and organic matter preservation.

  10. DOMstudio: an integrated workflow for Digital Outcrop Model reconstruction and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Different Remote Sensing technologies, including photogrammetry and LIDAR, allow collecting 3D dataset that can be used to create 3D digital representations of outcrop surfaces, called Digital Outcrop Models (DOM), or sometimes Virtual Outcrop Models (VOM). Irrespective of the Remote Sensing technique used, DOMs can be represented either by photorealistic point clouds (PC-DOM) or textured surfaces (TS-DOM). The first are datasets composed of millions of points with XYZ coordinates and RGB colour, whilst the latter are triangulated surfaces onto which images of the outcrop have been mapped or "textured" (applying a tech-nology originally developed for movies and videogames). Here we present a workflow that allows exploiting in an integrated and efficient, yet flexible way, both kinds of dataset: PC-DOMs and TS-DOMs. The workflow is composed of three main steps: (1) data collection and processing, (2) interpretation, and (3) modelling. Data collection can be performed with photogrammetry, LIDAR, or other techniques. The quality of photogrammetric datasets obtained with Structure From Motion (SFM) techniques has shown a tremendous improvement over the past few years, and this is becoming the more effective way to collect DOM datasets. The main advantages of photogrammetry over LIDAR are represented by the very simple and lightweight field equipment (a digital camera), and by the arbitrary spatial resolution, that can be increased simply getting closer to the out-crop or by using a different lens. It must be noted that concerns about the precision of close-range photogrammetric surveys, that were justified in the past, are no more a problem if modern software and acquisition schemas are applied. In any case, LIDAR is a well-tested technology and it is still very common. Irrespective of the data collection technology, the output will be a photorealistic point cloud and a collection of oriented photos, plus additional imagery in special projects (e.g. infrared images

  11. Integrated Sedimentological Approach to Assess Reservoir Quality and Architecture of Khuff Carbonates: Outcrop Analog, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mutsim; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    The Permian to Triassic Khuff carbonate reservoirs (and equivalents) in the Middle East are estimated to contain about 38.4% of the world's natural gas reserves. Excellent exposed outcrops in central Saudi Arabia provide good outcrop equivalents to subsurface Khuff reservoirs. This study conduct high resolution outcrop scale investigations on an analog reservoir for upper Khartam of Khuff Formation. The main objective is to reconstruct litho- and chemo- stratigraphic outcrop analog model that may serve to characterize reservoir high resolution (interwell) heterogeneity, continuity and architecture. Given the fact of the limitation of subsurface data and toolsin capturing interwell reservoir heterogeneity, which in turn increases the value of this study.The methods applied integrate sedimentological, stratigraphic petrographic, petrophysical data and chemical analyses for major, trace and rare earth elements. In addition, laser scanning survey (LIDAR) was also utilized in this study. The results of the stratigraphic investigations revealed that the lithofacies range from mudstone, wackestone, packestone and grainstone. These lithofacies represent environments ranging from supratidal, intertidal, subtidal and shoal complex. Several meter-scale and less high resolution sequences and composite sequences within 4th and 5th order cycles were also recognized in the outcrop analog. The lithofacies and architectural analysis revealed several vertically and laterally stacked sequences at the outcrop as revealed from the stratigraphic sections and the lidar scan. Chemostratigraphy is effective in identifying lithofacies and sequences within the outcrop analog. Moreover, different chemical signatures were also recognized and allowed establishing and correlating high resolution lithofacies, reservoir zones, layers and surfaces bounding reservoirs and non-reservoir zones at scale of meters or less. The results of this high resolution outcrop analog study might help to understand

  12. Rock Outcrops Redistribute Organic Carbon and Nutrients to Nearby Soil Patches in Three Karst Ecosystems in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianjie Wang

    Full Text Available Emergent rock outcrops are common in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little research has been conducted regarding their surface function in redistributing organic carbon and nutrient fluxes to soils nearby. Water that fell on and ran off 10 individual rock outcrops was collected in three 100 × 100 m plots within a rock desertification ecosystem, an anthropogenic forest ecosystem, and a secondary forest ecosystem between June 2013 and June 2014 in Shilin, SW China. The concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (N, total phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in the water samples were determined during three seasons, and the total amounts received by and flowing out from the outcrops were calculated. In all three ecosystems, TOC and N, P, and K were found throughout the year in both the water received by and delivered to nearby soil patches. Their concentrations and amounts were generally greater in forested ecosystems than in the rock desertification ecosystem. When rock outcrops constituted a high percentage (≥ 30% of the ground surface, the annual export of rock outcrop runoff contributed a large amount of organic carbon and N, P, and K nutrients to soil patches nearby by comparison to the amount soil patches received via atmospheric deposition. These contributions may increase the spatial heterogeneity of soil fertility within patches, as rock outcrops of different sizes, morphologies, and emergence ratios may surround each soil patch.

  13. Rock Physics and Petrographic Parameters Relationship Within Siliciclastic Rocks: Quartz Sandstone Outcrop Study Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafriyono, S.; Caesario, D.; Swastika, A.; Adlan, Q.; Syafri, I.; Abdurrokhim, A.; Mardiana, U.; Mohamad, F.; Alfadli, M. K.; Sari, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Rock physical parameters value (Vp and Vs) is one of fundamental aspects in reservoir characterization as a tool to detect rock heterogenity. Its response is depend on several reservoir conditions such as lithology, pressure and reservoir fluids. The value of Vp and Vs is controlled by grain contact and contact stiffness, a function of clay mineral content and porosity also affected by mineral composition. The study about Vp and Vs response within sandstone and its relationship with petrographic parameters has become important to define anisotrophy of reservoir characteristics distribution and could give a better understanding about local diagenesis that influence clastic reservoir properties. Petrographic analysis and Vp-Vs calculation was carried out to 12 core sample which is obtained by hand-drilling of the outcrop in Sukabumi area, West Java as a part of Bayah Formation. Data processing and interpretation of sedimentary vertical succession showing that this outcrop comprises of 3 major sandstone layers indicating fluvial depositional environment. As stated before, there are 4 petrographic parameters (sorting, roundness, clay mineral content, and grain contact) which are responsible to the differences of shear wave and compressional wave value in this outcrop. Lithology with poor-sorted and well- roundness has Vp value lower than well-sorted and poor-roundness (sub-angular) grain. For the sample with high clay content, Vp value is ranging from 1681 to 2000 m/s and could be getting high until 2190 to 2714 m/s in low clay content sample even though the presence of clay minerals cannot be defined neither as matrix nor cement. The whole sample have suture grain contact indicating telogenesis regime whereas facies has no relationship with Vp and Vs value because of the different type of facies show similar petrographic parameters after diagenesis.

  14. Floristic similarity and dispersal syndromes in a rocky outcrop in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elainne Cristina Silva; Lopes, Sérgio de Faria; Melo, José Iranildo Miranda de

    2015-09-01

    Floristic studies provide valuable information on species richness in a region, and are particularly important if these areas belong to less studied environments, such as rocky outcrops, that may increase our knowledge. An important aspect for species colonization includes the mechanisms of diaspores dispersal in each community; these are essential to understand its structure, dynamics, and the regeneration process, and constitute an important tool for conservation. We developed a floristic survey on a granite-gneiss outcrop with the objective to increase the knowledge on plant diversity, through a floristic similarity analysis and detection of dispersal syndromes of sampled species, in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The fieldwork included collection and observation of the botanical material in loco during a period of 12 months. A total of 161 species belonging to 127 genera and 50 families of angiosperms were recorded. Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae were the most representative families in number of species. Allophylus quercifolius (Mart.) Radlk. (Capparaceae) and Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (Lythraceae) represented new records for the State of Paraiba. The autochoric syndrome was the most representative, with 51.5 % of the recorded species; the anemochory was the second most representative syndrome with 26.7 % of the species; and finally the zoochory, representing 22.3 % of the species. The floristic similarity dendrogram showed the formation of three well-defined groups, whose area with the highest value (J = 33.2) is located in a Caatinga region called Cariri Paraibano, while the lowest value observed (J = 5.2), occurred in a settled area in two geomorphological units, a crystalline complex and a plateau region. These results may be due to the varying topographic conditions and edaphic heterogeneity arising from the specific geological formation of the region. These results yet demonstrate that, in rocky outcrops, abiotic syndromes represent an

  15. Fallout cesium-137 and mineral-element distribution in food chains of granitic-outcrop ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.; Duke, K.M.; Waide, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Fallout 137 Cs movement is described for arthropod food chains on Panola and Arabia mountains, granite monadnocks in the Georgia Piedmont region. Food chains on mountain slopes had significant 137 Cs in herbivore and predator trophic levels. Food bases were identified from observation and from cesium to potassium ratios in vegetation and arthropods. Lichens are major accumulators of fallout 137 Cs but do not appear to be important food sources for arthropods. Cesium-137 concentrations decrease in the food chains; these decreases resemble those reported for other terrestrial arthropod chains. Aspects of 137 Cs movement and nutrient-element dynamics in granitic-outcrop ecosystems are discussed

  16. Assessing recharge using remotely sensed data in the Guarani Aquifer System outcrop zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M. C.; Oliveira, P. T. S.; Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is an essential hydrology component for sustainable water withdrawal from an aquifer. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest (~1.2 million km2) transboundary groundwater reservoir in South America, supplying freshwater to four countries: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. However, recharge in the GAS outcrop zones is one of the least known hydrological variables, in part because studies from hydrological data are scarce or nonexistent. We assess recharge using the water-budget as the difference of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). Data is derived from remotely sensed estimates of P (TRMM 3B42 V7) and ET (MOD16) in the Onça Creek watershed over the 2004­-12 period. This is an upland-flat watershed (slope steepness < 1%) dominated by sand soils and representative of the GAS outcrop zones. We compared the remote sensing approach against Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method and another water-budget using ground-based measurements. Uncertainty propagation analysis were also performed. On monthly basis, TRMM P exhibited a great agreement with ground-based P data (R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 41 mm). Historical (2004-12) mean(±sd) satellite-based recharge (Rsat) was 537(±224) mm y-1, while ground-based recharge using water-budget (Rgr) and WTF (Rwtf) method was 469 mm y-1 and 311(±150) mm y-1, respectively. We found that ~440 mm y-1 is a reasonable historical mean (between Rsat, Rgr and Rwtf) recharge for the study area over 2004-2012 period. The latter mean recharge estimate is about 29% of the mean historical P (1,514 mm y-1). Our results provide the first insight about an intercomparison of water budget from remote sensing and measured data to estimate recharge in the GAS outcrop zone. These results should be useful for future studies on assessing recharge in the GAS outcrop zones. Since accurate and precise recharge estimation still is a gap, our recharge satellite-based is considered acceptable for the Onça Creek

  17. THE FIRST RECORD OF CAMBRIAN CONODONTS FROM THE HUQF-HAUSHI OUTCROPS, OMAN, ARABIAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELLA BAGNOLI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Outcrops of Cambrian sediments of the uppermost Miqrat Formation, the Al Bashair Formation and the basal Barik Formation were sampled for conodont and palynomorph studies. The units are part of the Palaeozoic Haima Supergroup, exposed in the Huqf-Haushi area in central eastern Oman, Arabian Peninsula. Palynomorphs were absent but conodont samples yielded a small conodont fauna. The presence of Muellerodus? erectus allows the recognition of the Muellerodus? erectus Zone established for North China (late Paibian – early Jiangshanian, in accordance with previous reports on the trilobite fauna from the same interval.

  18. Autonomous Segmentation of Outcrop Images Using Computer Vision and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R.; McIsaac, K.; Osinski, G. R.; Thompson, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    As planetary exploration missions become increasingly complex and capable, the motivation grows for improved autonomous science. New capabilities for onboard science data analysis may relieve radio-link data limits and provide greater throughput of scientific information. Adaptive data acquisition, storage and downlink may ultimately hold implications for mission design and operations. For surface missions, geology remains an essential focus, and the investigation of in place, exposed geological materials provides the greatest scientific insight and context for the formation and history of planetary materials and processes. The goal of this research program is to develop techniques for autonomous segmentation of images of rock outcrops. Recognition of the relationships between different geological units is the first step in mapping and interpreting a geological setting. Applications of automatic segmentation include instrument placement and targeting and data triage for downlink. Here, we report on the development of a new technique in which a photograph of a rock outcrop is processed by several elementary image processing techniques, generating a feature space which can be interrogated and classified. A distance metric learning technique (Multiclass Discriminant Analysis, or MDA) is tested as a means of finding the best numerical representation of the feature space. MDA produces a linear transformation that maximizes the separation between data points from different geological units. This ';training step' is completed on one or more images from a given locality. Then we apply the same transformation to improve the segmentation of new scenes containing similar materials to those used for training. The technique was tested using imagery from Mars analogue settings at the Cima volcanic flows in the Mojave Desert, California; impact breccias from the Sudbury impact structure in Ontario, Canada; and an outcrop showing embedded mineral veins in Gale Crater on Mars

  19. Discontinuities Characteristics of the Upper Jurassic Arab-D Reservoir Equivalent Tight Carbonates Outcrops, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdlmutalib, Ammar; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    Jurassic carbonates represent an important part of the Mesozoic petroleum system in the Arabian Peninsula in terms of source rocks, reservoirs, and seals. Jurassic Outcrop equivalents are well exposed in central Saudi Arabia and which allow examining and measuring different scales of geological heterogeneities that are difficult to collect from the subsurface due to limitations of data and techniques. Identifying carbonates Discontinuities characteristics at outcrops might help to understand and predict their properties and behavior in the subsurface. The main objective of this study is to identify the lithofacies and the discontinuities properties of the upper Jurassic carbonates of the Arab D member and the Jubaila Formation (Arab-D reservoir) based on their outcrop equivalent strata in central Saudi Arabia. The sedimentologic analysis revealed several lithofacies types that vary in their thickness, abundances, cyclicity and vertical and lateral stacking patterns. The carbonates lithofacies included mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and grainstone. These lithofacies indicate deposition within tidal flat, skeletal banks and shallow to deep lagoonal paleoenvironmental settings. Field investigations of the outcrops revealed two types of discontinuities within Arab D Member and Upper Jubaila. These are depositional discontinuities and tectonic fractures and which all vary in their orientation, intensity, spacing, aperture and displacements. It seems that both regional and local controls have affected the fracture development within these carbonate rocks. On the regional scale, the fractures seem to be structurally controlled by the Central Arabian Graben System, which affected central Saudi Arabia. While, locally, at the outcrop scale, stratigraphic, depositional and diagenetic controls appear to have influenced the fracture development and intensity. The fracture sets and orientations identified on outcrops show similarity to those fracture sets revealed in the upper

  20. Speciation on a local geographic scale: the evolution of a rare rock outcrop specialist in Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Sexton, Jason P; Willis, John H

    2014-08-05

    Speciation can occur on both large and small geographical scales. In plants, local speciation, where small populations split off from a large-ranged progenitor species, is thought to be the dominant mode, yet there are still few examples to verify speciation has occurred in this manner. A recently described morphological species in the yellow monkey flowers, Mimulus filicifolius, is an excellent candidate for local speciation because of its highly restricted geographical range. Mimulus filicifolius was formerly identified as a population of M. laciniatus due to similar lobed leaf morphology and rocky outcrop habitat. To investigate whether M. filicifolius is genetically divergent and reproductively isolated from M. laciniatus, we examined patterns of genetic diversity in ten nuclear and eight microsatellite loci, and hybrid fertility in M. filicifolius and its purported close relatives: M. laciniatus, M. guttatus and M. nasutus. We found that M. filicifolius is genetically divergent from the other species and strongly reproductively isolated from M. laciniatus. We conclude that M. filicifolius is an independent rock outcrop specialist despite being morphologically and ecologically similar to M. laciniatus, and that its small geographical range nested within other wide-ranging members of the M. guttatus species complex is consistent with local speciation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. REGIONAL OUTCROPS WITH DIDACTIC INTEREST AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION OF THE ITARARÉ GROUP AT SÃO PAULO (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bergamaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to locate and identify the outcrops considered iconic and valuable as references, not only from the point of view of Cultural or Didactic Tourism, but also in paleoenvironmental reconstruction studies, based on the lithologies that comprise the Itararé Group, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This work also intends to relate these sites to outcrops of sedimentary facies, in an area located at south of Itu and Porto Feliz, and north of Sorocaba. The Itararé Group lies within the Paraná Basin (Paleozoic, and is composed by sedimentary sequences associated with the record of the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation event that occurred in the Gondwana supercontinent. This work is based on observations of outcrops in a macro- and mesoscopic scale, considering the characterization of external and internal aspects of the layer, the stratigraphic sequence in the outcrop, and the continuity of the layers within the mapped area. The study area has outcrops where the evidences of glaciomarine deposits predominate. Sedimentary sequences deposited in a subaquatic low-energy environment, as well as episodic deposits, in which relatively more energetic phases alternated with low hydrodynamic conditions are well-developed in the study area. There are also fluvio-deltaic environmental occurrences related to sea level oscillations linked with glacier advances and receding.

  2. Geochemistry of outcrop samples from the Raven Canyon and Paintbrush Canyon reference sections, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Spengler, R.W.; Singer, F.R.; Dickerson, R.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain area in southern Nevada is being evaluated for its suitability as a potential site for the construction of an underground, high-level nuclear waste repository. With support from the Department of Energy, the US Geological Survey is conducting detailed petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic analyses of samples collected from drill cores and from outcrops. The geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks of Yucca Mountain derive from those of their parental magmas, from changes resulting from the eruptive processes and from post-depositional alteration. In this study, geochemical and isotopic data were acquired on samples from reference sections selected in areas where the effects of the post-depositional alteration has been minimal. These data will be used as baseline information for delineating and correlating zonal features in the volcanic rock alteration that may occur in the thermal aureole of the potential repository after it has been loaded with nuclear waste

  3. Water balance in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone based on hydrogeologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, E.; Barreto, C.; Gomes, L. H.

    2007-09-01

    SummaryMain objective of this work was the study of the infiltration and recharge mechanisms in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) outcrop zone. The study was based on hydrogeologic monitoring, evapotranspiration and water balance in a pilot watershed. The pilot watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) is situated in the outcrop zone of the Guarani Aquifer between parallels 22°10' and 22°15' (south latitude) and meridians 47°55' and 48°00' (west longitude). For the execution of the research project, a monitoring network (wells, rain gauge and linigraph) was installed in the watershed. Data have been systematically collected during the period of a hydrological year. Water level fluctuation has been used to estimate deep recharge and subsurface storage variation. The method used to estimate the direct recharge adopted the hypothesis that the recession of the groundwater level obeys a function of power law type. Direct recharge is obtained through the difference between the actual level of an unconfined aquifer and the level indicated by extrapolation of the recession curve, in a given period. Base outflow is estimated through a mixed function (linear and exponential). Outflow in the creek has been measured with current meter and monitored continuously with a linigraph. The annual infiltration in 2005 was estimated to be 350 mm, while the deep recharge, based on water balance, appears to be 3.5% of the precipitation (1410 mm). These results indicate that the estimated long term water availability of the Guarani Aquifer System should be studied more carefully.

  4. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics of the outcrops of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers, Medina Lake area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ted A.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogeologic subdivisions of the Edwards aquifer outcrop in the Medina Lake area in Medina and Bandera Counties generally are porous and permeable. The most porous and permeable appear to be hydrogeologic subdivision VI, the Kirschberg evaporite member of the Kainer Formation; and hydrogeologic subdivision III, the leached and collapsed members, undivided, of the Person Formation. The porosity of the rocks in the Edwards aquifer outcrop is related to depositional or diagenetic elements along specific stratigraphic horizons (fabric selective) and to dissolution and structural elements that can occur in any lithostratigraphic horizon (not fabric selective). Permeability depends on the physical properties of the rock such as size, shape, and distribution of pores.

  5. Effects of outcropping groundwater from the F- and H-Area seepage basins on the distribution of fish in Four Mile Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Storey, C.

    1990-10-01

    Four Mile Creek was electrofished during June 26--July 2, 1990 to assess the impacts of outcropping ground water form the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins on fish abundance and distribution. Number of fish species and total catch were comparable at sample stations upstream from and downstream from the outcropping zone in Four Mile Creek. Species number and composition downstream from the outcropping zone in Four Mile Creek were similar to species number and composition in unimpacted portions of Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Meyers Branch. These findings indicate that seepage basin outcropping was not adversely affecting the Four Mile Creek fish community. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Towards a quantitative definition of mechanical units: New techniques and results from an outcropping deep water succession.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertotti, G.V.; Hardebol, N.; Taal-Van Koppen, J.; Luthi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The physical properties of reservoirs are strongly influenced by distributed fracture fields. Outcrop studies are commonly used to determine them but have provided unsatisfactory results because the definition of mechanical units, i.e., (groups of) layers displaying homogeneous fracture patterns, is

  7. A multi-scale case study of natural fracture systems in outcrops and boreholes with applications to reservoir modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taal-van Koppen, J.K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fractured reservoirs are notoriously difficult to characterize because the resolution of seismic data is too low to detect fractures whereas borehole data is detailed but sparse. Therefore, outcrops can be of great support in gaining knowledge of the three-dimensional geometry of fracture networks,

  8. Seasonal differences assist in mapping granite outcrops using Landsat TM imagery across the Southwest Australian Floristic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alibegovic, G.; Schut, A.G.T.; Wardell-Johnson, G.W.; Robinson, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the location and extent of granite outcrops (GOs) in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region is important to understand their role as refugia. We present a methodology to map GOs using biannual Landsat TM imagery. An adaptive vegetation cover mask capitalising on seasonal differences,

  9. Fracture properties from tight reservoir outcrop analogues with application to geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Sonja L.; Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Bauer, Johanna F.; Meier, Silke; Reinecker, John

    2015-04-01

    In geothermal reservoirs, similar to other tight reservoirs, fluid flow may be intensely affected by fracture systems, in particular those associated with fault zones. When active (slipping) the fault core, that is, the inner part of a fault zone, which commonly consists of breccia or gouge, can suddenly develop high permeability. Fault cores of inactive fault zones, however, may have low permeabilities and even act as flow barriers. In the outer part of a fault zone, the damage zone, permeability depends mainly on the fracture properties, that is, the geometry (orientation, aperture, density, connectivity, etc.) of the fault-associated fracture system. Mineral vein networks in damage zones of deeply eroded fault zones in palaeogeothermal fields demonstrate their permeability. In geothermal exploration, particularly for hydrothermal reservoirs, the orientation of fault zones in relation to the current stress field as well as their internal structure, in particular the properties of the associated fracture system, must be known as accurately as possible for wellpath planning and reservoir engineering. Here we present results of detailed field studies and numerical models of fault zones and associated fracture systems in palaeogeo¬thermal fields and host rocks for geothermal reservoirs from various stratigraphies, lithologies and tectonic settings: (1) 74 fault zones in three coastal sections of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age (mudstones and limestone-marl alternations) in the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. (2) 58 fault zones in 22 outcrops from Upper Carboniferous to Upper Cretaceous in the Northwest German Basin (siliciclastic, carbonate and volcanic rocks); and (3) 16 fault zones in 9 outcrops in Lower Permian to Middle Triassic (mainly sandstone and limestone) in the Upper Rhine Graben shoulders. Whereas (1) represent palaeogeothermal fields with mineral veins, (2) and (3) are outcrop analogues of reservoir horizons from geothermal exploration. In the study

  10. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  11. Identifying Stream/Aquifer Exchange by Temperature Gradient in a Guarani Aquifer System Outcrop Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, E.; Rosa, D. M. S.; Anache, J. A. A.; Lowry, C.; Lin, Y. F. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recharge of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in South America is supposed to occur mainly in the outcrop zones, where the GAS appears as an unconfined aquifer (10% of the 1.2 Million km2 aquifer extension). Previous evaluations of recharge are based essentially on water balance estimates for the whole aquifer area or water table fluctuations in monitoring wells. To gain a more detailed understanding of the recharge mechanisms the present work aimed to study the stream aquifer interaction in a watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) at an outcrop zone. Two Parshall flumes were installed 1.3 km apart for discharge measurement in the stream. Along this distance an optic fiber cable was deployed to identify stretches with gaining and losing behavior. In order to estimate groundwater discharge in specific locations, 8 temperature sticks were set up along the stream reach to measure continuously the vertical temperature gradient. A temperature probe with 4 thermistors was also used to map the shallow streambed temperature gradient manually along the whole distance. The obtained results show a discharge difference of 250 m3/h between both flumes. Since the last significant rainfall (15 mm) in the watershed occurred 3 months ago, this value can be interpreted as the base flow contribution to the stream during the dry season. Given the temperature difference between groundwater ( 24oC) and surface water ( 17oC) the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) allowed the identification of stretches with gaining behavior. Temperature gradients observed at the streambed varied between 0.67 and 14.33 oC/m. The study demonstrated that heat may be used as natural tracer even in tropical conditions, where the groundwater temperature is higher than the surface water temperature during the winter. The obtained results show that the discharge difference between both flumes can not be extrapolated without detailed analysis. Gaining and loosing stretches have to be identified on order

  12. Climate change impact on groundwater levels in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2013-12-01

    The unsustainable use of groundwater in many countries might cause water availability restrictions in the future. Such issue is likely to worsen due to predicted climate changes for the incoming decades. As numerous studies suggest, aquifers recharge rates will be affected as a result of climate change. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is one of the most important transboundary aquifer in the world, providing drinkable water for millions of people in four South American countries (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay). Considering the GAS relevance and how its recharge rates might be altered by climatic conditions anomalies, the objective of this work is to assess possible climate changes impacts on groundwater levels in this aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models' (GCM) outputs were used as inputs in a transient flux groundwater model created using the software SPA (Simulation of Process in Aquifers), enabling groundwater table fluctuation to be evaluated under distinct climatic scenarios. Six monitoring wells, located in a representative basin (Ribeirão da Onça basin) inside a GAS outcrop zone (ROB), provided water table measurements between 2004 and 2011 to calibrate the groundwater model. Using observed climatic data, a water budget method was applied to estimate recharge in different types of land uses. Statistically downscaled future climate scenarios were used as inputs for that same recharge model, which provided data for running SPA under those scenarios. The results show that most of the GCMs used here predict temperature arises over 275,15 K and major monthly rainfall mean changes to take place in the dry season. During wet seasons, those means might experience around 50% decrease. The transient model results indicate that water table variations, derived from around 70% of the climate scenarios, would vary below those measured between 2004 and 2011. Among the thirteen GCMs considered in this work, only four of them predicted more extreme

  13. ChemCam results from the Shaler outcrop in Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bridges, J.C.; Williams, A.; Edgar, L.; Ollila, A.; Williams, J.; Nachon, Marion; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Schieber, J.; Gupta, S.; Dromart, G.; Wiens, R.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Forni, O.; Lanza, N.; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Sautter, V.; Blaney, D.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Gasnault, O.; Lasue, J.; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin, E.; Lewis, K.W.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H.; Schwenzer, S.P.; Vaniman, D.

    2015-01-01

    The ChemCam campaign at the fluvial sedimentary outcrop “Shaler” resulted in observations of 28 non-soil targets, 26 of which included active laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and all of which included Remote Micro-Imager (RMI) images. The Shaler outcrop can be divided into seven facies based on grain size, texture, color, resistance to erosion, and sedimentary structures. The ChemCam observations cover Facies 3 through 7. For all targets, the majority of the grains were below the limit of the RMI resolution, but many targets had a portion of resolvable grains coarser than ∼0.5 mm. The Shaler facies show significant scatter in LIBS spectra and compositions from point to point, but several key compositional trends are apparent, most notably in the average K2O content of the observed facies. Facies 3 is lower in K2O than the other facies and is similar in composition to the “snake,” a clastic dike that occurs lower in the Yellowknife Bay stratigraphic section. Facies 7 is enriched in K2O relative to the other facies and shows some compositional and textural similarities to float rocks near Yellowknife Bay. The remaining facies (4, 5, and 6) are similar in composition to the Sheepbed and Gillespie Lake members, although the Shaler facies have slightly elevated K2O and FeOT. Several analysis points within Shaler suggest the presence of feldspars, though these points have excess FeOT which suggests the presence of Fe oxide cement or inclusions. The majority of LIBS analyses have compositions which indicate that they are mixtures of pyroxene and feldspar. The Shaler feldspathic compositions are more alkaline than typical feldspars from shergottites, suggesting an alkaline basaltic source region, particularly for the K2O-enriched Facies 7. Apart from possible iron-oxide cement, there is little evidence for chemical alteration at Shaler, although calcium-sulfate veins comparable to those observed lower in the stratigraphic section are present. The

  14. Study of Sedimentary Outcrop of Semanggol Formation with the Correlation of Geology, Geotechnical and Geophysics Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiana, A. N.; Nordiana, M. M.; Jia, Teoh Ying; Hisham, Hazrul; Sulaiman, Nabila; Maslinda, Umi; Taqiuddin, Z. M.; Nur Amalina, M. K. A.; Afiq Saharudin, Muhamad

    2017-04-01

    The study location was at Bukit Kukus, Kuala Ketil, Kedah, Malaysia where the geological outcrop of this Semanggol Formation comprises of chert, mudstone, and volcanic tuff. The study was conducted using two geophysical methods, which are 2-D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The objectives of the study are to correlate both of the geophysical methods through the value of conductivity and to identify the physical properties of rocks through the value of porosity and permeability. The data acquisition for both methods was conducted on the same line. For 2-D Resistivity method, the length of the line is 60 m with 1.5 m electrode spacing and the array used was Wenner-Schlumberger. For GPR method, the survey line was on top of the resistivity line, and the frequency of the antenna used is 250 MHz. A good correlation exists between both of the GPR signature and contour maps for resistivity from the surfer 10 software with the outcrop feature. Conductivity value from both GPR and Resistivity method was compared and the range value of conductivity obtained from GPR method almost equivalent with Resistivity method based on derivation and calculation for the sedimentary rocks, which are 0.037 to 0.574 miliSiemens per metre (mS/m) for chert and 0.186 to 10.142 miliSiemens per metre (mS/m) for mudstone. Two types of rock samples were taken, and several geotechnical tests were conducted, but only the value of permeability, K and porosity, ɸ of chert can be calculated, which are 1.95E-22 m2 (original condition) and 2.27E-22 m2 (dry condition) and 3 percent respectively as the sample of mudstone was damaged. The parameter of the 2-D resistivity method derived from Archie’s law was used to calculate the porosity, ɸf value using the Formation Factor equation. The range values of porosity, ɸf for chert mostly in the range of 5 to 25 percent, which is 6.26 to 13.36 percent but slightly out of range for mudstone, which is 14.12 to 36.02 percent.

  15. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  16. Uranium potential in outcropping Permian basins in France and their extensions beneath mesozoic and tertiary cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, B.

    1990-01-01

    About a third of metropolitan France's uranium production is from Permian deposits located in the Lodeve and, to a lesser extent, Bourbon-l'Archambault basins. Of the Autun, west Vanoise, St-Affrique, Rodez, Brive and Var basins investigated in this study, only those of Rodez and Var have been shown to contain significant deposits. Some of the basins contain potentially interesting targets, often removed from the areas of known mineral occurrences, that have never been investigated. Geophysical exploration and drilling have shown that the Permian extends over a vast area beneath the cover of the large Mesozoic and Tertiary basins. However zones within reach of mineral exploration, ie. those less than 500 m deep, are only found in a few areas. To reach the distant targets down-dip in the outcropping basins or beneath the Mesozoic and Tertiary cover, a detailed study of the basin must be undertaken beforehand. To define and locate targets that are obviously more costly to investigate, direct methods of investigation need to be used such as drilling and geochemistry, and indirect methods such as remote sensing, geophysics and well-logging [fr

  17. Differential adaptation to a harsh granite outcrop habitat between sympatric Mimulus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Willis, John H

    2018-03-31

    Understanding which environmental variables and traits underlie adaptation to harsh environments is difficult because many traits evolve simultaneously as populations or species diverge. Here, we investigate the ecological variables and traits that underlie Mimulus laciniatus' adaptation to granite outcrops compared to its sympatric, mesic-adapted progenitor, Mimulus guttatus. We use fine-scale measurements of soil moisture and herbivory to examine differences in selective forces between the species' habitats, and measure selection on flowering time, flower size, plant height, and leaf shape in a reciprocal transplant using M. laciniatus × M. guttatus F 4 hybrids. We find that differences in drought and herbivory drive survival differences between habitats, that M. laciniatus and M. guttatus are each better adapted to their native habitat, and differential habitat selection on flowering time, plant stature, and leaf shape. Although early flowering time, small stature, and lobed leaf shape underlie plant fitness in M. laciniatus' seasonally dry environment, increased plant size is advantageous in a competitive mesic environment replete with herbivores like M. guttatus'. Given that we observed divergent selection between habitats in the direction of species differences, we conclude that adaptation to different microhabitats is an important component of reproductive isolation in this sympatric species pair. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Host preference of the hemiparasite Struthanthus flexicaulis (Loranthaceae in ironstone outcrop plant communities, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves Mourão

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Struthanthus flexicaulis is a hemiparasite abundant in ironstone outcrops in southeast Brazil. We evaluated its host preference among species of the plant community, taking into account the abundance and foliage cover of the hosts. The importance of each species in the community and the mortality caused by the parasite were assessed based on a quantitative survey in 10 strips measuring 1m x 50m. The 10,290 individuals belonged to 42 species. Only 15 had a relative abundance in the plant community greater than 1%, of which 12 showed vestiges of parasitism. More than 80% of deaths in the community were associated with parasitism. Non-infected individuals had significantly less mortality rates (7% than those infected (83% (²= 1102.4, df = 1, p < 0.001. The observed infestation was different from the expected both regarding relative host abundance (²= 714.2, df = 11, p<0.001 and foliage cover (²= 209.2, df = 11, p<0.001. Struthanthus flexicaulis preferredMimosa calodendron, a legume attractive to avian seed dispersers. The interaction is maintained and intensified not only by the birds, who deposit innumerous seeds on the hosts branches, but also very likely by the ability of M. calodendron to fix nitrogen, thereby enhancing the mistletoe's development.

  19. Aesthetics-based classification of geological structures in outcrops for geotourism purposes: a tentative proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, Anna V.; Nazarenko, Olesya V.; Ruban, Dmitry A.; Zayats, Pavel P.

    2017-03-01

    The current growth in geotourism requires an urgent development of classifications of geological features on the basis of criteria that are relevant to tourist perceptions. It appears that structure-related patterns are especially attractive for geotourists. Consideration of the main criteria by which tourists judge beauty and observations made in the geodiversity hotspot of the Western Caucasus allow us to propose a tentative aesthetics-based classification of geological structures in outcrops, with two classes and four subclasses. It is possible to distinguish between regular and quasi-regular patterns (i.e., striped and lined and contorted patterns) and irregular and complex patterns (paysage and sculptured patterns). Typical examples of each case are found both in the study area and on a global scale. The application of the proposed classification permits to emphasise features of interest to a broad range of tourists. Aesthetics-based (i.e., non-geological) classifications are necessary to take into account visions and attitudes of visitors.

  20. Giant Subaqueous Pyroclastic-Flow Deposits Revealed: Sedimentological Revision of the Holocene Outcrops of Izu-Oshima Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, R.; Yoshida, S.; Nemoto, Y.; Kotake, N.

    2010-12-01

    The early-to-middle Holocene outcrops of Izu-Oshima island, 100 km SSW of Tokyo, comprise sand- to gravel-size pyroclasts, and exhibit undulating layered structures, with each wavelet typically measuring 5-10 m high. These outcrops were traditionally interpreted as exemplary subaerial "ash-fall" deposits in volcanology textbooks (e.g. Schmincke 2006). Our detailed sedimentological analyses, however, have revealed that it is of pyroclastic density-current origin, the majority of which formed in shallow-marine settings. The present study focuses on the outcrops along the western coast of the Island, where the three-dimensional architecture of the outcrops is superbly exposed, and the existing archaeological framework provides a reliable chronostratigraphic control. The outcrops contain abundant compound bedforms, where small bedforms (dunes/antidunes) occur within the larger bedforms. The compound bedforms exhibit four-fold hierarchy (ranks 1 to 4), and bedforms for each scale display dominantly upstream-accreting geometry. The largest scale (Rank 1) of these bedforms show wavy parallel-bedding geometry (each wavelet typically measuring 5-10 m high and 50-100 m wide). We interpreted the large-scale architecture as sediment waves (gigantic antidunes) similar to the one reported from the shallow-marine deposits associated with AD 79 Mt. Vesuvius eruptions (Milia et al. 2008). Moreover, we have identified crustacean burrows and other trace fossils indicative of a nearshore shallow-marine environment. The pervasive occurrence of these fossils throughout the outcrops and abundant water-escape structures also suggests their subaqueous origin. On the other hand, evidence of subaerial deposition (e.g., paleosols and rootlets) or subaerial reworking (e.g., lahar) is absent, except for some spots on several regional unconformities that divide 10’s-m-thick sediment-wave deposits. On some of these unconformities, ribbon- to fan-shaped lava and/or ancient human-dwelling sites

  1. Discovery of Carbonate-Rich Outcrops in the Gusev Crater Columbia Hills by the MER Rover Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Clark, Benton C.; Golden, Dadi C.; Siebach, Kirsten L.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Schroeder, Christian; hide

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition, global abundance, distribution, and formation pathways of carbonates are central to understanding aqueous processes, climate, and habitability of early Mars. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit analyzed a series of olivine-rich outcrops while descending from the summit region of Husband Hill into the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater to the eastern edge of the El Dorado ripple field in late 2005. Reanalysis of Spirit s mineralogical data from the Moessbauer Spectrometer (MB) and the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) and chemical data from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) in 2010, coupled with new laboratory data for carbonate-bearing samples, lead to identification of carbonate in one of the outcrops (Comanche) [Morris, R.V., et al., Science, 329, 421-424]. The carbonate is rich in magnesium and iron (Mc62Sd25Cc11Rh2, assuming all Ca and Mn is associated with the carbonate) and is a major component of the Comanche outcrops (16 to 34 wt.%). The mineralogical, chemical, and abundance data are constrained in multiple, mutually consistent ways by the MER analyses. For example, a low-Ca carbonate is required by the MB and APXS data and is consistent with Mini-TES data. Three spectral features attributable to fundamental infrared vibrational modes of low-Ca carbonate are present in the Mini-TES spectra of Comanche outcrops. The average composition of Comanche carbonate approximates the average composition of the carbonate globules in Martian meteorite ALH 84001. Analogy with ALH 84001, terrestrial, and synthetic carbonate globules suggests that Comanche carbonate precipitated from aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions at near neutral pH in association with volcanic activity during the Noachian era. Comanche outcrop morphology suggests they are remnants of a larger carbonate-bearing formation that evolved in ultramafic rock and then preferentially eroded by a combination of aeolian

  2. Impacts of ultramafic outcrops in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah on soil and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakor, Mahsa; Modabberi, Soroush; van der Ent, Antony; Echevarria, Guillaume

    2018-05-08

    This study focused on the influence of ultramafic terrains on soil and surface water environmental chemistry in Peninsular Malaysia and in the State of Sabah also in Malaysia. The sampling included 27 soils from four isolated outcrops at Cheroh, Bentong, Bukit Rokan, and Petasih from Peninsular Malaysia and sites near Ranau in Sabah. Water samples were also collected from rivers and subsurface waters interacting with the ultramafic bodies in these study sites. Physico-chemical parameters (including pH, EC, CEC) as well as the concentration of major and trace elements were measured in these soils and waters. Geochemical indices (geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor, and concentration factor) were calculated. Al 2 O 3 and Fe 2 O 3 had relatively high concentrations in the samples. A depletion in MgO, CaO, and Na 2 O was observed as a result of leaching in tropical climate, and in relation to weathering and pedogenesis processes. Chromium, Ni, and Co were enriched and confirmed by the significant values obtained for Igeo, EF, and CF, which correspond to the extreme levels of contamination for Cr and high to moderate levels of contamination for Ni and Co. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Co in surface waters did not reflect the local geochemistry and were within the permissible ranges according to WHO and INWQS standards. Subsurface waters were strongly enriched by these elements and exceeded these standards. The association between Cr and Ni was confirmed by factor analysis. The unexpected enrichment of Cu in an isolated component can be explained by localized mineralization in Sabah.

  3. UPPER JURASSIC OUTCROPS ALONG THE CALDAS DA RAINHA DIAPIR, WEST CENTRAL PORTUGAL: A REGIONAL GEOHERITAGE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE DINIS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a diapiric and magmatic cycle associated to the on-set of sea-floor and the exhumation of both Jurassic deposits and the core of their controlling diapirs. The nature of the outcrops and richness in sedimentary environments, related with the different phases of rifting, is a remarkable case for extensional basin studies. Geological sites can be of regional, national or international importance due to scientific, educational, economical, social or historical reasons. The present proposal can be considered as a model for the establishment of tourist/educational routes with a strong component in communication on Earth Sciences, integrating social and historical aspects at a regional level. The recognition of those sites as geoheritage may contribute to a more sustainable management, in particular because it allows the achievement of a critical dimension for the investment in human resources and marketing. In Portugal, recent legal evolution might be considered promising. Nevertheless, since implementation of the concept of protected site depends on the approval of detailed management programs, there are frequent delays, misinterpretations and disrespect of legislation. The strategy to be adopted must integrate conservation, scientific studies and science communication in projects with economic and social interest.

  4. Low dynamics, high longevity and persistence of sessile structural species dwelling on Mediterranean coralligenous outcrops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Teixidó

    Full Text Available There is still limited understanding of the processes underlying benthic species dynamics in marine coastal habitats, which are of disproportionate importance in terms of productivity and biodiversity. The life-history traits of long-lived benthic species in these habitats are particularly poorly documented. In this study, we assessed decadal patterns of population dynamics for ten sponge and anthozoan species that play key structural roles in coralligenous outcrops (∼25 m depth in two areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea. This study was based on examination of a unique long-term photographic series, which allowed analysis of population dynamics over extensive spatial and time spans for the very first time. Specifically, 671 individuals were censused annually over periods of 25-, 15-, and 5-years. This long-term study quantitatively revealed a common life-history pattern among the ten studied species, despite the fact they present different growth forms. Low mortality rates (3.4% yr(-1 for all species combined and infrequent recruitment events (mean value of 3.1±0.5 SE recruits yr(-1 provided only a very small fraction of the new colonies required to maintain population sizes. Overall, annual mortality and recruitment rates did not differ significantly among years; however, some species displayed important mortality events and recruitment pulses, indicating variability among species. Based on the growth rates of these 10 species, we projected their longevity and, obtained a mean estimated age of 25-200 years. Finally, the low to moderate turnover rates (mean value 0.80% yr(-1 observed among the coralligenous species were in agreement with their low dynamics and persistence. These results offer solid baseline data and reveal that these habitats are among the most vulnerable to the current increases of anthropogenic disturbances.

  5. How to Make a Virtual Landscape with Outcrops for Use in Geoscience Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J.; Gordon, C.; Craven, B.; Robinson, A.; Lloyd, G. E. E.; Morgan, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    We are using screen-based virtual reality landscapes to augment the teaching of basic geological field skills and to enhance 3D visualisation skills. Here we focus on the processes of creating these landscapes, both imagined and real, in the Unity 3D game engine. The virtual landscapes are terrains with embedded data for mapping exercises, or draped geological maps for understanding the 3D interaction of the geology with the topography. The nature of the landscapes built depends on the learning outcomes of the intended teaching exercise. For example, a simple model of two hills and a valley over which to drape a series of different geological maps can be used to enhance the understanding of the 3D interaction of the geology with the topography. A more complex topography reflecting the underlying geology can be used for geological mapping exercises. The process starts with a contour image or DEM, which needs to be converted into RAW files to be imported into Unity. Within Unity itself, there are a series of steps needed to create a world around the terrain (the setting of cameras, lighting, skyboxes etc) before the terrain can be painted with vegetation and populated with assets or before a splatmap of the geology can be added. We discuss how additional features such as a GPS unit or compass can be included. We are also working to create landscapes based on real localities, both in response to the demand for greater realism and to support students unable to access the field due to health or mobility issues. This includes adding 3D photogrammetric images of outcrops into the worlds. This process uses the open source/freeware tools VisualSFM and MeshLab to create files suitable to be imported into Unity. This project is a collaboration between the University of Leeds and Leeds College of Art, UK, and all our virtual landscapes are freely available online at www.see.leeds.ac.uk/virtual-landscapes/.

  6. Vulnerability and Hydrogeologic Risk of the Guarani Aquifer System in the outcropping area located in Rivera Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, J.; Collazo, P.; Auge, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Project named Vulnerability and Hydrogeologic Risk of the Guarani Aquifer System in the outcropping area located in Rivera, Uruguay is developed by the Faculty of Science University of the Republic, together with the Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires, and it is financed by the Guarani Fund of Universities - Project for the Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer System. This project has the aim of researching the characteristics and the hydrogeologic behavior of the Guarani Aquifer in the North portion of Uruguay, Department of Rivera (outcropping area). Moreover, to propose measures directed to their preservation through their sustainable use. The Hydrogeologic Study of the Guarani Aquifer System in this area will contribute not only with the best knowledge in its dynamics, but also helping to take measures in the water management and to avoid potential risks of contamination [es

  7. Evaluation of remotely sensed data for estimating recharge to an outcrop zone of the Guarani Aquifer System (South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Murilo; Oliveira, Paulo T. S.; Melo, Davi C. D.; Wendland, Edson

    2015-08-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest transboundary groundwater reservoir in South America, yet recharge in the GAS outcrop zones is one of the least known hydrological variables. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of using remote sensing data in the water-budget equation for estimating recharge inter-annual patterns in a representative GAS outcropping area. Data were obtained from remotely sensed estimates of precipitation ( P) and evapotranspiration (ET) using TRMM 3B42 V7 and MOD16, respectively, in the Onça Creek watershed in Brazil over the 2004-2012 period. This is an upland flat watershed (slope steepness <1 %) dominated by sandy soils and representative of the GAS outcrop zones. The remote sensing approach was compared to the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method and another water-budget equation using ground-based measurements. On a monthly basis, the TRMM P estimate showed significant agreement with the ground-based P data ( r = 0.93 and RMSE = 41 mm). Mean(±SD) satellite-based recharge ( R sat) was 537(±224) mm year-1. Mean ground-based recharge using the water-budget ( R gr) and the WTF ( R wtf) methods were 469 mm year-1 and 311(±75) mm year-1, respectively. Results show that 440 mm year-1 is a mean (between R sat, R gr and R wtf) recharge for the study area over the 2004-2012 period. The latter mean recharge estimate is about 29 % of the mean historical P (1,514 mm year-1). These results are useful for future studies on assessing recharge in the GAS outcrop zones where data are scarce or nonexistent.

  8. Outcrop-scale fracture trace identification using surface roughness derived from a high-density point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, U.; Glennie, C. L.; Khan, S.

    2017-12-01

    Owing to the advent of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS), high-density point cloud data has become increasingly available to the geoscience research community. Research groups have started producing their own point clouds for various applications, gradually shifting their emphasis from obtaining the data towards extracting more and meaningful information from the point clouds. Extracting fracture properties from three-dimensional data in a (semi-)automated manner has been an active area of research in geosciences. Several studies have developed various processing algorithms for extracting only planar surfaces. In comparison, (semi-)automated identification of fracture traces at the outcrop scale, which could be used for mapping fracture distribution have not been investigated frequently. Understanding the spatial distribution and configuration of natural fractures is of particular importance, as they directly influence fluid-flow through the host rock. Surface roughness, typically defined as the deviation of a natural surface from a reference datum, has become an important metric in geoscience research, especially with the increasing density and accuracy of point clouds. In the study presented herein, a surface roughness model was employed to identify fracture traces and their distribution on an ophiolite outcrop in Oman. Surface roughness calculations were performed using orthogonal distance regression over various grid intervals. The results demonstrated that surface roughness could identify outcrop-scale fracture traces from which fracture distribution and density maps can be generated. However, considering outcrop conditions and properties and the purpose of the application, the definition of an adequate grid interval for surface roughness model and selection of threshold values for distribution maps are not straightforward and require user intervention and interpretation.

  9. Toe-of-slope of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in outcrop, seismic model and offshore seismic data (Apulia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco Gartner, Guido; Morsilli, Michele; Schlager, Wolfgang; Bosellini, Alfonso

    Synthetic seismic models of outcrops in the Early Cretaceous slope of a carbonate platform on the Gargano Promontory (southern Italy) were compared to an offshore seismic section south of the Promontory. Outcrops of the same age on the promontory have the same sequence stratigraphic characteristics as their offshore equivalent, and are the only areas where the transition from platform to basin of Early Cretaceous is exposed on land. Two adjacent outcrop areas were combined into one seismic-scale lithologic model with the aid of photo mosaics, measured sections, and biostratigraphic data. Velocity, density, and porosity measurements on spot samples were used to construct the impedance model. Seismic models were generated by vertical incidence and finite difference programs. The results indicate that the reflections in the seismic model are controlled by the impedance contrast between low porous intervals rich in debris from the platform and highly porous intervals of pelagic lime mudstone, nearly devoid of debris. Finite difference seismic display showed best resemblance with the real seismic data, especially by mapping a drowning unconformity.

  10. Nested Architecture of Pyroclastic Bedforms Generated by a Single Flow Event: Outcrop Examples from the Izu Volcanic Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2009-12-01

    We claim that compound bedforms, where small bedforms (e.g., dunes and antidunes) occur within and around the larger bedforms, are common in pyroclastic-flow deposits, using Quaternary-Holocene outcrop examples from the modern Izu volcanic island chain some 100-150 km SSW of Tokyo. The nested occurrence of bedforms have been well documented for siliciclastic deposits, as exemplified by compound dunes where small dunes (c. cm- dm thick) occur between the avalanche surfaces within larger dunes, indicating that these dunes of different sizes were produced simultaneously. However, compound dunes have rarely been reported from pyroclastic deposits. In contrast, we have discovered that compound dunes are common in pyroclastic flow deposits in the late Pleistocene & Holocene outcrops in Niijima and Oshima of the Izu volcanic island chain. Moreover, these outcrops contain abundant compound antidunes, which have been reported from neither siliciclastic or pyroclastic deposits. This is probably because flume studies, where most of published antidune studies are based, focus on small (c. cm-dm high) antidunes. In Niijima Island, we examined pyroclastic-flow deposits shed from Mt. Miyatsuka (14 ka) and Mt. Mukai (886 A.D.). Both groups of deposits contain abundant antidune stratifications, which commonly form nested structures in a two- or three-fold hierarchy, with subordinate crossbeddings originated from dune migrations. Each class of antidunes is characterized by multiple scour surfaces and vertical aggradations around mounds of lag deposits above erosion surfaces, and typically has both upstream and downstream accretion components with different proportions. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic outcrops of the nearby Oshima Island exhibit similar patterns. The geometry of the accretion surfaces vary significantly in the outcrops of both Niijima and Oshima. Whereas the antidunes dominated by upstream accretion are characterized by (1) gently inclined accretion surface and (2

  11. Fault-related dolomitization in the Vajont Limestone (Southern Alps, Italy): photogrammetric 3D outcrop reconstruction, visualization with textured surfaces, and structural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio; Mozafari, Mahtab; Swennen, Rudy; Solum, John; Taberner, Conxita

    2013-01-01

    The Vajont Gorge (Dolomiti Bellunesi, Italy) provides spectacular outcrops of Jurassic limestones (Vajont Limestone Formation) in which Mesozoic and Alpine faults and fracture corridors are continuously exposed. Some of these faults acted as conduits for fluids, resulting in structurally-controlled dolomitization of the Vajont Limestone, associated with significant porosity increase. We carried out a 3D surface characterization of the outcrops, combining high resolution topography and imaging...

  12. Comparison of 3D point clouds obtained by photogrammetric UAVs and TLS to determine the attitude of dolerite outcrops discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João; Gonçalves, Gil; Duarte, Diogo; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are two emerging technologies that allows the production of dense 3D point clouds of the sensed topographic surfaces. Although image-based stereo-photogrammetric point clouds could not, in general, compete on geometric quality over TLS point clouds, fully automated mapping solutions based on ultra-light UAVs (or drones) have recently become commercially available at very reasonable accuracy and cost for engineering and geological applications. The purpose of this paper is to compare the two point clouds generated by these two technologies, in order to automatize the manual process tasks commonly used to detect and represent the attitude of discontinuities (Stereographic projection: Schmidt net - Equal area). To avoid the difficulties of access and guarantee the data survey security conditions, this fundamental step in all geological/geotechnical studies, applied to the extractive industry and engineering works, has to be replaced by a more expeditious and reliable methodology. This methodology will allow, in a more actuated clear way, give answers to the needs of evaluation of rock masses, by mapping the structures present, which will reduce considerably the associated risks (investment, structures dimensioning, security, etc.). A case study of a dolerite outcrop locate in the center of Portugal (the dolerite outcrop is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones) will be used to assess this methodology. The results obtained show that the 3D point cloud produced by the Photogrammetric UAV platform has the appropriate geometric quality for extracting the parameters that define the discontinuities of the dolerite outcrops. Although, they are comparable to the manual extracted parameters, their quality is inferior to parameters extracted from the TLS point cloud.

  13. DigiFract: A software and data model implementation for flexible acquisition and processing of fracture data from outcrops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebol, N. J.; Bertotti, G.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the development and use of our new DigiFract software designed for acquiring fracture data from outcrops more efficiently and more completely than done with other methods. Fracture surveys often aim at measuring spatial information (such as spacing) directly in the field. Instead, DigiFract focuses on collecting geometries and attributes and derives spatial information through subsequent analyses. Our primary development goal was to support field acquisition in a systematic digital format and optimized for a varied range of (spatial) analyses. DigiFract is developed using the programming interface of the Quantum Geographic Information System (GIS) with versatile functionality for spatial raster and vector data handling. Among other features, this includes spatial referencing of outcrop photos, and tools for digitizing geometries and assigning attribute information through a graphical user interface. While a GIS typically operates in map-view, DigiFract collects features on a surface of arbitrary orientation in 3D space. This surface is overlain with an outcrop photo and serves as reference frame for digitizing geologic features. Data is managed through a data model and stored in shapefiles or in a spatial database system. Fracture attributes, such as spacing or length, is intrinsic information of the digitized geometry and becomes explicit through follow-up data processing. Orientation statistics, scan-line or scan-window analyses can be performed from the graphical user interface or can be obtained through flexible Python scripts that directly access the fractdatamodel and analysisLib core modules of DigiFract. This workflow has been applied in various studies and enabled a faster collection of larger and more accurate fracture datasets. The studies delivered a better characterization of fractured reservoirs analogues in terms of fracture orientation and intensity distributions. Furthermore, the data organisation and analyses provided more

  14. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables

  15. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables.

  16. [Responses of sap flow to natural rainfall and continuous drought of tree species growing on bedrock outcrops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Ding, Ya Li; Chen, Hong Song; Wang, Ke Lin; Nie, Yun Peng

    2018-04-01

    This study focused on bedrock outcrops, a very common habitat in karst region of southwest China. To reveal the responses of plant transpiration to natural rainfall and continuous drought, two tree species typical to this habitat, Radermachera sinica and Triadica rotundifolia, were selected as test materials. A rainout shelter was used to simulate continuous drought. The sap flow dynamics were monitored using the method of Granier's thermal dissipation probe (TDP). Our results showed that sap flow density increased to different degrees after rain in different stages of the growing season. Sap flow density of the deciduous species T. rotundifolia was always higher than that of the semi-deciduous species R. sinica. After two months without rainfall input, both species exhibited no obvious decrease in sap flow density, indicating that rainfall was not the dominant source for their water uptake, at least in the short-term. Based on the regression relationships between sap flow density and meteorological factors before and after rainfall, as well as at different stages of continuous drought, we found that the dynamics of meteorological factors contributed little to plant transpiration. The basic transpiration characteristics of both species were not changed in the circumstance of natural rainfall and short-term continuous drought, which would be closely related to the special water storage environments of bedrock outcrops and the reliance on deep water sources by tree species.

  17. Determining Earthquake Susceptible Areas Southeast of Yogyakarta, Indonesia—Outcrop Analysis from Structure from Motion (SfM and Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Saputra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Located approximately a hundred kilometres north of Java Subduction Zone, Java Island has a complicated geology and geomorphology. The north zone is dominated by the folded area, the centre is dominated by the active volcanic arc and the south of Java including the study area (Southeast part of Yogyakarta City, is dominated by the uplifted southern mountain. In general, the study area is part of the Bantul’s Graben. In the middle part of study area flows the Opak River, which is often associated with normal faults of Opak Fault. The Opak Fault is such a complex fault system which has a complex local fault which can cause worst local site effect when earthquakes occur. However, the geology map of Yogyakarta is the only data that gives the characteristics of Opak Fault roughly. Thus, the effort to identify unchartered fault system needs to be done. The aims of this study are to conduct the outcrop study, to identify the micro faults and to improve the understanding of faults system to support the earthquake hazard and risk assessment. The integrated method of remote sensing, structure from motion (SfM, geographic information system (GIS and direct outcrop observation was conducted in the study area. Remote sensing was applied to recognize the outcrop location and to extract the nature lineament feature which can be used as fault indicator. The structure from motion was used to support characterising the outcrop in the field, to identify the fault evidence, and to measure the fault displacement on the outcrops. The direct outcrop observation is very useful to reveal the lithofacies characteristics and to reconstruct the lithostratigraphic correlation among the outcrops. Meanwhile, GIS was used to analyse all the data from remote sensing, SfM, and direct outcrop observation. The main findings of this study were as follows: the middle part of study area has the most complicated geologic structure. At least 56 faults evidence with the maximum

  18. Palynological and sedimentary analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops of the Itapecuru Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Parnaíba Basin), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Neila N.; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Ramos, Renato R. C.; Carvalho, Ismar S.

    2016-03-01

    The siliciclastic sediments of the Itapecuru Formation occur in a large area of the Parnaíba Basin and its deposits crop out along the Itapecuru River, in Maranhão State, northern Brazil. The palynological analysis of the Igarapé Ipiranga and Querru 1 outcrops strata yields a rich and diversified data. The presence of index-palynofloras in assemblages allows the identification of the Complicatisaccus cearensis Zone, of Late Aptian-Early Albian age. Terrestrial palynomorphs are abundant in the assemblages, being represented by bryophytes and pteridophytes, especially perisporate trilete spores (Crybelosporites and Perotrilites), and gymnosperms and angiosperms (Afropollis and Elaterosporites). The composition of palynological assemblages suggests the presence of moist soils for both outcrops. Acritarchs were recovered in the Querru 1 outcrop, which suggest a marine setting supporting a tidal flat environment indicated by facies associations. Furthermore, reworked Paleozoic palynomorphs were observed in the Querru 1 outcrop. The microflora from Igarapé Ipiranga outcrop suggests terrestrial environment corroborating with floodplain environment indicated by facies association.

  19. Sedimentology and High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation Carbonates Outcrops in the Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Abdulghani, Waleed

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the microfacies and sequence stratigraphic frame work of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation in outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study contributes to the efforts to understand and enhance local and regional stratigraphic relationship and correlation of the Jurassic carbonate sequences and their significance to reservoir description and prediction in the subsurcae. The study describes and characterizes the sedimentology, microfacies and the stratigraphy of Dhruma Formation from outcrop sections having a total thickness of 70 m. Detailed microfacies and high-resolution stratigraphical analysis were carried out to determine microfacies, cyclicity, sequences and staking pattern. The study revealed ten lithofacies namely: oolitic grainstone,bioclastic oolitic grainstone, oolitic grapestone, bioclastic grainstone,foraminiferal packstone, echinoderm packstone, peloidal packstone to grainstone,skeletal wackestone to packstone, mudstone, and marlstone.These lithofacies were grouped into five lithofacies associations that deposited on a carbonate ramp setting. The depositional environment ranging from low energy lagoonal setting to high-energy shoals and banks to low energy outer ramp setting. Five high-resolution composite sequences have been defined and each sequence is composed at the bottom of intercalated mudstone/wackestone that passing up into grainstone lithofacies.The composite sequences range in thickness from 7 to 15 m, while the parasequences range from 0.5 to 1.5 m. The composite sequences extend laterally for a distance of more than 350 m. The overall composite section shows a shallowing upward succession of the 4th to the 5th order high-resolution sequences.The dominant lithofacies are the grainy ones, which constitute 30%, 50% and 80% of the studied sections. Furthermore, the parasequences thickness and their bio-components are increasing towards the top. The muddy lithofacies intensively affected the vertical continuity of the

  20. Infrastructure and mechanical properties of a fault zone in sandstone as an outcrop analogue of a potential geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. F.; Meier, S.; Philipp, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Due to high drilling costs of geothermal projects, it is economically sensible to assess the potential suitability of a reservoir prior to drilling. Fault zones are of particular importance, because they may enhance fluid flow, or be flow barriers, respectively, depending on their particular infrastructure. Outcrop analogue studies are useful to analyze the fault zone infrastructure and thereby increase the predictability of fluid flow behavior across fault zones in the corresponding deep reservoir. The main aims of the present study are to 1) analyze the infrastructure and the differences of fracture system parameters in fault zones and 2) determine the mechanical properties of the faulted rocks. We measure fracture frequencies as well as orientations, lengths and apertures and take representative rock samples for each facies to obtain Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths in the laboratory. Since fractures reduce the stiffnesses of in situ rock masses we use an inverse correlation of the number of discontinuities to calculate effective (in situ) Young's moduli to investigate the variation of mechanical properties in fault zones. In addition we determine the rebound hardness, which correlates with the compressive strength measured in the laboratory, with a 'Schmidt-Hammer' in the field because this allows detailed maps of mechanical property variations within fault zones. Here we present the first results for a fault zone in the Triassic Lower Bunter of the Upper Rhine Graben in France. The outcrop at Cleebourg exposes the damage zone of the footwall and a clear developed fault core of a NNW-SSE-striking normal fault. The approximately 15 m wide fault core consists of fault gouge, slip zones, deformation bands and host rock lenses. Intensive deformation close to the core led to the formation of a distal fault core, a 5 m wide zone with disturbed layering and high fracture frequency. The damage zone also contains more fractures than the host rock

  1. Structural and petrophysical characterization: from outcrop rock analogue to reservoir model of deep geothermal prospect in Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Lionel; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Damy, Pierre-Clément

    2017-04-01

    The Scientific Interest Group (GIS) GEODENERGIES with the REFLET project aims to develop a geological and reservoir model for fault zones that are the main targets for deep geothermal prospects in the West European Rift system. In this project, several areas are studied with an integrated methodology combining field studies, boreholes and geophysical data acquisition and 3D modelling. In this study, we present the results of reservoir rock analogues characterization of one of these prospects in the Valence Graben (Eastern France). The approach used is a structural and petrophysical characterization of the rocks outcropping at the shoulders of the rift in order to model the buried targeted fault zone. The reservoir rocks are composed of fractured granites, gneiss and schists of the Hercynian basement of the graben. The matrix porosity, permeability, P-waves velocities and thermal conductivities have been characterized on hand samples coming from fault zones at the outcrop. Furthermore, fault organization has been mapped with the aim to identify the characteristic fault orientation, spacing and width. The fractures statistics like the orientation, density, and length have been identified in the damaged zones and unfaulted blocks regarding the regional fault pattern. All theses data have been included in a reservoir model with a double porosity model. The field study shows that the fault pattern in the outcrop area can be classified in different fault orders, with first order scale, larger faults distribution controls the first order structural and lithological organization. Between theses faults, the first order blocks are divided in second and third order faults, smaller structures, with characteristic spacing and width. Third order fault zones in granitic rocks show a significant porosity development in the fault cores until 25 % in the most locally altered material, as the damaged zones develop mostly fractures permeabilities. In the gneiss and schists units, the

  2. Differentiating submarine channel-related thin-bedded turbidite facies: Outcrop examples from the Rosario Formation, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Larissa; Callow, Richard; Kane, Ian; Kneller, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Thin-bedded turbidites deposited by sediment gravity flows that spill from submarine channels often contain significant volumes of sand in laterally continuous beds. These can make up over 50% of the channel-belt fill volume, and can thus form commercially important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Thin-bedded turbidites can be deposited in environments that include levees and depositional terraces, which are distinguished on the basis of their external morphology and internal architecture. Levees have a distinctive wedge shaped morphology, thinning away from the channel, and confine both channels (internal levees) and channel-belts (external levees). Terraces are flat-lying features that are elevated above the active channel within a broad channel-belt. Despite the ubiquity of terraces and levees in modern submarine channel systems, the recognition of these environments in outcrop and in the subsurface is challenging. In this outcrop study of the Upper Cretaceous Rosario Formation (Baja California, Mexico), lateral transects based on multiple logged sections of thin-bedded turbidites reveal systematic differences in sandstone layer thicknesses, sandstone proportion, palaeocurrents, sedimentary structures and ichnology between channel-belt and external levee thin-bedded turbidites. Depositional terrace deposits have a larger standard deviation in sandstone layer thicknesses than external levees because they are topographically lower, and experience a wider range of turbidity current sizes overspilling from different parts of the channel-belt. The thickness of sandstone layers within external levees decreases away from the channel-belt while those in depositional terraces are less laterally variable. Depositional terrace environments of the channel-belt are characterized by high bioturbation intensities, and contain distinctive trace fossil assemblages, often dominated by ichnofabrics of the echinoid trace fossil Scolicia. These assemblages contrast with the lower

  3. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico, Semi-Annual; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, Stephen C.; Jennings, James W.; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Outcrop studies include stratigraphic and petrophysical analysis. Analysis of the detailed sequence- and cycle-scale architecture of the Clear Fork reservoir-equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon is nearly complete. This work reveals two high-frequency transgressive-regressive sequences (HFS) in the lower Clear Fork composite depositional sequence and three HFS in the basal middle Clear Fork composite depositional sequence. A 1,800-ft transect of 1-inch-diameter samples was collected from one cycle at the Apache Canyon outcrop. The transect was sampled with 5-ft spacing, but there were some gaps due to cover and cliff, resulting in 181 samples. Permeability, porosity, and grain density were measured, and the spatial statistics are being analyzed geostatistically

  4. Soil ecology of a rock outcrop ecosystem: Abiotic stresses, soil respiration, and microbial community profiles in limestone cedar glades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Advised by Dzantor, E. Kudjo

    2015-01-01

    Limestone cedar glades are a type of rock outcrop ecosystem characterized by shallow soil and extreme hydrologic conditions—seasonally ranging from xeric to saturated—that support a number of plant species of conservation concern. Although a rich botanical literature exists on cedar glades, soil biochemical processes and the ecology of soil microbial communities in limestone cedar glades have largely been ignored. This investigation documents the abiotic stress regime of this ecosystem (shallow soil, extreme hydrologic fluctuations and seasonally high soil surface temperatures) as well as soil physical and chemical characteristics, and relates both types of information to ecological structures and functions including vegetation, soil respiration, and soil microbial community metabolic profiles and diversity. Methods used in this investigation include field observations and measurements of soil physical and chemical properties and processes, laboratory analyses, and microbiological assays of soil samples.

  5. Analyses of outcrop and sediment grains observed and collected from the Sirena Deep and Middle Pond of the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K. P.; Bartlett, D. H.; Fryer, P.

    2012-12-01

    During a March 2012 expedition we recovered sediments from two locales within the Marina Trench - Middle Pond and Sirena Deep. Samples were recovered from a Niskin bottle deployed on a passive lander platform that released an arm after touching down on the seafloor. The impact of the arm holding the Niskin bottle caused sediments to enter the bottle; this process was seen in images and on video captured by the lander. The combination of imagery and preliminary analyses of the sediments indicates that the Sirena Deep locale is a region of serpentinization and active microbial communities. Images show several outcrops consistent with serpentinization, some of which are coated with filamentous microbial mats. Results and analyses of these samples will be presented.

  6. The application of structure from motion (SfM) to identify the geological structure and outcrop studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Aditya; Rahardianto, Trias; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Adequate knowledge of geological structure is an essential for most studies in geoscience, mineral exploration, geo-hazard and disaster management. The geological map is still one the datasets the most commonly used to obtain information about the geological structure such as fault, joint, fold, and unconformities, however in rural areas such as Central Java data is still sparse. Recent progress in data acquisition technologies and computing have increased the interest in how to capture the high-resolution geological data effectively and for a relatively low cost. Some methods such as Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used to obtain this information, however, these methods need a significant investment in hardware, software, and time. Resolving some of those issues, the photogrammetric method structure from motion (SfM) is an image-based method, which can provide solutions equivalent to laser technologies for a relatively low-cost with minimal time, specialization and financial investment. Using SfM photogrammetry, it is possible to generate high resolution 3D images rock surfaces and outcrops, in order to improve the geological understanding of Indonesia. In the present contribution, it is shown that the information about fault and joint can be obtained at high-resolution and in a shorter time than with the conventional grid mapping and remotely sensed topographic surveying. The SfM method produces a point-cloud through image matching and computing. This task can be run with open- source or commercial image processing and 3D reconstruction software. As the point cloud has 3D information as well as RGB values, it allows for further analysis such as DEM extraction and image orthorectification processes. The present paper describes some examples of SfM to identify the fault in the outcrops and also highlight the future possibilities in terms of earthquake hazard assessment, based on

  7. Predicting interwell heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs: Outcrop observations and applications of progressive facies variation through a depositional cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Barton, M.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Nearly 11 billion barrels of mobile oil remain in known domestic fluvial-deltaic reservoirs despite their mature status. A large percentage of this strategic resource is in danger of permanent loss through premature abandonment. Detailed reservoir characterization studies that integrate advanced technologies in geology, geophysics, and engineering are needed to identify remaining resources that can be targeted by near-term recovery methods, resulting in increased production and the postponement of abandonment. The first and most critical step of advanced characterization studies is the identification of reservoir architecture. However, existing subsurface information, primarily well logs, provides insufficient lateral resolution to identify low-permeability boundaries that exist between wells and compartmentalize the reservoir. Methods to predict lateral variability in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs have been developed on the basis of outcrop studies and incorporate identification of depositional setting and position within a depositional cycle. The position of a reservoir within the framework of a depositional cycle is critical. Outcrop studies of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of Utah have demonstrated that the architecture and internal heterogeneity of sandstones deposited within a given depositional setting (for example, delta front) vary greatly depending upon whether they were deposited in the early, progradational part of a cycle or the late, retrogradational part of a cycle. The application of techniques similar to those used by this study in other fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will help to estimate the amount and style of remaining potential in mature reservoirs through a quicklook evaluation, allowing operators to focus characterization efforts on reservoirs that have the greatest potential to yield additional resources.

  8. Structural adaptations of two sympatric epiphytic orchids (Orchidaceae to a cloudy forest environment in rocky outcrops of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of plants in epiphytic environments depends on vegetative adaptations capable to defraud different stresses. Based on the structural diversity of the Orchidaceae, the current study has the objective of relating the anatomical structure of Dichaea cogniauxiana and Epidendrum secundum with the distinct environments where they live. It was expected that, despite structural similarities as strategies for resource acquisition, some peculiar variations related to the distinct light microenvironments (inside or in the edge of the nebular forest, near to “campo rupestre” area might be found. Leaves and roots of both species were collected in a nebular forest located at a “campo rupestre” area at Serra da Piedade, Brazil, in January and February 2005. D. cogniauxiana is adhered to trunks, in sites with high atmospheric humidity and shaded, while E. secundum is located at the edge of the nebular forest, in more luminous sites. The leaves of E. secundum had thicker cuticle and higher number of stomata per area than those of D. cogniauxiana, characteristics coherent with their distinct pattern of exhibition to sun light. The suprastomatic chambers formed by the thicker cuticle may function as a barrier of resistance to water evaporation. The succulence of the leaves of E. secundum propitiates organic acids storage at night, and the storage of starch may be involved in PEP-carboxylase metabolism, both propitiating CAM mechanism. Roots with larger number of cell layers of the velamen, and specialized thick walled cortical cells (both in E. secundum help water absorption and indicate better adaptation to an environment with intense solar radiation and a probable higher water deficit. The remarkable cell wall thickening of E. secundum exodermis can confer more efficient protection against the excess of transpiration at the border of the nebular forest. On the other hand, besides D. cogniauxiana be epiphyte, it is in a low position - in a

  9. The impact of in-situ stress and outcrop-based fracture geometry on hydraulic aperture and upscaled permeability in fractured reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisdom, Kevin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Nick, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    explicitly, we quantify equivalent permeability, i.e. combined matrix and stress-dependent fracture flow. Fracture networks extracted from a large outcropping pavement form the basis of these models. The results show that the angle between fracture strike and σ 1 has a controlling impact on aperture...

  10. Notes on epilithic and epigeic lichens from granite and gneiss outcrops in mountains of Makedonia, Greece, with emphasis on northern species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The epilithic and epigeic lichen flora of eight localities with granite and gneiss outcrops in the mountains of Makedonia, N Greece has been investigated. Of the 46 taxa reported, seven species are new to Greece, viz.: Brodoa oroarcti­ca, Candelariella coralliza, Cetraria ericetorum, Lecanora...

  11. Inheritance of pigmentation patterns in Talinum triangulare (Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The backcross segregated into ratio of 1 light pink: 1 white for petal and filament colours; and a ratio 1 deep pink: 1light pink for stigma colour. The segregation patterns for petal and filament colour in all the generations indicate incomplete dominance of deep pink colour over white colour showing that the same gene ...

  12. Molluscicidal Effects of Talinum triangulare on Bulinus truncatus.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogo Okeke

    The larvae of parasitic trematodes pass part of their life in fresh water. Many aquatic snails ... soaked materials through Whatman No.1 filter paper and allowed to evaporate to dryness. From the .... and Training in Tropical Diseases. John Wiley ...

  13. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution is of paramount importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation along faults at depth. Here we present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). This workflow has been developed on a real case of study: the strike-slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ). It consists of a fault zone exhumed from ca. 10 km depth, hosted in granitoid rocks of Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). Individual seismogenic slip surfaces generally show green cataclasites (cemented by the precipitation of epidote and K-feldspar from hydrothermal fluids) and more or less well preserved pseudotachylytes (black when well preserved, greenish to white when altered). First of all, a digital model for the outcrop is reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs, processed with VisualSFM software. By using high resolution photographs the DOM can have a much higher resolution than with LIDAR surveys, up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Then, image processing is performed to map the fault-rock distribution with the ImageJ-Fiji package. Green cataclasites and epidote/K-feldspar veins can be quite easily separated from the host rock (tonalite) using spectral analysis. Particularly, band ratio and principal component analysis have been tested successfully. The mapping of black pseudotachylyte veins is more tricky because the differences between the pseudotachylyte and biotite spectral signature are not appreciable. For this reason we have tested different morphological processing tools aimed at identifying (and subtracting) the tiny biotite grains. We propose a solution based on binary images involving a combination of size and circularity thresholds. Comparing the results with manually segmented images, we noticed that major problems occur only when pseudotachylyte veins are very thin and discontinuous. After

  14. Mineralogy of Surface Serpentinite Outcrops in the Coast Range Ophiolite: Implications for the Deep Biosphere and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccann, A. R.; Cardace, D.; Carnevale, D.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    California contains a number of ultramafic (Fe- and Mg rich) rock bodies, including the Coast Range Ophiolite, a block of oceanic crust and upper mantle tectonically emplaced onto land. These ultramafic rocks are primarily composed of olivine and pyroxene, both of which are stable at the high temperatures and pressures in the deep subsurface where they crystallize but become unstable at low temperature and low pressure conditions near the surface. They are highly reduced rocks, creating chemical disequilibria, which can theoretically provide energy to chemoautotrophic organisms. Serpentinization (serpentine-forming) reactions between the rocks and water produce hydrogen molecules, which can be metabolized by diverse organisms. Earth and Mars have shown evidence of similar early geologic histories, possibly with widespread reducing habitable environments (Schulte et al., 2006). Recent data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) have shown serpentine-bearing outcrops near Nili Fossae (21 N, 282 W) and elsewhere in Mars' cratered highlands. Serpentine-bearing outcrops are rare, but their presence confirms that such systems involving the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks were active in the past (specifically during the Noachian epoch (older than ~3.7 billion years), possibly producing aqueous habitats suitable for chemoautotrophic life (Ehlmann et al., 2010). Remotely sensed data cannot confirm whether there is active serpentinization on Mars, however exposed, presently serpentinizing ultramafics in terrestrial ophiolites such as those of the California Coast Range provide points of comparison for similar Martian rocks. Volume expansion during serpentinization fractures the host rock, exposing new reaction surfaces, allowing further serpentinization. If subsurface liquid water is present on Mars, serpentinization may still be occurring. We will provide x-ray diffraction and petrographic data for surface serpentinites from the Coast

  15. Stratal Control Volumes and Stratal Control Trajectories: A New Method to Constrain, Understand and Reconcile Results from Stratigraphic Outcrop Analysis, Subsurface Analysis and Analogue and Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, P. M.; Steel, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Decoding a history of Earth's surface dynamics from strata requires robust quantitative understanding of supply and accommodation controls. The concept of stratigraphic solution sets has proven useful in this decoding, but application and development of this approach has so far been surprisingly limited. Stratal control volumes, areas and trajectories are new approaches defined here, building on previous ideas about stratigraphic solution sets, to help analyse and understand the sedimentary record of Earth surface dynamics. They may have particular application reconciling results from outcrop and subsurface analysis with results from analogue and numerical experiments. Stratal control volumes are sets of points in a three-dimensional volume, with axes of subsidence, sediment supply and eustatic rates of change, populated with probabilities derived from analysis of subsidence, supply and eustasy timeseries (Figure 1). These empirical probabilities indicate the likelihood of occurrence of any particular combination of control rates defined by any point in the volume. The stratal control volume can then by analysed to determine which parts of the volume represent relative sea-level fall and rise, where in the volume particular stacking patterns will occur, and how probable those stacking patterns are. For outcrop and subsurface analysis, using a stratal control area with eustasy and subsidence combined on a relative sea-level axis allows similar analysis, and may be preferable. A stratal control trajectory is a history of supply and accommodation creation rates, interpreted from outcrop or subsurface data, or observed in analogue and numerical experiments, and plotted as a series of linked points forming a trajectory through the stratal control volume (Figure 1) or area. Three examples are presented, one from outcrop and two theoretical. Much work remains to be done to build a properly representative database of stratal controls, but careful comparison of stratal

  16. High precision analysis of an embryonic extensional fault-related fold using 3D orthorectified virtual outcrops: The viewpoint importance in structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Corradetti, Amerigo; Billi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Image-based 3D modeling has recently opened the way to the use of virtual outcrop models in geology. An intriguing application of this method involves the production of orthorectified images of outcrops using almost any user-defined point of view, so that photorealistic cross-sections suitable for numerous geological purposes and measurements can be easily generated. These purposes include the accurate quantitative analysis of fault-fold relationships starting from imperfectly oriented and partly inaccessible real outcrops. We applied the method of image-based 3D modeling and orthorectification to a case study from the northern Apennines, Italy, where an incipient extensional fault affecting well-layered limestones is exposed on a 10-m-high barely accessible cliff. Through a few simple steps, we constructed a high-quality image-based 3D model of the outcrop. In the model, we made a series of measurements including fault and bedding attitudes, which allowed us to derive the bedding-fault intersection direction. We then used this direction as viewpoint to obtain a distortion-free photorealistic cross-section, on which we measured bed dips and thicknesses as well as fault stratigraphic separations. These measurements allowed us to identify a slight difference (i.e. only 0.5°) between the hangingwall and footwall cutoff angles. We show that the hangingwall strain required to compensate the upward-decreasing displacement of the fault was accommodated by this 0.5° rotation (i.e. folding) and coeval 0.8% thickening of strata in the hangingwall relatively to footwall strata. This evidence is consistent with trishear fault-propagation folding. Our results emphasize the viewpoint importance in structural geology and therefore the potential of using orthorectified virtual outcrops.

  17. Geodatabase and characteristics of springs within and surrounding the Trinity aquifer outcrops in northern Bexar County, Texas, 2010--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Pedraza, Diana E.; Morris, Robert R.; Garcia, Travis J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Trinity Glen Rose Groundwater Conservation District, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, and the San Antonio River Authority, developed a geodatabase of springs within and surrounding the Trinity aquifer outcrops in a 331-square-mile study area in northern Bexar County, Texas. The data used to develop the geodatabase were compiled from existing reports and databases, along with spring data collected between October 2010 and September 2011. Characteristics including the location, discharge, and water-quality properties were collected for known springs and documented in the geodatabase. A total of 141 springs were located within the study area, and 46 springs were field verified. The discharge at springs with flow ranged from 0.003 to 1.46 cubic feet per second. The specific conductance of the water discharging from the springs ranged from 167 to 1,130 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius with a majority of values in the range of 500 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius.

  18. Shallow aquifer response to climate change scenarios in a small catchment in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Davi C D; Wendland, Edson

    2017-05-01

    Water availability restrictions are already a reality in several countries. This issue is likely to worsen due to climate change, predicted for the upcoming decades. This study aims to estimate the impacts of climate change on groundwater system in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models (GCM) outputs were used as inputs to a water balance model, which produced recharge estimates for the groundwater model. Recharge was estimated across different land use types considering a control period from 2004 to 2014, and a future period from 2081 to 2099. Major changes in monthly rainfall means are expected to take place in dry seasons. Most of the analysed scenarios predict increase of more than 2 ºC in monthly mean temperatures. Comparing the control and future runs, our results showed a mean recharge change among scenarios that ranged from ~-80 to ~+60%, depending on the land use type. As a result of such decrease in recharge rates, the response given by the groundwater model indicates a lowering of the water table under most scenarios.

  19. Structure and Filling Characteristics of Paleokarst Reservoirs in the Northern Tarim Basin, Revealed by Outcrop, Core and Borehole Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Fei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ordovician paleokarst reservoirs in the Tahe oilfield, with burial depths of over 5300 m, experienced multiple phases of geologic processes and exhibit strong heterogeneity. Core testing can be used to analyse the characteristics of typical points at the centimetre scale, and seismic datasets can reveal the macroscopic outlines of reservoirs at the >10-m scale. However, neither method can identify caves, cave fills and fractures at the meter scale. Guided by outcrop investigations and calibrations based on core sample observations, this paper describes the interpretation of high longitudinal resolution borehole images, the identification of the characteristics of caves, cave fills (sedimentary, breccia and chemical fills and fractures in single wells, and the identification of structures and fill characteristics at the meter scale in the strongly heterogeneous paleokarst reservoirs. The paleogeomorphology, a major controlling factor in the distribution of paleokarst reservoirs, was also analysed. The results show that one well can penetrate multiple cave layers of various sizes and that the caves are filled with multiple types of fill. The paleogeomorphology can be divided into highlands, slopes and depressions, which controlled the structure and fill characteristics of the paleokarst reservoirs. The results of this study can provide fundamental meter-scale datasets for interpreting detailed geologic features of deeply buried paleocaves, can be used to connect core- and seismic-scale interpretations, and can provide support for the recognition and development of these strongly heterogeneous reservoirs.

  20. In situ measurement system of electric resistivity for outcrop investigation; Roto de shiyodekiru denkihi teiko keisoku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K; Tamura, T [Osaka City Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Morikawa, T [Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A simplified electrical resistivity measuring device has been developed as a trial for field and laboratory uses, and some measurements were conducted. For this device, four probe electrodes are penetrated in the clay specimen, to calculate the resistivity from the voltage between both ends of the reference resistance connected with current electrodes in a series and the voltage between intermediate two voltage electrodes. It can be used in the field measurements. For the measurements, specimens of marine and lacustrine clayey sediments with clear stratigraphic levels in southern Osaka Group were used. In the laboratory, in addition to basic physical tests, diatom analysis and measurements of conductivity of clay suspension were also conducted. As a result of the experiments, the electric resistivity of marine clay obtained at the outcrop was lower than lacustrine clay as expected. The value of the former was a half of that of the latter. The frequency dependence in the high frequency region above 1 MHz was the reverse. The difference in electrical resistivity values between non-agitated specimens was about four times. The electrical resistivity of clay suspensions varied in two orders. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  1. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  2. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK UMBI AKAR GINSENG JAWA (Talinum triangulare Willd. [Antioxidant Activity of Javanese Ginseng (Talinum triangulare Willd. Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of some extracts of javanese ginseng root was investigated. Javanese ginseng root extracts were prepared by solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol (96%, ethanol (70%, acetone, and hexane. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by ferric thiocyanate method, whereas radical scavenging capacity and reducing power were measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing potential methods, respectively. The result showed that the highest total antioxidant activity was observed in acetone and methanol extracts. It was supposed that the ability of these extracts for partitioning at the interface of the emulsion in the tested oxidation system was the highest among other extracts, therefore it had the best activity to inhibit oxidation. The highest radical scavenging capacity measured by EC50 was observed in acetone extract. The type of phenolic compounds of this extract was suggested to be responsible for the highest radical scavenging capacity. Different phenomena occurred for reducing power. Methanol extract had the highest reducing power and the least is hexane and acetone extract. It was suggested that each extracts comprised different types of phenolic based on different polarity of solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant compounds of javanese ginseng root extracts were primary antioxidant based on these ability to scavenge free radical. It could be concluded that acetone was the best solvent for antioxidant extraction of javanese ginseng root. However, all tested antioxidant mechanisms in this research showed that vitamin E (1000 ppm had better activity than javanese ginseng root extracts (1000 ppm for all types of solvent. Javanese ginseng extracts might contain other compounds that not responsible for antioxidant activity, therefore at the same concentration the activity were lower than vitamin E.

  3. Metal availability in technosols prepared with composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop affected by the presence of barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Alejandro; Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge (SSC), and limestone outcrop residue (LOR), is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Both wastes are used to improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of impoverished soils (Karaca 2004; Jordão et al. 2006; Lovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost may have some negative effects on the environment (Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004; Elridge et al. 2009). Moreover, plants cultivated in technosols can produced changes on the availability of essential and harmful metals and, for this reason, is necessary to made studies to evaluate the availability of metals and the effect of plants in their mobility and toxicity. In this experiment, it has been analyzed the effect of barley in metals availability in four technosols prepared mixing volumes of LOR (100, 98, 95 and 90 %) and SSC (0, 2, 5 and 10%). To determine the solubility and availability, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured by Lindsay-Norvell extraction procedure. For each technosoil, tree pots with barley (three plants) and three without barley were checked after 3 months A of them were irrigated with 1.5 L/week of tap water. At the end of this time, the metal solubility and availability were higher in soils with the presence of barley than the others. This was especially notorious for Fe and Zn. The presence of root exudates and the reduction of lixiviation due to plant transpiration can explain the highest presence of metals. This result may be considered in rhizosphere related to possible metal toxicity. Keywords: compost, limestone outcrop residues, heavy metals, barley. References: Eldridge SM, Chan KY, Barchia I, Pengelly PK, Katupitiya S, Davis JM (2009) A comparison of surface applied granulated biosolids and poultry litter in terms of risk to runoff water quality on turf farms in Western Sydney, Australia. Agr Ecosyst Environ doi:10.1016/j.agee.2009.07.007 Iovieno

  4. Volcanic settings and their reservoir potential: An outcrop analog study on the Miocene Tepoztlán Formation, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2011-07-01

    The reservoir potential of volcanic and associated sedimentary rocks is less documented in regard to groundwater resources, and oil and gas storage compared to siliciclastic and carbonate systems. Outcrop analog studies within a volcanic setting enable to identify spatio-temporal architectural elements and geometric features of different rock units and their petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, which are important information for reservoir characterization. Despite the wide distribution of volcanic rocks in Mexico, their reservoir potential has been little studied in the past. In the Valley of Mexico, situated 4000 m above the Neogene volcanic rocks, groundwater is a matter of major importance as more than 20 million people and 42% of the industrial capacity of the Mexican nation depend on it for most of their water supply. Here, we present porosity and permeability data of 108 rock samples representing five different lithofacies types of the Miocene Tepoztlán Formation. This 800 m thick formation mainly consists of pyroclastic rocks, mass flow and fluvial deposits and is part of the southern Transmexican Volcanic Belt, cropping out south of the Valley of Mexico and within the two states of Morelos and Mexico State. Porosities range from 1.4% to 56.7%; average porosity is 24.8%. Generally, permeabilities are low to median (0.2-933.3 mD) with an average permeability of 88.5 mD. The lavas are characterized by the highest porosity values followed by tuffs, conglomerates, sandstones and tuffaceous breccias. On the contrary, the highest permeabilities can be found in the conglomerates, followed by tuffs, tuffaceous breccias, sandstones and lavas. The knowledge of these petrophysical rock properties provides important information on the reservoir potential of volcanic settings to be integrated to 3D subsurface models.

  5. Classification and sedimentary characteristics of lacustrine hyperpycnal channels: Triassic outcrops in the south Ordos Basin, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Benzhong; Wang, Junhui; Gong, Chenglin; Yin, Yu; Chao, Chuzhi; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Guodong; Yan, Qi

    2018-06-01

    Subaquatic channels are known as active conduits for the delivery of terrigenous sediments into related marine and lacustrine basins, as well as important targets for hydrocarbon exploration. Compared to submarine channels, lacustrine subaqueous channels created by hyperpycnal flows are understudied. Using well-exposed outcrops collected from three different locations in the southern Ordos Basin, central China, morphologies and architecture of a channelized hyperpycnal system were studied and classified. Six facies associations represent sedimentary processes from strong erosion by bedload dominated hyperpycnal flows, to transitional deposition jointly controlled by bedload and suspended-load dominated hyperpycnal flows, finally to deposition from suspended-load dominated hyperpycnal flows. On the basis of channel morphologies, infilling sediments and sedimentary processes, the documented channels can be classified into four main categories, which are erosional, bedload dominated, suspended-load dominated, and depositional channels. In very proximal and very distal locations, erosional channels and depositional channels serve as two end-members, while in middle areas, bedload-dominated channels and suspended-load dominated channels are transitional types. Erosional channels, as a response to strong erosion from bedload dominated hyperpycnal flows on upper slope, were mainly filled by mud interbedded with thin sand beds. As flow energy decreases, bedload dominated channels develop on middle slopes, which are characterized mainly by under- to balanced sediment infillings with cross-bedded sandstones and/or minor massive sandstones. Compared to bedload dominated channels, suspended-load dominated channels mainly develop in deeper water, and were filled mainly by massive or planar-laminated sandstones. Depositional channels, as a response to suspended-load dominated hyperpycnal flows in deep-water areas, are characterized by thin-medium bed classical turbidites with

  6. WheelerLab: An interactive program for sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic sections, outcrops and well sections and the generation of chronostratigraphic sections and dynamic chronostratigraphic sections

    OpenAIRE

    Adewale Amosu; Yuefeng Sun

    2017-01-01

    WheelerLab is an interactive program that facilitates the interpretation of stratigraphic data (seismic sections, outcrop data and well sections) within a sequence stratigraphic framework and the subsequent transformation of the data into the chronostratigraphic domain. The transformation enables the identification of significant geological features, particularly erosional and non-depositional features that are not obvious in the original seismic domain. Although there are some software produ...

  7. Facies Analysis and Sequence Stratigraphy of Missole Outcrops: N’Kapa Formation of the South-Eastern Edge of Douala Sub-Basin (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwetche , Paul; Ntamak-Nida , Marie Joseph; Nitcheu , Adrien Lamire Djomeni; Etame , Jacques; Owono , François Mvondo; Mbesse , Cecile Olive; Kissaaka , Joseph Bertrand Iboum; Ngon , Gilbert Ngon; Bourquin , Sylvie; Bilong , Paul

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Missole facies description and sequence stratigraphy analysis allow a new proposal of depositional environments of the Douala sub-basin eastern part. The sediments of Missole outcrops (N’kapa Formation) correspond to fluvial/tidal channel to shallow shelf deposits with in some place embayment deposits within a warm and semi-arid climate. Integrated sedimentologic, palynologic and mineralogical data document a comprehensive sequence stratigraphy of this part of the Doua...

  8. Using Drone Imagery and Photogrammetry to Map Basin Stratigraphy and Structures Exposed in Mine, Road, and Arroyo Outcrops, Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banes, A.; Alvarez Ortega, K. G.; Henry, M.; Niemi, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 Baja Basins Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU), a DJI Phantom 3 Advanced Quadcopter drone equipped with a GPS-enabled, 12 Megapixel camera was manually flown to collect aerial photographs of several geologic outcrops on the Minera Boléo and Lucifer mines in central Baja California Sur. The strip mine faces, roadcuts, and arroyos exposed Neogene to Quaternary sediments of the Santa Rosalía basin including the basal Cu-Zn-Mn-Co-bearing Miocene Boléo Formation that is actively being mined. It is overlain by Plio-Quaternary marine and non-marine deposits. Photographs were collected with a 70% overlap and processed into geographically-referenced, orthophotomosaics using Agisoft Photoscan. The output models have an adequate resolution for viewing bedding and fault characteristics. Measurements can be made inside the 3D models, making drones a useful tool for studying the geometry of stratigraphic, structural, and geomorphologic features. The studied sites included: 1) roadcuts on Mesa Soledad that exposed oblique-slip faults and syntectonically deposited non-marine and marine conglomerates and sandy, fossil-rich Pliocene beach sediment; 2) outcrops of the Boléo Fm in the Texcoco mine area that showed the detailed stratigraphic relationship between ore seams (mantos) and faults; 3) outcrops where sandstone samples were collected for detrital zircon geochronology; 4) strip mine 3120 that exposed faults and folds in the Boléo Formation; and 5) faults in Miocene volcanic rocks in the Arroyo Infierno near the Lucifer mine. This study shows that photogrammetry and modeling of geologic structures exposed in mine and road outcrops can provide useful information for reconstructing basin architecture and clarifying structural evolution of the Santa Rosalia Basin.

  9. Estimating groundwater recharge in the outcrop area of the Guarani Aquifer System; Estimativa de recarga subterranea en area de afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M. C.; Guanabara, R. C.; Wendland, E.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) is one of the most important groundwater reservoirs in South America. Its main groundwater recharge occurs in the outcrop areas of the Botucatu and Piramboia formations. In these areas groundwater input, such as the infiltration of precipitation, is controlled mainly by climatic characteristics, soil proprieties and land use in the area. We provide here an estimation of the annual recharge into the Ribeirao da Onca basin, located in an outcrop area of the GAS, resulting from data collected during monitoring from September 2004 until August 2011. Fluctuations in the water table were measured at 11 piezometers, sited in different crops areas. Processing techniques for multispectral images were used to map land use. Recharge was estimated by a local-scale method (water-table fluctuation, WTF). Recharge estimates for areas with citrus and eucalyptus proved to be lower than for areas under grassland and sugar cane. Annual recharge rates estimated for the entire watershed ranged from 80 mm to 359 mm for annual precipitations of 1,175.5 mm and 1,807.7 mm. The assessment of recharge in outcrop areas is essential for a suitable future exploitation of the GAS. (Author)

  10. Stable isotope (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb distribution along a Cambrian outcrop section in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China and its geochemical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geochemical features of the lower Paleozoic strata of Yaerdang Mountain outcrop along with the core samples from well TD2∈ in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China. The total organic carbon abundance, hydrocarbon-generating precursor biospecies, and stable isotope ratios of organics and carbonate (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb were comprehensively studied for their possible correlative constraints during sedimentary evolution. The results revealed that the δ13Cker (VPDB of Cambrian kerogens along the outcrop section varied from −34.6‰ to −28.4‰, indicating an increasing tendency from the lower Cambrian to the upper Cambrian. This was on the whole accompanied by the variation in the δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb along the profile, which might be associated with the changes in the sea level and also in the compositional variation of benthic and planktonic biomass. The large variation in the stable carbon isotope ratios up to 6‰ along the outcrop section reflected the heterogeneity of the Cambrian source rocks from the eastern Tarim Basin. Hence, the 13C-enriched crude oils from well TD2∈ might have been derived from a localized stratum of Cambrian source rocks. The results from this study showed the possibility of multiple source kitchens in the Cambrian–lower Ordovician portion of Tarim Basin.

  11. Using unmanned aerial vehicles and structure-from-motion photogrammetry to characterize sedimentary outcrops: An example from the Morrison Formation, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, J. T.; Leier, A. L.; White, S.; Torres, R.

    2017-06-01

    Recently developed data collection techniques allow for improved characterization of sedimentary outcrops. Here, we outline a workflow that utilizes unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry to produce sub-meter-scale outcrop reconstructions in 3-D. SfM photogrammetry uses multiple overlapping images and an image-based terrain extraction algorithm to reconstruct the location of individual points from the photographs in 3-D space. The results of this technique can be used to construct point clouds, orthomosaics, and digital surface models that can be imported into GIS and related software for further study. The accuracy of the reconstructed outcrops, with respect to an absolute framework, is improved with geotagged images or independently gathered ground control points, and the internal accuracy of 3-D reconstructions is sufficient for sub-meter scale measurements. We demonstrate this approach with a case study from central Utah, USA, where UAV-SfM data can help delineate complex features within Jurassic fluvial sandstones.

  12. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy from outcrops of the Kribi-Campo sub-basin: Lower Mundeck Formation (Lower Cretaceous, southern Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntamak-Nida, Marie Joseph; Bourquin, Sylvie; Makong, Jean-Claude; Baudin, François; Mpesse, Jean Engelbert; Ngouem, Christophe Itjoko; Komguem, Paul Bertrand; Abolo, Guy Martin

    2010-08-01

    The Kribi-Campo sub-basin is composed of an Early to Mid Cretaceous series from West Africa's Atlantic coast and is located in southern Cameroon in the Central African equatorial rain forest. It is the smallest coastal basin in Cameroon and forms the southern part of the Douala/Kribi-Campo basin known as Douala basin ( s.l.). Until now, no detailed sedimentological studies have been carried out on the outcrops of this basin located in the Campo area. The aim of this study was to characterise the depositional environments, vertical evolution and tectonic context of these Lower Cretaceous series in order to make a comparison with adjacent basins and replace them in the geodynamic context. Facies analysis of the Lower Mundeck Formation (Lower Cretaceous) indicates the presence of four major, interfigered facies associations, that are inferred to represent elements of an alluvial to lacustrine-fan delta system. The clast lithologies suggest proximity of relief supplying coarse-grained sediment during the deposition of the Lower Mundeck Formation at Campo. The general dip and direction of the bedding is approximately 10°-12°NW, which also corresponds to the orientation of the foliations in the underlying metamorphic basement. The main sedimentary succession is characterised by a major retrogradational/progradational cycle of Late Aptian age, evaluated at about 3 Ma, with a well-developed progradational trend characterised by fluctuations of the recognised depositional environments. Fluctuations in lake level and sediment supply were possibly controlled by active faults at the basin margin, although climatic changes may have also played a role. The consistently W-WNW palaeoflow of sediments suggests that the palaeorelief was located to the east and could be oriented in a NNE-SSW direction, downthrown to the west. Local outcrops dated as Albian, both north and south of the main outcrop, display some marine influence. These deposits are cut by 040-060 faults parallel to

  13. Origins and Geochemistry of Oolitic Dolomite of the Feixianguan Formation from the Yudongzi Outcrop, Northwest Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of dolomite formation has long presented a challenge to researchers. In this study, the origin of widely occurring oolitic dolomites from the Yudongzi outcrop in the lower Triassic Feixianguan formation in northwest Sichuan, China, was investigated through petrographic observations, and mineralogical and geochemical analysis. Analytical methods used include cathodoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, stable isotopes, and electronic microprobe characterization. The dolomites were categorized into three major genetic types according to their textural and structural characteristics, which reflect their various origins. The first genetic type of these dolomites, seepage reflux dolomitization, occurs in marly to microcrystalline dolomite during the penecontemporaneous stage, and displays negatively skewed δ18Ο (−2.83‰ Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB, positively skewed δ13C (2.71‰ PDB, a low degree of order (0.48, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.707509–0.707634, indicating involvement of a Mg-rich brine fluid in an open evaporative environment. The second type, shallow burial dolomitization, is the most significant genetic type of dolomite reservoir in this area. This process produced dominantly silty to fine crystalline dolomite in a platform-margin oolitic beach facies with negatively skewed δ18Ο (−3.26‰ PDB, positively skewed δ13C (1.88‰ PDB, a high degree of order (0.70, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.707318–0.707661, which are related to seawater-derived fluids in a shallow burial environment. The third type is moderate to deep burial dolomitization, and is the main process responsible for zoned dolomite and dolomite with cloudy cores and clear rims (CCCR dolomite, which have the most strongly negatively skewed δ18Ο (−7.32‰ PDB, positively skewed δ13C (3.02‰ PDB, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.707217–0.707855, representing diagenetic alteration and fluid flow in a closed environment. These findings indicate that dolomite was likely

  14. Mechanical-Stratigraphic Characterization of the Eagle Ford Formation in Outcrop and Core, McMullen and Terrell Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Chester, J. S.; Chester, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this project is to characterize the geomechanical properties of individual and composite lithologic units over length scales of decimeter to tens of meters. We have characterized the stratigraphy and lithology of the Eagle Ford Formation in outcrops at Lozier and Antonio Canyons of West TX, and in core taken at 3.2 km depth in McMullen County, TX. Dominant lithologies examined include reworked ash layers, argillaceous mudstone, organic-rich mudstone, foraminifera wackestone, packstone, pyritic packstone, and foraminifera/dolomitic packstone-grainstone. Samples of these units are deformed in triaxial compression at 1- 40 MPa confining pressure (Pc), and room temperature and humidity. The elastic properties, pre-fracture yielding (ductility), and fracture strength are primarily a function of particle size, texture (degree of mud versus grain support), and composition. Young's Modulus (YM) and Poison's Ratio (PR) increase similarly with an increase in grain-support and carbonate content, and a decrease in organic matter and clay. The greatest change occurs at the transition from mud-supported to grain-supported textures where YM and PR increase by a factor of 3 and 1.5, respectively. Both YM and PR can display anisotropy with directional variation of 30%, most notably in micro-laminated units, but also in the more massive pyritic packstones. Overall, pre-fracture ductility decreases with an increase in carbonate content; ductile strain in the argillaceous- and organic-rich-mudstones is 1.4%, 3-4 times greater than that in the packstone/grainstone. Fracture strength increases with an increase in carbonate content and a decrease in clay content. The organic rich mudstone fails at 130 MPa, is nearly 2 times stronger than argillaceous mudstones, and 50% weaker than packstone/grainstones at 1 MPa Pc. The angle of internal friction is 45 degrees for all lithologies, consistent with a transition in fracture from opening- to shear-mode between 1 to 15 MPa Pc

  15. Utilizing an Artificial Outcrop to Scaffold Learning Between Laboratory and Field Experiences in a College-Level Introductory Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meredith

    Geologic field trips are among the most beneficial learning experiences for students as they engage the topic of geology, but they are also difficult environments to maximize learning. This action research study explored one facet of the problems associated with teaching geology in the field by attempting to improve the transition of undergraduate students from a traditional laboratory setting to an authentic field environment. Utilizing an artificial outcrop, called the GeoScene, during an introductory college-level non-majors geology course, the transition was studied. The GeoScene was utilized in this study as an intermediary between laboratory and authentic field based experiences, allowing students to apply traditional laboratory learning in an outdoor environment. The GeoScene represented a faux field environment; outside, more complex and tangible than a laboratory, but also simplified geologically and located safely within the confines of an educational setting. This exploratory study employed a mixed-methods action research design. The action research design allowed for systematic inquiry by the teacher/researcher into how the students learned. The mixed-methods approach garnered several types of qualitative and quantitative data to explore phenomena and support conclusions. Several types of data were collected and analyzed, including: visual recordings of the intervention, interviews, analytic memos, student reflections, field practical exams, and a pre/post knowledge and skills survey, to determine whether the intervention affected student comprehension and interpretation of geologic phenomena in an authentic field environment, and if so, how. Students enrolled in two different sections of the same laboratory course, sharing a common lecture, participated in laboratory exercises implementing experiential learning and constructivist pedagogies that focused on learning the basic geological skills necessary for work in a field environment. These laboratory

  16. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  17. Measurement of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity on fractured rock outcrops near Altamura (Southern Italy) with an adjustable large ring infiltrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Maria C.; de Carlo, L.; Masciopinto, C.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, field studies set up to measure field-saturated hydraulic conductivity to evaluate contamination risks, have employed small cylinders that may not be representative of the scale of measurements in heterogeneous media. In this study, a large adjustable ring infiltrometer was designed to be installed on-site directly on rock to measure its field-saturated hydraulic conductivity. The proposed device is inexpensive and simple to implement, yet also very versatile, due to its large adjustable diameter that can be fixed on-site. It thus allows an improved representation of the natural system's heterogeneity, while also taking into consideration irregularities in the soil/rock surface. The new apparatus was tested on an outcrop of karstic fractured limestone overlying the deep Murge aquifer in the South of Italy, which has recently been affected by untreated sludge disposal, derived from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. The quasi-steady vertical flow into the unsaturated fractures was investigated by measuring water levels during infiltrometer tests. Simultaneously, subsurface electrical resistivity measurements were used to visualize the infiltration of water in the subsoil, due to unsaturated water flow in the fractures. The proposed experimental apparatus works well on rock outcrops, and allows the repetition of infiltration tests at many locations in order to reduce model uncertainties in heterogeneous media. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  18. WheelerLab: An interactive program for sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic sections, outcrops and well sections and the generation of chronostratigraphic sections and dynamic chronostratigraphic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosu, Adewale; Sun, Yuefeng

    WheelerLab is an interactive program that facilitates the interpretation of stratigraphic data (seismic sections, outcrop data and well sections) within a sequence stratigraphic framework and the subsequent transformation of the data into the chronostratigraphic domain. The transformation enables the identification of significant geological features, particularly erosional and non-depositional features that are not obvious in the original seismic domain. Although there are some software products that contain interactive environments for carrying out chronostratigraphic analysis, none of them are open-source codes. In addition to being open source, WheelerLab adds two important functionalities not present in currently available software: (1) WheelerLab generates a dynamic chronostratigraphic section and (2) WheelerLab enables chronostratigraphic analysis of older seismic data sets that exist only as images and not in the standard seismic file formats; it can also be used for the chronostratigraphic analysis of outcrop images and interpreted well sections. The dynamic chronostratigraphic section sequentially depicts the evolution of the chronostratigraphic chronosomes concurrently with the evolution of identified genetic stratal packages. This facilitates a better communication of the sequence-stratigraphic process. WheelerLab is designed to give the user both interactive and interpretational control over the transformation; this is most useful when determining the correct stratigraphic order for laterally separated genetic stratal packages. The program can also be used to generate synthetic sequence stratigraphic sections for chronostratigraphic analysis.

  19. WheelerLab: An interactive program for sequence stratigraphic analysis of seismic sections, outcrops and well sections and the generation of chronostratigraphic sections and dynamic chronostratigraphic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Amosu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available WheelerLab is an interactive program that facilitates the interpretation of stratigraphic data (seismic sections, outcrop data and well sections within a sequence stratigraphic framework and the subsequent transformation of the data into the chronostratigraphic domain. The transformation enables the identification of significant geological features, particularly erosional and non-depositional features that are not obvious in the original seismic domain. Although there are some software products that contain interactive environments for carrying out chronostratigraphic analysis, none of them are open-source codes. In addition to being open source, WheelerLab adds two important functionalities not present in currently available software: (1 WheelerLab generates a dynamic chronostratigraphic section and (2 WheelerLab enables chronostratigraphic analysis of older seismic data sets that exist only as images and not in the standard seismic file formats; it can also be used for the chronostratigraphic analysis of outcrop images and interpreted well sections. The dynamic chronostratigraphic section sequentially depicts the evolution of the chronostratigraphic chronosomes concurrently with the evolution of identified genetic stratal packages. This facilitates a better communication of the sequence-stratigraphic process. WheelerLab is designed to give the user both interactive and interpretational control over the transformation; this is most useful when determining the correct stratigraphic order for laterally separated genetic stratal packages. The program can also be used to generate synthetic sequence stratigraphic sections for chronostratigraphic analysis.

  20. Quantitative analysis of digital outcrop data obtained from stereo-imagery using an emulator for the PanCam camera system for the ExoMars 2020 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert; Gupta, Sanjeev; Gunn, Matt; Paar, Gerhard; Balme, Matt; Huber, Ben; Bauer, Arnold; Furya, Komyo; Caballo-Perucha, Maria del Pilar; Traxler, Chris; Hesina, Gerd; Ortner, Thomas; Banham, Steven; Harris, Jennifer; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu

    2017-04-01

    A key focus of planetary rover missions is to use panoramic camera systems to image outcrops along rover traverses, in order to characterise their geology in search of ancient life. This data can be processed to create 3D point clouds of rock outcrops to be quantitatively analysed. The Mars Utah Rover Field Investigation (MURFI 2016) is a Mars Rover field analogue mission run by the UK Space Agency (UKSA) in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). It took place between 22nd October and 13th November 2016 and consisted of a science team based in Harwell, UK, and a field team including an instrumented Rover platform at the field site near Hanksville (Utah, USA). The Aberystwyth University PanCam Emulator 3 (AUPE3) camera system was used to collect stereo panoramas of the terrain the rover encountered during the field trials. Stereo-imagery processed in PRoViP is rendered as Ordered Point Clouds (OPCs) in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the 3D outcrop model. Interpretations can be digitised directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements can be taken of the dimensions of the outcrop and sedimentary features, including grain size. Dip and strike of bedding planes, stratigraphic and sedimentological boundaries and fractures is calculated within PRo3D from mapped bedding contacts and fracture traces. Merging of rover-derived imagery with UAV and orbital datasets, to build semi-regional multi-resolution 3D models of the area of operations for immersive analysis and contextual understanding. In-simulation, AUPE3 was mounted onto the rover mast, collecting 16 stereo panoramas over 9 'sols'. 5 out-of-simulation datasets were collected in the Hanksville-Burpee Quarry. Stereo panoramas were processed using an automated pipeline and data transfer through an ftp server. PRo3D has been used for visualisation and analysis of this stereo data. Features of interest in the area could be annotated, and their distances between to the rover

  1. Raman-Mössbauer-XRD studies of selected samples from "Los Azulejos" outcrop: A possible analogue for assessing the alteration processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, E. A.; Sanz-Arranz, A.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Sansano, A.; Medina, J.; Schmanke, D.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rull, F.

    2016-06-01

    The outcrop of "Los Azulejos" is visible at the interior of the Cañadas Caldera in Tenerife Island (Spain). It exhibits a great variety of alteration processes that could be considered as terrestrial analogue for several geological processes on Mars. This outcrop is particularly interesting due to the content of clays, zeolite, iron oxides, and sulfates corresponding to a hydrothermal alteration catalogued as "Azulejos" type alteration. A detailed analysis by portable and laboratory Raman systems as well as other different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been carried out (using twin-instruments from Martian lander missions: Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS-II from the NASA-MER mission of 2001 and the XRD diffractometer from the NASA-MSL Curiosity mission of 2012). The mineral identification presents the following mineral species: magnetite, goethite, hematite, anatase, rutile, quartz, gregoryite, sulfate (thenardite and hexahydrite), diopside, feldspar, analcime, kaolinite and muscovite. Moreover, the in-situ Raman and Micro-Raman measurements have been performed in order to compare the capabilities of the portable system specially focused for the next ESA Exo-Mars mission. The mineral detection confirms the sub-aerial alteration on the surface and the hydrothermal processes by the volcanic fluid circulations in the fresh part. Therefore, the secondary more abundant mineralization acts as the color agent of the rocks. Thus, the zeolite-illite group is the responsible for the bluish coloration, as well as the feldspars and carbonates for the whitish and the iron oxide for the redish parts. The XRD system was capable to detect a minor proportion of pyroxene, which is not visible by Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy due to the "Azulejos" alteration of the parent material on the outcrop. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy was capable of detecting different types of iron-oxides (Fe3+/2+-oxide phases). These analyses

  2. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization of cycle and facies architecture on lower Clear Fork and lowermost upper Clear Fork equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon of Sierra Diablo was complete. The focus of detailed study in Apache Canyon has been the upper Clear Fork section because this interval contains the productive interval in South Wasson field, the preliminary subsurface study area. Parts of three high-frequency sequences (HFS), each 60 to 100 ft thick, are present on the south wall of Apache Canyon. HFS's display an upper-deepening or backstepping pattern associated with longer-term sea level rise. Each HFS is composed of upward-shallowing cycles whose thickness, facies composition, and continuity vary within and between HFS's

  3. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  4. 3D Spatial and Spectral Fusion of Terrestrial Hyperspectral Imagery and Lidar for Hyperspectral Image Shadow Restoration Applied to a Geologic Outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, P. J.; Glennie, C. L.; Hauser, D. L.; Okyay, U.; Khan, S.; Finnegan, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology have expanded the acquisition and fusion of active lidar and passive hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from an exclusively airborne technique to terrestrial modalities. This enables high resolution 3D spatial and spectral quantification of vertical geologic structures for applications such as virtual 3D rock outcrop models for hydrocarbon reservoir analog analysis and mineral quantification in open pit mining environments. In contrast to airborne observation geometry, the vertical surfaces observed by horizontal-viewing terrestrial HSI sensors are prone to extensive topography-induced solar shadowing, which leads to reduced pixel classification accuracy or outright removal of shadowed pixels from analysis tasks. Using a precisely calibrated and registered offset cylindrical linear array camera model, we demonstrate the use of 3D lidar data for sub-pixel HSI shadow detection and the restoration of the shadowed pixel spectra via empirical methods that utilize illuminated and shadowed pixels of similar material composition. We further introduce a new HSI shadow restoration technique that leverages collocated backscattered lidar intensity, which is resistant to solar conditions, obtained by projecting the 3D lidar points through the HSI camera model into HSI pixel space. Using ratios derived from the overlapping lidar laser and HSI wavelengths, restored shadow pixel spectra are approximated using a simple scale factor. Simulations of multiple lidar wavelengths, i.e., multi-spectral lidar, indicate the potential for robust HSI spectral restoration that is independent of the complexity and costs associated with rigorous radiometric transfer models, which have yet to be developed for horizontal-viewing terrestrial HSI sensors. The spectral restoration performance is quantified through HSI pixel classification consistency between full sun and partial sun exposures of a single geologic outcrop.

  5. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well

  6. Reproducing early Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure by modeling the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Wolfgang; Fu, Yunjiao; Ilger, Jan-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The well defined composition of the Comanche rock's carbonate (Magnesite0.62Siderite0.25Calcite0.11Rhodochrosite0.02) and its host rock's composition, dominated by Mg-rich olivine, enable us to reproduce the atmospheric CO2partial pressure that may have triggered the formation of these carbonates. Hydrogeochemical one-dimensional transport modeling reveals that similar aqueous rock alteration conditions (including CO2partial pressure) may have led to the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops (Gusev Crater) and also in the ultramafic rocks exposed in the Nili Fossae region. Hydrogeochemical conditions enabling the formation of Mg-rich solid solution carbonate result from equilibrium species distributions involving (1) ultramafic rocks (ca. 32 wt% olivine; Fo0.72Fa0.28), (2) pure water, and (3) CO2partial pressures of ca. 0.5 to 2.0 bar at water-to-rock ratios of ca. 500 molH2O mol-1rock and ca. 5°C (278 K). Our modeled carbonate composition (Magnesite0.64Siderite0.28Calcite0.08) matches the measured composition of carbonates preserved in the Comanche rocks. Considerably different carbonate compositions are achieved at (1) higher temperature (85°C), (2) water-to-rock ratios considerably higher and lower than 500 mol mol-1 and (3) CO2partial pressures differing from 1.0 bar in the model set up. The Comanche rocks, hosting the carbonate, may have been subjected to long-lasting (>104 to 105 years) aqueous alteration processes triggered by atmospheric CO2partial pressures of ca. 1.0 bar at low temperature. Their outcrop may represent a fragment of the upper layers of an altered olivine-rich rock column, which is characterized by newly formed Mg-Fe-Ca solid solution carbonate, and phyllosilicate-rich alteration assemblages within deeper (unexposed) units.

  7. Facies-architecture of fossil arid siliciclastic depositional systems as outcrop analogue for Rotliegend reservoirs. Literature study; Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Ablagerungsraeume als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmen, A.

    1999-08-01

    In this project a literature-based study was carried out in order to document the facies-architecture of siliciclastic sediments from arid environments and to investigate their suitability as outcrop-analogues for the strata of the Southern Permian Basin. The report resulting from this investigation presents possible analogues and case-studies. Three Formations (Flechtingen Sandstone, Corrie Sandstone and Cedar Mesa Sandstone of the Cutler Group) are especially well suited to serve as outcrop analogue for the 'Rotliegend' Sediments of the Southern Permian Basin. Possible analogues are documented at various scales, ranging from bed-scale to formation scale. Also, special attention was paid to general trends and what factors control them. To make a comparison of Formations from different settings possible, criteria were elaborated to qualify the relevant controlling factors. The catalog itself is preceded by a comprehensive preface, that introduces to the subject and points out the connection between the primary sediment fabric and its petrophysical properties. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses DGMK Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Literaturstudie durchgefuehrt, welche die Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Sedimente darstellt und auf ihre Eignung als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog untersucht. Die vorliegende Dokumentation stellt verschiedene moegliche Analoge und Fallbeispiele dar, wobei drei Abfolgen als besonders geeignet erscheinen. Es wurden Kriterien erarbeitet, die relevante Kontrollfaktoren qualifizieren, um einen Vergleich verschiedener arid-klastischer Sedimentationsraeume zu ermoeglichen. Die Bandbreite der Darstellung moeglicher Analoge umfasst das gesamte Spektrum vom Gefuegemassstab bis hin zu genetischen Einheiten und beleuchtet die jeweiligen Steuerungsfaktoren der Ablagerung. Der eigentlichen Dokumentation wurde eine umfassende Einleitung vorangestellt, welche in die Thematik einfuehrt und Zusammenhaenge zwischen primaerem

  8. Facies-architecture of fossil arid siliciclastic depositional systems as outcrop analogue for Rotliegend reservoirs. Literature study; Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Ablagerungsraeume als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmen, A

    1999-08-01

    In this project a literature-based study was carried out in order to document the facies-architecture of siliciclastic sediments from arid environments and to investigate their suitability as outcrop-analogues for the strata of the Southern Permian Basin. The report resulting from this investigation presents possible analogues and case-studies. Three Formations (Flechtingen Sandstone, Corrie Sandstone and Cedar Mesa Sandstone of the Cutler Group) are especially well suited to serve as outcrop analogue for the 'Rotliegend' Sediments of the Southern Permian Basin. Possible analogues are documented at various scales, ranging from bed-scale to formation scale. Also, special attention was paid to general trends and what factors control them. To make a comparison of Formations from different settings possible, criteria were elaborated to qualify the relevant controlling factors. The catalog itself is preceded by a comprehensive preface, that introduces to the subject and points out the connection between the primary sediment fabric and its petrophysical properties. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses DGMK Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Literaturstudie durchgefuehrt, welche die Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Sedimente darstellt und auf ihre Eignung als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog untersucht. Die vorliegende Dokumentation stellt verschiedene moegliche Analoge und Fallbeispiele dar, wobei drei Abfolgen als besonders geeignet erscheinen. Es wurden Kriterien erarbeitet, die relevante Kontrollfaktoren qualifizieren, um einen Vergleich verschiedener arid-klastischer Sedimentationsraeume zu ermoeglichen. Die Bandbreite der Darstellung moeglicher Analoge umfasst das gesamte Spektrum vom Gefuegemassstab bis hin zu genetischen Einheiten und beleuchtet die jeweiligen Steuerungsfaktoren der Ablagerung. Der eigentlichen Dokumentation wurde eine umfassende Einleitung vorangestellt, welche in die Thematik einfuehrt und Zusammenhaenge zwischen primaerem Sedimentgefuege und

  9. Smoothing of geoelectrical resistivity profiles in order to build a 3D model: A case study from an outcropping limestone block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Krisztina; Kovács, Gábor

    2014-05-01

    Geoelectrical imaging is one of the most common survey methods in the field of shallow geophysics. In order to get information from the subsurface electric current is induced into the ground. In our summer camp organized by the Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University we have carried out resistivity surveys to get more accurate information about the lithology of the Dorog basin located in the Transdanubian range, Middle Hungary. This study focused on the outcropping limestone block located next to the village Leányvár in the Dorog basin. The main aim of the research is the impoundment of the subsurface continuation of the limestone outcrop. Cable problems occurred during field survey therefore the dataset obtained by the measurement have become very noisy thus we had to gain smoothed data with the appropriate editing steps. The goal was to produce an optimized model to demonstrate the reality beneath the subsurface. In order to achieve better results from the noisy dataset we changed some parameters based on the description of the program. Whereas cable problems occurred we exterminated the bad datum points visually and statistically as well. Because of the noisiness we increased the value of the so called damping factor which is a variable parameter in the equation used by the inversion routine responsible for smoothing the data. The limitation of the range of model resistivity values based on our knowledge about geological environment was also necessary in order to avoid physically unrealistic results. The purpose of the modification was to obtain smoothed and more interpretable geoelectric profiles. The geological background combined with the explanation of the profiles gave us the approximate location of the block. In the final step of the research we created a 3D model with proper location and smoothed resistivity data included. This study was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA NK83400) and was realized

  10. 3D architecture of cyclic-step and antidune deposits in glacigenic subaqueous fan and delta settings: Integrating outcrop and ground-penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jörg; Sievers, Julian; Loewer, Markus; Igel, Jan; Winsemann, Jutta

    2017-12-01

    Bedforms related to supercritical flows are increasingly recognised as important constituents of many depositional environments, but outcrop studies are commonly hampered by long bedform wavelengths and complex three-dimensional geometries. We combined outcrop-based facies analysis with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to analyse the 3D facies architecture of subaqueous ice-contact fan and glacifluvial delta deposits. The studied sedimentary systems were deposited at the margins of the Middle Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets in Northern Germany. Glacifluvial Gilbert-type deltas are characterised by steeply dipping foreset beds, comprising cyclic-step deposits, which alternate with antidune deposits. Deposits of cyclic steps consist of lenticular scours infilled by backset cross-stratified pebbly sand and gravel. The GPR sections show that the scour fills form trains along the delta foresets, which can locally be traced for up to 15 m. Perpendicular and oblique to palaeoflow direction, these deposits appear as troughs with concentric or low-angle cross-stratified infills. Downflow transitions from scour fills into sheet-like low-angle cross-stratified or sinusoidally stratified pebbly sand, deposited by antidunes, are common. Cyclic steps and antidunes were deposited by sustained and surge-type supercritical density flows, which were related to hyperpycnal flows, triggered by major meltwater discharge or slope-failure events. Subaqueous ice-contact fan deposits include deposits of progradational scour fills, isolated hydraulic jumps, antidunes and (humpback) dunes. The gravel-rich fan succession consists of vertical stacks of laterally amalgamated pseudo-sheets, indicating deposition by pulses of waning supercritical flows under high aggradation rates. The GPR sections reveal the large-scale architecture of the sand-rich fan succession, which is characterised by lobe elements with basal erosional surfaces associated with scours filled with backsets related

  11. Surface analogue outcrops of deep fractured basement reservoirs in extensional geological settings. Examples within active rift system (Uganda) and proximal passive margin (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The important role of extensive brittle faults and related structures in the development of reservoirs has already been demonstrated, notably in initially low-porosity rocks such as basement rocks. Large varieties of deep-seated resources (e.g. water, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy) are recognized in fractured basement reservoirs. Brittle faults and fracture networks can develop sufficient volumes to allow storage and transfer of large amounts of fluids. Development of hydraulic model with dual-porosity implies the structural and petrophysical characterization of the basement. Drain porosity is located within the larger fault zones, which are the main fluid transfer channels. The storage porosity corresponds both to the matrix porosity and to the volume produced by the different fractures networks (e.g. tectonic, primary), which affect the whole reservoir rocks. Multi-scale genetic and geometric relationships between these deformation features support different orders of structural domains in a reservoir, from several tens of kilometers to few tens of meters. In subsurface, 3D seismic data in basement can be sufficient to characterize the largest first order of structural domains and bounding fault zones (thickness, main orientation, internal architecture, …). However, lower order structural blocks and fracture networks are harder to define. The only available data are 1D borehole electric imaging and are used to characterize the lowest order. Analog outcrop studies of basement rocks fill up this resolution gap and help the understanding of brittle deformation, definition of reservoir geometries and acquirement of reservoir properties. These geological outcrop studies give information about structural blocks of second and third order, getting close to the field scale. This allows to understand relationships between brittle structures geometry and factors controlling their development, such as the structural inheritance or the lithology (e.g. schistosity, primary

  12. Stochastic simulation of time-series models combined with geostatistics to predict water-table scenarios in a Guarani Aquifer System outcrop area, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzione, Rodrigo L.; Wendland, Edson; Tanikawa, Diego H.

    2012-11-01

    Stochastic methods based on time-series modeling combined with geostatistics can be useful tools to describe the variability of water-table levels in time and space and to account for uncertainty. Monitoring water-level networks can give information about the dynamic of the aquifer domain in both dimensions. Time-series modeling is an elegant way to treat monitoring data without the complexity of physical mechanistic models. Time-series model predictions can be interpolated spatially, with the spatial differences in water-table dynamics determined by the spatial variation in the system properties and the temporal variation driven by the dynamics of the inputs into the system. An integration of stochastic methods is presented, based on time-series modeling and geostatistics as a framework to predict water levels for decision making in groundwater management and land-use planning. The methodology is applied in a case study in a Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) outcrop area located in the southeastern part of Brazil. Communication of results in a clear and understandable form, via simulated scenarios, is discussed as an alternative, when translating scientific knowledge into applications of stochastic hydrogeology in large aquifers with limited monitoring network coverage like the GAS.

  13. Quantifying opening-mode fracture spatial organization in horizontal wellbore image logs, core and outcrop: Application to Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation tight gas sandstones, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. Z.; Laubach, S. E.; Gale, J. F. W.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation is a naturally fractured gas-producing sandstone in Wyoming. Regionally, random and statistically more clustered than random patterns exist in the same upper to lower shoreface depositional facies. East-west- and north-south-striking regional fractures sampled using image logs and cores from three horizontal wells exhibit clustered patterns, whereas data collected from east-west-striking fractures in outcrop have patterns that are indistinguishable from random. Image log data analyzed with the correlation count method shows clusters ∼35 m wide and spaced ∼50 to 90 m apart as well as clusters up to 12 m wide with periodic inter-cluster spacings. A hierarchy of cluster sizes exists; organization within clusters is likely fractal. These rocks have markedly different structural and burial histories, so regional differences in degree of clustering are unsurprising. Clustered patterns correspond to fractures having core quartz deposition contemporaneous with fracture opening, circumstances that some models suggest might affect spacing patterns by interfering with fracture growth. Our results show that quantifying and identifying patterns as statistically more or less clustered than random delineates differences in fracture patterns that are not otherwise apparent but that may influence gas and water production, and therefore may be economically important.

  14. The petrology, geochronology and significance of Granite Harbour Intrusive Complex xenoliths and outcrop sampled in western McMurdo Sound, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.P.; Cooper, A.F.; Price, R.C.; Turnbull, R.E.; Roberts, N.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Granite Harbour Intrusive Complex xenoliths in McMurdo Volcanic Group rocks and in situ outcrops have been studied from Mount Morning, western McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Calc-alkalic samples have whole rock signatures and normative compositions similar to the Dry Valleys 1b suite, and zircon grains in one specimen yield a 545.2 ± 4.4 Ma crystallisation age. This supports subduction-related magmatism initiating in Southern Victoria Land by 545 Ma. A second group of xenoliths is alkalic, with titanite grains in one xenolith from this group dated at 538 ± 8 Ma. Whole rock chemistry, normative compositions and geochronology of the alkalic group are comparable to the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Suite (KGAS). The position of a proposed lower crustal discontinuity that may form a significant basement suture in the McMurdo Sound region is newly constrained to the east of Mount Morning, perhaps along the trace of the Discovery Glacier. The boundary between East and West Antarctica may also pass along the trace of the Discovery Glacier if, as previously hypothesised, its location is controlled by the basement suture. A significant basement suture may also have provided the necessary egress for the (regionally) early and sustained magmatic activity observed at Mount Morning over the last 24 million years. (author).

  15. Lithofacies, paleoenvironment and high-resolution stratigraphy of the D5 and D6 members of the Middle Jurassic carbonates Dhruma Formation, outcrop analog, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim M.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammad H.; Bashri, Mazin A.; Abdulghani, Waleed M.

    2018-03-01

    This study characterizes the lithofacies, paleoenvironment and stratigraphic architecture of the D5 and D6 members of carbonates Dhruma Formation outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study integrates detailed lithofacies analysis based on vertical and lateral profiles, in addition to thin-sections petrography to reveal the high-resolution architecture framework. Nine lithofacies types (LFTs) were defined namely: (1) skeletal peletal spiculitic wackestone (15%), (2) peloidal echinoderm packstone (19%), (3) fissile shale (36%), (4) peloidal spiculitic echinoderm pack-grainstone (5%), (5) cross-bedded peloidal skeletal oolitic grainstone (7%), (6) oolitic grainstone (2%), (7) intraformational rudstone (cycles and cycle sets with 5th to 6th orders magnitude, and thickness ranges from a few centimeters up to 6 m with an average of 1.5 m. Those are stacked to form four high-frequency sequences with thickness range from 1 m up to 14 m. The latter were grouped into a single depositional sequence of 3rd order magnitude. The architectural analysis also shows that the potential reservoir units were intensively affected by muddy-textured rocks which act as reservoir seals. These variations in the stratigraphic sequences in Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation and its equivalents could be attributed to the eustatic sea-level changes, climate, tectonics, and local paleoenvironments. This study attempts to provide detailed insight into reservoir heterogeneity and architecture. The analog may help to understand and predict lithofacies heterogeneity, architecture, and quality in the subsurface equivalent reservoirs.

  16. Studies of fracture network geometry of reservoir outcrop analogues from terrestrial lidar data: attempts to quantify spatial variations of fracture characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vsemirnova, E. A.; Jones, R. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2012-04-01

    We describe studies analysing terrestrial lidar datasets of fracture systems from a range of reservoir analogues in clastic and carbonate lithologies that represent geological analogues of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs for the UK continental shelf. As fracture networks (observed here from centimetre to kilometre scale) can significantly affect the permeability of a fractured reservoir, the definition of fracture network geometry at various scales has become an important goal of structural analysis. The main aim of the study has been to extend the investigation of fracture networks in order to quantify spatial variations in fracture parameters in a variety of lithologies. The datasets were pre-processed using RiSCAN PRO software, and then re-sampled and filtered to derive characteristics which are traditionally measured from outcrops, including size distributions, fracture spacing and clustering statistics. This type of analysis can significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with some field fracture network measurements. The digitised fracture networks datasets are then used to investigate various aspects of spatial heterogeneity. A series of fracture maps (joints and faults) were generated at different scales, and fracture trends were studied to test scale dependency of fracture orientations. Multiscale trend analysis was then applied to describe the trend structure of the fracture networks.

  17. Stratigraphy of the Silurian outcrop belt on the east side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky, with revisions in the nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Silurian rocks form a narrow arcuate outcrop belt about 100 mi long on the east side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky. They range from as much as 300 ft thick in the north to a pinchout edge in the south. The nomenclature of this sequence is revised to reflect mappability and lithologic uniformity on the basis of detailed mapping at a scale of 1:24,000 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kentucky Geological Survey. The Silurian rocks are divided into two parts: the Crab Orchard Group, raised in rank from Crab Orchard Formation and redefined, in the lower part of the Silurian section, and Bisher Dolomite in the upper part of the section. The Crab Orchard Group is subdivided into the Drowning Creek Formation (new name) at the base of the Silurian, overlain by the Alger Shale (adopted herein) south of Fleming County and by the Estill Shale (elevated to formational rank) north of Bath County. The Brassfield Member (reduced in rank from Brassfield Dolomite or Formation) and the Plum Creek Shale and Oldham Members of the former Crab Orchard Formation are included as members of the Drowning Creek; the Lulbegrud Shale, Waco, and Estill Shale Members of the former Crab Orchard Formation are now included in the Alger. The Drowning Creek Formation, 20 to 50 ft thick, is composed mainly of gray fine to coarse-grained dolomite with shale interbeds. The dolomite beds average several inches thick, with bedding surfaces that are locally smooth but generally irregular and are fossiliferous in many places; fossils include brachiopods, crinoid columnals, horn corals, colonial corals, trilobites, pelecypods, and bryozoans. The shale interbeds average several inches thick, except for its Plum Creek Shale Member which is entirely shale and as much as 12 ft thick, and are most abundant in the upper half of the formation. The members of the Drowning Creek intergrade and are indistinguishable in the northern part of the area. The Alger Shale, as much as 170 feet thick

  18. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (determine if the accumulation of heavy metals in waters may be determinant for future pollution. References: Iovieno P, Morra L, Leone A, Pagano L, Alfani A (2009) Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil respiration and enzyme activities of two Mediterranean horticultural soils. Biol Fert Soils doi:10.1007/s00374-009-0365-z. Jordán MM, Pina S, García-Orenes F, Almendro-Candel MB, García-Sánchez E (2008) Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries. Environ Geol doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0991-4. Jordão CP, Nascentes CC, Cecon PR, Fontes RLF, Pereira JL (2006) Heavy metal availability in soil amended with composted urban solid wastes. Environ Monit

  19. Stratigraphic and structural controls on groundwater flow in an outcropping fossil fan delta: the case of Sant Llorenç del Munt range (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglés, Marc; Folch, Albert; Oms, Oriol; Maestro, Eudald; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological models of mountain regions present the opportunity to understand the role of geological factors on groundwater resources. The effects of sedimentary facies and fracture distribution on groundwater flow and resource exploitation are studied in the ancient fan delta of Sant Llorenç de Munt (central Catalonia, Spain) by integrating geological field observations (using sequence stratigraphy methods) and hydrogeological data (pumping tests, hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes). A comprehensive analysis of data portrays the massif as a single unit, constituted by different compartments determined by specific layers and sets of fractures. Two distinct flow systems—local and regional—are identified based on pumping test analysis as well as hydrochemical and isotopic data. Drawdown curves derived from pumping tests indicate that the behavior of the saturated layers, whose main porosity is given by the fracture network, corresponds to a confined aquifer. Pumping tests also reflect a double porosity within the system and the occurrence of impervious boundaries that support a compartmentalized model for the whole aquifer system. Hydrochemical data and associated spatial evolution show the result of water-rock interaction along the flow lines. Concentration of magnesium, derived from dolomite dissolution, is a tracer of the flow-path along distinct stratigraphic units. Water stable isotopes indicate that evaporation (near a 5% loss) occurs in a thick unsaturated zone within the massif before infiltration reaches the water table. The hydrogeological analysis of this outcropping system provides a methodology for the conceptualization of groundwater flow in similar buried systems where logging and hydrogeological information are scarce.

  20. Distribution and arrest of vertical through-going joints in a seismic-scale carbonate platform exposure (Sorrento peninsula, Italy): insights from integrating field survey and digital outcrop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, A.; Tavani, S.; Parente, M.; Iannace, A.; Vinci, F.; Pirmez, C.; Torrieri, S.; Giorgioni, M.; Pignalosa, A.; Mazzoli, S.

    2018-03-01

    Through-going joints cutting across beds are often invoked to match large-scale permeability patterns in tight carbonate reservoirs. However, despite the importance of these structures for fluid flow, only few field studies focused on the understanding and estimation of through-going joint dimensional parameters, including spacing and vertical extent in relation to stratigraphy. Recent improvements in the construction of digital models of outcrops can greatly help to overcome many logistic issues, favouring the evaluation of relationships between jointing and stratigraphy at the reservoir scale. In this study, we present the results obtained from integrating field measurements with a digital outcrop model of a carbonate platform reservoir analogue in the Sorrento peninsula (Italy). The outcrop consists of a nearly vertical cliff exposing a monocline of alternating gently-dipping shallow-water limestones and dolostones, crossed by several vertical joints of different size. This study allowed us to define how major through-going joints pass across thick beds (bed thickness > 30 cm), while they arrest against packages made of thinly stratified layers. In essence, through-going joints arrest on "weak" levels, consisting of thinly bedded layers interposed between packages made of thick beds, in the same manner as bed-confined joints arrest on less competent interlayers.

  1. Collecting succulent plants for deposition in a herbarium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Michele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available with their unwelcoming, prickly habit may seem like more effort than it is worth. For this reason, cacti are often not collected and are thus poorly represented in herbaria (Leuenberger, 1987). This is particularly true for southern Africa where, except for one...�DUH�YDOXDEOH�FRPSOLPHQWDU\\�LGHQWL¿FDWLRQ�WRROV� that provide information on habit or other characters not always visible on dried, preserved specimens (Leuenberger, 1987). 31 Fig. 26. Collecting plant material for deposition in a herbarium. (Picture by SANBI) 2WKHU...

  2. Towards visual assessment of succulent valley bushveld. | G.C. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visual vegetation assessment was tested for repeatability and accuracy and compared with an objective survey technique for time and cost efficiency. Eighteen operators first inspected a range of sites where ecological status was known. Using these for reference, they then visually inspected and independently estimated ...

  3. Life forms of succulent representatives of the family Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gaidarzhy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life forms of succulent’s representatives of the family Asclepiadaceae of the tropical and subtropical plants from the collection of O.V. Fomin Botanical garden according to author classification are characterized.

  4. Anomalously high activities of 137Cs in soils and vegetation on and near a diabase outcrop in La Sierra de Lema, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Alfonso, J.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of routine soil sampling to determine the 137 Cs background activities country-wide in Venezuela, it was decided to further investigate El Mirador (Lookout) area at the base of the Sierra de Lema mountain range. In April 2003 (A), soil samples were collected at eight sites on and around the edge of the diabase outcrop to confirm that this area had anomalously high 137 Cs activities. In July 2003 (B), not only soil samples were collected again, but also black mat, palm tree leaves and trunks, fruit bushes leaves and its fruit and fern leaves. The 137 Cs content was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy by a comparative method with reference materials. The 137 Cs activity values range from 16.3 to 30.8 Bq x kg -1 in the soil samples collected in July 2003, 20.7-32.1 Bq x kg -1 for the black mat, 26.3-38.4 Bq x kg -1 for the palm leaves, 16.8-31.2 Bq x kg -1 for the palm trunks and 17.6-27.3 Bq x kg -1 for the fruit bush leaves, while, the 137 Cs activity values for the whole fruit were between 23.4 and 30.7 Bq x kg -1 ; but, the value of the 137 Cs activity in the center of the fruit (the edible part) was 51.6 Bq x kg -1 , and the value of the 137 Cs activity for the fern leaves was 51.8 Bq x kg -1 . Thus, most of the 137 Cs activity values determined in the soil, black mat and vegetation samples from El Mirador (Lookout) were considered anomalously high with respect to those found near the equator and in other areas of Venezuela. Only the center of the fruit from the Clusia grandiflora bushes and the fern leaves had high activity ratios, about a factor of three and could be considered as biomonitors that concentrate and retain the 137 Cs. Finally, these anomalously high 137 Cs activities have been attributed not only to the rich organic soils, as sinks, but also due to the affect of the cloud forests. (author)

  5. The results of spectrographic analysis of pigments from known aboriginal quarries and other outcrops in South Australia, and from painting sites in the Olary district of South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobbs, J.M.; Nobbs, M.F.; Moyle, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Pigments are minerals that provide the colour to paints and the pigments most commonly used by Aboriginal people are derived from red and yellow ochre and white minerals for example, gypsum and kaolin. During the early 1980s, the opportunity arose to collect pigments from many sources in South Australia. The sources included samples from known Aboriginal quarries and other outcrops. Pinhead-size samples of paint were collected from figures in some of the rock painting sites in the Olary District. These samples were analysed using Emission Spectrography with the aim of determining the nature of the pigments that is their constituent elements, and to investigate the possibility of finger-printing the sources of the pigments used by Aboriginal people. The ability of being able to source pigments found on the decorated surface of artefacts; pieces of ochre found in archaeological deposits or painted figures in a rock painting is important for understanding the trading and exchange network known to criss-cross Australia in the past. Facilities for Emission Spectrographic analyses were readily available and the capability to analyse (for twenty six elements) samples in milligram proportions suggested its use for the determination of the composition of material from unlimited sources and the compilation of a data-base detailing the results of the analyses in a form suitable for comparison. Examination of this database could then lead to further investigations with narrower and more specific aims. The results of the spectrographic analyses for red ochre from eighteen sources and yellow ochres from eight sources were tabulated as: strongly present >10%; present 1-10%; strong trace 0.1-1% ; trace 0.01-0.1%; faint trace <0.01%. Major elements, for example iron, aluminium, and silica showed in the Strongly Present and Present categories, while Trace and Faint Trace elements were variable. The results of the analyses of seventeen samples of red pigment and five

  6. Grain to outcrop-scale frozen moments of dynamic magma mixing in the syenite magma chamber, Yelagiri Alkaline Complex, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Renjith

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Magma mixing process is unusual in the petrogenesis of felsic rocks associated with alkaline complex worldwide. Here we present a rare example of magma mixing in syenite from the Yelagiri Alkaline Complex, South India. Yelagiri syenite is a reversely zoned massif with shoshonitic (Na2O + K2O=5–10 wt.%, Na2O/K2O = 0.5–2, TiO2 <0.7 wt.% and metaluminous character. Systematic modal variation of plagioclase (An11–16 Ab82–88, K-feldspar (Or27–95 Ab5–61, diopside (En34–40Fs11–18Wo46–49, biotite, and Ca-amphibole (edenite build up three syenite facies within it and imply the role of in-situ fractional crystallization (FC. Evidences such as (1 disequilibrium micro-textures in feldspars, (2 microgranular mafic enclaves (MME and (3 synplutonic dykes signify mixing of shoshonitic mafic magma (MgO = 4–5 wt.%, SiO2 = 54–59 wt.%, K2O/Na2O = 0.4–0.9 with syenite. Molecular-scale mixing of mafic magma resulted disequilibrium growth of feldspars in syenite. Physical entity of mafic magma preserved as MME due to high thermal-rheological contrast with syenite magma show various hybridization through chemical exchange, mechanical dilution enhanced by chaotic advection and phenocryst migration. In synplutonic dykes, disaggregation and mixing of mafic magma was confined within the conduit of injection. Major-oxides mass balance test quantified that approximately 0.6 portions of mafic magma had interacted with most evolved syenite magma and generated most hybridized MME and dyke samples. It is unique that all the rock types (syenite, MME and synplutonic dykes share similar shoshonitic and metaluminous character; mineral chemistry, REE content, coherent geochemical variation in Harker diagram suggest that mixing of magma between similar composition. Outcrop-scale features of crystal accumulation and flow fabrics also significant along with MME and synplutonic dykes in syenite suggesting that Yelagiri syenite magma chamber had evolved

  7. Antioxidant, Iron Chelating and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Extracts from Talinum triangulare Leach Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Amorim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1, resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/100 g for Fraction 1, and 0.1400 g/100 g for the CE. Taking into account the results of the DPPH, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. The formation of complexes with Fe II ions was evaluated by UV/visible spectrometry; results showed that CE has complexing power similar to the positive control (Gingko biloba extract.The inhibitory capacity of samples against the tyrosinase enzyme was determined by the oxidation of L-DOPA, providing IC50 values of 13.3 μg·mL−1 (CE and 6.6 μg·mL−1 (Fraction 1. The values indicate that Fraction 1 was more active and showed a higher inhibitory power on the tyrosinase enzyme than the ascorbic acid, used as positive control. The hydromethanolic extract of T. triangulare proved to have powerful antioxidant activity and to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme; its potential is increased after the partition with chloroform.

  8. Geologic map of outcrop areas of sedimentary units in the eastern part of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle and part of the southern part of the Challis 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, P.K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Bruner, D.J.; Batatian, L.D.; Wilson, Eric; Williams, F.J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The paper version of the Geologic map of outcrop areas of sedimentary units in the eastern part of the Hailey 1x2 Quadrangle and part of the southern part of the Challis 1x2 Quadrangle, south-central Idaho was compiled by Paul Link and others in 1995. The plate was compiled on a 1:100,000 scale topographic base map. TechniGraphic System, Inc. of Fort Collins Colorado digitized this map under contract for N.Shock. G.Green edited and prepared the digital version for publication as a GIS database. The digital geologic map database can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps.

  9. Architecture and dynamic of lower Cretaceous carbonate platform in sultanate of Oman: correlations between seismic data and outcrop; Architecture et dynamique des systemes carbonates de la plate-forme Cretace inferieur du Sultanat d'Oman: correlations entre donnees de sismique et d'affleurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bec, A

    2004-12-15

    The Rayda Basin, located in northern Oman at the south-eastern passive margin of the Arabian plate, has been filled in by a pro-grading carbonate system during the Lower Cretaceous. The filling up basin realized to carbonate platform pro-gradation on 300 km. Pelagic facies represented with radiolarian chert and shallowing facies with erosive surface, mud-cracks and lagoonal mud, and displaying on seismic lines an alternation of high angle and low angle clinoforms at the 10's of kilometers scale. Detailed study of these two types of clinoforms in the nearby outcrops shows that the high angle system is dominated by high-energy, grainy facies (ooliths, rudists, stromatoporoids), while the low angle system is dominated by a low-energy, carbonate mud facies. Based on the subsurface (geometries) and outcrop (facies) data a regional depositional model is proposed for this system. The outcrop study is based on 14 measured sections (6764 meters), completed with photo panoramas, thin section analysis and geochemical analyses (carbonate and organic matter content). The subsurface dataset consists of several regional seismic lines, two high resolution 3D blocs, and is supported by core material The regional seismic lines allow to map out the position of the high and low angle clinoform belts. One high angle belt and two low angle belts are identified in the profiles. In outcrop at least one more high angle belt and one more low angle belt are present. These overall geometries probably define the large scale sequence organisation. At a smaller scale, the 3D blocs allow to show the detailed geometrical organisation of the clinoform belts. The outcrop sections provide critical sub-seismic scale data on the facies composition and depositional geometries. The high energy system of the steep clinoforms (angle estimated at several degrees), is probably a wave controlled barrier coastline system, while the muddy low angle clinoforms (angle < 0.5 degree) shows large convex and wide

  10. Architecture and dynamic of lower Cretaceous carbonate platform in sultanate of Oman: correlations between seismic data and outcrop; Architecture et dynamique des systemes carbonates de la plate-forme Cretace inferieur du Sultanat d'Oman: correlations entre donnees de sismique et d'affleurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bec, A.

    2004-12-15

    The Rayda Basin, located in northern Oman at the south-eastern passive margin of the Arabian plate, has been filled in by a pro-grading carbonate system during the Lower Cretaceous. The filling up basin realized to carbonate platform pro-gradation on 300 km. Pelagic facies represented with radiolarian chert and shallowing facies with erosive surface, mud-cracks and lagoonal mud, and displaying on seismic lines an alternation of high angle and low angle clinoforms at the 10's of kilometers scale. Detailed study of these two types of clinoforms in the nearby outcrops shows that the high angle system is dominated by high-energy, grainy facies (ooliths, rudists, stromatoporoids), while the low angle system is dominated by a low-energy, carbonate mud facies. Based on the subsurface (geometries) and outcrop (facies) data a regional depositional model is proposed for this system. The outcrop study is based on 14 measured sections (6764 meters), completed with photo panoramas, thin section analysis and geochemical analyses (carbonate and organic matter content). The subsurface dataset consists of several regional seismic lines, two high resolution 3D blocs, and is supported by core material The regional seismic lines allow to map out the position of the high and low angle clinoform belts. One high angle belt and two low angle belts are identified in the profiles. In outcrop at least one more high angle belt and one more low angle belt are present. These overall geometries probably define the large scale sequence organisation. At a smaller scale, the 3D blocs allow to show the detailed geometrical organisation of the clinoform belts. The outcrop sections provide critical sub-seismic scale data on the facies composition and depositional geometries. The high energy system of the steep clinoforms (angle estimated at several degrees), is probably a wave controlled barrier coastline system, while the muddy low angle clinoforms (angle < 0.5 degree) shows large convex and

  11. PRIMEROS AVANCES EN LA CARACTERIZACIÓN GEOQUÍMICA DE VULCANITAS DE AFLORAMIENTOS DE ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA (PROV. DE CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / First advances in the geochemical characteristics of volcanic outcrops of Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra M. Elías

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En distintos sectores de la microrregión de Antofagasta de la Sierra (Provincia de Catamarca, Puna Meridional Argentina se registran afloramientos de vulcanitas (rocas volcánicas con proporciones de vidrio menores a 80%, sensu Aschero et al. 2002/2004 macroscópicamente muy similares. Con el objetivo de diferenciarlas y aportar, de esta forma, a su identificación en el registro arqueológico, se aplicaron diversos métodos y técnicas sobre muestras de estas rocas procedentes de los distintos afloramientos. En esta instancia, se exponen los resultados obtenidos a partir de caracterización geoquímica por medio de Fluorescencia de Rayos X de Energía Dispersiva. Las vulcanitas procedentes de los diferentes afloramientos tienden a presentar disímiles concentraciones de ciertos elementos. Estos resultados son prometedores y estimulan a continuar investigando la aplicación de métodos geoquímicos en la diferenciación y determinación de la procedencia de estas rocas volcánicas. Cabe destacar que en el Noroeste Argentino los métodos geoquímicos fueron exclusivamente aplicados sobre una roca volcánica específica, la obsidiana, y aún no habían sido utilizados en otras rocas volcánicas anisótropas, con superficies, texturas y estructuras más irregulares. Abstract   In different sectors of the Antofagasta de la Sierra micro-region (Catamarca Province, Southern Argentine Pune outcrops of macroscopically very similar vulcanites (volcanic rocks with ratios of glass below 80%, sensu Aschero et al. 2002/2004 have been recorded. In order to differentiate between these and contribute to their identification in the archaeological record, various methods and techniques were applied to samples of these rocks. In this instance, the initial results obtained from geochemical characterization, through Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, are presented. The vulcanites from different outcrops tend to show different concentrations for some elements

  12. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  13. Scattering from Rock and Rock Outcrops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-23

    provide such an estimate of the joint probability distribution of mixture model parameters. The posterior probability distribution ( PPD ) of the model...parameters given the data is p(m,d), where m is a four component vector of model param- eters, and d is an n component vector of data points. The PPD ...distribution of the data p(d). The evidence normalizes the numerator in Eq. (10) and ensures that the PPD integrates to unity over the parameter space. The

  14. Opportunity Examining Composition of 'Cook Islands' Outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This image taken by the front hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's arm extended to examine the composition of a rock using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. Opportunity took this image during the 1,826th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's Mars-surface mission (March 13, 2009). The spectrometer is at a target called 'Penrhyn,' on a rock called 'Cook Islands.' As Opportunity makes its way on a long journey from Victoria Crater toward Endeavour Crater, the team is stopping the drive occasionally on the route to check whether the rover finds a trend in the composition of rock exposures.

  15. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

  16. Characterization of deep-marine clastic sediments from foreland basins: Outcrop-derived concepts for exploration, production and reservoir modelling. Doctoral thesis; Karakterizering van diep-mariene klastische sedimenten uit voorland bekkens: Aan ontsluitingen ontleende concepten voor exploratie, produktie en reservoir modellering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuppers, J D

    1995-02-20

    Deep-marine clastic sediments are the host for many prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs. The sandbodies that form these reservoirs show a wide variety in shape, spatial arrangement, and internal structure. The outcrops studied for this thesis pertain to the fill of circum-mediterranean foreland basins in Spain and Greece. The outcrops have allowed the description of the multiscale anatomy of sandbodies that cover a wide range of depositional settings. The descriptions are focused on those features that are most likely to influence the flow of fluids through analogous reservoirs of similar construction. Extensive use was made of photomosaics to outline the large-scale geometries and stacking modes of the sandbodies. The sediments studied form the basis for seven `reservoir models` that are both descriptive and conceptual.

  17. Combining outcrop, magnetic, and airborne LiDAR data in a course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE): interpretation of bedrock fracturing in the northeastern Deep River Basin and adjacent basement, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, R.; Waters-Tormey, C. L.; Styers, D.; Hurst, E.

    2017-12-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are a way for students to learn the power of combining geological, geophysical, and geodetic datasets, while also generating new results to answer real questions. A 5-week undergraduate geophysics CURE combined newly released public domain LiDAR-derived ground models with outcrop and magnetic data. The goal was to see if this approach could improve understanding of bedrock fracture sets in the NC Piedmont, which in turn would improve decisions about groundwater resources and proposed hydraulic fracturing of "tight" shale reservoirs in the 230 Ma Deep River failed rift basin. The 10 km2 study area was selected because it straddles the fault contact between crystalline basement and basin sedimentary rocks, it contains 200 Ma NW-SE trending mafic dikes related to successful rifting of Pangea common in the Piedmont, bedrock exposure is typical of the Piedmont (poor), and its land use history is representative of much of the Piedmont. Students visited representative field sites to collect observations then manually identified lineaments in several adjacent LiDAR ground model tiles. Results suggest that (1) lineaments as short as a few m are easily identified except underneath Quaternary deposits, (2) the dominant lineament set trends NW-SE with m- to 10 m-scale spacing, (3) lineaments are better expressed in sedimentary rocks and (4) do not spatially coincide with dike traces. Using field observations, map patterns, and total magnetic intensity profiles across several dikes, the lineaments are interpreted to be edges of subvertical joint fractures recording extension parallel to the dikes' dilation direction. The CURE concluded with students in small groups proposing next steps for the larger research project. The CURE introduced geology majors to the power of using geophysical and remote sensing data with geological data to address geoscience questions. Student feedback was very positive even though the learning

  18. Espectros biológicos florísticos de Campos Rupestres de afloramento e Campos Úmidos diferem entre si e em relação ao Espectro Biológico Normal de Raunkiaer. Floristic biological spectra of Rock outcrops and Wet grasslands differ between themselves and in relation to the Raunkiaer’s Normal Biological Spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia de Oliveira COSTA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição de frequência de classes de formas de vida em uma flora, conhecida como espectro biológico florístico, varia em função das condições climáticas e edáficas em que as plantas se desenvolvem. Neste trabalho comparamos os espectros biológicos médios (n = 3 de equivalentes a Campo Rupestre de afloramento e a Campo Úmido no Estado de São Paulo na expectativa de encontrar diferenças significativas entre os dois tipos de comunidade. Os Campos Rupestres (G-corrigido = 23,41; p-valor = 0,0001 e os Campos Úmidos (G-corrigido = 80,34; p < 0,0001 diferiram do Espectro Biológico Normal de Raunkiaer, bem como diferenciaram-se entre si (χ2 = 24,23; p < 0,0001. Uma Análise de Correspondência Distendida separou Campos Rupestres de Campos Úmidos devido às maiores frequências de fanerófitos nos primeiros e de hemicriptófitos e terófitos nos últimos. Sugerimos como hipóteses que os micro-habitats favoráveis ao desenvolvimentode fanerófitos sejam mais comuns nos Campos Rupestres de afloramento do que nos Campos Úmidos, ocorrendo o contrário com os micro-habitats favoráveis aos hemicriptófitos. Esta forma de vida pode apresentar melhor ajustamento ao encharcamento do solo do que os caméfitos e geófitos. A estratégia de escape apresentada pelos terófitos seria pouco eficiente em Campos Rupestres de afloramento devido à escassez de solo para proteção das sementes. The frequency distribution of life forms in a flora, called floristic biological spectrum, varies according to the climatic and edaphic conditions under which plants grow. In this work we compared the average (n = 3 biological spectra of Rock outcrop and Wet grassland like communities in São Paulo state expecting to find significant differences between the two community types. Rock outcrops (G-corrected = 23.41; p-value = 0.0001 and Wet grasslands (G-corrected = 80.34; p < 0.0001 differed from the Raunkiaer’s Normal Biological Spectrum, as did between

  19. Nutritional significance of a winter-flowering succulent for opportunistic avian nectarivores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Symes, CT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the enriched crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) isotopic signature of nectar ()12.6 ± 0.5&). This relatively small contribution of A. marlothii nectar to assimilated carbon in whole blood contrasted with that of exhaled CO2 in Afri- can Red-eyed Bulbuls... Pycnonotus nigricans and Cape White-eyes Zosterops capensis. In both these species, the d13C of breath samples was significantly enriched compared with blood and feathers, and closely resembled that of the nectar, revealing combustion of ingested nectar...

  20. Euphorbia loricata Lam.: the first South African succulent Euphorbia drawn in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawant, P.; Winthagen, D.

    2007-01-01

    When describing a new plant species, it is good practice to include in the protologue the exact date and precise locality of its discovery. These data, together with the original plant picture, can afterwards serve as the lectotype. Here is some material from about 320 years ago!

  1. A phytosociological analysis and synopsis of the dry woodlands and succulent vegetation of the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO GALÁN-DE-MERA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A phytosociological approach to dry forest and cactus communities on the occidental slopes of the Peruvian Andes is presented in base of 164 plots carried out following the Braun-Blanquet method. From them, 52 have been made recently, and the other 112 were taken from the literature. After a multivariate analysis, using a hierarchical clustering and a detendred correspondence analysis, the Acacio-Prosopidetea class (dry forest and cactus communities, developed on soils with some edaphic humidity or precipitations derived from El Niño Current, the Opuntietea sphaericae class (cactus communities of central and southern Peru, on few stabilized rocky or sandy soils and the Carico-Caesalpinietea class (dry forests of the Peruvian coastal desert, influenced by the maritime humidity of the cold Humboldt Current, are differentiated. Within the Acacio-Prosopidetea class, two alliances are commented: the Bursero-Prosopidion pallidae (with two new associations Loxopterygio huasanginis-Neoraimondietum arequipensis and Crotono ruiziani-Acacietum macracanthae, and the new alliance Baccharido-Jacarandion acutifoliae (with the new associations Armatocereo balsasensis-Cercidietum praecocis and Diplopterydo leiocarpae-Acacietum macracanthae. For the Opuntietea sphaericae class, the association Haageocereo versicoloris-Armatocereetum proceri (Espostoo-Neoraimondion is described on the basis of plots from hyperarid localities of central Peru. Finally, a typological classification of the studied plant communities is given.

  2. Translocation success of Frithia humilis Burgoyne, an endangered succulent plant: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kruger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AFrithia humilispopulation,growing on a licensed mining plot nearWitbank was saved from obliteration in 2009. It was translocated to three habitats, which havebeen monitored since 2010. Thus far, flowering has increased despite decreasing populationnumbers; the populations seem stable.

  3. A phytosociological analysis and synopsis of the dry woodlands and succulent vegetation of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-DE-Mera, Antonio; Sánchez-Vega, Isidoro; Linares-Perea, Eliana; Campos, José; Montoya, Juan; Vicente-Orellana, José A

    2016-01-01

    A phytosociological approach to dry forest and cactus communities on the occidental slopes of the Peruvian Andes is presented in base of 164 plots carried out following the Braun-Blanquet method. From them, 52 have been made recently, and the other 112 were taken from the literature. After a multivariate analysis, using a hierarchical clustering and a detendred correspondence analysis, the Acacio-Prosopidetea class (dry forest and cactus communities, developed on soils with some edaphic humidity or precipitations derived from El Niño Current), the Opuntietea sphaericae class (cactus communities of central and southern Peru, on few stabilized rocky or sandy soils) and the Carico-Caesalpinietea class (dry forests of the Peruvian coastal desert, influenced by the maritime humidity of the cold Humboldt Current), are differentiated. Within the Acacio-Prosopidetea class, two alliances are commented: the Bursero-Prosopidion pallidae (with two new associations Loxopterygio huasanginis-Neoraimondietum arequipensis and Crotono ruiziani-Acacietum macracanthae), and the new alliance Baccharido-Jacarandion acutifoliae (with the new associations Armatocereo balsasensis-Cercidietum praecocis and Diplopterydo leiocarpae-Acacietum macracanthae). For the Opuntietea sphaericae class, the association Haageocereo versicoloris-Armatocereetum proceri (Espostoo-Neoraimondion) is described on the basis of plots from hyperarid localities of central Peru. Finally, a typological classification of the studied plant communities is given.

  4. Life-forms, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes in plant communities on ironstone outcrops, SE Brazil Formas de vida, síndromes de polinização e dispersão de sementes em comunidades vegetais sobre afloramentos ferruginosos, SE do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Jacobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rock outcrops play an important role in enhancing plant diversity in montane ecosystems. Ironstone outcrops (cangas are among the lithotypes less known and most threatened in SE Brazil, due to mining activities. Besides species composition, a key feature to promote their conservation and restoration is the knowledge of the community prevalent life-forms, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The analyses were done based on published floristic surveys of cangas in SE Brazil. A total of 353 species of angiosperms (70 families were assigned to one of the two predominant physiognomies (open areas and forest islands on ironstone outcrops. Sixteen families responded for 70% of all species. Compared to Raunkiaer's spectrum, phanerophytes were over- and therophytes were under-represented. Phanerophytes were the predominant life-form in forest islands, while hemicryptophytes were outstanding in open areas. Entomophily was the dominant pollination syndrome in both habitats. Zoochory was dominant in forest islands and ranked last in open areas, where anemochory and autochory prevailed. Considering that both forest islands and open areas are subjected to the same climatic conditions, the results corroborate the influence of geoedaphic components in the three traits analysed.Afloramentos rochosos têm um papel importante na diversidade vegetal de ecossistemas montanos. As cangas (afloramentos ferruginosos estão entre os litotipos menos conhecidos e mais ameaçados do sudeste do Brasil, devido às atividades minerarias. Além da composição de espécies, um aspecto fundamental para promover sua conservação e restauração é o conhecimento das formas de vida, síndromes de polinização e dispersão de sementes dominantes. As análises foram baseadas em listas florísticas publicadas de cangas do sudeste do Brasil. Um total de 353 espécies de angiospermas (70 famílias foi distribuído entre as duas fisionomias predominantes (áreas abertas e cap

  5. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the western Okanogan highlands and of the upper Columbia River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples; no known uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern portions of the western Okanogan highlands and in the upper Columbia River valley were investigated during a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of the Tertiary sedimentary rocks of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples. No portion of the project area of this report is rated of high or of medium favorability for potential uranium resources. Low favorability ratings are given to Oroville, Tonasket, and Pine Creek areas of the Okanogan River valley; to the Republic graben; and to the William Lakes, Colville, and Sheep Creek areas of the upper Columbia River valley. All these areas contain some fluvial, poorly sorted feldspathic or arkosic sandstones and conglomerates. These rocks are characterized by very low permeability and a consistently high siliceous matrix suggesting very low initial permeability. There are no known uranium deposits in any of these areas, and low level uranium anomalies are rare.

  6. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  7. Guidelines for the development and environmental protection of the outcrop area in the Guarani aquifer system in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Diretrizes para o desenvolvimento e protecao ambiental da area de afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburquerque Filho, J. L.; Carvalho, A. M. de; Ikematsu, P.; Costa Barbosa, M.; Iritani, M.; Nogueira Pressinoti, M. M.; Rocha, G.; Pereira Militao da Silva, M.; Theodorovicz, A.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) is an important public water source. The unconfined areas are those where the aquifer is more vulnerable to contamination, justifying the creation of a Protection and Recovery Source Area (Area de Protecao e Recuperacao de Manancial - APRM), as established in Act 9.866/97 of Sao Paulo State. We present here the results of the project Environmental Diagnosis in Support of the Plan for the Development and Environmental Protection Plan of the Outcrop Area of the Guarani Aquifer System in Sao Paulo State (Plano de Desenvolvimento e Protecao Ambiental da Area de Afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no Estado de Sao Paulo PDPA-SAG) and describe the areas of intervention defined by this law. The characterization of the area studied focuses on the physical and socio-economic aspects of the region, in addition to the pertinent legislation. Partial results indicate that the condition of the aquifer is satisfactory, but territorial discipline continues to be of prime importance. (Author)

  8. Outcrops of plastic material on the surface of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2015-05-01

    The archive data of the television experiment performed by the Venera-14 spacecraft on the surface of the planet Venus in March, 1982, were reprocessed, which significantly improved the image definition quality. An unusual geologic object located relatively near the camera was found, which allowed its details to be analyzed. The object is a low long bank in shape; it is formed by a relatively thin, jagged, almost vertical stratum. The bank contours the oval formation 1.5-2 m across that stands out against the layered surface. The location of the bank suggests that its material is extruded from under the layered plates surrounding the oval formation. A segment of the bank resembling a falling wave is inclined and partly covers the surface by forming the beddings. The object is likely formed by the rocks that remain semisoftened (plastic), when they appear on the surface at the temperature characteristic for the Venusian surface (about 740 K). It is suggested that, from the data on the physical and chemical conditions and the composition of the Venusian surface, the nature of the observed plastic medium can be hypothesized, and it can be even modeled under laboratory conditions.

  9. Heavy Metal Contents of Municipal and Rural Dumpsite Soils and Rate of Accumulation by Carica papaya and Talinum triangulare in Uyo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumpsites in Uyo and most cities in Nigeria are used nutrients rich soils for cultivating fruits and vegetables without regards to the risk of toxic metal pollution by the wastes. This development necessitated the research on the assessment of the impact of municipal and rural dumpsites on the metal levels of the underlying soils, the relationship between the dumpsite- soil metal content and the rate of bio-accumulation by plants, the effect of plant specie and plant part on the rate of metal uptake. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for the analysis of the samples and results obtained from municipal dumpsite soil indicated the following mean concentrations: Fe, 1711.20 μg/g; Pb, 43.28 ug/g; Zn, 88.34 ug/g; Ni, 12.18 ug/g; Cd, 14.10 ug/g and Cu, 56.33 ug/g. These concentrations were relatively higher than the following concentrations: Fe, 1016.98 ug/g; Pb, 18.57 ug/g; Zn, 57.90 ug/g; Ni, 7.98 ug/g; Cd, 9.25 ug/g and Cu, 33.70 ug/g recorded for the rural dumpsite soil. Consequently, plants grown on municipal dumpsites soil accumulated higher concentrations of the metals than those on rural dumpsites. Results obtained from this study also revealed that plants grown on dumpsite soils bio-accumulated higher metal concentrations than their counterparts obtained from normal agricultural soils. The ability of plants to bioaccumulate these metals were also observed as being different from one plant to the other and from one plant parts to the other. And apart from Fe and Zn which recorded higher concentrations in the leaves of the plants studied, other metals recorded higher concentrations in the roots. The general results obtained revealed that the levels of Cd in dumpsite-soil were above the standard while the levels of Cd and Pb in plants were also above the recommended levels in plants. The implications of these high concentrations of these metals in soil and plants have been discussed. Some useful recommendations on the proper handling of wastes to reduce toxic metal loads at dumpsites have also been highlighted.

  10. Recipe standardization, nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) and wild spinach (Gnetum africanum) soup "afang" commonly consumed in South-south Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alozie, Yetunde E; Ene-Obong, Henrietta N

    2018-01-01

    One hundred recipes of waterleaf and wild spinach soup (afang) consumed among the Ibibios in South-south Nigeria were collected through interview and questionnaire from indigenous homemakers and food sellers, harmonized, standardized, prepared and their nutrient content calculated. Mean weights of ingredients were calculated to obtain the control recipe. Major ingredients in the soup were analyzed chemically. Edible portions, retention factors to be applied in recipe calculation were determined. Sensory evaluation was conducted on five of the most preferred recipes on a nine-point hedonic scale. Edible coefficients of major foods ranged between 0.32 and 0.95. Significant changes (pcooked ingredients and recipes. Afang soup had 67.9% moisture; protein, 12.7% and energy, 169kcal. Fat contributed 57% of the total energy. Consumption of adequate quantities of afang soup will contribute substantially to Recommended Nutrient Intake of protein and micronutrients which will further increase with additional fish/meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the parasitism of Struthanthus flexicaulis (Mart. Mart. (Loranthaceae on the fitness of Mimosa calodendron Mart. (Fabaceae, an endemic shrub from rupestrian fields over ironstone outcrops, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Efeitos do parasitismo de Struthanthus flexicaulis (Mart. Mart. (Loranthaceae na aptidão de Mimosa calodendron Mart. (Fabaceae, um arbusto endêmico dos campos rupestres sobre canga, em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves Mourão

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic plants (mistletoes may alter the growth, reproduction and physiology of their hosts. Mimosa calodendron (Fabaceae is a legume abundant in rupestrian fields on ironstone outcrops, frequently attacked by the hemiparasite Struthanthus flexicaulis (Loranthaceae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of parasitism by S. flexicaulis on the fitness of M. calodendron. The intensity of parasitism and mortality on hosts of different sizes was evaluated, and foliage cover, fruit and seed set in parasitized and non-parasitized individuals were compared. More than 65% of a population of 1820 individuals was attacked. Host density positively influenced parasitism. The mortality and number of attacked hosts increased with their crown diameter. Heavily parasitized individuals showed 75 to 95% reduction of leaf cover and fruit production of 25% of those non-parasitized. Although no statistical difference was detected between the number of seeds per fruit, seed weight was lower in attacked plants. Parasitism by S. flexicaulis on M. calodendron may alter its population structure and dynamics, by reducing survival and fecundity rates.As plantas parasitas (ervas-de-passarinho podem alterar o crescimento, reprodução e fisiologia das hospedeiras. Mimosa calodendron (Fabaceae é uma leguminosa abundante nos campos rupestres sobre canga, freqüentemente atacada pela hemiparasita Struthanthus flexicaulis (Loranthaceae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as conseqüências do parasitismo de S. flexicaulis na aptidão de M. calodendron. Foram avaliadas a intensidade de parasitismo e mortalidade em mimosas de diferentes tamanhos, e comparadas a cobertura foliar e a produção de frutos e sementes em indivíduos parasitados e não parasitados. Mais de 65% da população de 1.820 indivíduos estavam parasitados. A densidade de mimosas influenciou positivamente o parasitismo. As taxas de parasitismo e de mortalidade foram maiores nas

  12. The role of changing climate in driving the shift from perennial grasses to annual succulents in a Mediterranean saltmarsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strain, E.M.A.; van Belzen, J.; Comandini, P.; Wong, J.; Bouma, T.J.; Airoldi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate threatens the structure and function of saltmarshes, which are often severely degraded by other human perturbations. Along the Mediterranean coastline, increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall have been hypothesised to trigger habitat shifts from perennial grasses to annual

  13. Correlation of epiphyllous bud differentiation with foliar senescence in crassulacean succulent Kalanchoe pinnata as revealed by thidiazuron and ethrel application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Sawhney, Sudhir

    2006-05-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata have crenate margins with each notch bearing a dormant bud competent to develop into a healthy plantlet. Leaf detachment is a common signal for inducing two contrastingly different leaf-based processes, i.e. epiphyllous bud development into plantlet and foliar senescence. To investigate differentiation of bud and its correlation, if any, with foliar senescence, thidiazuron (TDZ), having cytokinin activity and ethrel (ETH), an ethylene releasing compound, were employed. The experimental system was comprised of marginal leaf discs, each harbouring an epiphyllous bud. Most of the growth characteristics of plantlet developing from the epiphyllous bud were significantly inhibited by TDZ but promoted by ETH. The two regulators modulated senescence in a manner different for leaf discs and plantlet leaves. Thus, TDZ caused a complete retention whereas ETH a complete loss of chlorophyll in the leaf discs. In contrast, the former resulted in a complete depletion of chlorophyll from the plantlet leaves producing an albino effect, while the latter reduced it by 50% only. In combined dispensation of the two regulators, the effect of TDZ was expressed in majority of responses studied. The results presented in this investigation clearly show that the foliar processes of epiphyllous bud differentiation and senescence are interlinked as TDZ that delayed senescence inhibited epiphyllous bud differentiation and ETH that hastened senescence promoted it. A working hypothesis to interpret responsiveness of the disc-bud composite on lines of a source-sink duo, has been proposed.

  14. Range structure, microhabitat use, and activity patterns of the saxicolous lizard Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae on a rock outcrop in Minas Gerais, Brazil Organización espacial, utilización de los microhábitats y padrones de actividad del lagarto saxícola Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae en un afloramiento rocoso en Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO B RIBEIRO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Tropidurus is a widely distributed lizard genus in South America and the Galapagos Islands, studies on space use and spatial distribution are scarce. We studied the home range structure of the saxicolous lizard Tropidurus torquatus based on the inland population of a rock outcrop in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Lizards were individually marked and observed during reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. Using the mínimum convex polygon method, we found that average total range size of males during the reproductive season was larger than that of females, and that both had similar total range sizes in the non-reproductive season. The harmonic mean method showed that males have a larger home range size than that of females during both seasons. As expected for a polygynous species, the average number of males whose total ranges overlapped those of females tended to be higher in the reproductive season than in the non-reproductive season. Intrasexually, the number of females whose total ranges were associated with those of other females was also higher in the reproductive season than in the non-reproductive season. For males, this number remained low in both seasons, suggesting that males use more exclusive areas, whereas the smaller total ranges of females apparently sustain a higher density of individual s during the reproductive season. Frequency of microhabitat use in relation to vegetation increased in the non-reproductive season and the activity patterns of lizards shifted from bimodal in the reproductive season (rainy period to unimodal in the non-reproductive season (dry period. Thus, the range structure, microhabitat use, and activity patterns of the T. torquatus observed here were all influenced by the time frame affecting their spatial ecology.Aunque Tropidurus es un género de lagarto extensamente distribuido en Sudamérica y en las islas Galápagos, son escasos los estudios sobre uso del espacio y distribuci

  15. Caracterização florística da vegetação sobre afloramento rochoso na Estação Experimental de Itapeva, SP, e comparação com áreas de campos rupestres e de altitude. Floristic characterization on rocky outcrop in the Itapeva Experimental Station, SP, and comparison with areas of rocky grasslands and high-altitude grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cristina Pereira Muniz de SOUZA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A classificação de comunidades vegetais nem sempre é tarefa fácil, principalmente quando se trata de tipos de vegetação pouco estudados. Esse é o caso davegetação sobre afloramento rochoso da Estação Experimental de Itapeva – EEI, situada no sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, região que abriga remanescentes de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica. Visando caracterizar e classificar essa vegetação, foram realizadas coletas mensais de material botânico no período de agosto de 2008 a fevereiro de 2010. A lista de espécies obtida foi comparada com a de campos rupestres e de altitude brasileiros. As comparações foram realizadas por meio de análise de agrupamento, “TWINSPAN” e “NMS”. Foram encontradas 135 espécies, 48 famílias e 108 gêneros. As famílias mais representativas foram Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae. A análise de agrupamento com os dados de distribuição de riqueza entre famílias sugeriu maior afinidade florística entre o afloramento rochoso estudado e os campos rupestres. Para os dados de composição de espécies, os diferentes métodos de ligação agruparam a área de estudo ora com campos de altitude ora com campos rupestres. A “NMS” evidenciou o caráter contínuo da variação florística, mas reiterou a maior similaridade entre a área de estudo e os campos rupestres. A “TWINSPAN” reforçou essa hipótese e apontou a família Fabaceae e as espécies Miconia albicans (Sw. Steud. e Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub como indicadoras de campos rupestres. O tipo de solo, formado a partir de rochas areníticas, constitui o fator determinante mais plausível para as relações florísticas encontradas.The classification of vegetation communities is not an easy task, especially regarding less studied vegetation types. This is the case for rocky outcrop vegetation in the Itapeva Experimental Station – EEI, located in the

  16. A ocorrência do mutualismo facultativo entre Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae e o cupim Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, em afloramentos rochosos no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Viamão, RS The occurrence of facultative mutualism between Dyckia maritima Backer (Bromeliaceae and the termite Cortaritermes silvestrii (Holmgren, Nasutitermitinae, on rock outcrops in Itapuã State Park, Viamão, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Copstein Waldemar

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de colônias de C. silvestrii é comum nos lajeados existentes em Itapuã. Na estação Morro da Grota1, 92,0 % dos termiteiros situados na rocha exposta e em ilhas de vegetação estão associados a D. maritima. Esta convivência ocorre em 31,2 % das ilhas na qual esta bromélia se faz presente. Nas ilhas, a comparação entre os substratos aonde D. maritima vegeta, o solo litólico húmico existente sob o manto do musgo Campylopus spp. e o substrato constituído pelo cupinzeiro indica que este último possui os teores mais elevados dos nutrientes P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn e Mn, maior CTC e maiores teores de partículas finas, principalmente o silte. O estabelecimento de D. maritima sobre os termiteiros de grande porte aumenta o seu valor de cobertura em ilhas de vegetação quando comparado com ilhas sem termiteiros ou com termiteiros de pequeno porte em áreas entre 2,7 a 8,0 m². Este fato é atribuído à melhoria físico-química do substrato e ao aumento de superfície e volume aptos a serem colonizados pela bromélia e proporciona maior competitividade em relação a outras espécies vegetais. As características apresentadas pela interação entre este cupim e D. maritima, pela primeira vez descrita na literatura, permitem indicar esta relação ecológica como mutualismo facultativo. Inferimos que o conjunto de observações apresentado constitui um modelo temporal de crescimento deste mutualismo, cujas fases inicial e tardia estão descritas neste trabalho.The presence of colonies of C. silvestrii is common, both on the rock surface and at islands of vegetation. At Morro da Grota1 station, 92,0 % of the termite nests on rocky outcrops and at island of vegetation are associated with this bromeliad. These nests are associated with D. maritima, in 31,2 % of the islands where this bromeliad occurs. At these island communities, the comparison between the substrata where D. maritima occurs, the litolic Waldemar & Irgang: Mutualismo

  17. Wet fractionation of the succulent halophyte Salicornia sinus-persica, with the aim of low input (water saving) biorefining into bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alassali, Ayah; Cybulska, Iwona; Galvan, Alejandro Ríos

    2017-01-01

    -persica was collected and split into two fractions by wet fractionation; liquid (juice) and solid (pulp). Sugar contents were found to be 1.0–1.5% for the juice fraction and 50% (w/w) for the fresh pulp. Direct fermentation of the juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed no salt inhibition of the yeast and ethanol...... yields of ~70% were achieved. A pretreatment study was carried out for the pulp fraction applying mild hydrothermal pretreatment. Cellulose convertibility was found to be significantly higher for severity factors above 2.00, and the highest ethanol yield (76.91 ± 3.03%) was found at process severity of 3...

  18. New data about the suspensor of succulent angiosperms: Ultrastructure and cytochemical study of the embryo-suspensor of Sempervivum arachnoideum L. and Jovibarba sobolifera (Sims) Opiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Bohdanowicz, Jerzy

    2012-07-01

    The development of the suspensor in two species - Sempervivum arachnoideum and Jovibarba sobolifera - was investigated using cytochemical methods, light and electron microscopy. Cytological processes of differentiation in the embryo-suspensor were compared with the development of embryo-proper. The mature differentiated suspensor consists of a large basal cell and three to four chalazal cells. The basal cell produces haustorial branched invading ovular tissues. The walls of the haustorium and the micropylar part of the basal cell form the wall ingrowths typical for a transfer cells. The ingrowths also partially cover the lateral wall and the chalazal wall separating the basal cell from the other embryo cells. The dense cytoplasm filling the basal cell is rich in: numerous polysomes lying free or covering rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), active dictyosomes, microtubules, bundles of microfilaments, microbodies, mitochondria, plastids and lipid droplets. Cytochemical tests (including proteins, insoluble polysaccharides and lipids are distributed in the suspensor during different stages of embryo development) showed the presence of high amounts of macromolecules in the suspensor cells, particularly during the globular and heart-shaped phases of embryo development. The protein bodies and lipid droplets are the main storage products in the cells of the embryo-proper. The results of Auramine 0 indicate that a cuticular material is present only on the surface walls of the embryo-proper, but is absent from the suspensor cell wall. The ultrastructural features and cytochemical tests indicate that in the two species - S. arachnoideum and J. sobolifera - the embryo-suspensor is mainly involved in the absorption and transport of metabolites from the ovular tissues to the developing embryo-proper.

  19. Deformation Partitioning: The Missing Link Between Outcrop-Scale Observations And Orogen-Scale Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, S.; Paterson, S. R.; Jiang, D.; Miller, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Structural studies of orogenic deformation fields are mostly based on small-scale structures ubiquitous in field exposures, hand samples, and under microscopes. Relating deformation histories derived from such structures to changing lithospheric-scale deformation and boundary conditions is not trivial due to vast scale separation (10-6 107 m) between characteristic lengths of small-scale structures and lithospheric plates. Rheological heterogeneity over the range of orogenic scales will lead to deformation partitioning throughout intervening scales of structural development. Spectacular examples of structures documenting deformation partitioning are widespread within hot (i.e., magma-rich) orogens such as the well-studied central Sierra Nevada and Cascades core of western North America: (1) deformation partitioned into localized, narrow, triclinic shear zones separated by broad domains of distributed pure shear at micro- to 10 km scales; (2) deformation partitioned between plutons and surrounding metamorphic host rocks as shown by pluton-wide magmatic fabrics consistently oriented differently than coeval host rock fabrics; (3) partitioning recorded by different fabric intensities, styles, and orientations established from meter-scale grid mapping to 100 km scale domainal analyses; and (4) variations in the causes of strain and kinematics within fold-dominated domains. These complex, partitioned histories require synthesized mapping, geochronology, and structural data at all scales to evaluate partitioning and in the absence of correct scaling can lead to incorrect interpretations of histories. Forward modeling capable of addressing deformation partitioning in materials containing multiple scales of rheologically heterogeneous elements of varying characteristic lengths provides the ability to upscale the large synthesized datasets described above to plate-scale tectonic processes and boundary conditions. By comparing modeling predictions from the recently developed self-consistent Multi-Order Power-Law Approach (MOPLA) to multi-scale field observations, we constrain likely paleo-tectonic controls of orogenic structural evolution rather than predicting a unique, but likely incorrect deformation history.

  20. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  1. Reciprocal sedimentation and noncorrelative hiatuses in marine-paralic siliciclastics: Miocene outcrop evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M.

    1988-07-01

    Deepening-upward paralic sequences present within a thicker record of shallowing-upward shelf and nonmarine sequences in Miocene siliciclastics of Maryland provide rare stratigraphic evidence for (1) coastal trapping of sediment during marine transgression, with simultaneous starvation on the open shelf (recorded by condensed skeletal lags), and (2) reciprocal switching of depositional and nondepositional conditions during regression. It follows that the regressive disconformities that define hemicyclic coastal sequences are not laterally continuous with the transgressive disconformities and condensed lags that define open-shelf hemicyclic sequences, although they are commonly depicted or assumed as such. Nor are these disconformities age correlative: marine-to-nonmarine correlations that assume lateral continuity of small-scale sequences (1 to 10 m thick; seismic parasequences) will err by as much as one-half cycle, restricting the applicability of models of punctuated aggradational cycles. The stratigraphic anatomy of parasequences is most comparable to reciprocal patterns inherent in hierarchically larger scale sequences in passive margins, where subaerial unconformities and submarine condensed intervals have recently been biostratigraphically verified as offset in age.

  2. Microsatellite Loci for Orthophytum ophiuroides (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae Species Adapted to Neotropical Rock Outcrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Aoki-Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Orthophytum ophiuroides, a rupicolous bromeliad species endemic to neotropical rocky fields. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population differentiation and species cohesion in such fragmented environments. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in related bromeliad species. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized from an enriched library of O. ophiuroides. The loci were tested on 42 individuals from two populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to nine and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.167 to 0.870 and from 0.369 to 0.958, respectively. Seven loci successfully amplified in other related bromeliad species. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the microsatellite loci developed here will be useful to assess genetic diversity and gene flow in O. ophiuroides for the investigation of population differentiation and species cohesion in neotropical mountainous habitats.

  3. Construction of new houses on a uranium vein outcrop: a case study from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goliáš, V.; Tumurkhuu, G.; Kohn, P.; Šálek, O.; Plášil, Jakub; Škoda, R.; Soumar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 343-349 ISSN 0029-5922 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Tanvald granite * vein-type uranium * uranyl minerals * spatial planning * radon risk Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  4. UPPER JURASSIC OUTCROPS ALONG THE CALDAS DA RAINHA DIAPIR, WEST CENTRAL PORTUGAL: A REGIONAL GEOHERITAGE OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS, JORGE; BERNARDES, CRISTINA

    2004-01-01

    The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a ...

  5. Furrowed outcrops of Eocene chalk on the lower continental slop offshore New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, James M.; Kirby, John R.; Hampson, John C., Jr.; Gibson, Patricia R.; Hecker, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    A sea bottom of middle Eocene calcareous claystone cut by downslope-trending furrows was observed during an Alvin dive to the mouth of Berkeley Canyon on the continental slope off New Jersey. The furrows are 10 to 50 m apart, 4 to 13 m deep, linear, and nearly parallel in water depths of 2,000 m. They have steep walls and flat floors 3 to 5 m wide, of fine-grained sediment. Mid-range sidescan-sonar images show that similarly furrowed surfaces are found on nearby areas of the lower continental slope, not associated with canyons. The furrows are overlain in places by Pleistocene sediments. Although they show evidence of erosional origin, they do not appear to be related to observed structures, and their straight, parallel pattern is not well understood. A general cover of flocky unconsolidated sediments implies that bottom-current erosion is not active now.

  6. Understanding Fluid Flow during Tectonic Reactivation: An Example from the Flamborough Head Chalk Outcrop (UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Faÿ-Gomord

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flamborough Head chalks are located at the extremities of E-W and N-S trending fault systems along the Yorkshire coast (UK. Rock deformation is expressed in Selwicks Bay where a normal fault is exposed along with a high density of calcite veins. The fault mineralization is tested using geochemistry. Crosscutting relationships are used to differentiate between three vein generations: a network of parallel veins that are oriented perpendicular to stratigraphy (Group I, hydraulic breccia with typical jigsaw puzzle structure (Group II, and a third generation of calcite veins crosscutting the two previous generations (Group III. Geochemical analyses revealed that all three generations possess the same chemical signature and must reflect successive pulses from the same mineralizing fluid source. Strontium isotope analyses showed that the veins have elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios, that is, up to 7.110, while ratios of the chalk matrix equal 7.707. The latter value is in agreement with the signature of Late Cretaceous seawater. Consequently, the source of the fluid is external, reflecting an open system. The radiogenic Sr-isotope ratios, combined with low iron concentration, suggest that fluids migrated through sandy deposits. Fluid inclusion salinities range from 0 to 12 eq. wt% NaCl equiv. with a dominance of very low salinity inclusions, reflecting a meteoric signal. This leads to a model where meteoric fluids stored in an underlying confined sandstone aquifer were remobilized. The wide range of salinities could result from mixing of the meteoric fluid with some more saline fluids present in the rock sequence or from the dissolution of salts in the subsurface. In addition to the understanding of the local paragenetic evolution of the veining in Flamborough Head chalks, this study offers an insight into the way how fluid flows and mineralizes along fault zones.

  7. Importance of fines in smart water enhanced oil recovery (SmW-EOR) for chalk outcrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    In SmW-EOR it is generally believed that precipitation of brines must be avoided since it can have a negative impact on the SmW sweep efficiency. But substitution of Mg2+ by Ca2+ on calcite surfaces (a well-accepted phenomenon) can change the brine combination and enhance the possibility of fine ......W-EOR experiments reported in literature. Both the amount of available soluble SO4 2- (aq) in the solution and the amount of CaSO4 precipitation has been calculated and correlated to the corresponding oil recovery.......In SmW-EOR it is generally believed that precipitation of brines must be avoided since it can have a negative impact on the SmW sweep efficiency. But substitution of Mg2+ by Ca2+ on calcite surfaces (a well-accepted phenomenon) can change the brine combination and enhance the possibility of fine...

  8. 77 FR 59558 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... hay; wheat grain; wheat straw; and cowpea, succulent. The human health risk assessment used to support... Tolerances in/on: Rhubarb, Turnip Roots and Tops, Sunflower Subgroup 20B, Succulent Cowpea, Succulent Lima...

  9. Assessment Of Local Tropical Plants For Phytoremediation Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum maximum) and Water Leaf (Talinum triangulare) local plants under normal environmental conditions in remediating soil contaminated with a Nigerian crude oil sample. Composite soil sample obtained by mixing equal weight in ...

  10. Screening for Total Carotenoids and β-Carotene in Some Widely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    machinery and protect them against photo-damage. (Alexander, 1999). Carotenoids are notable for their wide distribution, structural diversity, and of various ... Squash (Curcurbita moschata), Spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus), Tomatoe (Lycopersicon esculentum) and. Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) were purchased from.

  11. Phytochemical And Ethnobotanical Evaluation Of The Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria. Abstract ... estimation of each phytochemical present showed that the leaf extract contained ... saponins. Ethnobotanical survey showed that Talinum triangulare has a number of.

  12. Litterfall dynamics in a iron-rich rock outcrop complex in the southeastern portion of the Iron Quadrangle of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo André Ribeiro Valim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems on cangas (duricrust present considerable heterogeneity of habitats due to microtopographic variations, soil accumulation and a variety of plant functional groups. Therefore, spatial and temporal ecosystem processes such as litterfall are to be expected to be large, and the absence of a level of productivity represents all the facets of iron-rich landscapes. We investigated litterfall in a iron-rich rock complex in the Iron Quadrangle of Brazil, with habitats formed on different evolutionary stages of the soil, resulting in a gradient of biomass, canopy cover and community structure. The measurements were made in open field areas, dominated by herb-shrub vegetation and interspersed with islands of dense vegetation in which there were individual trees, as well as in areas of semideciduous forest. The litterfall, especially that of leaf litter, followed the gradient of woody cover and was approximately two times greater in the forest formation. However, the spatial and temporal variations in deposition were greatest in the herb-shrub areas and least in the semideciduous forest area, intermediate values being obtained for the tree island areas. The peaks in litterfall also varied among habitats, occurring in some periods of the rainy season and during the transition from rainy to dry in the herb-shrub and tree island areas, whereas they occurred at the end of the dry season in the semideciduous forest area. The results show significant differences in the patterns of litterfall among different physiognomies within the same iron-rich rock complex, indicating the need for expanded studies, focusing on the flow of matter and energy in such environments.

  13. Conophyton occur in Burgueno Quarry (Nueva Carrara, Uruguay): outcrop new of Grupo Mina Verdun and its importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Cernuschi, F.; Chiglino, L.

    2004-01-01

    The succession exposed in the Burgueno Quarry, in the vicinity of Nueva Carrara (Maldonado, Uruguay), is here assigned to the Mina Verdun Group. It is composed, from base to top, by meta marls, calcareous breccias and limestones, stromatolitic limestones and massive dolostones. Exposed thickness exceeds 110 m. Stromatolites assigned to the group Conophyton occur in the stromatolitic limestones (El Calabozo Formation). Stromatolites are characterized by straight to sinuous columns, showing circular to elliptical transverse sections 1.5 to 26 cm in maximum diameter. Height of columns exceeds 50 cm. The stromatolitic laminations are well preserved. Sedimentary environment for this unit is inferred as sub tidal, under low energy conditions. The Las Ventanas Formation overlies with angular and erosional unconformity the Mina Verdun Group at Burgueno Quarry. The Las Palmas Formation is tentatively correlated with the Las Ventanas Formation, on the basis of stratigraphic relationships and lithologic similarity. Considering the data presented here, it is envisaged that the Lavalleja/Fuente del Puma Group is not part of the basement of the Las Ventanas Formation. A Proterozoic, pre-Vendian age is postulated for the Mina Verdun Group, thus older than ca. 600 Ma [es

  14. Notes on epilithic, epigeic and muscicolous lichens and lichenicolous fungi from rock outcrops in the mountains of northern Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Alstrup, Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Of the 154 taxa reported, 27 species are new to Greece, 9 new to the Greek mainland and 39 new to one or more provinces. Many of these records represent substantial range extensions of species with Central European or arctic-boreal distribution. Distribution data are briefly discussed and notes a...

  15. Fracture-related fluid flow in sandstone reservoirs - Insights from outcrop analogues of South-eastern Utah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, K.; Senger, K.; Braathen, A.; Tveranger, J.; Petrie, E.; Evans, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Fault- And fold-related fractures influence the fluid circulation in the subsurface, thus being of high importance for CO2 storage site assessment, especially in terms of reservoir connectivity and leakage. In this context, discrete regions of concentrated sub-parallel fracturing known as fracture

  16. Impact of macropores and gravel outcrops on phosphorus leaching at the plot scale in silt loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to increased nutrient loads in surface waters, scientists and engineers need to identify critical nutrient source areas and transport mechanisms within a catchment to protect beneficial uses of aquatic systems in a cost effective manner. It was hypothesized that hydrologic heterogeneitie...

  17. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1983-09-01

    In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), experiments on hydrothermal rock/water interaction, corrosion, thermomechanics, and geochemical modeling calculations are being conducted. All of these activities require characterization of the initial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry of the potential repository host rock. This report summarizes the characterization done on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff (Tcfb) used for Waste Package experimental programs. 11 references, 17 figures, 3 tables

  18. Bathymetric Signatures of Oceanic Detachment Faulting and Potential Ultramafic Lithologies at Outcrop or in the Shallow Subseafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, J. R.; Smith, D. K.; Escartin, J.; Schouten, H.

    2008-12-01

    For ten years, domal bathymetric features capped by corrugated and striated surfaces have been recognized as exposures of oceanic detachment faults, and hence potentially as exposures of plutonic rocks from lower crust or upper mantle. Associated with these domes are other bathymetric features that indicate the presence of detachment faulting. Taken together these bathymetric signatures allow the mapping of large areas of detachment faulting at slow and intermediate spreading ridges, both at the axis and away from it. These features are: 1. Smooth elevated domes corrugated parallel to the spreading direction, typically 10-30 km wide parallel to the axis; 2. Linear ridges with outward-facing slopes steeper than 20°, running parallel to the spreading axis, typically 10-30 km long; 3. Deep basins with steep sides and relatively flat floors, typically 10-20 km long parallel to the spreading axis and 5-10 km wide. This characteristic bathymetric association arises from the rolling over of long-lived detachment faults as they spread away from the axis. The faults dip steeply close to their origin at a few kilometers depth near the spreading axis, and rotate to shallow dips as they continue to evolve, with associated footwall flexure and rotation of rider blocks carried on the fault surface. The outward slopes of the linear ridges can be shown to be rotated volcanic seafloor transported from the median valley floor. The basins may be formed by the footwall flexure, and may be exposures of the detachment surface. Critical in this analysis is that the corrugated domes are not the only sites of detachment faulting, but are the places where higher parts of much more extensive detachment faults happen to be exposed. The fault plane rises and falls along axis, and in some places is covered by rider blocks, while in others it is exposed at the sea floor. We use this association to search for evidence for detachment faulting in existing surveys, identifying for example an area of detachment faulting on the Gorda Ridge. We use it to determine in detail the distribution of detachment faulting along the axis of the Mid- Atlantic Ridge between 12 and 35°N (see Escartin et al. abstract in V16) and to map detachments on and off axis in an area 200km by 200km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. In this area we show that about 50% of the lithosphere has been generated by detachment faulting, indicating that throughout the last 10 million years most of the spreading axis has been asymmetric, with detachment faulting on one side or the other.

  19. Influence of Waves and Tides on Upper Slope Turbidity Currents and their Deposits: An Outcrop and Laboratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniller-Varghese, M. S.; Smith, E.; Mohrig, D. C.; Goudge, T. A.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Koo, W. M.; Mason, J.; Swartz, J. M.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    Research on interactions of turbidity currents with waves and tides highlight both their importance and complexity. The Elkton Siltstone at Cape Arago, Oregon, USA, preserves rhythmically bedded deposits that we interpret as the product of tidally modified hyperpycnal flows under the influence of water-surface waves. Evidence for the interpretation of tidal influence is taken from couplet thickness measurements consistent with semidiurnal tides arranged into monthly cycles. These deposits were likely sourced from suspended-sediment laden river plumes; thinner, finer-grained beds represent deposition during flood tide, and thicker, coarser-grained beds represent deposition during ebb tide. Sedimentary structures within the rhythmites change from proximal to distal sections, but both sections preserve combined-flow bedforms within the beds, implying wave influence. Our paleo-topographic reconstruction has the proximal section located immediately down-dip of the shelf slope-break and the distal section located 1.5km further offshore in 125m greater water depth. We present experimental results from wave-influenced turbidity currents calling into question the interpretation that combined-flow bedforms necessarily require deposition at or above paleo-wave base. Turbidity currents composed of quartz silt and very fine sand were released into a 10m long, 1.2m deep tank. Currents ran down a 9-degree ramp with a motor driven wave-maker positioned at the distal end of the tank. The currents interacted with the wave field as they travelled downslope into deeper water. While oscillatory velocities measured within the wave-influenced turbidity currents decreased with distance downslope, the maximum oscillatory velocities measured in the combined-flow currents at depth were five to six times larger than those measured under a wave field without turbidity currents. These results suggest that combined-flow turbidity currents can transmit oscillating-flow signals beneath the effective wave base. Bed thicknesses, grain-size data, sedimentary structures and fabrics measured in the rhythmically bedded, combined-flow turbidites of the Elkton Siltstone will be interpreted in the context of these experiments.

  20. Physico-chemical control on the REE minerals in chloritoid-grade metasediments from a single outcrop (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janots, Emilie; Berger, Alfons; Engi, Martin

    2011-01-01

    minerals record fluid/ rock interaction that occurred at different deformation stages. Arsenic concentrations in REE phosphates appear to reflect conditions of elevated oxygen fugacity. In cases where such conditions are not inherited from the sedimentary protolith, the oxidation reflects a hydrothermal......). Allanite formation is texturally coeval with apatite, chloritoid and xenotime, during the main tectono-metamorphic stage. Allanite formation implies significant mass transfer of Ca and P via a fluid phase, which is not clearly related to advective transport. In Ga06, elongate monazite grains have...... a detrital core rimmed by newly formed monazite. Significant arsenic contents are found in newly formed monazite, xenotime and apatite. Monazite texture and composition suggest (re)crystallization by pressure solution, at an oxygen fugacity sufficient to partly oxidize As, S, U, and Fe. Whether...

  1. 76 FR 69732 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... formulation into end-use herbicide products used on cowpea, succulent (Tennessee only); crop subgroup 20B.... Active Ingredient: Sulfentrazone. Proposed Uses: For use on cowpea, succulent (Tennessee only); crop...

  2. The karoo biome: a preliminary synthesis. Part 2- vegetation and history

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cowling, RM

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available between soil ulinity d the incidence of succulence has already been amtioned. In the eastern Karoo the incidence of stem succulence is positively correlated with levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium (M T Hoffman unpublished...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Udofot, Cordelia Bukola. Vol 21, No 6 (2017) - Articles Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on the yield and agronomic characters of Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  4. Effect of drying methods on the physicochemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of sun drying and oven drying at three different temperatures (60 0C, 70 0C and 80 0C) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of waterleaf (Talinum triangulare). About 2000 g of freshly harvested leaves were obtained, sorted, chopped into small pieces and sub-divided into five ...

  5. Palynological studies on five species of Asteraceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... obtained from this investigation showed that the pollen shape is spheroidal in G. nigritiana, E. praetermissa and C. odorata while it is elliptic in V. guineensis and L. pterodonta. The pollen ... other palynological features of Talinum and Calandrinia .... the months of February-April, 1990. Nig. J. Bot. 5177-185.

  6. Distribution and origins of members of the Family Portulacaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present day distribution of members of the family Portulacaceae shows that whilst some genera such as Portulaca L., and to some extent Montia L. and Talinum Adanson are cosmopolitan in distribution, others such as Ceraria Pearson and Stephens, Lyallia Hooker fil., Portulacaria Jacquin, Silvaea Philippi and ...

  7. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on the yield and agronomic characters of Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. ... If properly managed and stimulated, fungi can contribute significantly to improving soil health, thus improving food security in a sustainable manner. Keywords: Mycoaugmentation ...

  8. Phytochemical And Ethnobotanical Evaluation Of The Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and ethnobotanical survey of the leaves of Talinum triangulare (Jacq) Wild were investigated. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavonoids and saponins while the leaf extract was devoid of glycosides, steroids and carbohydrates. Quantitative ...

  9. Effects of sun and shade drying on nutrient and antinutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work determined the effect of sun and shade drying on the nutrient, antinutrient and food toxicant composition of atama – Heinsia crinata, editan - Lasianthore Africana and water – leaf – Talinum tringulare vegetables. Two and a half kilogram of these green leafy vegetable were purchased from Uyo market, picked from ...

  10. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The use of pesticide, although increases agricultural yield and improves public health is also fraught with a number of ecologic, agronomic and health concerns. This research investigated the impact of an ex-situ mycostimulation of one of the in-situ soil fungi on some agronomic characters and yield of Talinum ...

  11. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological

  12. Paudorf locus typicus (Lower Austria) revisited – The potential of the classic loess outcrop for Middle to Late Pleistocene landscape reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprafke, Tobias; Terhorst, Birgit; Peticzka, Robert

    2013-01-01

    periglacial conditions reflected in eolian silt and fine sand accumulation, admixture of local material during (mostly solifluidal) redeposition and in situ processes. Horizons with signs of pedogenesis, particularly the two pedocomplexes, document longer phases of stability; the stages of development can...

  13. Feeding ecology of a nocturnal invasive alien lizard species, Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Gekkonidae, living in an outcrop rocky area in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied in fieldwork, the feeding ecology of a Hemidactylus mabouia population from southeastern Brazil throughout one year in a region with marked climatic seasonality. A sampling of availability of arthropods in the environment was carried out, which evidenced that the availability of food resources influenced the composition of the diet of H. mabouia. There were no seasonal differences on diet composition, which may be due to the relatively constant availability on prey throughout the year. In general, this population can be classified as generalist and opportunistic regarding diet. There was a high food niche overlap among juveniles and adults, although juvenile lizards tend to eat higer number of prey (but in lower volume when compared to adult lizards. The ability to exploit a wide array of prey in an efficient way, maintaining a positive energetic balance, may be a factor determining the efficiency of this exotic species to occupy invaded areas.

  14. Fracture-network analysis of the Latemar Platform (northern Italy): integrating outcrop studies to constrain the hydraulic properties of fractures in reservoir models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boro, H.; Rosero, E.; Bertotti, G.V.

    2014-01-01

    Fractures in subsurface reservoirs are known to have significant impacts on reservoir productivity. Quantifying their importance, however, is challenged by limited subsurface observations, and intense computations for modelling and upscaling. In this paper, we present a workflow to construct and

  15. Geologic field notes and geochemical analyses of outcrop and drill core from Mesoproterozoic rocks and iron-oxide deposits and prospects of southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Granitto, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources/Missouri Geological Survey, undertook a study from 1988 to 1994 on the iron-oxide deposits and their host Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks in southeastern Missouri. The project resulted in an improvement of our understanding of the geologic setting, mode of formation, and the composition of many of the known deposits and prospects and the associated rocks of the St. Francois terrane in Missouri. The goal for this earlier work was to allow the comparison of Missouri iron-oxide deposits in context with other iron oxide-copper ± uranium (IOCG) types of mineral deposits observed globally. The raw geochemical analyses were released originally through the USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDB, http://mrdata.usgs.gov). The data presented herein offers all of the field notes, locations, rock descriptions, and geochemical analyses in a coherent package to facilitate new research efforts in IOCG deposit types. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel (Version Office 2010) spreadsheet format (*.xlsx) and MS-DOS text formats (*.txt) for ease of use by numerous computer programs.

  16. Ability of crassulacean acid metabolism plants to overcome interacting stresses in tropical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttge, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Single stressors such as scarcity of water and extreme temperatures dominate the struggle for life in severely dry desert ecosystems or cold polar regions and at high elevations. In contrast, stress in the tropics typically arises from a dynamic network of interacting stressors, such as availability of water, CO(2), light and nutrients, temperature and salinity. This requires more plastic spatio-temporal responsiveness and versatility in the acquisition and defence of ecological niches. The mode of photosynthesis of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is described and its flexible expression endows plants with powerful strategies for both acclimation and adaptation. Thus, CAM plants are able to inhabit many diverse habitats in the tropics and are not, as commonly thought, successful predominantly in dry, high-insolation habitats. Typical tropical CAM habitats or ecosystems include exposed lava fields, rock outcrops of inselbergs, salinas, savannas, restingas, high-altitude páramos, dry forests and moist forests. Morphotypical and physiotypical plasticity of CAM phenotypes allow a wide ecophysiological amplitude of niche occupation in the tropics. Physiological and biochemical plasticity appear more responsive by having more readily reversible variations in performance than do morphological adaptations. This makes CAM plants particularly fit for the multi-factor stressor networks of tropical forests. Thus, while the physiognomy of semi-deserts outside the tropics is often determined by tall succulent CAM plants, tropical forests house many more CAM plants in terms of quantity (biomass) and quality (species diversity).

  17. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interest in the study of succulent plants such as aloes, both for pleasure and scientific pursuit, has been going on for a long time. The efforts of succulent enthusiasts such as Harold Basil Christian, who in the 1950's established a scenic. Aloe Garden near Harare, Zimbabwe, greatly contributed to making aloes one of ...

  18. Lasiodiplodia species associated with dying Euphorbia ingens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various species of Euphorbia occur in South Africa, including herbaceous, succulent and woody types. The largest of the succulent Euphorbia spp. in South Africa is Euphorbia ingens. These trees have been dying at an alarming rate in the Limpopo province during the course of the last 15 years. Investigations into the ...

  19. The Robertson Karoo as pastural area | JGV | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Robertson Karoo eight plant communities can he distinguished. Quantitative plant surveys were conducted in all the communities. Succulents form an important component of the vegetation. The plant communities are very stable after invasion by succulents which tend to remain dominant more or less permanently.

  20. New taxa of Hesperantha (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the southern African winter rainfall region and a review of the H. pilosa complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern and tropical Africa genus Hesperantha Ker Gawl., now with 85 species, is distinguished in subfam. Crocoideae by the style dividing into relatively long, usually laxly spreading style branches at or shortly below the mouth of the perianth tube (rarely well within the tube or above the mouth of the tube and, with a few exceptions, by hard, woody corm tunics. We describe three new species here. H. dolomitica Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, a narrow endemic of limestone outcrops on slopes north of the Vars River in the Knersvlakte, Western Cape, has the bell-shaped corms characteristic of the small sect. Hesperantha but is distinctive in the section in its pure white perianth with relatively long tube and soft-textured, falcate to distally trailing leaves. H. laxifolia Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from the Pakhuis Mtns, Western Cape, stands out in sect. Hesperantha in its prostate, somewhat succulent foliage leaves, and spikes of 2–5 white flowers with unusually short filaments less than 1 mm long and particularly short anthers, ± 4 mm long. The short style branches, ± 4 mm long, remain suberect rather than laxly spreading. H. secunda Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from the Roggeveld Escarpment, Northern Cape, has until now been included in H. pilosa but differs in its secund spike of nodding flowers with short style branches, and leaves with broadly winged margins. We also recognize a new subsp. bracteolata (R.C.Foster Goldblatt & J.C.Manning of H. pilosa (L.f. Ker Gawl. for populations of plants with diurnal flowers with usually blue or purple (occasionally white tepals lacking dark pigmentation on the reverse. With additional material to hand, we reduce blue-flowered H. ciliolata Goldblatt to synonymy in subsp. bracteolata and report range extensions for H. pilosa subsp. pilosa, now recorded as far east as the Langeberg near Cloete’s Pass.

  1. Mating system, population growth, and management scenario for Kalanchoe pinnata in an invaded seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de León, Salvador; Herrera, Ileana; Guevara, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Ecological invasions are a major issue worldwide, where successful invasion depends on traits that facilitate dispersion, establishment, and population growth. The nonnative succulent plant Kalanchoe pinnata, reported as invasive in some countries, is widespread in remnants of seasonally dry tropical forest on a volcanic outcrop with high conservation value in east-central Mexico where we assessed its mating system and demographic growth and identified management strategies. To understand its local mating system, we conducted hand-pollination treatments, germination, and survival experiments. Based on the experimental data, we constructed a life-stage population matrix, identified the key traits for population growth, weighted the contributions of vegetative and sexual reproduction, and evaluated management scenarios. Hand-pollination treatments had slight effects on fruit and seed setting, as well as on germination. With natural pollination treatment, the successful germination of seeds from only 2/39 fruit suggests occasional effective natural cross-pollination. The ratios of the metrics for self- and cross-pollinated flowers suggest that K. pinnata is partially self-compatible. Most of the pollinated flowers developed into fruit, but the seed germination and seedling survival rates were low. Thus, vegetative propagation and juvenile survival are the main drivers of population growth. Simulations of a virtual K. pinnata population suggest that an intense and sustained weeding campaign will reduce the population within at least 10 years. Synthesis and applications. The study population is partially self-compatible, but sexual reproduction by K. pinnata is limited at the study site, and population growth is supported by vegetative propagation and juvenile survival. Demographic modeling provides key insights and realistic forecasts on invasion process and therefore is useful to design management strategies.

  2. Stratigraphic variation of complex impurities in platform limestones and possible significance of atmospheric dust: a study with emphasis on gamma-ray spectrometry and magnetic susceptibility outcrop logging (Eifelian-Frasnian, Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladil, J.; Gersl, M.; Strnad, L.; Frana, J.; Langrova, A.; Spisiak, J.

    2006-07-01

    Mineral dust and other constituents of Devonian atmospheric aerosols together with certain amounts of aquatic suspensions of riverine detrital origin, colloidal particle dispersions and seawater solutes were embedded in ~95-98% (or purer) limestones on a consistently subsiding isolated carbonate platform where they formed very complex impurity systems. Very low Th/U values, relative abundance of Fe but a slight excess of K typically characterize these ultrafine impurities which are mineralogically dominated by smectite-illite and mica (sericite) together with goethite. In vertical section, these impurities are arranged like incremental series of light and dense bands. The combined method of natural gamma-ray spectrometric and magnetic susceptibility measurements (GRS-MS) together with background of major and trace element analyses provided first systematic insights into fine-scale variability of these impurities in a pile of pure carbonate platform beds, mostly in inner platform Amphipora limestone facies. These carbonates were deposited close to sea level but far from river mouths, and they represented a certain sort of a relatively “independent” medium that was primarily sensitive to climatically (and by rare events) controlled input of atmospheric dust. A remarkable similarity of MS stratigraphic patterns that reflect the quantity and quality of embedded impurities in very distant and paleogeographically separated Devonian basins might be seen as supporting this viewpoint. A long composite stratigraphic section of the Moravian Karst ranges from mid-Eifelian to end-Frasnian levels and yields a number of time characterizing GRS-MS variations that can potentially serve as templates for high-resolution stratigraphic correlations over long distances.

  3. AIR TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY, and others collected from Automatic Weather Station installed on rock outcrop in Helheim Glacier Ice Front from 2009-08-11 to 2016-02-20 (NCEI Accession 0148759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Helheim Glacier was observed to retreat and speed up during the mid 2000s. One possible cause of the change in glacier behavior could be due to changes in...

  4. AIR TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY, and others collected from Automatic Weather Station installed on rock outcrop in Jakobshavn Glacier Ice Front from 2007-10-13 to 2016-02-14 (NCEI Accession 0148760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Jakobshavn Glacier was observed to retreat and speed up during the late 1990s and early 2000s. One possible cause of the change in glacier behavior could be due...

  5. Estimating the Reactivation Potential of Pre-Existing Fractures in Subsurface Granitoids from Outcrop Analogues and in-Situ Stress Modeling: Implications for EGS Reservoir Stimulation with an Example from Thuringia (Central Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, N.; Ustaszewski, K. M.; Siegburg, M.; Navabpour, P.; Hesse, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Mid-German Crystalline Rise (MGCR) in Thuringia (central Germany) is part of the European Variscan orogen and hosts large extents of Visean granites (c. 350 Ma), locally overlain by up to 3 km of Early Permian to Mid-Triassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A geothermal gradient of 36°C km-1 suggests that such subsurface granites form an economically viable hot dry rock reservoir at > 4 km depth. In order to assess the likelihood of reactivating any pre-existing fractures during hydraulic reservoir stimulation, slip and dilation tendency analyses (Morris et al. 1996) were carried out. For this purpose, we determined orientations of pre-existing fractures in 14 granite exposures along the southern border fault of an MGCR basement high. Additionally, the strike of 192 Permian magmatic dikes affecting the granite was considered. This analysis revealed a prevalence of NW-SE-striking fractures (mainly joints, extension veins, dikes and subordinately brittle faults) with a maximum at 030/70 (dip azimuth/dip). Borehole data and earthquake focal mechanisms reveal a maximum horizontal stress SHmax trending N150°E and a strike-slip regime. Effective in-situ stress magnitudes at 4.5 km depth, assuming hydrostatic conditions and frictional equilibrium along pre-existing fractures with a friction coefficient of 0.85 yielded 230 and 110 MPa for SHmax and Shmin, respectively. In this stress field, fractures with the prevailing orientations show a high tendency of becoming reactivated as dextral strike-slip faults if stimulated hydraulically. To ensure that a stimulation well creates fluid connectivity on a reservoir volume as large as possible rather than dissipating fluids along existing fractures, it should follow a trajectory at the highest possible angle to the orientation of prevailing fractures, i.e. subhorizontal and NE-SW-oriented. References: Morris, A., D. A. Ferrill, and D. B. Henderson (1996), Slip-tendency analysis and fault reactivation, Geology, 24, 275-278.

  6. Sphenocleaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airy Shaw, H.K.

    1948-01-01

    Annual (?)laticiferous herbs, with the habit of Phytolacca. Stem erect, somewhat succulent. Leaves spirally arranged, simple, entire, exstipulate. Inflorescences terminal, densely spicate, acropetal. Flowers subtended by a bract and two bracteoles, bisexual, actinomorphic. Calyx tube adnate to the

  7. Pentaphragmataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airy Shaw, H.K.

    1948-01-01

    Perennial ± succulent herbs, often somewhat woody and procumbent and rooting at the base, often clothed with branched multicellular hairs; habit sometimes recalling certain Gesneriaceae (Cyrtandra, etc.). Leaves alternate, simple, mostly ± asymmetrical, sinuate-denticulate or subentire, ± fleshy,

  8. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 99, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollination and seed dispersal in the endangered succulent Euphorbia brevitorta. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. DJ Martins. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/028.099.0104 ...

  9. Vegetation change over 40 years in the WeenenIMuden area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indica and of the dwarf. stem succulent shrub, Euphorbia pseudocactus have occurred. Fire is no longer a component of this landscape which together with the open condition in 1955, resulting from overgrazing. may account for the vegetation ...

  10. Crassulaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, C.A.

    1948-01-01

    Herbs or undershrubs, usually succulent, perennial, less often annual or biennial. Leaves spirally arranged, opposite or whorled, exstipulate, simple or compound, entire, dentate, crenate, serrate or deeply incised. Flowers ♀, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, usually cymose or cymose-paniculate,

  11. A line-based vegetation sampling technique and its application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percentage cover, density and intercept frequency) and also provides plant size distributions, yet requires no more sampling effort than the line-intercept method.. A field test of the three techniques in succulent karoo, showed that the discriminating ...

  12. Growth patterns of deer-browse plants in southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell K. Halls; R. Alcaniz

    1972-01-01

    Among plants of 16 browse species common in east Texas, the combination that would furnish succulent green forage earliest in spring and latest in fall includes yellow jessamine, Alabama supplejack, yaupon, rusty blackhaw, and flowering dogwood.

  13. 75 FR 47475 - Acetamiprid, Mepiquat; Order Denying NRDC’s Objections on Remand: Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... normal blood chemicals (including glucose, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein..., prune; nut, tree, group 14; pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6B; pistachio; plum, prune, dried...

  14. 75 FR 55997 - Carbaryl; Order Denying NRDC's Objections and Requests for Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ..., creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, albumin, hormones, and enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase...: carbaryl use in or on pea and bean, succulent shelled (subgroup 6B); millet; wheat; pre-plant root dip for...

  15. 40 CFR 180.425 - Clomazone; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Cucumber 0.1 Pea, succulent 0.05 Pepper 0.05 Peppermint, tops 0.05 Pumpkin 0...

  16. 75 FR 42324 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... 10% Cantaloupe 15% Carrot 25% Celery 2.5% Cherry 30% Chinese mustard cabbage 10% Cowpea seed 5% Cowpea (succulent) 2.5% Cucumber 5% Currant 5% Dry bulb onion 15% Field corn 5% Filbert 10% Garlic 10...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-31

    Jan 31, 2015 ... and ovary) and semen analysis cells of adult wistar rats. ... up to 6 meters in height with alternate palmate lobed leaves, it has a succulent stem which releases a milky sap when ..... Traditional remedies and food supplements.

  18. Financial costs of ecologically nonsustainable farming practices in a semiarid system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herling, MC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonsustainable ostrich farming practices have degraded large areas of the Little Karoo, a semiarid region in South Africa. The Little Karoo lies within the Succulent Karoo biome, a recognized biodiversity hotspot. A financial feasibility analysis...

  19. Linking ecosystem services and water resources: landscape-scale hydrology of the Little Karoo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available with a dense biological soil crust (biocrust) formed by cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses (Esler et al. 2006). The dwarf (< 50 cm tall) Karoo shrub- land is rich in endemic succulents, particularly Aizoaceae and Crassulaceae. Slightly raised, more...% moderately degraded (Table 1; Thompson et al. 2005). River floodplains have been severely affected, with 51% of all lower river reaches (Vlok et al. 2005) being severely degraded and only 11% in good condition. Less than 2% of the area of succulent Karoo...

  20. Vegetation Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    SUCCULENTS Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Table 4 .(cont’d.) Scientific Name Common Name Family Name Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae...Lycium halimitolium Matrim~ony Bush Solanceae Salix exigua Coyote Willow Salicaceae CACTI AND SUCCULENTS Coryphantha vivipara Ball Cactus Cactaceae ...Qpuntia compressa Prickly Pear Cactus Cactaceae Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae cq Nl Nl Co~ V c0

  1. Reproductive biology of Hechtia schottii, a dioecious Bromeliaceae, in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón M Ramírez Morillo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hechtia schottii is a terrestrial, rosetofilous, dioecious, polycarpic succulent herb, that grows mainly in shrubby associations, and less frequently, in secondary low caducifolious forests, both on calcareous soils or limestone outcrops in Yucatan and Campeche States, Mexico. We studied phenology, floral and pollination biology, and breeding system at Calcehtok, Yucatan, during two flowering seasons. Plants bloom mainly during the dry season (November-April and disperse seeds during the rainy season (May-October. Both floral morphs have diurnal anthesis; pollen is removed ca. 1 h after anthesis starts and both floral morphs are visited by several insect species, especially bees, but results suggest that the introduced honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the pollinator. Controlled crossings show that the species is functionally dioecious and requires to be serviced by pollinators based on fruit setting only in unassisted cross pollination crosses. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 279-289. Epub 2008 March 31.Hechtia schottii es una hierba terrestre, suculenta, rosetófila, dioica y policárpica, que crece en asociaciones arbustivas y selva baja caducifolia secundaria, ambos en suelos calcáreos o limosos. Estudiamos la fenología, la biología floral, reproductiva y de la polinización en una población en Calcehtok, Yucatán, México, durante dos estaciones de floración. Las plantas florecen principalmente en la época de secas (noviembre-abril y la dispersión de semillas es durante la estación de lluvias (mayo-octubre. Ambas formas (morphs florales tienen antesis diurna; el polen es removido ca. 1 h después del comienzo de la antesis y ambas formas florales son visitadas por varias especies de insectos, especialmente abejas, pero los resultados sugieren que la abeja introducida, Apis mellifera, es el polinizador. Cruces controlados muestran que la especie es funcionalmente dioica y que requiere de un polinizador, ya que solo produce frutos por polinizaci

  2. The natural food habits of grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park, 1973-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Stephen Patrick

    1980-01-01

     The natural food habits of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord) in Yellowstone National Park were investigated in 1973-74 to identify the grizzly's energy sources and trophic level(s), nutrient use, and distribution. Food consumption was determined by scat analysis and field observations. Food quality and digestibility were estimated by chemical analysis. Grizzlies were distributed in 3 distinctive feeding economies: valley/plateau, a grass/rodent economy where grizzlies were intensive diggers; mountain, primarily a grass/springbeauty/root economy where grizzlies were casual diggers; and lake, primarily a fish/grass economy where grizzlies were fishers. The economies occured in areas with fertile soils; distribution of bears within each was related to the occurrence of succulent plants. The feeding cycle in the valley/plateau and mountain economies followed plant phenology. Grizzlies fed primarily on meat before green-up and on succulent herbs afterwards; meat, corms, berries, and nuts became important during the postgrowing season. Succulent grasses and sedges with an importance value percentage of 78.5 were the most important food items consumed. Protein from animal tissue was more digestible than protein from plant tissue. Storage fats were more digestible than structural fats. Food energy and digestibility were directly related. Five principle nutrient materials (listed with their percentage digestibilities) contributed to total energy intake: protein from succulent herbs, 42.8; protein and fat from animal material, 78.1; fat and protein from pine nuts, 73.6; starch, 78.8; and sugar from berries and fruits, digestibility undetermined. Protein from succulent herbs, with a nutritive value percentage of 77.3, was the grizzlies' primary energy source. Because succulent, preflowering herbs had higher protein levels than dry, mature herbs, grizzly use of succulent herbs guaranteed them the highest source of herbaceous protein. Low protein digestibility of

  3. Study on the Excretion Behaviour in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows. Number of Defecations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first hundred days of lactation. The aim ofthis study was to measure the main aspects that characterized the excretion behaviour (defecation of the cows in 24hours that were divided into 3 day periods: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-2:001 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During theexperiments, the following defecation behaviour aspects were determined: total number of defecations, number ofdefecations in the three intervals, number of defecations according to administration order of forages (fibroussucculentsand succulents-fibrous. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the differencesbetween intervals I1-I2 and I1-I3 were statistically very significant (p< 0.01. In fibrous – succulent order thedefecation were 0.69 higher than in succulent- fibrous order (p< 0.01. Total number of defecation resulted bysumming the defecation from the three intervals, was 14.67 in the first administration order (fibrous-succulent and12.61 in the second administration order (succulent-fibrous.

  4. La coupe d'Ouled Haddou (Rif externe oriental) : un affleurement continu de la transition Crétacé Paléogène au Maroc, révélé par les Foraminifères planctoniquesThe Ouled Haddou section (oriental external Rif): a continuous outcrop of the Cretaceous Palaeogene transition in Morocco, revealed by planktonic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufiq, Abdelkabir; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Feinberg, Hugues

    2002-10-01

    In the Ouled Haddou section, deposits of the Uppermost Maastrichtian correspond to the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Biozone. The index species is regularly present until the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, which is marked by a mass extinction affecting 41 species (large and complex). Some Cretaceous small species persist in the Lowermost Danian. The first levels of the Danian are assigned to the Guembelitria cretacea Biozone, in which the species index persist without being affected, and the first species of the Tertiary appear. The upper part of the Lower Danian corresponds to the succession of Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubbotina pseudobulloides, and Subbotina triloculinoides Biozones. From the P. eugubina Biozone, associations of Danian vary to undergo a complete renewal in the upper zones. The Ouled Haddou section, described for the first time, presents, according to planktonic Foraminifera, a complete record of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene transition. To cite this article: A. Toufiq et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 995-1001.

  5. An Integrated Model for Computer Aided Reservoir Description : from Outcrop Study to Fluid Flow Simulations Un logiciel intégré pour une description des gisements assistée par ordinateur : de l'étude d'un affleurement aux simulations de l'écoulement des fluides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerillot D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An accurate understanding of the internal architecture of a reservoir is required to improve reservoir management for oil recovery. Geostatistical methods give an image of this architecture. The purpose of this paper is to show how this lithological description could be used for reservoir simulation. For this purpose, scale averaging problems must be solved for non-additive variables. A method giving a full effective permeability matrix is proposed. The integrated software described here starts from core analysis and lithologic logs to provide data for reservoir simulators. Each of the steps of this interactive and graphic system is explained here. Pour faire de bonnes prévisions de production pour un gisement pétrolifère, il est nécessaire de connaître précisément son architecture interne. Les méthodes géostatistiques donnent une représentation de cette architecture. L'objectif de cet article est de montrer une façon d'utiliser cette description lithologique pour la simulation des réservoirs. Il faut alors résoudre des problèmes de changement d'échelle pour les variables qui ne sont pas additives. On propose une méthode d'estimation de la perméabilité effective sous la forme d'une matrice pleine. Le logiciel intégré que l'on décrit part de l'analyse des carottes et des diagraphies en lithologies et fournit des données pour les simulateurs de gisement. On détaille ici chaque étape de ce système interactif graphique.

  6. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement. Appendices. Monterey Peninsula Water Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    device and trapping facility near the face cf the 8 3 88089 A3-7 FIGURE 3-3 -7/ .7-U mv I 1 . - a Cach agua Creek Site Are a V 0 2.5 5 I I 1L KilometersI...succulentus succulent annual lupine Madia gracilis gumweed Madia madioides woodland madia Madia sativa Chile tarweed Marah fabaceus manroot Medicago...Lupinus nanus ssp. nanus sky lupine Lupinus succulentus succulent annual lupine Madia gracilis gumweed Madia sativa Chile tarweed I Marah fabaceus

  7. Remotely sensed phenology for mapping biomes and vegetation functional types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available clearly captured in Fig. 3. The majority of the pixels in the Savanna have a start of growing season in late October, midposition in February and end in June (Fig. 3). In contrast, the winter rainfall Succulent Karoo have a start of growing season... initially split the biomes based on vegetation production and then by the seasonality of growth IV - 1035 (Fig. 4). The three arid biomes (Desert, Succulent and Nama Figure 3. Frequency histograms of the mean START, midposition (MID) and END date...

  8. [CAM in Tillandsia usneoides: Studies on the pathway of carbon and the dependency of CO2-exchange on light intensity, temperature and water content of the plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, M; Lange, O L; Eichmann, M V; Schmid, R

    1973-12-01

    Tillandsia usneoides, in the common sense a non-succulent plant, exhibits CO2 exchange characterized by net CO2 dark fixation during the night and depression of CO2 exchange during the day. Malate has been demonstrated to accumulate during CO2 dark fixation and to be converted to carbohydrates in light. Thus, T. usneoides exhibits CAM like typical succulents.Net CO2 uptake during the day is increased with net CO2 output being suppressed in duration of time and extent when light intensity increases. Furthermore, a slight increase in CO2 fixation during the following night can be observed if the plants were treated with high light intensity during the previous day.Curves of CO2 exchange typical for CAM are obtained if T. usneoides is kept at 15°C and 20°C. Lower temperature tend to increase CO2 uptake during the day and to inhibit CO2 dark fixation. Temperatures higher than 20°C favour loss of CO2 by respiration, which becomes apparent during the whole day and night at 30°C and higher temperatures. Thus, T. usneoides gains carbon only at temperatures well below 25°C.Net CO2 uptake during the day occurs only in moist plant material and is inhibited in plants cept under water stress conditions. However, CO2 uptake during the night is clearly favoured if the plants dry out. Therefore dry plants gain more carbon than moist ones.Curves of CO2 exchange typical for CAM were also obtained with 13 other species of the genus Tillandsia.The exhibition of CAM by the non-succulent T. usneoides calls for a new definition of the term "succulence" if it is to remain useful in characterizing this metabolic pathway. Because CO2-fixing cells of T. usneoides possess relatively large vacuoles and are relatively poor in chloroplasts, they resembles the assimilatory cells of typical CAM-exhibiting succulents. Therefore, if "succulence" only means the capacity of big vacuoles to store malate, the assimilatory cells in T. usneoides are succulent. It seems to be useful to investigate

  9. Premilinary Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Ulam and Fruit from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliwirianis N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic distribution in 14 Malaysian favourite ulam and fruit belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The plants investigated were parkia speciosa (petai, solanum torvum (terung pipit, pithecellobium bubalinum (kerdas, moringa oleifera (kacang kelor, dryobalanops oblongifolia (keladan, cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, mentha arvensis (pudina, ocimum sp. (selasih, cymbopogon nardus (serai wangi, eugenia polyantha (serai kayu, Barringtonia scortechinii, (Putat, musa sp. (pisang, talinum paniculatum (akar som and phyllanthus acidus (cermai. Moringa oleifera leaf and dryobalanops oblongifolia fruit were found contain positive reactions of alkaloids. All the samples studied also show high content of saponin except in bark and seed of parkia speciosa and stem of phyllanthus acidus. Meanwhile, results of the phytochemical screening on saponins, steroids, terpenoids, phenolic and flavonoids showed that cosmos caudatus, ocimum sp., mentha arvensis, barringtonia scortechinii and moringa oleifera were the active compounds present in the leaves of the plant.

  10. Fluorescence and Docking Studies of the Interaction between Human Serum Albumin and Pheophytin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Augusto Chaves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the North of Brazil (Pará and Amazonas states the leaves of the plant Talinum triangulare (popular: cariru replace spinach as food. From a phytochemical point of view, they are rich in compounds of the group of pheophytins. These substances, related to chlorophyll, have photophysical properties that give them potential application in photodynamic therapy. Human serum albumin (HSA is one of the main endogenous vehicles for biodistribution of molecules by blood plasma. Association constants and thermodynamic parameters for the interaction of HSA with pheophytin from Talinum triangulare were studied by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence techniques, and molecular modeling (docking. Fluorescence quenching of the HSA’s internal fluorophore (tryptophan at temperatures 296 K, 303 K, and 310 K, resulted in values for the association constants of the order of 104 L∙mol−1, indicating a moderate interaction between the compound and the albumin. The negative values of ΔG° indicate a spontaneous process; ΔH° = 15.5 kJ∙mol−1 indicates an endothermic process of association and ΔS° = 0.145 kJ∙mol−1∙K−1 shows that the interaction between HSA and pheophytin occurs mainly by hydrophobic factors. The observed Trp fluorescence quenching is static: there is initial non-fluorescent association, in the ground state, HSA:Pheophytin. Possible solution obtained by a molecular docking study suggests that pheophytin is able to interact with HSA by means of hydrogen bonds with three lysine and one arginine residues, whereas the phytyl group is inserted in a hydrophobic pocket, close to Trp-214.

  11. Sulfate-rich eolian and wet interdune deposits, erebus crater, meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, J.M.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Rubin, D.M.; Lewis, K.W.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates three bedrock exposures at Erebus crater, an ?? 300 m diameter crater approximately 4 km south of Endurance crater on Mars. These outcrops, called Olympia, Payson, and Yavapai, provide additional evidence in support of the dune-interdune model proposed for the formation of the deposits at the Opportunity landing site in Meridiani Planum. There is evidence for greater involvement of liquid water in the Olympia outcrop exposures than was observed in Eagle or Endurance craters. The Olympia outcrop likely formed in a wet interdune and sand sheet environment. The facies observed within the Payson outcrop, which is likely stratigraphically above the Olympia outcrop, indicate that it was deposited in a damp-wet interdune, sand sheet, and eolian dune environment. The Yavapai outcrop, which likely stratigraphically overlies the Payson outcrop, indicates that it was deposited in primarily a sand sheet environment and also potentially in an eolian dune environment. These three outcrop exposures may indicate an overall drying-upward trend spanning the stratigraphic section from its base at the Olympia outcrop to its top at the Yavapai outcrop. This contrasts with the wetting-upward trend seen in Endurance and Eagle craters. Thus, the series of outcrops seen at Meridiani by Opportunity may constitute a full climatic cycle, evolving from dry to wet to dry conditions. ?? 2009, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  12. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  13. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism cOincide with those of species rich- ness. However, Red ... species richness hotspot in the Succulent Karoo contains no existing reserves, whereas all Red Data Book spe- ... conserve all aspects of biodiversity, but of historical ad hoc decisions ...

  14. Climate change and birds: perspectives and prospects from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species with small ranges (<50 000km2) restricted to the two southern African biodiversity hotspots most at risk from climate change — the Cape Floral Kingdom and the Succulent Karoo — are ranked according to low, medium or high risk of extinction. Those restricted to mountain slopes, mountain tops or islands, and ...

  15. Livestock grazing has minimal effect on the species richness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Succulent Karoo, one of two arid biodiversity hotspots in the world, is known for its high plant species richness, but little is known about the influence of topography and how it mediates the potentially deleterious effects of grazing. Changes in vegetation species composition, cover and species diversity were examined ...

  16. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  17. Life form and species diversity on abandoned croplands, Roggeveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Roggeveld consists of an island of Mountain Renosterveld (Fynbos biome) surrounded by Succulent Karoo biome vegetation. Since management of abandoned croplands depends on a better understanding of their succession sequences, vegetation recovery on abandoned croplands in the Roggeveld was studied ...

  18. Patterns of seed production and shrub association in two palatable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed production and shrub association patterns of the twopalatable shrubs. Tripteris sinuatum and Tetragoma froticosa were investigated on heavily grazed communal and lightly grazed commercial rangeland in the succulent karoo. Namaqualand. Seed production in both these species was substantially reduced on the ...

  19. Fungi associated with base rot disease of aloe vera (Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... full base rot disease after 6 days of inoculation. Key words: Fungi, base rot, Aloe vera. INTRODUCTION. Aloe barbadensis Miller, popularly called Aloe vera is a phanerogame angiosperm which belongs to the family. Liliaceae. The plant is a perennial drought resistant succulent plant (Figure 1). Aloe vera is ...

  20. New plant records for Tankwa Karoo National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffel P. Bester

    2012-11-01

    Conservation implications: Although the Tankwa Karoo National Park falls within the Succulent Karoo Biome (a biodiversity hotspot of international importance, information on its plant diversity is insufficient because it is an under-collected area. Results of this study will guide conservation and supply occurrence and distribution data required to compile management plans for the park.

  1. Leaf biomechanics as a potential tool to predict feeding preferences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of geophyte food plants were fleshy and succulent with a low failure load and tensile strength. Leaves of food plant grasses had significantly higher failure loads and tensile strengths compared to leaves of food plant geophytes. In non food plants there was no signifi cant difference in failure load between grasses ...

  2. Observations on the feeding ecology of impala | Monro | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of grass in the diet was related to plant moisture content and recent effective rainfall. The impala selected succulent food rich in crude protein but preferred grazing to browsing when palatable grass was available. These factors and the presence of fallen Acacia pods probably attracted impala to the Acacia ...

  3. Can brush-cutting of Pteronia paniculata improve the composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pteronia paniculata is an indigenous, unpalatable shrub that invades mismanaged Karooveld, resulting in degraded rangelands with low species diversity and grazing potential. We conducted a series of trials in the Succulent Karoo Randteveld near Barrydale to determine if the uniform defoliation of P. paniculata ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van der Merwe, Helga. Vol 33, No 2 (2016) - Articles Vegetation dynamics after experimental fire disturbance in the arid Succulent Karoo, South Africa Abstract. ISSN: 1022-0119. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  5. Dairy production systems in the emerging and communal sectors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MGrobler

    provide a continuous, valuable supply of fresh fodder during the dry season, given its succulent non- deciduous vegetative structure. The objective of this study was to rank the 42 Opuntia varieties available in. South Africa according to palatability for dryland sheep, adapted to semi-arid subtropical conditions. The intention ...

  6. Moringa oleifera Lam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-08-12

    Aug 12, 2015 ... The study was carried out to determine the anti-nutrient, vitamin and other phytochemical compositions of old and succulent leaves of Moringa oleifera plants as influenced by poultry manure application. Three levels of poultry manure, that is, 0, 5 and 10 tonnes ha-1 were used for treatment. Poultry manure.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahlao, Sebataolo. Vol 33, No 2 (2016) - Articles Vegetation dynamics after experimental fire disturbance in the arid Succulent Karoo, South Africa Abstract. ISSN: 1022-0119. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeaton, RI. Vol 11, No 1 (1994) - Articles A line-based vegetation sampling technique and its application in succulent karoo. Abstract. ISSN: 1022-0119. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  9. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    with large succulent leaves while the male plants produce leaves that are scrawny, small and less attractive. Farmers therefore prefer the females to the males. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to differentiate the males from the females until the plants begin to flower. At this stage of development, the male plants begin to show.

  10. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Key words: Sensory evaluation, dry season vegetable, available, Anyigba, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Dry season vegetables are shrubs or herbaceous annuals or biennial plants. In Nigeria, most of the com- monly eaten vegetables are the succulent leaves of plants; they are eaten as supplementary foods, ...

  11. SPINIFICI-SCAEVOLETEA SERICEAE, A NEW VEGETATION CLASS FOR PSAMMOPHYTIC DUNE VEGETATION IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATII

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account on the coastal dune vegetation of the Gulf of Siam in Thailand. Vegetation is mainly composed by succulent creeping plants with herbaceous habit as to Canavalia maritima (Papilionaceae and Iponwea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae and the robust stoloniferous grass Spinijex littoreus, the last having an important function for the fonnation of coastal dunes.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hein, Liesel. Vol 33, No 2 (2016) - Articles Vegetation dynamics after experimental fire disturbance in the arid Succulent Karoo, South Africa Abstract. ISSN: 1727-9380. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  13. Portulacaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Herbs or shrubby plants, often somewhat succulent. Leaves opposite, alternate or in basal rosettes. Stipules scarious or modified into hairs or rarely wanting. Flowers actinomorphic, perfect, solitary or crowded at the apex of the stems and branches or in terminal or axillary racemes or cymes.

  14. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of these endemics are small mammals and many are listed in the Red Data Book, especially those restricted to the Nama-and Succulent Karoo. This is of concern, as both areas are inadequately protected by the existing protected areas. The coastal forests also contain many Red Data Book species, particularly ...

  15. Anti-nutrient, vitamin and other phytochemical compositions of old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the anti-nutrient, vitamin and other phytochemical compositions of old and succulent leaves of Moringa oleifera plants as influenced by poultry manure application. Three levels of poultry manure, that is, 0, 5 and 10 tonnes ha-1 were used for treatment. Poultry manure application ...

  16. Phylogenetic placement of the Dominican Republic endemic genus Sarcopilea (Urticaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jestrow, B.; Valdés, James J.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Francisco-Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 592-600 ISSN 0040-0262 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CAM * Caribbean Islands * cystoliths * epistomatic * hyperstomatic * hydathodes * phylogenetics * Pilea * Sarcopilea * succulent * Urticaceae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.782, year: 2012

  17. SPINIFICI-SCAEVOLETEA SERICEAE, A NEW VEGETATION CLASS FOR PSAMMOPHYTIC DUNE VEGETATION IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATII

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account on the coastal dune vegetation of the Gulf of Siam in Thailand. Vegetation is mainly composed by succulent creeping plants with herbaceous habit as to Canavalia maritima (Papilionaceae and Iponwea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae and the robust stoloniferous grass Spinijex littoreus, the last having an important function for the fonnation of coastal dunes.

  18. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  19. How descriptive menu labels influence attitudes and repatronage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.; Painter, J.; Ittersum, van K.

    2002-01-01

    How do descriptive menu labels influence customers? In a six-week field experiment involving 140 customers, descriptive menu labels (such as "Grandma's zucchini cookies" or "succulent Italian seafood filet") increased sales by 27% and improved attitudes towards the food, attitudes towards the

  20. Climate Change Effects On Agricultural Pests: The Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In olfactometer studies, the insects exhibited distinct preference for greener and more succulent potato leaves, irrespective of their intraplant distribution, as opposed to the normal preference of adults to the older leaves of the lower canopy. This was inspite of the fact that biochemical studies of drought stressed and non ...

  1. KERAGAMAN DAN ANALISIS KEKERABATAN Hoya spp. BERTIPE DAUN NON SUKULEN BERDASARKAN KARAKTER ANATOMI DAUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Rahman Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoya spp. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae has differences in leaf type, there are succulent and non succulent leaf types.  Anatomical structure of Hoya spp. leaf has not been widely studied, especially for the non succulent type. The aims of this research were to explore the diversity and relationship of non succulent Hoya, based on leaf anatomical characters represented by eight species i.e. H. bandaensis, H. campanulata, H. chlorantha, H. cilliata, H. coriacea, H. coronaria, H. densifolia and H. multiflora. Hoya leaf anatomical characters were observed on the paradermal and transversal section and analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 19 sotfware for cluster analysis. According to the paradermal observation, stomata were present at lower surface (hypostomatic for all species, and amphistomatic (both surface for H. densifolia.  The type of stomata is cyclocytic for all species. Clustered stomata were found in H. coriacea.  Observation on transversal section showed that all of species has the normal structure i.e cuticula, upper and lower epidermis, palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma with the variation in the layer thickness.  The cluster analysis resulted four groups at distance scale 19. Each group has specific characters. The first group has trichomes on both sides of the leaf surface. The second group has amphistomatic stomatal. The third group has thin leaves. The fourth group has the widest stomata.

  2. Bactericidal studies of saponins from the stem-bark of Adenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    carbon sites (Haralampidis et al., 2002). Adenium obesum (Apocynaceae), commonly kno as 'karya' among hausa tribe of northern Nigeria small deciduous succulent shrublet that can gr shrub or small tree that belongs to plant fam. Apocynaceae (Codd, 1987). The plant, to the genus Adenium, occurs in savanna, dry bu.

  3. Crassulaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1973-01-01

    Herbs or undershrubs, mostly fleshy or succulent. Leaves alternate, opposite or in whorls, simple or compound. Stipules wanting. Inflorescence cymose. Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite. Sepals free or connate, persistent. Petals as many as the sepals, free or more or less united. Stamens as many

  4. Fungi and insects associated with Euphorbia ingens die-off in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbia ingens, landmark succulent trees in savannas of South Africa, have been dying in large numbers over the last 10–15 years. Initial studies conducted in the Limpopo province of South Africa revealed a diverse group of biotic agents including fungi, beetles and moths associated with dying trees, but due to the ...

  5. tes2).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The d€teloprnent of efficient rations lbt fat lamb prcduction was invesligated using a variety of succulent feeds. Forty Dohne Me no werc divided annually for thrc€ yea$ irnmediately after parturition into four groups of ten. Group I received maize silage. Group 2 Japanese radish, Group 3 grecn wheat pasture and Group 4 ...

  6. Karyotypes in Ethiopian Aloe species (Xanthorrhoeaceae: Asphodeloideae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentaw, Eshetu; Dagne, Kifle; Rønsted, Nina

    2013-01-01

    A cytogenetic survey of 18 species in the succulent-leaved genus Aloe L. (Xanthorrhoeaceae subfamily Asphodeloideae) in Ethiopia was undertaken towards a more complete genetic characterisation of the genus throughout its distribution in Africa, Arabia and Madagascar. Somatic metaphase chromosomes...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saayman, N. Vol 26, No 3 (2009) - Articles The impact of indigenous ungulate herbivory over five years (2004–2008) on the vegetation of the Little Karoo, South Africa Abstract · Vol 26, No 3 (2009) - Articles Can brush-cutting of Pteronia paniculata improve the composition and productivity of veld in the Succulent Karoo, ...

  8. Begoniaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1966-01-01

    Herbs or undershrubs, somewhat succulent or woody near the base, often provided with tubers. Leaves alternate, usually unequal-sided, entire, lobed or digitately parted. Stipules caducous or deciduous. Inflorescence consisting of unisexual or bisexual, axillary cymes. Male flowers: sepals 2; petals

  9. Influence of Spacing on Performance of Elephant Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considerable stand mortality occasioned early July-planted "Ngala" and this provides evidence that it would not be beneficial to establish this more succulent variety at Shika untill ample rainfall has been recieved during the growing season. The low DM content of 18 per cent in 2.6 m tall "Ngala" suggests that successful ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh, GI. Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Crassulacean acid metabolism in some succulent plants. Abstract · Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Growth analysis studies of some accessions of African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hoechst, ex. A. Rich.) Harms Abstract. ISSN: 1119-2283. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  11. Identification of ISSR Primers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identify those that condition the broad succulent leaf preferred by consumers. These genotypes could be valuable sources of genetic diversity that can be used in the development of improved cultivars for commercialization (Odiaka, 2005). Molecular methods are modern tools which assist in a better understanding of ...

  12. Brushpiles and dung as rehabilitation patches: effect on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A substantial portion of the Thicket Biome in the Eastern Cape has been transformed by overgrazing. An experimental rehabilitation study of degraded succulent thicket was initiated to determine whether increasing the patchiness on the landscape would result in an increase in soil resources. Five types of treatments were ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aucamp, AJ. Vol 10, No 1 (1993) - Articles Carrying capacity of the succulent valley bushveld of the eastern Cape Abstract · Vol 18, No 1 (1983) - Articles Herbaceous species preference by cattle in the false thornveld of the Eastern Cape Abstract · Vol 18, No 1 (1983) - Articles The role of in the false thornveld of the Eastern ...

  14. jfewr ©2017 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr. E

    2017-12-04

    Dec 4, 2017 ... which is cultivated mainly for its succulent young leaves and shoots which are used as vegetables. (Osadebe et al., 2014). It is a high climbing perennial with partial drought tolerant root system (Tindall,. 2001) with leaves that have high nutritional, medicinal and industrial values being rich in protein. (29%) ...

  15. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 32 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-nutrient, vitamin and other phytochemical compositions of old and succulent moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) leaves as influenced by poultry manure application · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. UM Ndubuaku, NV Uchenna, KP Baiyeri, J Ukonze ...

  16. Perch availability and ground cover: factors that may constitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Succulent Karoe, pale chanting goshawks occupied areas where perch density (16 natural and 122 artificial/25 hal was significantly higher than in unoccupied areas (8 natural and 12 artificial/25 hal. The high proportion of cover formed by natural perches (trees and shrubs; 36%) and the low proportion of open ground ...

  17. root rot disease of five fruit tree seedlings in the nursery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAMALDEEN

    on them. Our experience in the nursery in Port Harcourt had been that many tree species of the tropical region are susceptible to root rot diseases of fungal origin. The fungal invasion of the succulent root tissues causes the young tree seedlings to dieback; their leaves becomes discoloured, wilted and eventually dead.

  18. Why are chillies pungent?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ultrapotent analogue of capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, is found in the latex of the succulent spiny shrub. Euphorbia resinifera, and its use in pain mediation has been known since Roman times (Appendino and Szallasi 1997). Resiniferatoxin has been shown to have acute emetic effects in the house musk shrew (Andrews et al ...

  19. Damping-off in forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Hartley

    1921-01-01

    Damping-off is the commonest English name for a symptomatic group of diseases affecting great numbers of plant species of widely separated phylogenetic groups. It is commonly used for any disease which results in the rapid decay of young succulent seedlings or soft cuttings. Young shoots from underground rootstocks may also be damped-off before they break through the...

  20. Dew formation and activity of biological crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veste, M.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Breckle, S.W.; Littmann, T.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are prominent in many drylands and can be found in diverse parts of the globe including the Atacama desert, Chile, the Namib desert, Namibia, the Succulent-Karoo desert, South Africa, and the Negev desert, Israel. Because precipitation can be negligible in deserts ¿ the

  1. The Influence of seed treatments and growing media on seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    These are available in June-. September when other fruits are scarce, and people cherished eating the succulent seeds. As documented by Irvine (1990) the plant which is a perennial is also a climber requiring support of woody sticks to climb, grow and survive. The plant start flowering between 1.5 to 2 years after planting.

  2. 77 FR 59186 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... to me? You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food... code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... cantaloupe, cucumber, pea (succulent), pumpkin, squash (Summer and Winter), watermelon, and vegetable soybean...

  3. 40 CFR 180.215 - Naled; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.215... 0.5 Pea, succulent 0.5 Pepper 0.5 Pumpkin 0.5 Safflower, seed 0.5 Spinach 3 Squash, summer 0.5...

  4. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  5. Bacterial leaf rot of Aloe vera L., caused byErwinia chrysanthemi biovar 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de P.C.A.; Verhoeven, J.T.W.; Danse, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    A severe attack of the bacteriumErwinia chrysantemi biovar 3 on the succulentAloe vera on the Carribean island of Aruba is described. Biochemical and pathological characteristics of strains are presented, including results of successful inoculation experiments onAloe vera. This is the first report

  6. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the target species is highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism coincide with those of species richness. However, Red Data Book species hotspots are confined to the north-eastern parts of the country. One species richness hotspol in the Succulent Karoo contains no ...

  7. Salinity effect on seedling growth, water, sodium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature leaves exhibited good adaptative behavior toward salinity stress by increasing succulence due to absorption of large quantities of water and K+ in leaves. Potassium uptake in leaves was not found to be affected by NaCl concentration. As a consequence, monovalent cations adsorption resulted in an increase in the ...

  8. 78 FR 21945 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...; Bulb Onion, subgroups 3-07 A and B; Fruiting Vegetable group 8-10; and Greenhouse Tomato. Contact: Rose... Type: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Bean, succulent; Ginseng; Onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A; and Onion, green...

  9. Seasonal nutrient yield and digestibility of deer forage from a young pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; Henry L. Short; E.A. Epps

    1977-01-01

    Six classes of current herbaceous and woody forage were collected seasonally from a 5-year-old mixed loblolly (Pinus taeda)-shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) plantation (in Texas) and subjected to nutrient analyses and nylon bag dry-matter digestion trials. Forages were most nutritious and digestible in the spring when tissues were succulent and growing rapidly. Browse...

  10. 77 FR 59578 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... ``RRE'' and ``MON 5781.'' This product results from the abstraction for the S02NHCO moiety between the...; pumpkin; squash, summer; squash, winter; and watermelon at 0.025 ppm; and vegetable, soybean, succulent... products. One product had a molar substitution (MS) of 0.6 and a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.1 and the...

  11. Root temperature effects on growth and bud break of Rosa hybrida in relation to cytokinin concentrations in xylem sap.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Kuiper, D.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of three divergent root temperatures (11°C, 20°C and 26°C) on growth and bud break of Rosa hybrida were studied. Root morphology was changed considerably with root temperature. Roots at 11°C were white, succulent, short and sparsely branched, whereas at 26°C roots were long, brown, thin

  12. Research on Rumination Time According to Administration Order of Forages in Romanian Black and White Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim of this study was to measure the main aspects that characterized the rumination behavior of the cows in 24 hours that were divided into 3 day periods: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-2:001 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3.  During the experiments, the following rumination behavior aspects were determined: the number of ruminating periods, their total duration (min., number of  chewing, the length of one ruminating period (min. and average number of chewing per period according to administration order of forages: fibrous-succulents (O1   and succulents-fibrous (O2,  in cows housed in tie stalls. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. In fibrous – succulent order (O1, results showed that the differences between intervals I1-I3 and I2-I3 were statistically very significant (p< 0.001 for most measured parameters. In succulent – fibrous order (O2, significant differences was between intervals I1-I3, I2-I3 and between intervals I1-I2 for some parameters.

  13. Functional strategies of tropical dry forest plants in relation to growth form and isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, L. S.; Silvera, K.; Andrade, J. L.; Dawson, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) undergo a substantial dry season in which plant species must endure several months of drought. Although TDFs support a diverse array of plant growth forms, it is not clear how they vary in mechanisms for coping with seasonal drought. We measured organic tissue stable isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) across six plant growth forms including epiphytes, terrestrial succulents, trees, shrubs, herbs, and vines, and oxygen (δ18O) of four growth forms, to distinguish among patterns of resource acquisition and evaluate mechanisms for surviving annual drought in a lowland tropical dry forest in Yucatan, Mexico. Terrestrial succulent and epiphyte δ13C was around -14‰, indicating photosynthesis through the Crassulacean acid metabolism pathway, and along with one C4 herb were distinct from mean values of all other growth forms, which were between -26 and -29‰ indicating C3 photosynthesis. Mean tissue δ15N across epiphytes was -4.95‰ and was significantly lower than all other growth forms, which had values around +3‰. Tissue N concentration varied significantly among growth forms with epiphytes and terrestrial succulents having significantly lower values of about 1% compared to trees, shrubs, herbs and vines, which were around 3%. Tissue C concentration was highest in trees, shrubs and vines, intermediate in herbs and epiphytes and lowest in terrestrial succulents. δ18O did not vary among growth forms. Overall, our results suggest several water-saving aspects of resource acquisition, including the absolute occurrence of CAM photosynthesis in terrestrial succulents and epiphytes, high concentrations of leaf N in some species, which may facilitate CO2 drawdown by photosynthetic enzymes for a given stomatal conductance, and potentially diverse N sources ranging from atmospheric N in epiphytes with extremely depleted δ15N values, and a large range of δ15N values among trees, many of which are legumes and dry season

  14. [Proceedings of the symposium 'Molluscan Palaeontology' : 11th International Malacological Congress, Siena (Italy) 30th August - 5th September 1992 / A.W. Janssen and R. Janssen (editors)]: Early rissoid gastropods from the Jurassic of Italy: the meaning of first appearances

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, M.A.; Monari, S.; Oliviero, M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of Jurassic outcrops from Veneto, Central Italy and Sicily improved our knowledge on the gastropods of these areas, characterised by the presence, aside of archaic forms, of some modern ones. Noteworthy is the record from those outcrops of several species, which can be referred to the family Rissoidae (Rissooidea). Formerly, earliest rissoid records were only known from European outcrops of younger age. In the Italian records several species have been recognised belonging to at least ...

  15. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae), a new monotypic legume genus from Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Wessel; le Roux, M Marianne; Wojciechowski, Martin F; van Wyk, Abraham E

    2015-01-01

    Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1) succulent stems with woody remains; 2) pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3) monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4) dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5) pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits.

  16. Leaf micromorphology of Kalanchoë laciniata (Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Brzezicka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the work was to characterize morphology and anatomy of succulent leaves. Morphological and anatomical studies conducted on succulent leaves of Kalanchoë laciniata. The anatomy of leaves where studied with the use of light microscopy. This species belongs to the family Crassulaceae and it demonstrates the presence of adaptive traits which are necessary to survive and allow them inhabit in dry environment. Family Crassulaceae occur on arid and semiarid areas, among the rocks, on the sandy areas and in the mountains. Anatomical studies show that leaves of K. laciniata possess a water storage tissue and mesophyll does not consist of palisade and spongy parenchyma. K. laciniata like the other species belonging to family Crassulaceae present physiological and morphological adaptations.

  17. Seasonal variation of diet and faeces composition of Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis in the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of black rhinoceros were studied in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa, using the "feeding track" method and recording bites taken. A total sample of 59 feeding tracks, 5 540 plants and 17 191 bites were recorded from June 1976 to March 1977. The rhino fed largely on woody shrubs but also took forbs, grass and succulent plants. During dry periods the rhino were selecting succulent plants with a high moisture content rather than woody plants. A total of 111 plant species were utilized. During dry months the feeding rate was greater than wet months. Physical analysis of faeces composition confirmed conclusions drawn from observations. Chemical analyses of faeces indicated that mean crude protein values varied with rainfall and herbage quality, ash values were strongly influenced by the intake of plant roots and dust during dry periods, acid detergent fibre was highest during unfavourable periods and low during favourable periods.

  18. Seasonal variation of diet and faeces composition of Black Rhinoceros Diceros Bicornis in the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of black rhinoceros were studied in the Addo Elephant National Park, Republic of South Africa, using the "feeding track" method and recording bites taken. A total sample of 59 feeding tracks, 5 540 plants and 17 191 bites were recorded from June 1976 to March 1977. The rhino fed largely on woody shrubs but also took forbs, grass and succulent plants. During dry periods the rhino were selecting succulent plants with a high moisture content rather than woody plants. A total of 111 plant species were utilized. During dry months the feeding rate was greater than wet months. Physical analysis of faeces composition confirmed conclusions drawn from observations. Chemical analyses of faeces indicated that mean crude protein values varied with rainfall and herbage quality, ash values were strongly influenced by the intake of plant roots and dust during dry periods, acid detergent fibre was highest during unfavourable periods and low during favourable periods.

  19. Using airborne middle-infrared (1.45–2.0 μm) video imagery for distinguishing plant species and soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, J.H.; Escobar, D.E.; Alaniz, M.A.; Davis, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a black-and-white visible/infrared (0.4–2.4 μm) sensitive video camera, filtered to record radiation within the 1.45–2.0 μm middle-infrared water absorption region, for discriminating among plant species and soil conditions. The camera provided adequate quality airborne imagery that distinguished the succulent plant species onions (Allium cepum L.) and aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) from nonsucculent plant species. Moreover, wet soil, dry crusted soil, and dry fallow soil could be differentiated in middle-infrared video images. Succulent plants, however, could not be distinguished from wet soil or water. These results show that middle-infrared video imagery has potential use for remote sensing research and applications

  20. a Microgravity Survey to Determine the Extent of AN Andesitic Sill that Intrudes across the Rio Grande River Basin, Rio Grande Rift Valley, Sunland Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. A.; Shinagel, S.; Villalobos, J. I.; Avila, V.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.

    2012-12-01

    In Sunland Park, NM, there is an andesite outcrop near the bank of the Rio Grande (called the River Andesite) which does not match the surrounding sedimentary deposition. Studies of the River Andesite by Garcia (1970) indicate the outcrop is petrologically similar to the Muleros Andesite of Mt. Cristo Rey located several km to the south. A limited GPR and magnetic survey conducted by UTEP students in 2008 suggested the River Andesite was part of a dike, although Garcia mapped smaller outcrops of andesite ~300 m west of the river that may be part of the same body. We have recently (June 2012) found large andesite boulders that may be the outcrops Garcia mapped, although it is uncertain whether these boulders are in-situ. We initially collected microgravity and magnetic data in a small region near the river outcrop in December 2011 to determine the extent of the outcrop. Our preliminary modeling of these data showed the river outcrop appeared to merge with a more extensive igneous body at depth. Ground conductivity data collected near the river outcrop in March 2012 suggested that the outcrop impacts groundwater flow and sediment deposition adjacent to the river. From May through July 2012 we have been collecting additional microgravity data on a grid with 100-200 m spacing extending ~ 500 m from both sides of the river outcrop to better determine the extent of the buried andesite body. We also plan to conduct GPR and magnetic surveys near the recently discovered andesite boulders to determine if these are truly in-situ and part of the same igneous body as the river outcrop. Our eventual goal is to determine how extensive the andesite unit is and how it may impact groundwater flow and flooding in this area of growing urbanization.

  1. Notes on the flowering and pollination of the endemic grassland Aloe reitzii var. reitzii (Asphodelaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig T. Symes

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Because birds are important pollinators for many Aloe species, it is assumed that the bird species detected visiting A. reitzii var. reitzii are similarly important pollinators. At least 10 invertebrate species and sengi (Elephantulus sp. were also recorded as visitors to flowers, but they may be less important pollinators than specialist and generalist avian nectarivores. This study provides further insight into the pollination biology of a diverse, and ecologically important, succulent genus in Africa.

  2. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  3. The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Francine Rubin; A.R. Palmer

    1996-01-01

    The major plant communities of the Karoo National Park are described using the methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology, to assist with the formulation of a management strategy for the park. The vegetation physiognomy consists of Montane Karoo grassy shrublands. Karoo grassy dwarf shrublands. Karoo succulent dwarf shrublands and riparian thicket. Steep elevation and precipitation gradients within the study area have a direct impact on gradients in the vegetation. High elevat...

  4. Portulaca oleracea L.: A Review of Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countrie...

  5. 40 CFR 180.589 - Boscalid; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C, except cowpea, field pea and grain lupin 2.5 Pea and bean, succulent shelled, subgroup 6B, except cowpea 0.6 Peanut 0.05 Peanut, meal 0.15 Peanut, refined oil 0.15... Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Cowpea, seed 0.1 Flax, seed 3.5 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw...

  6. USE OF ELEUSINE INDICA (L. GAERTN. (KECHILA GHAS AS AN ANTIPYRETIC MEDICINE OF HERBIVORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Murshidabad district of West Bengal state, India, the traditionally animal rearing people feed parts of Kechila ghas as an antipyretic medicine to their herbivorous animals. The plant is identified as Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. of the family Poaceae. After collection from the soil, the plants are washed and the whole root along with 1-2 centimeter of stems are cut and fed directly at fresh, succulent stage to the ailing animals for that purpose.

  7. PATHORCHUR (COLEUS AROMATICUS): A REVIEW OF THE MEDICINAL EVIDENCE FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Om Prakash Rout; Rabinarayan Acharya; Sagar Kumar Mishra; Rashmibala Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Fam. Lamiaceae), syn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Spreng or Plectranthus ambonicus Lour, is commonly known as Indian/ country borage and ‘Pathorchur’ in Hindi and Bengali. It is recorded in the Indian system of medicine as one of the sources of Pashanabheda. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. It is found throughout India, Ceylon and Moluccas. The leaves of the plant are bitter, acrid and were being widely used tr...

  8. Red River Waterway, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, Mississippi River to Shreveport, Louisiana. General Reevaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    occur, includes salt cedar, false nettle , cocklebur, goldenrod, dog fennel, and Bermuda grass. The more mature riverine habitat usually consists of a mix...broomsedge, various legumes, and many other species might occur in this habitat type. Pastureland is a food source for many insect species and, if not grazed...too heavily, provides abundant habitat to insects as well as succulent growth for herbivorous mammals. Songbirds most common to the pasture are

  9. Carbon fixation and isotope discrimination by a crassulacean plant: dependence on the photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, J C; Queiroz, O

    1974-03-22

    Variations of more than 1 percent are observed in the carbon-13 to carbon-12 ratio of extracts of leaves of the succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana when the photoperiod is changed from long to short days. This indicates that the mechanism of carbon fixation switches from the Calvin (C(3)) pathway to the Hatch-Slack (C(4)) pathway of primary enzymic operation. The variations observed in the isotope compositions are tentatively explained by a model.

  10. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

    OpenAIRE

    R.G.T. Paley; G.I.H. Kerley

    1998-01-01

    Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact...

  11. Passive Cushiony Biomechanics of Head Protection in Falling Geckos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gekko geckos are capable to crawl on the steep even on upside-down surfaces. Such movement, especially at great altitude, puts them at high risks of incidentally dropping down and inevitable body or head impactions, though they may trigger air-righting reaction (ARR to attenuate the landing shocks. However, the air-righting ability (ARA in Gekko geckos is not fully developed. The implementation of ARR in some geckos is quite slow; and for those without tails, the ARR is even unobservable. Since ARA is compromised in Gekko geckos, there must be some other mechanisms responsible for protecting them from head injuries during falls. In this study, we looked into a Gekko gecko’s brain to study its internal environment and structure, using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique. The results showed that the brain parenchyma was fully surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in the skull. A succulent characteristic was presented, which meant the intracalvarium was significantly occupied by the CSF, up to 45% in volume. Then a simplified three-dimensional finite element model was built, and a dynamic simulation was conducted to evaluate the mechanical property of this succulent characteristic during the head impactions. These implied the succulent characteristic may play certain roles on the self-protection in case of head impaction, which is adaptable to the Gekko gecko’s locomotion and behavior.

  12. The growth and survival of plants in urban green roofs in a dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-04-01

    Green roofs as one of the components of water-sensitive urban design have become widely used in recent years. This paper describes performance monitoring of four prototype-scale experimental green roofs in a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, undertaken over a 1-year period. Four species of indigenous Australian ground cover and grass species comprising Carpobrotus rossii, Lomandra longifolia 'Tanika,' Dianella caerula 'Breeze' and Myoporum parvifolium were planted in extensive and intensive green roof configurations using two different growing media. The first medium consisted of crushed brick, scoria, coir fibre and composted organics while the second comprised scoria, composted pine bark and hydro-cell flakes. Plant growth indices including vertical and horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot and root biomasses, water use efficiency and irrigation regimes were studied during a 12-month period. The results showed that the succulent species, C. rossii, can best tolerate the hot, dry summer conditions of South Australia, and this species showed a 100% survival rate and had the maximum horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot biomass and water use efficiency. All of the plants in the intensive green roofs with the crushed brick mix media survived during the term of this study. It was shown that stormwater can be used as a source of irrigation water for green roofs during 8 months of the year in Adelaide. However, supplementary irrigation is required for some of the plants over a full annual cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 38095 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... with natural resource exploitation (Amelon and Berhans 2006, p. 60). Natural gas extraction... slopes, or in rock outcrops within shale barrens (Johnson et al. 2008, p. 29; Johnson and Gates 2008, p... their winter hibernacula to rock outcrops within shale barren habitat (Johnson and Gates 2008, p. 456...

  14. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Jakobsen, Finn; Madsen, Lena

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to combine geological descriptions of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties in order to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. This report deals with 1) geological descriptions of outcrop locality...

  15. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Ole; Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives of the project are to combine geological description of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties, and to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. Five chalk types, representing two outcrop localities: Stevns...

  16. Plant Communities Suitable for Green Roofs in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gioannini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In extensive green roof settings, plant communities can be more robust than monocultures. In addition, native plants might be hardier and more ecologically sound choices than non-native plants in green roof systems. The objectives of this research were to (1 compare the performance of plant communities with that of monocultures and (2 compare the growth of natives to non-natives in a simulated green roof setting. We conducted a two-year experiment at an outdoor site in a desert environment using four plant morphological types (groundcover, forb, succulent and grass. Native plants selected were Chrysactinia mexicana, Melampodium leucanthum, Euphorbia antisyphilitica, and Nassella tenuissima, and non-natives were Delosperma nubigenum, Stachys byzantina, Sedum kamtschiaticum and Festuca glauca. Plants were assigned randomly to either monoculture or community and grown in 1 m × 1 m custom-built trays filled with 15 cm of a proprietary blend of 50/20/30 lightweight aggregate/sand/compost (by volume. Native forb, Melampodium, in community had greater coverage for four of the five measurements in the first year over native forb in monoculture and non-native forb regardless of setting. Native forb coverage was also greater than non-native forb for three of the four measurements in year 2, regardless of setting. Coverage of native grass was significantly greater than non-native grasses throughout the experiment. Coverage was also greater for eight of nine measurements for native succulent over non-natives succulent. However, non-native groundcover coverage was significantly greater than native groundcover for seven of nine measurements. On 1 November 2016, relative water content (RWC for succulents (p = 0.0424 was greatest for native Euphorbia in monoculture at 88%. Native Euphorbia also had greater RWC than non-native Sedum on 4 April 2017 (78% and 4 July 2017 (80%. However, non-native Sedum had greater root length (6548 cm, root dry weight (12.1 g

  17. Dinomys branickii Peters, 1873 (Rodentia, Dinomyidae: consumption and food preference in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Tomaz Melo dos Santos Neto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinomys branickii is a large rodent listed as Endangered (EN, that suffers pressure from anthropogenic activities such as hunting and habitat destruction. Captive breeding methods are viable for supplementation of conservation projects, and may enhance our knowledge of main aspects of the biology of this species. The objective of this study was to determine consumption and food preferences in a captive group of D. branickii. To determine feeding preferences, the Food Preference Index (P was used for the type of food with highest consumption. The mean amount of food provided was 6.6 kg per day per group, with 4.4 kg per day/group consumed (66%. An average of 11 ± 2.9 types of food were offered daily. The consumption of fruits (71% was higher than the consumption of other food groups, followed by roots/tubers (65.3%. The food groups least consumed were cereals and seeds (39.4% and leaves (38.3%. The preferred foods were: Brassica oleracea (P = 1.38, Zea mays (P = 1.25, Ipomoea batatas (P = 1.17, Mangifera indica (P = 1.13, Cucurbita moschata (P = 1.10, Talinum esculentum (P = 1.00 and Manihot esculenta (P = 1.00. These results suggest that foods with high fiber and carbohydrate content are the best choices for D. branickii development and well-being in captivity.

  18. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Determination of heavy metals in medicinal plants from the wild and cultivated garden in Wilberforce Island, Niger Delta region, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edebi N. Vaikosen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adverse effects from herbal medicines may be partly due to the association of heavy metals with medicinal plants. Aims: To determine residual levels of Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in nine selected medicinal plant species and the surrounding soils collected from the Faculty of Pharmacy medicinal garden and College of Health Sciences residential quarters, Amassoma, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Methods: Nine plant species: Jatropha tanjorensis, Ipomoea batatas, Celosia argentea, Zea mays, Colocasia esculenta, Corchorus olitorius, Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum and Talinum triangulare were collected with their surrounding soil samples. The samples were dried and subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS to determine the heavy metal concentrations. Results: The detection frequencies of heavy metals in medicinal plants were: Cd – 100%, Pb – 11%, Ni – 0% and Cr – 0%. The residential quarter was more contaminated than cultivated medicinal garden. Order of residual concentration in bulk soils was Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Bioaccumulation factor ranged from 0 – 25.93 for foliar tissues. Cadmium in plant species ranged from 0.23 to 2.44 µg/g with > 88% exceeding the WHO maximum limit for medicinal plant materials. Conclusions: The heavy metal concentrations in medicinal plants were dependent on the collection sites, plant species and physico-chemical properties of soil. Cd exhibited the greatest bioavailability in the investigated plants and soils. Cd and Pb found in plant foliage were due to uptake from soil and aerial deposition, respectively.

  20. An Electric Resistivity Study of the Chelungpu Fault in the Taichung Area, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Hu Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an electric resistivity survey consisting of six resistivity image profilings and several resistivity measurements on outcrops of strata in the Taichung area to investigate the subsurface structures of the Chelungpu fault. Three magnetotelluric sounding results are added to infer rock formations at depth. Based on the resistivity measurements on outcrops of the strata and the correlations between the interpretative resistivity structures and the rock formations recognized from drilling cores and the outcrops of the strata, the resistivity spectra of rock formations are obtained, and the geological structures are deduced.

  1. A geometrically based method for predicting stress-induced fracture aperture and flow in discrete fracture networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisdom, Kevin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Nick, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    networks, digitized from outcropping pavements. These networks cover a wide range of possible geometries and spatial distributions. The geometrically based method predicts the average hydraulic aperture and equivalent permeability of fractured porous media with error margins of less than 5%....

  2. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 6 ... Is the outcrop topology of dolerite dikes of the Precambrian Singhbhum Craton fractal? ... Plane strain deformation of a multi-layered poroelastic half-space by surface ...

  3. Oleistocene mammals in the late-early Holocene in Santa Lucia river basin (Uruguay southern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubilla, M.; Perea, D.; Corona, A.; Rinderknecht, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about the fossileferous outcrops belongs to the late Pleistocene - early Holocene in Santa Lucia River. It enable to analyse the last records of megafauna vertebrate extinctions (olistecene mammals) with the climate conditions / environment

  4. Formation of Atoll Garnets in the UHP Eclogites of the Tso Morari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    across the studied atoll grains show elemental variations with higher concentrations of Ca and. 10 ...... from a single eclogite outcrop in the complex and probably represent a case of accidental. 28 ... Textural and compositional relations in the.

  5. Description of Soft Sediment Deformational Structure of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    south outcrop in western margin of the ... 3- National Centre for Petroleum Research and Development, A.T.B.U. Bauchi ... Benue Trough is made up of continental, transitional and .... zones of laminations trending at high angle to the bedding.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2 (2016). SEDIMENTOLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OUTCROP. SEDIMENTS OF ... Idowu (2012) and Nton and Okunade (2013). These studies ... and white sandstones, shale, siltstone, claystone, coaly units and ...

  7. Limestones in Treinta y Tres district : Aerial photo of Jose P. Varela - Isla Patrulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, N.; Heinzen, W.

    1981-01-01

    This work brings information of fields and laboratory samples about the outcrop in Treinta y Tres district in the framework of limestones programme carried out jointly with I.G.U and BGR through the geological German mission

  8. Comparative evaluation of clays from Abakaliki Formation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okeey Aghamelu

    Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. ... classified as inorganic clays of high plasticity (CH) according to Unified Soil Classification System .... movement through the outcrop locations and sample.

  9. Sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Sinkholes are a common feature in Missouri where limestone and dolomite outcrop. Though often considered a benign nuisance, sudden, catastrophic collapses can destroy property, delay construction projects, and contaminate ground water resources.

  10. An outline of neotectonic structures and morphotectonics of the western and central Pannonian basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodor, L.; Bada, G.; Csillag, G.; Horvath, E.; Ruszkiczay-Rudiger, Z.; Klara, P.; Sikhegyi, F.; Timár, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Horvath, F.

    2005-01-01

    Neotectonic deformation in the western and central part of the Pannonian Basin was investigated by means of surface and subsurface structural analyses, and geomorphologic observations. The applied methodology includes the study of outcrops, industrial seismic profiles, digital elevation models,

  11. Oceanographic data collected during the Sanctuary Quest: Investigating Marine Sanctuaries 2002 on NOAA Ship McArthur in North Pacific Ocean, California coast from 2002-04-24 to 2002-06-20 (NODC Accession 0072307)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. coast from southern California to Washington state features vast areas of submerged mountain ranges, canyons, plateaus, volcanoes, basins, rocky outcrops,...

  12. Early cretaceous Obernirchen and Bentheim sandstones from Germany used as dimension stone in the Netherlands: geology physical properties, architectural use and comparative weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Nijland, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands, with only scarce occurrences of outcropping or shallow buried natural stone, has over centuries imported huge quantities of Early Cretaceous Bentheim Sandstone and Obernkirchen Sandstone from Germany. The present paper provides an overview of their distribution and properties

  13. African Zoology - Vol 43, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging behaviour of two rodent species inhabiting a kopje (rocky outcrop) in ... governing habitat suitability and the distribution of the endangered Juliana's ... temperate rocky shores by the late-stage larvae of some inshore fish species, ...

  14. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  15. Seabed surveys of Mormugao Harbour, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    Detailed echosounding, side scan sonar and shallow seismics (125 line km) covering an area of 6.2 km2 in the Mormugao harbour provided information on seabed topography, surficial distribution of sediments, their thickness and rock outcrops along...

  16. 78 FR 31479 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Leavenworthia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... outcrops in an area of the Caneyville- Crider soil association (Whitaker and Waters 1986, p. 16). Baskin.... exigua var. laciniata populations and habitat from impacts such as sedimentation, erosion, and... [[Page 31487

  17. Predictions of soil-water potentials in the north-western Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.R.; Nobel, P.S.

    1986-03-01

    A simple computer model was developed to predict soil-water potential at a Sonoran Desert site. The variability of precipitation there, coupled with the low water-holding capacity of the sandy soil, result in large temporal and spatial variations in soil-water potential. Predicted soil-water potentials for depths of 5, 10 and 20 cm were in close agreement with measured values as the soil dried after an application of water. Predicted values at a depth of 10 cm, the mean rooting depth of Agave deserti and other succulents common at the study site, also agreed with soil-water potentials measured in the field throughout 1 year. Both soil-water potential and evaporation from the soil surface were very sensitive to simulated changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. The annual duration of soil moisture adequate for succulents was dependent on the rainfall as well as on the spacing and amount of individual rainfalls. The portion of annual precipitation evaporated from the soil surface varied from 73% in a dry year (77 mm precipitation) to 59% in a wet year (597 mm). Besides using the actual precipitation events, simulations were performed using the figures for total monthly precipitation. Based on the average number of rainfalls for a particular month, the rainfall was distributed throughout the month in the model. Predictions using both daily and monthly inputs were in close agreement, especially for the number of days during a year when the soil-water potential was sufficient for water absorption by the succulent plants (above -0.5 MPa).

  18. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Landman

    Full Text Available Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points, which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site

  19. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Marietjie; Schoeman, David S; Hall-Martin, Anthony J; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-01-01

    Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact) are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities) that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points), which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site, albeit with greater

  20. Geology and paleontology of the Santa Maria district, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, W.P.; Bramlette, M.N.

    1950-01-01

    Stratigraphy, paleontology, and geologic history.-A basement' consisting of igneous rocks of the Jurassic(?) Franciscan formation and sediments of the Upper Jurassic Knoxville formation, and formations of Tertiary and Quaternary age are exposed in the Santa Maria district. The outcrop section, exclusive of the Franciscan, has a maximum thickness of about 10,000 feet, the subsurface section about 27,000 feet. At no locality, however, is either outcrop or subsurface section as thick as the total maxima for the formations.

  1. Aggradational lobe fringes: the influence of subtle intrabasinal seabed topography on sediment gravity flow processes and lobe stacking patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, Stephen; Hodgson, David; Stevenson, Christopher; Spychala, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Seabed topography is ubiquitous across basin-floor environments, and influences sediment gravity flows and sediment dispersal patterns. The impact of steep (several degrees) confining slopes on sedimentary facies and depositional architecture has been widely documented. However, the influence of gentle (fraction of a degree) confining slopes is less well-documented, largely due to outcrop limitations. Here, exceptional outcrop and research borehole data from Unit A of the Permian Laingsburg F...

  2. Cretaceous sedimentology of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    The Barmer Basin, western India, is a well-known and prospected petroleum system. However, the Lower Cretaceous Ghaggar-Hakra Formation has not been recognised as basin fill and not documented prior to this study. The formation outcrops in rotational fault blocks at the Sarnoo Hills and surrounding areas, on the eastern Barmer Basin margin. The thesis here describes and analyses the nature and evolution of the formation at both outcrop and within the subsurface, producing facies and depositio...

  3. Gravity derived depth to basement in Santiago Basin, Chile: implications for its geological evolution, hydrogeology, low enthalpy geothermal, soil characterization and geo-hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Yáñez, Gonzalo; Muñoz, Mauricio; Flores-Aqueveque, Valentina; Bosch, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    A recording of 1,115 gravimetric stations, the review of 368 wells, and the petrophysics measurements of 106 samples from representative outcrops have been used for a comprehensive geological/geophysical study of Santiago Basin. 2.5D and 3D gravimetric modeling, constrained by regional geology, soil and bedrock densities, edge-basin outcrops, depth (minimum) to basement from wells, and detailed modeling of heterogeneous bedrock and midcrustal blocks, provided a well-constrained depth to basem...

  4. Stacking fault growth of FCC crystal: The Monte-Carlo simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Jianmin; Ming Naiben

    1988-03-01

    The Monte-Carlo method has been used to simulate the growth of the FCC (111) crystal surface, on which is presented the outcrop of a stacking fault. The comparison of the growth rates has been made between the stacking fault containing surface and the perfect surface. The successive growth stages have been simulated. It is concluded that the outcrop of stacking fault on the crystal surface can act as a self-perpetuating step generating source. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  5. Production et qualité nutritionnelle des épis de maïs frais bouillis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour les transformatrices-vendeuses et les consommateurs, un bon maïs frais bouilli doit avoir une texture moins dure et un goût succulent. Les caractéristiques nutritionnelles du maïs frais bouilli révèlent une richesse en glucides totaux (63,4 à 64,6% matière sèche), en protéines (12,5% matière sèche), en minéraux (1,6% ...

  6. 40 CFR 180.249 - Alachlor; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... seed 0.03 Cowpea, forage 5.0 Cowpea, hay 5.0 Egg 0.02 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, meat byproducts 0.02 Goat, meat 0.02 Hog, fat 0.02 Hog meat byproducts 0.02 Hog, meat 0.02 Horse, fat 0.02 Horse, meat byproducts..., dry 0.1 Beans, succulent lima 0.1 Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.02 Cattle, meat 0.02 Corn...

  7. Adsorption of heavy metals ions on portulaca oleracea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the ability of portulaca oleracea (Fershi in Urdu) biomass grown in uncontaminated soils to adsorb or uptake lead, cadmium, arsenic, cobalt and copper from aqueous solutions. In order to help understand the metal binding mechanism, laboratory experiments performance to determine optimal binding, and binding capacity for each of the above mentioned metals. These experiments were carried out for the mass of crushed portulaca stems. Portulaca is a plant that grows abundantly in temperature climate in the area of Quetta Balochistan. It has reddish stem and thick succulent leaves. This plant has been found to be good adsorbent for heavy metals ions. (author)

  8. PROPOSALS FOR OPTIMISATION THE GENETIC IMPROVEMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE PHASIANUS COLCHICUS COLCHICUS POPULATION FROM PISCHIA PHEASANT PRESERVE, FORESTRY DISTRICT TIMISOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DRONCA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania adhesion and integration into the European Union offers opportunities for production and export of a significant number of pheasants for game. Pheasant meat is very tender and succulent with a pleasant flavor. The aim the paper was to try to makwe efficient the genetic improvement actions of the Phasianus Colchicus Colchicus stock from the Pischia pheasant preserve, Timis County. The study was carried out on a total of 11550 common game pheasants belonging to the Forestry District Timisoara. Based on analysis carried out, this paper is finalizing with a number of conclusions and recommendations.

  9. Nuevos taxones vegetales alóctonos de jardinería en el área continental de NE de España: comportamiento e historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLOT, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about two topics rarely found in literature on invasions: 1-the record of succulent species naturalised within a continental-type climate area (Teruel, NE Spain, 2-the distinction between taxonomical varieties of invasive taxa. Besides, historical information on introduction, area of origin and taxonomical consideration is provided for each taxa. A. americana var. marginata Trel, Agave ingens Berger, Malephora purpureo-crocea (Haw. Schwantes and Sedum dendroideum DC. subsp. praealtum (A. DC. R. T. Clausen are recorded for the first time in the area.

  10. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in Pereskia species (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2009-01-01

    Calcium oxalate druses were isolated from the stems and leaves of six Pereskioideae family members and investigated by infrared spectroscopy, showing that in all samples the biomineral was present in the form of whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O. As Pereskia is thought to represent the "ancestral" condition of the leafless stem-succulent cacti, these results suggest that the biomineralization of calcium oxalate in Cactaceae represents a primitive characteristic of the group and also support a close genetic relationship between Pereskia and Opuntia.

  11. The candelabra tree (Euphorbia ingens: a source of water for black rhinoceros in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Dudley

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of two rhinoceros into a 15 km2 fenced sanctuary within Liwonde National Park provided an opportunity for close observation of the animals feeding on the toxic succulent Euphorbia ingens. Feeding invariably caused the death of the plant and for plants with basal diameters between 5-17 cm, mortality ranged from 40-90 . During the severe drought of 1994 rhinoceros did not drink from the artificial waterhole from approximately 15 July to at least 23 September. As this waterhole was the only source of free water it is believed that the rhinoceros obtained their water from browsing on E. ingens.

  12. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwu, Matthew O; Omeodu, Stephen I

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of accumulated trace metals in selected seeds and vegetables collected in the oil producing Rivers State of Nigeria were investigated. The values were compared with those of seeds and vegetables cultivated in Owerri, a less industrialized area in Nigeria. The lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contents of the seeds obtained from Rivers State ranged between 0.10 and 0.23 microg/g dry weight, while those of the seeds cultivated in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The highest manganese (Mn) level (902 microg/g dry weight) was found in Irvingia garbonesis seeds cultivated in Rivers State. Similarly, the highest nickel (Ni) value (199 microg/g dry weight) was also obtained in I. garbonesis, however, in the seeds sampled in Owerri. The highest copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) levels (16.8, 5.27, and 26.2 microg/g dry weight, resp.) were detected in seeds collected in Rivers State. With the exception of Talinum triangulae, Ocinum gratissimum, and Piper guineese, with Pb levels of 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 microg/g dry weight, respectively, the Pb and Cd levels in the vegetables grown in Owerri fell below the detection limit of 0.01 microg/g dry weight. The trace metal with the highest levels in all the vegetables studied was Mn, followed by Fe. The highest concentrations of Ni and Cu occurred in vegetables collected from Rivers State, while the highest level of Zn was observed in Piper guineese collected in Owerri, with a value of 21.4 microg/g dry weight. Although the trace metal concentrations of the seeds and vegetables collected in Rivers State tended to be higher than those of the seeds and vegetables grown in Owerri, the average levels of trace metals obtained in this study fell far below the WHO specifications for metals in foods.

  13. Polyphenolic screening and protective properties of some vegetables against CCl4 liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salawu, S.O.; Akindahunsi, A.A.

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we screened for the polyphenolic compounds present in some selected tropical vegetables and the protective effect of the vegetable extract against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats as a way of evaluating their medicinal potential in addition to their nutritional values. The use of HPLC/DAD/MS revealed the presence of some phenolic compounds in the studied vegetables. Crassocephalum crepidioides; caffeoyl derivatives, Talinum triangulare; rutin and kaempferol derivatives, Amaranthus hybridus; caffeoyl derivative, rutin and kaempferol derivative, Hibiscus esculentus; caffeoyl derivative, quercetin derivative and an unidentified flavonoid, Xanthosoma mafaffa; six unidentified flavonoids with similar absorption maximum at different retention times) and Celocia argentia (luteolin derivative and four unidentified flavonoids. Carbon tetrachloride at a dose of 0.5ml/kg body weight (b.w) produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the rise in the levels of ALT (IU/l), AST (IU/l) and total protein (g/l) in the serum (40.60 ± 3.50, 80.60 ± 5.10, 73.20 ± 1.87), in the liver homogenate (1300.00 ± 7.38, 1660.00 ± 13.69, 250.00 ± 7.51) and MDA content (nmol TBARS/mg Liver Protein) in the liver homogenate (82.00 ± 0.02, 82.00 ± 0.07) compared to the control. The result revealed a reduction of the serum marker enzymes (ALT, AST and Total protein), compared with the CCl 4 treated group after the administration of the various polyphenolic extract. In a similar manner, the extract brings about a reduction of the MDA content. It could be concluded that the protective properties exhibited by the vegetables could be amongst other factor due to the presence of some polyphenols. (author)

  14. Bleogens: Cactus-Derived Anti-Candida Cysteine-Rich Peptides with Three Different Precursor Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shining Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs play important host-defense roles in plants. However, information concerning CRPs in the Cactaceae (cactus family is limited, with only a single cactus-derived CRP described to date. Here, we report the identification of 15 novel CRPs with three different precursor architectures, bleogens pB1-15 from Pereskia bleo of the Cactaceae family. By combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we showed that the prototype, bleogen pB1, contained 36 amino acid residues, a six-cysteine motif typical of the six-cysteine-hevein-like peptide (6C-HLP family, and a type I two-domain precursor consisting of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER and a mature domain. In contrast, the precursors of the other 14 bleogens contained a type II three-domain architecture with a propeptide domain inserted between the ER and the mature bleogen domain. Four of these 14 bleogens display a third type of architecture with a tandemly repeating bleogen domain. A search of the Onekp database revealed that <1% plant species possess three different precursor architectures for the biosynthesis of 6C-HLPs, including Lophophora williamsii, Pereskia aculeate, Portulaca cryptopetala, Portulaca oleracea, Portulaca suffruticosa, and Talinum sp. NMR analysis confirmed that bleogen pB1 has cystine-knot disulfide connectivity as well as a two-beta-sheet and a four-loop structural fold that is similar to other 6C-HLPs. Sequence analysis, structural studies, and in silico modeling revealed that bleogen pB1 has a cation-polar-cation motif, a signature heparin-binding motif that was confirmed by heparin affinity chromatography. Cell-based assays showed that bleogen pB1 is non-toxic to mammalian cells but functions as an anti-Candida peptide. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the occurrence, functions and precursor architectures of CRPs in the cactus family.

  15. Saltmarsh boundary modulates dispersal of mangrove propagules: implications for mangrove migration with sea-level rise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Peterson

    Full Text Available Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise.

  16. Saltmarsh boundary modulates dispersal of mangrove propagules: implications for mangrove migration with sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have empirically examined the suite of mechanisms that underlie the distributional shifts displayed by organisms in response to changing climatic condition. Mangrove forests are expected to move inland as sea-level rises, encroaching on saltmarsh plants inhabiting higher elevations. Mangrove propagules are transported by tidal waters and propagule dispersal is likely modified upon encountering the mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone, the implications of which are poorly known. Here, using an experimental approach, we record landward and seaward dispersal and subsequent establishment of mangrove propagules that encounter biotic boundaries composed of two types of saltmarsh taxa: succulents and grasses. Our findings revealed that propagules emplaced within saltmarsh vegetation immediately landward of the extant mangrove fringe boundary frequently dispersed in the seaward direction. However, propagules moved seaward less frequently and over shorter distances upon encountering boundaries composed of saltmarsh grasses versus succulents. We uniquely confirmed that the small subset of propagules dispersing landward displayed proportionately higher establishment success than those transported seaward. Although impacts of ecotones on plant dispersal have rarely been investigated in situ, our experimental results indicate that the interplay between tidal transport and physical attributes of saltmarsh vegetation influence boundary permeability to propagules, thereby directing the initial phase of shifting mangrove distributions. The incorporation of tidal inundation information and detailed data on landscape features, such as the structure of saltmarsh vegetation at mangrove boundaries, should improve the accuracy of models that are being developed to forecast mangrove distributional shifts in response to sea-level rise.

  17. Agave Chewing and Dental Wear: Evidence from Quids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Hammerl

    Full Text Available Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.

  18. The identification and description of the management units of the Goegap Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Rosch

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Goegap Nature Reserve, near Springbok, is situated in the floral paradise of Namaqualand. This 15 000 ha reserve falls within the Namaqualand Broken Veld and in the transition zone between this Veld type and the False Succulent Karoo. Otherwise, it could be said that the reserve falls within the Upland Succulent Karoo and the transition zone between this vegetation type and the Bushmanland vegetation type. With the use of stratified aerial photographs of the reserve, random sample plots were placed within each homogeneous physiographic-physionomic unit and 284 releves were compiled in September 1998. With the use of the BBPC computer program, the resulting TWINSPAN split the data into two tables, one predominantly for the Plains and one for the Rocky Hills. After refining these tables, 13 plant communities were identified. These communities, together with the stratified aerial photographs, land type and habitat information were used to determine ten management units for the reserve. These units will be used in effective management and monitoring on the reserve. Table 1 and 2 will be uploaded as a supplementary file in due course.

  19. Evolutionary history of a keystone pollinator parallels the biome occupancy of angiosperms in the Greater Cape Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2017-02-01

    The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) in South Africa has been extensively investigated for its phenomenal angiosperm diversity. A key emergent pattern is the occurrence of older plant lineages in the southern Fynbos biome and younger lineages in the northern Succulent Karoo biome. We know practically nothing, however, about the evolutionary history of the animals that pollinate this often highly-specialized flora. In this study, we explore the evolutionary history of an important GCFR fly pollinator, Megapalpus capensis, and ask whether it exhibits broadly congruent genetic structuring and timing of diversification to flowering plants within these biomes. We find that the oldest M. capensis lineages originated in Fynbos during the Miocene, while younger Succulent Karoo lineages diverged in the Pliocene and correspond to the proposed age of this recent biome. A strong signature of population expansion is also recovered for flies in this arid biome, consistent with recent colonization. Our first investigation into the evolutionary history of GCFR pollinators thus supports a recent origin of the SK biome, as inferred from angiosperm phylogenies, and suggests that plants and pollinators may have co-diverged within this remarkable area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence of Daily Periods on the Drinking Behavior in Romanian Black and White Primiparous Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 9 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim of this study was to determine some aspect of drinking behavior of the cows in 24 hours that were divided into 3 day periods (intervals: 07:00-14:00 (I1, 14:00-21:00 (I2, 21:00-07:00 (I3. During the experiments, the following drinking behavior aspects were determined: the number of drinkings and the length of drinking periods per 24 hours, in the fibrous-succulents administration order of forages (O1 and succulents-fibrous order (O2. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. Results showed that the daily periods had an influence on the number of drinkings and drinking length, the lowest number of drinkings occurred during the night interval I3 (4.20 and the highest number together with the longest drinking period occurred in the second interval I2 (12.47 and 1062.50 seconds. In both administration order of forages ( O1 and O2 there were a very significant differences (p<0.001 between I1 and I2 in favour of I2, between I1 and I3 in favour of I1 and between I2 and I3 in favour of I2, for number of drinkings periods and for length of drinking periods.

  1. High but not dry: diverse epiphytic bromeliad adaptations to exposure within a seasonally dry tropical forest community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, C; Mejia-Chang, M; Griffiths, H

    2012-02-01

    • Vascular epiphytes have developed distinct lifeforms to maximize water uptake and storage, particularly when delivered as pulses of precipitation, dewfall or fog. The seasonally dry forest of Chamela, Mexico, has a community of epiphytic bromeliads with Crassulacean acid metabolism showing diverse morphologies and stratification within the canopy. We hypothesize that niche differentiation may be related to the capacity to use fog and dew effectively to perform photosynthesis and to maintain water status. • Four Tillandsia species with either 'tank' or 'atmospheric' lifeforms were studied using seasonal field data and glasshouse experimentation, and compared on the basis of water use, leaf water δ(18) O, photosynthetic and morphological traits. • The atmospheric species, Tillandsia eistetteri, with narrow leaves and the lowest succulence, was restricted to the upper canopy, but displayed the widest range of physiological responses to pulses of precipitation and fog, and was a fog-catching 'nebulophyte'. The other atmospheric species, Tillandsia intermedia, was highly succulent, restricted to the lower canopy and with a narrower range of physiological responses. Both upper canopy tank species relied on tank water and stomatal closure to avoid desiccation. • Niche differentiation was related to capacity for water storage, dependence on fog or dewfall and physiological plasticity. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Factors Influencing Consumption Speed of Forages Given in Two Portions in Primiparous Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 6 Romanian Black and White cows in their first one hundred days of lactation. The aim was to assess the consumption speed (g/min, as well as the required time for consumption of 1 kg of raw forage for  alfalfa-hay, herbs silage, beet and concentrates, administered in two  portions (P1, P2, per day, in 2 equal feedings (F1, F2 per portion. The administration order of forages (fibrous-succulents and succulents-fibrous, the number of feedings and the average consumption speed among the two portions were the experimental variants. Data was computed by ANOVA/MANOVA. The average consumption speed determined was 198.5 g/min for concentrates, 48.28 g/min for alfalfa hay, 203.19 g/min for silage and 235.32 g/min for beets. The required time for 1 kg of raw forage consumption (minutes and seconds was 5.02 for concentrates, 20.43 for alfalfa hay, 4.35 for herbs silage and 4.15 for beets.

  3. Salinity and cationic nature of irrigation water on castor bean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani S. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the water relations, cell damage percentage and growth of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ as a function of salinity and cationic nature of the water used in irrigation. The experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions in eutrophic Grey Argisol of sandy loam texture. Six combinations of water salinity and cations were studied (S1 - Control; S2 - Na+, S3 - Ca2+, S4 - Na+ + Ca2+; S5 - K+ and S6 - Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+, in a randomized block design with four replicates. In the control (S1, plants were irrigated with 0.6 dS m-1 water, whereas the other treatments received 4.5 dS m-1 water, obtained by adding different salts, all in the chloride form. Higher relative water content in the leaf blade of plants irrigated with K+-salinized water associated with leaf succulence are indicative of tolerance of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ to salinity. Saline stress negatively affected castor bean growth, regardless of cationic nature of water. Among the ions studied, ‘BRS Energia’ castor bean was more sensitive to the presence of sodium in the irrigation water, in terms of both water relations and leaf succulence.

  4. Contrasting effects of landscape features on genetic structure in different geographic regions in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Esther; Tomkins, Joseph L; Lebas, Natasha R; Kennington, W Jason

    2013-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation can have profound effects on the distribution of genetic variation within and between populations. Previously, we showed that in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus, lizards residing on outcrops that are separated by cleared agricultural land are significantly more isolated and hold less genetic variation than lizards residing on neighbouring outcrops connected by undisturbed native vegetation. Here, we extend the fine-scale study to examine the pattern of genetic variation and population structure across the species' range. Using a landscape genetics approach, we test whether land clearing for agricultural purposes has affected the population structure of the ornate dragon lizard. We found significant genetic differentiation between outcrop populations (FST  = 0.12), as well as isolation by distance within each geographic region. In support of our previous study, land clearing was associated with higher genetic divergences between outcrops and lower genetic variation within outcrops, but only in the region that had been exposed to intense agriculture for the longest period of time. No other landscape features influenced population structure in any geographic region. These results show that the effects of landscape features can vary across species' ranges and suggest there may be a temporal lag in response to contemporary changes in land use. These findings therefore highlight the need for caution when assessing the impact of contemporary land use practices on genetic variation and population structure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The stratigraphy of the Marydale Group west of Prieska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potgieter, G.J.A.; Botha, B.J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Isolated outcrops of the Marydale Group are present in a narrow belt along the south-western edge of the Kaapvaal Craton. The belt outcrops along a total distance of 120 km from Soetvlei, 35 km south-east of Prieska, to Marydale. The best exposure of this unit is west of Prieska, between Prieskapoort and Copperton. Outcrops are generally very poor except along a few road and rail cuttings. The Marydale Group consists of a quick alternation of immature clastic and volcanoclastic rocks and lava. The exact stratigraphic position of the Marydale Group could not be deduced from field evidence. Provisional Pb/Pb and Rb-Sr isotope work on the banded iron formation the Modderfontein Formation and the metalava of the Uitzigt Formation respectively, indicate an age of 3 100 Ma

  6. Remote sensing and uranium exploration at Lisbon Valley, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conel, J.E.; Niesen, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Use was made of aircraft-acquired multispectral scanner data to investigate the distribution of bleaching in Wingate sandstone exposed in Lisbon Valley anticline, Utah. All of the large ore bodies contained in lower Chinle Triassic age or Cutler Permian age strate in this area lie beneath or closely adjacent to such bleached outcrops. The distribution of ore bodies and of bleached Wingate strata known from surface outcrops in the Big Indian District are also nearly completely contained within the oil and gas-producing limits of the Lisbon oil and gas and Big Indian gas fields. While there is little direct geologic connection discernible between the surface outcropping sandstones and ore bearing strata, the coincidences suggested this as a possible example of hydrocarbon or sour gas leakage influencing uranium ore deposition and rock alteration in superjacent strata. From a remote sensing point-of-view this study focuses on the distribution of Wingate bleaching. 7 refs

  7. Organic geochemistry of petroleum seepages within the Jurassic Bencliff Grit, Osmington Mills, Dorset, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.F.; Farrimond, P. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry; Hindle, A.D. [Egdon Resources (UK) Ltd., Odiham (United Kingdom)

    2000-11-01

    Occurrences of oil within the Bencliff Grit at Osmington Mills were studied through an integration of organic geochemistry and a consideration of the geological setting. Oil-stained sandstones dominate the cliff outcrop with localized regions of particularly concentrated oil impregnation. A second 'live' seep of oil occurs where the Bencliff Grit beds pass below high tide level at Bran Point. Organic geochemical analyses showed both oils to be at least moderately biodegraded, with the oils in the cliff outcrop showing enrichment in polar constituents compared with the active seep. Multivariate statistical analysis of the molecular composition identified an enrichment in diasterane biomarkers in the oils of the live seep; this difference is ascribed to source and/or maturity differences. The oil within the outcrop is considered to represent the residual staining of an unroofed oil field, whilst the live seepage at Bran Point represents a migration pathway towards the eroded anticline. (Author)

  8. Local Geomorphology as a Determinant of Macrofaunal Production in a Mountain Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huryn, Alexander D; Wallace, J Bruce

    1987-12-01

    By comparing distributions of functional group production among different habitats in an Appalachian mountain stream, the influence of site-specific geomorphology upon the overall functional group composition of the animal community was demonstrated. By replicated monthly sampling, substrate particle size distributions, current velocity, standing crops of benthic organic matter, and production of macrofauna were measured in each of three principal habitats: bedrock-outcrop, riffle, and pool. Samples were taken at randomly assigned locations and the relative number of samples taken from each habitat was assumed to be proportional to the area of the habitat within the stream. These proportions were used to weight production measured in each habitat and the resulting values were summed to obtain production per unit area of average stream bed. The bedrock-outcrop habitat was characterized by high material entertainment and export as indicated by significantly higher current velocities and lower standing crops of detritus compared to the riffle and pool habitats. Pools were sites of low entertainment and high retention of organic matter as demonstrated by significantly lower current velocities and higher accumulations of detritus than other habitats. The riffle habitat was intermediate to the bedrock-outcrop and pool habitats in all parameters measured. Annual production of collector-filterers was highest in the bedrock-outcrop (ash-free dry mass 1920 mg/m 2 ), followed by riffle (278 mg/m 2 ) and pool (32 mg/m 2 ). Although constituting only 19% of the stream area, the bedrock-outcrop habitat contributed 68% of the habitat-weighted collector-filterer production. Annual production of shredders was highest in pools (2616 mg/m 2 ), followed by riffles (1657 mg/m 2 ) and bedrock-outcrop (579 mg/m 2 ). The pool habitat, constituting 23% of stream area, contributed 36% of shredder production. Annual production of scrapers was highest in the riffle habitat (905 mg/m 2

  9. Absolute age determination of quaternary fault and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-04-15

    The annual ('01-'01) objective of this project is to data the fault activity for the presumed quaternary fault zones to the western part of the Ulsam fault system and southeastern coastal area near the Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant. Rb-Sr, K-Ar, OSL, C-14 and U-series disequilibrium methods were applied to the fault rocks, organic matter and quaternary formations collected from the Pyeonghae, Bogyeongsa, Yugyeri, Byegkye, Gacheon-1 and Joil outcrops of the Yangsan fault system, the Baenaegol outcrop of the Moryang fault system, the Susyongji(Madong-2), Singye, Hwalseongri, Ipsil and Wonwonsa outcrops of the Ulsan fault system and from quaternary marine terraces (Oryoo and Kwangseong sites) in the southeastern coastal area. The experimental procedure of the OSL SAR protocol was reexamined to get more reliable dating results.

  10. Evaluation of kaolinite clays of Moa for the production of cement based clinker-calcined clay-limestone (LC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Almenares-Reyes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clay materials from two outcrops of the Moa region were analyzed to determine their potential use as supplementary cementitious material in the production of ternary cements based on limestone-calcined clay. The clays were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (EAA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (ATG. These methods revealed high aluminum in clays, moderate kaolinite content, a disordered structure and the presence of impurities. The solubility of aluminum and silicon in alkali and the compressive strength of LC3 systems is proportional to their content in clay, being higher for the one with higher kaolinite content and greater structural disorder (outcrop D1, although the clay of both outcrops may constitute supplementary cementitious materials in the production of ternary cements based clinker-calcined clay-limestone. The suitable thermal activation range for both clays is between 650 ° C and 850 ° C.

  11. Evidence from the Seychelles of Last Interglacial Sea Level Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyverberg, K.; Dutton, A.; Dechnik, B.; Webster, J.; Zwartz, D.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies indicate that sea level oscillated during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, but the details of these scenarios, including the number of sea level oscillations, are still debated. We lack a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of the large polar ice sheets to changes in temperature that could result in eustatic sea level oscillations. Because the Seychelles are located far from the margins of the Last Glacial Maximum northern hemisphere ice sheets, they have not been subjected to glacial isostatic adjustment, and have been tectonically stable since the Last Interglacial period; therefore, they provide a robust record of eustatic sea level during MIS 5e. All of the outcrops we examined contain unconformities and/or sharp transitions between facies, though the nature of these boundaries varies between sites. In some outcrops we observed a hardground comprising fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer between distinct generations of in situ coralgal framework. In one outcrop, this succession was observed twice, where two generations of reef growth were each capped by a strongly indurated fine-grained, mollusc-rich sediment layer. At the site with the greatest vertical extent of outcrop, there is a marked difference in the taxonomic composition of the coral community above and below an unconformable surface, but the indurated fine-grained, sediment layer observed elsewhere was absent. Most of the other outcrops we studied contained a common succession of facies from in situ reef units overlain by cemented coral rubble. In two dated outcrops, the age of corals above and below the rubble layer are the same age. The hardgrounds and rubble layers may represent ephemeral exposure of the reef units during two drops in sea level. The inference of multiple meter-scale oscillations during the MIS 5e highstand indicates a more dynamic cryosphere than the present interglacial, although the climatic threshold for more volatile polar ice sheets is not yet clear.

  12. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M., E-mail: pkklein@ou.edu [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Coffman, Reid, E-mail: rcoffma4@kent.edu [College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  13. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Petra M.; Coffman, Reid

    2015-01-01

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  14. Tidal events and salt-marsh structure influence black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) recruitment across an ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer M; Bell, Susan S

    2012-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted at a black mangrove-salt-marsh ecotone in southwest Florida (U.S.A.) to investigate retention of propagules of the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, by salt-marsh plants as a mechanism of facilitation operating on recruitment success at landward boundaries. Buoyant A. germinans propagules are dispersed by tides, and stranding is required for establishment; therefore, processes that enable stranding should facilitate mangrove recruitment. We expected the physical structure of salt-marsh vegetation to define propagule retention capacity, and we predicted that salt-marsh plants with distinct growth forms would differentially retain propagules. Experimental monoculture plots (1 m2) of salt-marsh plants with different growth forms (Sporobolus virginicus [grass], Sesuvium portulacastrum [succulent forb], and Batis maritima [succulent scrub]) were created, and A. germinans propagules were emplaced into these plots and monitored over time. For comparison, propagules were also placed into natural polyculture plots (1 m2). Polyculture plots contained at least two of the salt-marsh plant taxa selected for monoculture treatments, and S. virginicus was always present within these polyculture plots. Natural polyculture plots retained 59.3% +/- 11.0% (mean +/- SE) of emplaced propagules. Monocultures varied in their propagule retention capacities with plots of S. virginicus retaining on average 65.7% +/- 11.5% of transplanted propagules compared to 7.2% +/- 1.8% by B. maritima and 5.0% +/- 1.9% by S. portulacastrum. Plots containing S. virginicus retained a significantly greater percentage of emplaced propagules relative to the two succulent salt-marsh taxa. Furthermore, propagule entrapment, across all treatments, was strongly correlated with salt-marsh structure (r2 = 0.6253, P = 0.00001), which was estimated using an indirect quantitative metric (lateral obstruction) calculated from digital images of plots. Overall, our findings imply that

  15. HALOPHYTIC VEGETATION OF IRAN: TOWARDS A SYNTAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AKHANI

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Iran with its diverse c1irnatic conditions and geologic and land use history support large areas of saline habitats and diverse halophytic flora. The halophytic diversity in not only enriched by the evolving of a large number of autochthonous Irano-Turanian elements, but also many of the halophytes of other phytochoria like Saharo-Arabian, Mediterranean and even Euro-Siberian elements are represented in Iran. Therefore most of the higher syntaxa of Euro-Mediterranean and Afro-Asian-al last partly-occur in Iran. Prior to a consolidated syntaxonomical system for the halophytic vegetation of Iran, major halophytic vegetation units of Iran are summarized and shown along salinity and moisture gradients. These include: (I: Mangrove communities (Avicennio-Sonneratietea. (2: Submerged aquatic plant communities (Ruppietea maritimae. (3: Annual obligatory hygro-halophytic communities on sea, lake and river marshes dominated by stem or leaf succulent C3 chenopods (Thero-Salicornietea. (4 Semi-woody or perennial halophytic communities on muddy or coastal salt flats dominated by stem succulent C3 chenopods (Salicornietea fruticosae. (5: Hydrophi!ous euryhalophytic rush communities: Phragmitetea australis. (6: Halophytic grassland and herbaceous perennial sedge communities belonging to genera Puccinellia and Juncus (Juncetea maritimi. (7: Salt marsh and riverine bruchwood communities dominated by salt-excreting halophytes (Tamaricetea ramosissimae, prov.. (8: Annua1 halophytic communities dominated by C4 chenopods in temporary moist and inundated, or disturbed salty soils (Climacopteretea crassae, prov.. (9: Halophytic shrubby. semi-woody or hemicrytophytic communities on salty and dry soils dominated by lcaf or stem succulent C4 chenopods (Haloxylo-Salsoletea tomentosae, prov.. (1O: Halophytic shrub communities, on salty and sandy coastal or margin of sabkhas with high water table dominated by Nitraria schoberi and Reaumuria fruticosa. (11. Psarno

  16. HALOPHYTIC VEGETATION OF IRAN: TOWARDS A SYNTAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AKHANI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran with its diverse c1irnatic conditions and geologic and land use history support large areas of saline habitats and diverse halophytic flora. The halophytic diversity in not only enriched by the evolving of a large number of autochthonous Irano-Turanian elements, but also many of the halophytes of other phytochoria like Saharo-Arabian, Mediterranean and even Euro-Siberian elements are represented in Iran. Therefore most of the higher syntaxa of Euro-Mediterranean and Afro-Asian-al last partly-occur in Iran. Prior to a consolidated syntaxonomical system for the halophytic vegetation of Iran, major halophytic vegetation units of Iran are summarized and shown along salinity and moisture gradients. These include: (I: Mangrove communities (Avicennio-Sonneratietea. (2: Submerged aquatic plant communities (Ruppietea maritimae. (3: Annual obligatory hygro-halophytic communities on sea, lake and river marshes dominated by stem or leaf succulent C3 chenopods (Thero-Salicornietea. (4 Semi-woody or perennial halophytic communities on muddy or coastal salt flats dominated by stem succulent C3 chenopods (Salicornietea fruticosae. (5: Hydrophi!ous euryhalophytic rush communities: Phragmitetea australis. (6: Halophytic grassland and herbaceous perennial sedge communities belonging to genera Puccinellia and Juncus (Juncetea maritimi. (7: Salt marsh and riverine bruchwood communities dominated by salt-excreting halophytes (Tamaricetea ramosissimae, prov.. (8: Annua1 halophytic communities dominated by C4 chenopods in temporary moist and inundated, or disturbed salty soils (Climacopteretea crassae, prov.. (9: Halophytic shrubby. semi-woody or hemicrytophytic communities on salty and dry soils dominated by lcaf or stem succulent C4 chenopods (Haloxylo-Salsoletea tomentosae, prov.. (1O: Halophytic shrub communities, on salty and sandy coastal or margin of sabkhas with high water table dominated by Nitraria schoberi and Reaumuria fruticosa. (11. Psarno

  17. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  18. Structural-Diagenetic Controls on Fracture Opening in Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoirs, Alberta Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Eichhubl, Peter; Fall, Andras; Hooker, John

    2013-04-01

    In tight gas reservoirs, understanding the characteristics, orientation and distribution of natural open fractures, and how these relate to the structural and stratigraphic setting are important for exploration and production. Outcrops provide the opportunity to sample fracture characteristics that would otherwise be unknown due to the limitations of sampling by cores and well logs. However, fractures in exhumed outcrops may not be representative of fractures in the reservoir because of differences in burial and exhumation history. Appropriate outcrop analogs of producing reservoirs with comparable geologic history, structural setting, fracture networks, and diagenetic attributes are desirable but rare. The Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Nikanassin Formation from the Alberta Foothills produces gas at commercial rates where it contains a network of open fractures. Fractures from outcrops have the same diagenetic attributes as those observed in cores fractures relative to fold cores, hinges and limbs, 2) compare the distribution and attributes of fractures in outcrop vs. core samples, 3) estimate the timing of fracture formation relative to the evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt, and 4) estimate the degradation of fracture porosity due to postkinematic cementation. Cathodoluminescence images of cemented fractures in both outcrop and core samples reveal several generations of quartz and ankerite cement that is synkinematic and postkinematic relative to fracture opening. Crack-seal textures in synkinematic quartz are ubiquitous, and well-developed cement bridges abundant. Fracture porosity may be preserved in fractures wider than ~100 microns. 1-D scanlines in outcrop and core samples indicate fractures are most abundant within small parasitic folds within larger, tight, mesoscopic folds. Fracture intensity is lower away from parasitic folds; intensity progressively decreases from the faulted cores of mesoscopic folds to their forelimbs, with lowest intensities within

  19. Rim Structure, Stratigraphy, and Aqueous Alteration Exposures Along Opportunity Rover's Traverse of the Noachian Endeavour Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Golombek, M.; Grant, J. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has traversed 10.2 kilometers along segments of the west rim of the 22-kilometer-diameter Noachian Endeavour impact crater as of sol 4608 (01/09/17). The stratigraphy, attitude of units, lithology, and degradation state of bedrock outcrops exposed on the crater rim have been examined in situ and placed in geologic context. Structures within the rim and differences in physical properties of the identified lithologies have played important roles in localizing outcrops bearing evidence of aqueous alteration.

  20. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1976--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Progress has been made in two sub-projects related to the radioisotope measurement of nutrient flow in soil arthropod food chains and the influence of soil arthropods as regulators of decomposition in ecological systems. Radioisotopes were utilized to evaluate models describing nutrient accumulation by arthropods. Radionuclide turnover rates and nutrient contents of microarthropods are being measured. A field experiment in granitic outcrop areas is nearing completion. This work will describe nutrient input-output budgets for island ecosystems which occur on outcrops. Experimental perturbations are being used to evaluate importance of ecosystem components in system maintenance

  1. Hunton Group core workshop and field trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.S. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    The Late Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group is a moderately thick sequence of shallow-marine carbonates deposited on the south edge of the North American craton. This rock unit is a major target for petroleum exploration and reservoir development in the southern Midcontinent. The workshop described here was held to display cores, outcrop samples, and other reservoir-characterization studies of the Hunton Group and equivalent strata throughout the region. A field trip was organized to complement the workshop by allowing examination of excellent outcrops of the Hunton Group of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  2. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Convolute laminations — a theoretical analysis: example of a Pennsylvanian sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Glenn S.; Cunningham, Russ D.

    1981-03-01

    Data from an outcropping laminated interval were collected and analyzed to test the applicability of a theoretical model describing instability of layered systems. Rayleigh—Taylor wave perturbations result at the interface between fluids of contrasting density, viscosity, and thickness. In the special case where reverse density and viscosity interlaminations are developed, the deformation response produces a single wave with predictable amplitudes, wavelengths, and amplification rates. Physical measurements from both the outcropping section and modern sediments suggest the usefulness of the model for the interpretation of convolute laminations. Internal characteristics of the stratigraphic interval, and the developmental sequence of convoluted beds, are used to document the developmental history of these structures.

  4. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending further fieldwork. The deposits are Middle Jurassic, Callovian, in age and were deposited in a floodplain...... environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  5. PRODUCTIVE IMPACT OF THE GREEN FORAGE SUPPLY USAGE AT THE DAIRY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the importance of the crop structure as a tool to maximize efficiency in the conceiving of the green forage supply scheme in a dairy farm. Several apects are necessary to consider for proper green forage utilization by the cattle, as follows: climatic conditions, proper field operations for each crop, optimal harvest date, and farm technical and economical resources. With a high degree of succulence, green forage and derived products (silage, haylage, present addvantages as compared to hay, having superior indices of nutritive value and palatability. A green forage supply scheme was applied on an area of 188 ha taking into account dairy cattle biological traits. Crop structure was as follows: forage maize, Sudan grass, Italian ryegrass, new lucern and old lucerne, and orchardgrass. Insuring the required superior green forage for the dairy cattle according to forage rations, represents one of the main techniques to maximize milk production and to minimize milk production cost.

  6. Plant life forms in thermal regulation and self purification of urban housing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S H [Osmania Univ., Ecology and Environmental Studies Div., Hyderabad (India)

    1995-12-01

    This article is concerned with the air quality of the closed indoor environment with respect to its temperature and carbon dioxide levels and with the assessment of management practices that have been used to reduce temperature and carbon dioxide levels with the help of certain plants. Phanerophytic lifeforms, such as trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers surrounding dwellings can be shown to produce a cooling effect, reducing temperatures by up to 11{sup o}C. Certain succulent plants like Kalanchoe marmorata, Bryophyllum pinnata and Apicra deltoideae were observed under experimental conditions to reduce carbon dioxide levels up to 90% from closed chambers under dark conditions. Certain ornamental plants such as Verbena bipinnatifida and Ixora coccinea could remove 63-75% of carbon dioxide from closed indoor environments in the presence of light. (author) 3 tabs., 11 refs.

  7. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Upodika- Basella alba L.: An Important Ayurvedic Antidiabetic Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Shantha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. Results: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem. Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf. Quantitative microscopy along with physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis were also established. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic standards could serve as the reference for the proper identification of the Basella alba L. which is an important anti-diabetic plant described in Ayurveda.

  8. Aloe vera is non-toxic to cells: A microculture tetrazolium technique colorimetric assay study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gopakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera (Av, a succulent of Liliaceae family is now a widely used medicinal plant. Its′ application covers a wide spectrum of human diseases, including oral mucosa, gastric mucosa and skin. Aloe vera preparations in the form of gel, mouth washes and cream are applied topically for many oral diseases. The applications include oral lichen planus, candidiasis, oral submucous fibrosis, geographic tongue, etc. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Av on human fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Aloe vera preparation (70% was applied on the fibroblast cell lineage and the cell viability was evaluated by microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT colorimetric assay. Results: The cell viability at different concentrations was measured. The cells have maintained their viability at different concentrations used in the study. Conclusion: Our study shows the cell viability at different sample concentrations of Av. This could open up wide clinical applications of Av for reactive, inflammatory and potentially malignant oral and other mucocutaneous diseases.

  9. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Hitzel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available « À ma connaissance, il n'est pas de compagnon plus fidèle à ses engagements, plus prompt à honorer les faveurs reçues, plus empressé à offrir ses services, et ce à moindre frais, que le livre. Je ne connais aucun arbre qui ait un fruit plus succulent, plus précoce, plus aisé à cueillir, plus disponible à tout moment, comme le livre. Je ne sais pas de produit qui, malgré son jeune âge et la proximité de sa naissance, la facilité avec laquelle on peut se le procurer, la modicité de son prix, a...

  10. Viability of seeds of two representatives from Apocynaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Aviekin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The viability of some Apocynaceae seeds depending on the duration of storage under conditions of low temperature was studied. Extracted embryos from the seeds of Pachypodium lamerei Drake and Adenium obesum (Forssk. Roem. et Schult with different storage history were analyzed. Embryos were stained by acidic fuchsine what allows identification of viable and destructed cells. Destructed cells were stained much more intensively, while viable cells remained unstained. Observed results showed dependence of viability of P. lamerei and A. obesum seeds from term of storage. It was obtained that the seeds of investigated succulent species, just like in many other tropical plants, rapidly lost their viability and should be described as microbiotic.

  11. Chemotaxonomic studies of mesembrine-type alkaloids in Sceletium plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Patnala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary medicines containing the succulent herb Sceletium are being sold without information regarding their phytochemical contents, which is essential for the quality control of medicines. Furthermore, several different Sceletium species exist and little has been reported on the alkaloidal identities and contents of the various species. We therefore conducted phytochemical investigations on six selected Sceletium specimens, identified on the basis of their venation pattern as either ‘emarcidum’ or ‘tortuosum’ type. The tortuosum type consisted of S. tortuosum, S. expansum and S. strictum, whereas the emarcidum type consisted of S. emarcidum, S. exalatum and S. rigidum. Analysis was conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV and alkaloids were identified by online mass spectroscopy.

  12. Lodgepole Pine Cambium (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats.): a springtime first peoples' food in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbone, Megan; Turner, Nancy J; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) is a tree species utilized for succulent edible cambium and secondary phloem in the spring by Interior First Peoples of the Pacific Northwest. In this article we present a nutritional analysis of this food based on a pooled sample of 17 trees harvested in the Chilcotin region of British Columbia. We also present enzymatic sugar analysis of raw, dried, and cooked lodgepole pine cambium harvested from the Chilcotin and Okanagan regions in British Columbia. In the discussion we interpret the nutrient values of raw lodgepole pine cambium in comparison to dried and cooked cambium, results from other nutritional studies of pine cambium, and nutrients in some other traditional and nontraditional foods.

  13. Biology, Flowering and Fruiting of the Cactus Opuntia spp.: A Review and Some Observations on Three Varieties in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Arba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cactus is a succulent plant resistant to droughts. According to the recently reviewed classification, cacti belong to the family of Opuntiaceae Desv. (synon. Cactaceae Juss. with Opuntia Mill. as the typical genus. This genus is economically the most important in the family, as it includes a group of cactus pear plants which play an important role in the agricultural systems of arid and semi-arid regions. Flowering of the cactus pear fruit is an important determinant of the fruit harvesting period. The goal of this paper is to present the physiology of the cactus pear and to explain in detail the biology of its flowering and fruiting processes. This study is also enriched by our observations on the flowering and fruiting of three varieties of cactus pear that we followed for two successive years in southern Morocco.

  14. Composición florística de las plantas suculentas del Parque Histórico Guayaquil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina-Moreira, Martha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The floristic composition of the succulent plants collection of the Guayaquil Historical Park was determined, through an exploratory and descriptive study. Also, an inventory, dasometric measurements, density and relative coverage estimations were made, a catalog was elaborated and guidelines were proposed to resume the initial idea of recreating a coastal ecosystem. Thirthy four species, 24 genders, 12 families and nine orders were identified. The absolute density was 401 individuals, with 24% of the population dominated by the Cactaceae family, and Armatocereus cartwrightianus as the most abundant species, with 32.7% in relative coverage. Twenty five plants of ornamental value were identified, 12 medicinal plants, seven edible species, one endemic specie of Ecuador with Endangered (EN category (Jatropha nudicaulis, eight species of the Cactaceae family with controlled trade, and eight harmful or irritating plants. Not all identified species were part of the coastal ecosystem, so it was proposed to relocated them, responding to their botanical characteristics.

  15. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.V.; Karadge, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C 4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C 4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  16. Portulaca oleracea L.: a review of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Diverse compounds have been isolated from Portulaca oleracea, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, terpenoids, sterols, proteins vitamins and minerals. Portulaca oleracea possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities. However, few molecular mechanisms of action are known. This review provides a summary of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of this plant.

  17. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekh Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  18. Contribution of MR to depicting of cranio-cervical junction of patients with chronic poly-arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trattnig, S.; Dobrocky, I.

    1995-01-01

    Involvement of the cranio-cervical junction is a dangerous and not a rare complication in chronic poly-arthritis. Atlantoaxial subluxation is a common presentation and this can be assessed by plain X-ray of the cervical spine. MR enables to depict the atlantoaxial subluxation as well as compressive myelopathy and its cause. By comparing the signal intensity before and after contrast medium injection we are able to differentiate acute succulent and chronic pannus, effusion and bone. Patients with unstable atlantoaxial subluxation and patients with progressive myelopathy are candidates for surgery. Posterior element fusion C0-C2 is a method of choice, and the wires in this area do not cause a significant problem in assessing the volume reduction of the periodontoid pannus. MR is also useful method for monitoring the local finding in the cranio-cervical junction during conservative treatment. (authors)

  19. Pre- and postmine diversity revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, R.W.; Wade, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline vegetation inventories from the premine condition contain information that can be used to develop seed mixes and to subsequently set reclamation standards. Such inventories are usually developed as premine floristic surveys and later as inventories conducted prior to mine expansion. Two species lists were compiled from the premine baseline and postmine inventories of the reclaimed acreages at eight surface coal mines in New Mexico. Plant species listed from premine inventories, seed mixes, and postmine inventories were categorized by life form, (tree, shrub, semi-shrub, grass, forb, succulent). These tabulations were then compared and examined for differences and commonalities. Sorensen's and Jaccard's indices (Magurran 1988) were also calculated from the premine inventories, seed mixes and postmine (reclamation) lists. The results of these comparisons suggest that premine species richness, species area relationships, richness and composition of seed mixes and subsequent reclamation practices influence postmine species richness

  20. Slippery when sticky: Lubricating properties of thin films of Taxus baccata aril mucilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels; Sankaranarayanan, Rishikesan; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2016-01-01

    Mucilage is hydrogel produced from succulent plants and microorganisms displaying unique adhesiveness and slipperiness simultaneously. The objective of this study is to establish an understanding on the lubricating mechanisms of the mucilage from Taxus baccata aril as thin, viscous lubricant films....... Oscillation and flow rheological studies revealed that T. baccata mucilage is shear-thinning, thixotropic, and weak hydrogel that is highly stretchable under shear stress due to its high density physical crosslinking characteristics. In addition, T. baccata mucilage showed a distinct Weissenberg effect, i...... effectively manifested at soft, hydrophilic, and rolling tribological contacts. Based on tenacious spreading on highly wettingsurfaces, slip plane can be formed within mucilage hydrogel network even when the lubricating films cannot completely separate the opposing surfaces. Moreover, highly stretchable...

  1. Visual culture: Threshold of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Goyes Narváez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the image as the basis of visual culture and its most important characteristics in the social context and the field of knowledge that make up his studies and practices. Culture as battlefield and structuring of production processes, distribution and reception and its relationship with the media or broadcast, the concept of culture that manages education, art, ways of social behavior as a handbook, and especially as refinement, as if it only depended on the economics and hide the confrontation with diverse and succulent meals of social and cultural reality. The visual and the order of the gaze. The gaze that submits the eye to an invasion of culturally agreed meanings or in process of transformation, from production, circulation, reception and media consumption of the image and the implications in the educational process.

  2. Features of morpho-anatomic structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Berezkina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study results of biological features and morpho-anatomical structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC. are given. S. antiquum is Eastern Carpathian-Opillia rare endemic species. It is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine and in the European Red List of Animals and Plants and is endangered in world scale. As a result of study of morpho-anatomic structure of leaves and stems of S. antiquum the anisocytic type of stomata and presence of cuticle have been determined. It was ascertained that structure of leaves is adapted to the accumulation of significant water reserves and its further gradual use. Ecological and phytocenotic conditions of growth are studied too. S. antiquum has been determined here as petrophyte, calcephyl, and succulent ephemer. This rare species need protection and control of population state in all natural habitats.

  3. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  4. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2017-02-14

    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  5. Water Conservation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Dark Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, G G; Chaturvedi, S N

    1975-03-01

    The succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poel. var Tom Thumb was treated on long and short photoperiods for 6 weeks during which short day plants developed thicker leaves, flowered prolifically, and exhibited extensive net dark fixation of carbon dioxide. In contrast, long day plants remained vegetative and did not develop thicker leaves or exhibit net carbon dioxide dark fixation. When examined after the photoperiodic state described, long day plants showed approximately three times more water loss over a 10-day period than short day plants. Water loss is similar during light and dark periods for short day plants but long day plants exhibited two times more water loss during the day than at night. The latter plants also lost three and one-half times more water during the light period than short day plants. The water conservation by short day plants is correlated with conditions of high carbon dioxide dark fixation and effects of its related Crassulacean acid metabolism on stomatal behavior.

  6. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

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    R.G.T. Paley

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact that elephants represent 78 of the herbivore biomass in the park, it appears likely that elephant feeding restricts the availability of forage for other browsers. Due to the limited time frame of this study, further research is needed to provide a comprehensive record of the elephant diet for all seasons of the year.

  7. A system dynamics model integrating physiology and biochemical regulation predicts extent of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard

    2013-12-01

    A system dynamics (SD) approach was taken to model crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression from measured biochemical and physiological constants. SD emphasizes state-dependent feedback interaction to describe the emergent properties of a complex system. These mechanisms maintain biological systems with homeostatic limits on a temporal basis. Previous empirical studies on CAM have correlated biological constants (e.g. enzyme kinetic parameters) with expression over the CAM diel cycle. The SD model integrates these constants within the architecture of the CAM 'system'. This allowed quantitative causal connections to be established between biological inputs and the four distinct phases of CAM delineated by gas exchange and malic acid accumulation traits. Regulation at flow junctions (e.g. stomatal and mesophyll conductance, and malic acid transport across the tonoplast) that are subject to feedback control (e.g. stomatal aperture, malic acid inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and enzyme kinetics) was simulated. Simulated expression for the leaf-succulent Kalanchoë daigremontiana and more succulent tissues of Agave tequilana showed strong correlation with measured gas exchange and malic acid accumulation (R(2)  = 0.912 and 0.937, respectively, for K. daigremontiana and R(2)  = 0.928 and 0.942, respectively, for A. tequilana). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantitatively identify determinants of diel CO2 uptake. The transition in CAM expression from low to high volume/area tissues (elimination of phase II-IV carbon-uptake signatures) was achieved largely by the manipulation three input parameters. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Phenotypic selection on leaf water use efficiency and related ecophysiological traits for natural populations of desert sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Lisa A; Dudley, Susan A; Rosenthal, David M; Ludwig, Fulco

    2007-05-01

    Plant water-use efficiency (WUE) is expected to affect plant fitness and thus be under natural selection in arid habitats. Although many natural population studies have assessed plant WUE, only a few related WUE to fitness. The further determination of whether selection on WUE is direct or indirect through functionally related traits has yielded no consistent results. For natural populations of two desert annual sunflowers, Helianthus anomalus and H. deserticola, we used phenotypic selection analysis with vegetative biomass as the proxy for fitness to test (1) whether there was direct and indirect selection on WUE (carbon isotope ratio) and related traits (leaf N, area, succulence) and (2) whether direct selection was consistent with hypothesized drought/dehydration escape and avoidance strategies. There was direct selection for lower WUE in mesic and dry H. anomalus populations, consistent with dehydration escape, even though it is the longer lived of the two species. For mesic H. anomalus, direct selection favored lower WUE and higher N, suggesting that plants may be "wasting water" to increase N delivery via the transpiration stream. For the shorter lived H. deserticola in the direr habitat, there was indirect selection for lower WUE, inconsistent with drought escape. There was also direct selection for higher leaf N, succulence and leaf size. There was no direct selection for higher WUE consistent with dehydration avoidance in either species. Thus, in these natural populations of two desert dune species higher fitness was associated with some combination direct and indirect selection for lower WUE, higher leaf N and larger leaf size. Our understanding of the adaptive value of plant ecophysiological traits will benefit from further consideration of related traits such as leaf nitrogen and more tests in natural populations.

  9. The Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compounds Accumulation in Leaves of Various Kinds of Kalanchoe

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    N. N. SAZHINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of actual problems of modern pharmacology is creation of new medicines on the basis of vegetable raw materials. In this plan some succulents present a great interest in particular some kinds of the genus Kalanchoe, such as Kalanchoe pinnata (K.pinnata and Kalanchoe Daigremontiana (K.daigremontiana. Their leaves contain useful mineral salts, organic acids and the numerous phenolic compounds (PC. Education and accumulation of these PC depends on genetic features of a plant and numerous factors of environment. Besides, these representatives of a secondary metabolism cause biological, including antioxidant activity (AOA of this or that species of a plant, that is ability its component to inhibit oxidizing free radical processes. Use of modern methods of antioxidant properties research for plant extracts or juice of this or that plant allow to study and reveal their medicinal value at higher level.In the present work the comparative analysis of measurement results of the total phenols content and their activity in leave juice of various kinds of Kalanchoe (Kalanchoe L. is carried out by ammetric and chemiluminescence methods for the purpose of identification among them the most active producers of phenol metabolites. Objects of research were juice samples of 34 kinds of the genus Kalanchoe, grown up in a succulent collection in Timiryazev Institute of plant physiology RAS (Moscow, Russia. Among the studied samples two most active from the point of view of their antioxidant properties Kalanchoe kinds: K.scapigera and K.rhombopilosa are revealed. Both methods show considerably higher values of the phenol metabolite content in leave juice of these plants and their AOA in comparison with K.pinnata and K.daigremontiana. For possible expansion for use of specified types of Kalanchoe as sources of biologically active compounds, additional researches of biochemical structure, antibacterial, antimicrobic and other properties of these plant components is

  10. Vegetation geographical patterns as a key to the past, with emphasis on the dry vegetation types of South Africa

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    M. J. A. Werger

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is characterized by a highly diversified vegetational cover with extremes as contrasting as desert, tropical forest, alpine grassland, or mediterranean type scrub, and many other types in between. This vegetational pattern is strongly correlated to the climatological pattern. It is therefore likely that past changes in climate can still be partly traced in the vegetational pattern, particularly in geographical anomalies, and that study of these patterns provides complementary evidence to palynological research. The following anomalies in the vegetational pattern are briefly discussed: 1. island-wise occurrence of Afro-montane vegetation on mesic, sheltered sites in the southern Sudano- Zambezian Region, in particular in the Highveld grassland/False Karoo transition area; 2. similar westward occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian scrub patches in the Karoo-Namib Region near the Orange/Vaal confluence; 3. scattered occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian woody species in a matrix of Karoo-Namib vegetation in the marginal Karoo-Namib Region; 4. island-wise occurrence of frost-tolerant, dry, karroid dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly C,-plants on isolated peaks in the winter rainfall area of Namaqualand; 5. peculiar patchy distribution of some succulents in wide areas of climatically rather homogeneous, succulent dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly CAM-plants in the escarpment area of Namaqualand. a pattern reminiscent of that in many Cape fynbos species. Interpretation of these patterns logically leads to the conclusion that these result from a previously wetter, a previously cooler, or a previously wetter and cooler climate, respectively, over the parts of southern Africa under discussion. This conclusion is compared with published palynological views.

  11. NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS

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    LAVINIA MOISE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

  12. Using the Species-Area Relationship to Set Baseline Targets for Conservation

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    Philip Desmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how the power form of the Species-Area Relationship (SAR can be used to set conservation targets for land classes using biodiversity survey data. The log-transformation of the power model is a straight line; therefore, if one knows the average number of species recorded per survey site and can estimate the true species number present in the land class, using EstimateS software, it is possible to calculate the slope of the curve, or z-value. The z-value is the exponent in the power model and it can then be used to estimate the proportion of area required to represent a given proportion of species present in any land class. This application of the SAR is explored using phytosociological relevé data from South Africa's Succulent Karoo biome. We also provide suggestions for extrapolating the estimated z-values to other land classes within a bioregion that lack sufficient survey data, using the relationship between z-values and remotely determined landscape variables such as habitat diversity (topographic diversity and geographic location (latitude and longitude. The SAR predicts that for most Succulent Karoo vegetation types a conservation target of 10% of the land area would not be sufficient to conserve the majority of species. We also demonstrate that not all land classes are equal from a plant biodiversity perspective, so applying one target to all land classes in a region will lead to significant gaps and inefficiencies in any reserve network based on this universal target.

  13. Plague cycles in two rodent species from China: Dry years might provide context for epizootics in wet years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Plague, a rodent-associated, flea-borne zoonosis, is one of the most notorious diseases in history. Rates of plague transmission can increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas commonly desiccate and die when reared under dry conditions in laboratories, suggesting fleas will be suppressed during droughts in the wild, thus reducing the rate at which plague spreads among hosts. In contrast, fleas might increase in abundance when precipitation is plentiful, producing epizootic outbreaks during wet years. We tested these hypotheses using a 27-yr data set from two rodents in Inner Mongolia, China: Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). For both species of rodents, fleas were most abundant during years preceded by dry growing seasons. For gerbils, the prevalence of plague increased during wet years preceded by dry growing seasons. If precipitation is scarce during the primary growing season, succulent plants decline in abundance and, consequently, herbivorous rodents can suffer declines in body condition. Fleas produce more offspring and better survive when parasitizing food-limited hosts, because starving animals tend to exhibit inefficient behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. Further, rodent burrows might buffer fleas from xeric conditions aboveground during dry years. After a dry year, fleas might be abundant due to the preceding drought, and if precipitation and succulent plants become more plentiful, rodents could increase in density, thereby creating connectivity that facilitates the spread of plague. Moreover, in wet years, mild temperatures might increase the efficiency at which fleas transmit the plague bacterium, while also helping fleas to survive as they quest among hosts. In this way, dry years could provide context for epizootics of plague in wet years.

  14. Seasonal photosynthetic gas exchange and water-use efficiency in a constitutive CAM plant, the giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Dustin R; English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Williams, David G

    2011-11-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and the capacity to store large quantities of water are thought to confer high water use efficiency (WUE) and survival of succulent plants in warm desert environments. Yet the highly variable precipitation, temperature and humidity conditions in these environments likely have unique impacts on underlying processes regulating photosynthetic gas exchange and WUE, limiting our ability to predict growth and survival responses of desert CAM plants to climate change. We monitored net CO(2) assimilation (A(net)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and transpiration (E) rates periodically over 2 years in a natural population of the giant columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro) near Tucson, Arizona USA to investigate environmental and physiological controls over carbon gain and water loss in this ecologically important plant. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in daily integrated water use efficiency (WUE(day)) in this constitutive CAM species would be driven largely by stomatal regulation of nighttime transpiration and CO(2) uptake responding to shifts in nighttime air temperature and humidity. The lowest WUE(day) occurred during time periods with extreme high and low air vapor pressure deficit (D(a)). The diurnal with the highest D(a) had low WUE(day) due to minimal net carbon gain across the 24 h period. Low WUE(day) was also observed under conditions of low D(a); however, it was due to significant transpiration losses. Gas exchange measurements on potted saguaro plants exposed to experimental changes in D(a) confirmed the relationship between D(a) and g(s). Our results suggest that climatic changes involving shifts in air temperature and humidity will have large impacts on the water and carbon economy of the giant saguaro and potentially other succulent CAM plants of warm desert environments.

  15. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  16. Behaviour of tritium in the plant domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Iyengar, T.S.; Soman, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to review in three different ways the present status regarding the uptake, retention and release patterns of plants of different trophic levels exposed to a tritiated atmosphere. The mean residence time for the first major component is found to be within 1-12 days for all the terrestrial vegetations. The second and the third components form only a small fraction of the total tritium uptake and show significantly different mean residence times. The aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticellata, also shows very small residence time for the first component (0.4 h). An isotopic discrimination of about 30-40% against the incorporation of tissue-bound tritium (TBT) is found in some algal and aquatic species, and this is enhanced to as high as 90-99% for the terrestrial vegetations. When conditions of constant specific activity are maintained, even for the terrestrial vegetations high specific activity ratios are obtained in the few cases cited. The nucleic acid fraction has shown relative specific activity ratios of 0.37 and 1.0 for pea seedlings and algae respectively. In maize, though carbohydrate is a major fraction fat has shown maximum fixation of TBT. Mathematical resolution procedures to determine the mean residence times for TFWT/TBT fractions either from separated or composite sample fractions have been reviewed. TFWT time-activity profiles are built up for succulent plants from diffusion, xylem flow and the utilization of TFWT in the synthesis of TBT. A good agreement between the calculated and experimental values is obtained using molecular diffusion coefficients for succulent plants. The applicability of this concept for larger trees is discussed

  17. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Macivor, J Scott; Macdougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-03-12

    Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green

  18. Extreme precipitation variability, forage quality and large herbivore diet selection in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, James W.; Gedir, Jay V.; Marshal, Jason P.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Jansen, Brian; Morgart, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional ecology forms the interface between environmental variability and large herbivore behaviour, life history characteristics, and population dynamics. Forage conditions in arid and semi-arid regions are driven by unpredictable spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall. Diet selection by herbivores should be directed towards overcoming the most pressing nutritional limitation (i.e. energy, protein [nitrogen, N], moisture) within the constraints imposed by temporal and spatial variability in forage conditions. We investigated the influence of precipitation-induced shifts in forage nutritional quality and subsequent large herbivore responses across widely varying precipitation conditions in an arid environment. Specifically, we assessed seasonal changes in diet breadth and forage selection of adult female desert bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis mexicana in relation to potential nutritional limitations in forage N, moisture and energy content (as proxied by dry matter digestibility, DMD). Succulents were consistently high in moisture but low in N and grasses were low in N and moisture until the wet period. Nitrogen and moisture content of shrubs and forbs varied among seasons and climatic periods, whereas trees had consistently high N and moderate moisture levels. Shrubs, trees and succulents composed most of the seasonal sheep diets but had little variation in DMD. Across all seasons during drought and during summer with average precipitation, forages selected by sheep were higher in N and moisture than that of available forage. Differences in DMD between sheep diets and available forage were minor. Diet breadth was lowest during drought and increased with precipitation, reflecting a reliance on few key forage species during drought. Overall, forage selection was more strongly associated with N and moisture content than energy content. Our study demonstrates that unlike north-temperate ungulates which are generally reported to be energy-limited, N and moisture

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TAMBAQUI SAUSAGE

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    Fernando Sleder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, fish are sold in retail fresh or frozen, whole, or gutted. To increase consumption, convenient products with good sensory attributes should be offered. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize, through physicochemical, microbiologica, and sensory traits, a fresh sausage of tambaqui fish (Colossoma macropomum. Three formulations, with different percentages of fat (0, 4.5, and 9% were developed. To determine shelf life, samples of the products were refrigerated at 4 ºC for 12 days and microbiological analyses were performed on days 0, 3, 7, and 12. Analyses of centesimal composition, shear force, cooking weight loss, and water-holding capacity were carried out. The shelf life of the fresh sausages was estimated at 7 days of storage. The sensory attributes evaluated were aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture, and overall appearance. All treatments showed high acceptance rates, above 80%. The treatment with 9% fat showed the highest mean values in the evaluated attributes, with 86.6%, 83.4%, 92%, 88.2%, 87.2%, and 85.8% for aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture and overall appearance, respectively. The centesimal composition of the treatments showed the following variations in g.100 g-1: moisture, 72.73 to 68.82; protein, 18.85 to 18.90; lipids, 2.90 to 8.33; and ash, 3.86 to 4.20. Shear force varied from 5.92 to 8.14 N; water-holding capacity varied from 71.83 to 74.71% and cooking weight loss, from 24.21 to 26.59%.

  20. Physiological and proteomic analyses of salt stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juncheng; Meng, Yaxiong; Li, Baochun; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xianliang; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun; Wang, Di

    2015-04-01

    Very little is known about the adaptation mechanism of Chenopodiaceae Halogeton glomeratus, a succulent annual halophyte, under saline conditions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological adaptation mechanisms of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of NaCl treatment for 21 d. Our results revealed that H. glomeratus has a robust ability to tolerate salt; its optimal growth occurs under approximately 100 mm NaCl conditions. Salt crystals were deposited in water-storage tissue under saline conditions. We speculate that osmotic adjustment may be the primary mechanism of salt tolerance in H. glomeratus, which transports toxic ions such as sodium into specific salt-storage cells and compartmentalizes them in large vacuoles to maintain the water content of tissues and the succulence of the leaves. To investigate the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in H. glomeratus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves that had been exposed to 200 mm NaCl for 24 h, 72 h and 7 d. Forty-nine protein spots, exhibiting significant changes in abundance after stress, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and similarity searches across EST database of H. glomeratus. These stress-responsive proteins were categorized into nine functional groups, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and stress and defence response. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (−0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2⋅− in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and O2⋅− generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological features and drought

  2. Évaluation des apports nutritionnels et énergétiques des fourrages verts dans l’alimentation des aulacodes (Thryonomys swinderianus en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Kouadio ETTIAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the physicochemical and energetic quantity of succulent and sweet taste forage grasses, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae incorporated in the feed of grasscutters growing (GG, fattening (FG and maintenance (MG. This study is set to determine the chemical and energetic composition of three levels of green fodder (50, 75 and 85% incorporated into the diets of grasscutters and compare it to nutrient intake and energy consumption of feed resources used normally in the ration by farmers. The three experimental diets were: 75% fodder and 25% of food complement (diet T25; 50% of fodder and 50% of food complement (diet T50; 85% of fodder and 15% of food complement (diet T15. The results showed that the green fodder used contains important sources of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and minerals. Dry matter content of Panicum maximum (13.4 to 22.9% and Pennisetum purpureum (10.9 to 18.6% provide energy needs as calories needed of grasscutters. Food ingredients consisting of minerals and organic matter provide the energy potential in the form of calories for maintenance and production feed needs of grasscutters. A positive and highly significant effect (p<0.01 of the T15 was observed. These results suggest that the nutritional and energy values consumed can be used for grasscutters growing (GG, fattening (GF and maintenance (GM.The intake of energy and functional foods into a controlled diet stimulates the appetite of farmed animals. Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum grasses that were used as a substitute for the main staple feed, and which are highly sought after in the natural environment by grasscutters, are recommended for grasscutter raising. Green forages with succulent sweet-tasting stems, incorporated into food rations as 15% of food supplements, are more stable and perform better in food rations for grasscutters. Active nutrients are balanced, varied, moderate and necessary for the proper

  3. Analysis of obsidian from moho cay, belize: new evidence on classic maya trade routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, P F; McKillop, H I; Walsh, B

    1984-07-27

    Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from Moho Cay, Belize, reveals that the obsidian derives primarily from the El Chayal outcrop in highland Guatemala and not from the Ixtepeque source. This is contrary to the widely accepted obsidian trade route model for Classic Maya civilization and suggests that Classic Maya obsidian trade was a more complex economic phenomenon than has been recognized.

  4. The Sidi Mohamed peridotites (Edough Massif, NE Algeria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We suggest that the Sidi Mohamed ultramafic body was derived directly from the upper mantle and tectonically ... The aim of this paper is to determine the nature of the peridotite .... REE were enriched using the method described by. Zuleger .... Table 1. Chemical composition of the peridotites from Sidi Mohamed outcrop.

  5. HiRISE Characterization of Thermophysical Units at Acidalia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mellon, M. T.; Rafkin, S. C. R.; Zurek, R. W.; McEwen, A. S.; Putzig, N. E.; Searls, M. L.; HiRISE Team

    2008-03-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to characterize with HiRISE data the global thermophysical units in Mars, we report results regarding a region of Acidalia Planitia, which includes the largest outcrop of thermophysical unit F (rocks, bedrock, duricrust) on the planet.

  6. Correlations Between Olivine Abundance and Thermal Inertia: Implications for Global Weathering and/or Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, V. E.; McDowell, M. L.; Koeppen, W. C.

    2010-03-01

    TES data show no global trend between thermal inertia and olivine abundance. But it is premature to conclude that all dark surfaces were once more mafic OR that olivine is not preferentially removed from olivine-enriched outcrops as they erode.

  7. Shale oil potential and thermal maturity of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, J.; Littke, R.; Weniger, P.; Ostertag-Henning, C.; Nelskamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of drilling cores and outcrop samples of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale (PS) were collected from multiple locations including the Swabian Alb and Franconian Alb of Southwest-Germany, Runswick Bay of UK and Loon op Zand well (LOZ-1) of the West Netherlands Basin. In order to assess the

  8. Compositional variations of chromiferous spinel in Mg-rich rocks of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions typical of spinels found in mid-ocean ridge basalts. ... composition of the source region of the magmas ... The Deccan Traps, one of the largest continen- tal LIPs ... outcrops in the Seychelles Islands (Mahoney 1988; ...... Beane J E 1994 A role for lower continental crust in flood ... magmatic evolution; J. Asian Earth Sci.

  9. A depositional model for spherulitic carbonates associated with alkaline, volcanic lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Brasier, Alexander T.; Rogerson, Mike; Reijmer, John J.G.; Vonhof, Hubert; Pedley, Martyn

    2017-01-01

    The South Atlantic Aptian ‘Pre-salt’ reservoirs are formed by a combination of spherulitic carbonates and Mg-rich clays accumulated in volcanic alkaline lake settings with exotic chemistries. So far, outcrop analogues characterised by metre-thick successions deposited in lacustrine scenarios are

  10. Facies and diagenesis of the Devonian Portilla limestone formation between the river Esla and the Embalse de la Luna, Cantabrian Mountains, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, T.J.A.

    1972-01-01

    In the central part of the Cantabrian Mountains, between the artificial lake in the rivei Luna in the west and the river Esla in the east, outcrops of the Portilla Limestone Formation were investigated. A fairly uniform development could be observed in four structurally different areas. Six

  11. Toxicity of Water Samples Collected in the Vicinity of F and H Seepage Basin 1990-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bowers, B.

    1996-09-01

    Water and contaminants from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins outcrop as shallow groundwater seeps down gradient from the basins. In 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1995, toxicity tests were performed on water collected from a number of these seeps, as well as from several locations in Fourmile Branch and several uncontaminated reference locations.

  12. Depositional framework and stratigraphy of the Konshisha area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the stratigraphic succession and depositional environment in areas around Konshisha, southern Benue Trough. The area is underlain by the Ezeaku Formation and Konshisha River Group. Integrated outcrop, textural and petrographic analysis aided inference of the depositional framework of ...

  13. Morphodynamics of supercritical high-density turbidity currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Seafloor and outcrop observations combined with numerical and physical experiments show that turbidity currents are likely 1) to be in a supercritical flow state and 2) to carry high sediment concentrations (being of high-density). The thesis starts with an experimental study of bedforms

  14. Submarine fans and associated deposits in the Lower Tertiary of Guipuzcoa (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.

    1982-01-01

    The Lower Tertiary outcrop along the coast of Guipuzcoa, northern Spain, consists exclusively of deep-marine sediments, deposited in a narrow elongated (ESE-WNW) basin. The early Tertiary sedimentary history of this basin can be described in terms of three main phases:

    - a phase of

  15. The vertical turbulence structure of experimental turbidity currents encountering basal obstructions: Implications for vertical suspended sediment distribution in non-equilibrium currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenhuisen, J.T.; McCaffrey, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    Large roughness features, caused by erosion of the sea floor, are commonly observed on the modern sea floor and beneath turbidite sandstone beds in outcrop. This paper aims to investigate the effect of such roughness elements on the turbulent velocity field and its consequences for the sediment

  16. Fluvial to tidal transition zone facies in the McMurray Formation (Christina River, Alberta, Canada), with emphasis on the reflection of flow intensity in bottomset architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinius, A. W.; Jablonski, B. V J; Fustic, M.; Strobl, R.; Van den Berg, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    An outcrop of the McMurray Formation along the Christina River (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated to better understand depositional processes and setting. The succession is formed by large-scale tabular sets of unidirectional trough cross-stratification. Many of these sets are characterized by

  17. Map showing thermal-alteration indicies in roadless areas and the Santa Lucia Wilderness in the Los Padres National Forest, Southwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1985-01-01

    This map shows thermal-alteration indices (TAI's), based on colors of pollen grains, of 115 outcrop and 20 conventional core samples from Mesozoic and lower Tertiary rocks in the southern Coast and western Transverse Ranges, Southwestern California. The TAI's have been calibrated against previously determined vitrinite reflectance values from some of the same sample localities.

  18. Pouzolzia saxophila sp. nov. (Urticaceae tribe Boehmerieae) from Bahia, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib; Monro, Alex K.

    2015-01-01

    of xerophytic scrub vegetation on rocky outcrops in the Boa Nova National Park, Bahia, Brazil. The new species is somewhat similar to P. pringlei, a Mexican endemic, and to P. amambaiensis from the Brazil–Paraguay border, but also to the widespread Asiatic P. zeylanica. However, the similarities...

  19. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  20. Assessment of Regional Explosion Discriminants Using Data Sets of Unparalleled Spatial Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Chief, Battlespace Environment Division This report is published in the interest of scientific and...648-653, 2001. [18] Blackstone , D.L., “Precambrian basement map of Wyoming: Outcrop and structural configuration,” in: Schmidt, C.J., Chase, R