Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...
Erbeli, Florina; Hart, Sara A; Taylor, Jeanette
A risk to develop a learning disability has been shown to run in families. Having a positive family history of learning disability seems to account for mean differences in achievement outcomes (reading, math) in that children with a positive family history score significantly lower compared to their peers with no such family history. However, the role of family history status in explaining etiological (genetic and environmental) differences among these subgroups of children has yet to be established. The present study of 872 twins ( M age = 13.30, SD age = 1.40) from the Florida Twin Project on Reading, Behavior, and Environment utilized a multigroup approach to examine etiological differences on reading, spelling, and math among two subgroups defined by family history status. Results showed significant mean differences on all achievement outcomes, aside from math; however, no significant etiological differences on any achievement outcome were found among the two subgroups. Results support previous literature that the risk for developing a learning disability is transmitted through a family, but this is seemingly not manifested by differential etiology.
Hermans, Michel P; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F
Familial history of early-onset CHD (EOCHD) is a major risk factor for CHD. Familial diabetes history (FDH) impacts β-cell function. Some transmissible, accretional gradient of CHD risk may exist when diabetes and EOCHD familial histories combine. We investigated whether the impact of such combination is neutral, additive, or potentiating in T2DM descendants, as regards cardiometabolic phenotype, glucose homeostasis and micro-/macroangiopathies. Cross-sectional retrospective cohort study of 796 T2DM divided according to presence (Diab[+]) or absence (Diab[-]) of 1st-degree diabetes familial history and/or EOCHD (CVD(+) and (-)). Four subgroups: (i) [Diab(-)CVD(-)] (n=355); (ii) [Diab(+)CVD(-)] (n=338); (iii) [Diab(-)CVD(+)] (n=47); and (iv) [Diab(+)CVD(+)] (n=56). No interaction on subgroup distribution between presence of both familial histories, the combination of which translated into additive detrimental outcomes and higher rates of fat mass, sarcopenia, (hs)CRP and retinopathy. FDH(+) had lower insulinemia, insulin secretion, hyperbolic product, and accelerated hyperbolic product loss. An EOCHD family history affected neither insulin secretion nor sensitivity. There were significant differences regarding macroangiopathy/CAD, more prevalent in [Diab(-)CVD(+)] and [Diab(+)CVD(+)]. Among CVD(+), the highest macroangiopathy prevalence was observed in [Diab(-)CVD(+)], who had 66% macroangiopathy, and 57% CAD, rates higher (absolute-relative) by 23%-53% (overall) and 21%-58% (CAD) than [Diab(+)CVD(+)], who inherited the direst cardiometabolic familial history (p 0.0288 and 0.0310). A parental history for diabetes markedly affects residual insulin secretion and secretory loss rate in T2DM offspring without worsening insulin resistance. It paradoxically translated into lower macroangiopathy with concurrent familial EOCHD. Conjunct diabetes and CV familial histories generate multi-faceted vascular outcomes in offspring, including lesser macroangiopathy/CAD. Copyright
Harris, Eleanor E.R.; Schultz, Delray J.; Peters, Christopher A.; Solin, Lawrence J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a family history of breast or ovarian cancer and outcome after breast-conserving surgery and radiation in women presenting with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Methods and Materials: A total of 146 consecutive women with a pathologic diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ as their first diagnosis of any breast cancer were identified; 28 (19%) had a positive family history of breast or ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative, 27 (19%) had a positive family history in a second-degree relative, and 91 (62%) had no family history. Pathologic, clinical, and treatment factors, and clinical outcomes for each family history group were compared. Cosmesis and complications were recorded at each follow-up. Patients were treated between 1978 and 1995, and the median follow-up was 7.1 years. Results: Patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative each had an 8% incidence of local failure at 10 years, while the negative family history group demonstrated a 16% local failure rate (p = 0.33). Overall survival at 10 years for patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative was 100% and for those with a negative family history was 91% (p = 0.08). The negative family history group had a higher median age that may account for the difference in overall survival. Cause-specific survival (CSS) was 97%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, at 10 years (p = 0.25). There were no differences in the cosmetic results or complication rates between women with a positive or negative family history. Conclusion: We have shown that a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer is not associated with an adverse outcome for women treated with breast conservation therapy for DCIS. Local recurrence, cause-specific survival, overall survival, cosmesis, and complication rates were comparable to that of similarly treated women with
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000947.htm Creating a family health history To use the sharing ... Many health problems tend to run in families. Creating a family history can help you and your ...
Chang, Shang-Hung; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Chou, I-Jun; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Huang, Lu-Hsiang; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Yeh, Yung-Hsin
The heritability of atrial fibrillation (AF), the contribution of genetic and environmental factors, and the association of a family history of AF with prognosis are unclear. To measure genetic and environmental factors in the familial aggregation of AF and to estimate the association of a family history of AF with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). In this Taiwanese nationwide population-based study among more than 23 million people, a custom data set was obtained using the data of all patients having a diagnosis of AF recorded between January 1996 and December 2013 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study population comprised all 23 422 955 individuals registered with the database in 2013, of whom 177 770 had a diagnosis of AF and were included in the heritability estimation. From the latter, a subgroup of patients having newly diagnosed AF with a first-degree relative affected by AF between 2000 and 2010 were selected and matched 1:4 to controls without a family history for estimating MACE-free survival. The dates of analysis were January 2010 to December 2013. The prevalence and relative risk of AF in relatives of patients with AF, as well as the relative contributions of heritability and shared and nonshared environmental factors to AF susceptibility. Also measured was MACE-free survival after AF was diagnosed. In total, 1510 patients (204 [13.5%] female; mean [SD] age, 57.9 [9.2] years) had newly diagnosed AF with a first-degree relative affected by AF. Individuals with a first-degree relative affected by AF had a relative risk of 1.92 (95% CI, 1.84-1.99) for AF. The accountability for the phenotypic variance of AF was 19.9% for genetic factors (heritability), 3.5% for shared environmental factors, and 76.6% for nonshared environmental factors. After matching for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, previous stroke, and anticoagulation, incident AF patients with vs without an affected first-degree relative had
... Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of ... health campaign, called the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more ...
Chabner, E.; Nixon, A.J.; Garber, J.; Gelman, R.; Bornstein, B.; Connolly, J.; Hetelekidis, S.; Recht, A.; Schnitt, S.; Silver, B.; Harris, J.R.
PURPOSE: To determine whether outcome after conservative surgery and radiation therapy for young women is affected by having a family history (FH) suggestive of an inherited susceptibility to breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1968 and 1986, 205 patients 36 years of age or younger at diagnosis were treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for clinical stage I or II invasive breast cancer. Three patients were not evaluable for FH; the remainder constitute the study population. At the time of diagnosis, 34 patients (17%; 95% CI 12-29%) had a mother or sister who had breast cancer diagnosed before age 50 years or who had ovarian cancer (2 cases) and were recorded as having a positive FH. This definition was chosen for clinical utility and to maximize the probability of inherited breast cancer within this sub-group (average 40-50%). Without genetic testing, the possibility of misclassification exists in both groups. The median age at diagnosis of the 34 patients with a positive FH was 33 years and was the same as the median age of the 168 patients in whom the FH was negative. All but 2 patients (99%) had a potential follow-up time of at least 5 years; 173 patients (86%) had a potential follow-up time of at least 10 years. RESULTS: Distributions of tumor size, pathologic nodal involvement, histologic type, histologic grade, the presence of an extensive intraductal component or lymphatic vascular invasion, volume of tissue excised, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy did not differ significantly by FH. The distribution of the sites of first failure within the first 5 years of follow-up is shown. The overall pattern of failure was significantly different (p=0.03) between patients with a positive FH and those with a negative FH; however, there was no statistically significant difference (Fisher Exact Test) in percentage of patients with no evidence of disease or local failure. At 5 years follow-up, the development of an opposite breast cancer
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are ...
Full Text Available The text of the contribution is inspired by relationships and issues arising from communication among parents, children, grandparents and grandchildren. It ensues from such terms as generation crisis, cohesion, cultivation of common values or family topics. It deals with family history captured in a family amateur movie, which is an appropriate media of alternative school and out-of-school pupils' activities.Within its framework the pupils can become aware of their own roots and evolution of their family histories, or how their histories were influenced by „the great history”. The presentation methodology of the summary of these pupils' explorations of private family materials used in history lessons forms an inseparable part.
Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Kolodny, Edwin; Kropp, Peter; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Rothwell, Peter M; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt
Family history of stroke is an established risk factor for stroke. We evaluated whether family history of stroke predisposed to certain stroke subtypes and whether it differed by sex in young patients with stroke. We used data from the Stroke in Fabry Patients study, a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young patients (aged stroke in whom cardiovascular risk factors and family history of stroke were obtained and detailed stroke subtyping was performed. A family history of stroke was present in 1578 of 4232 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients (37.3%). Female patients more often had a history of stroke in the maternal lineage (P=0.027) than in the paternal lineage. There was no association with stroke subtype according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment nor with the presence of white matter disease on brain imaging. Patients with dissection less frequently reported a family history of stroke (30.4% versus 36.3%; P=0.018). Patients with a parental history of stroke more commonly had siblings with stroke (3.6% versus 2.6%; P=0.047). Although present in about a third of patients, a family history of stroke is not specifically related to stroke pathogenic subtypes in patients with young stroke. Young women with stroke more often report stroke in the maternal lineage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Painter, Gary; Levine, David I.
National Education Longitudinal Study data were used to examine whether parents' divorce/remarriage or existing family disadvantages caused such outcomes as teens' lower educational attainment or higher rates of parenthood. Neither divorce nor remarriage during a youth's high school years was strongly correlated with preexisting characteristics of…
Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh
Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003-2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were classified as group 1--first order single (one person in the immediate family-father, mother, siblings, or children), group 2--first order multiple (more than one member in the above group), group 3--second order single (one person in the blood relatives in family--grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc.) and group 4--second order multiple (more than one member in the above group). Of the 2,157 patients studied, 349 patients gave positive history of stone disease constituting 16.18%. Of these, 321 were males and 28 were females. Subdivision of the family members showed that 282 patients (80.80%) had single family member with stones and the rest 67 (19.20%) had multiple family members with history of stone disease. Group 1 which constituted one family member in the immediate family had 255 involvements (father: 88, mother: 16, brother: 135, sister: 2, son: 10, and daughter: 4); Group 2 with multiple members in the immediate family constituted 51 relatives; of these, father and brother combination was the most common with 35 occurrences. Group 3 with one person in the distant relatives in family namely grandparents, grand children, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. constituted 27 occurrences and Group 4 with more than one member in the distant family constituted 16 occurrences. It is concluded that single family member involvement was more than multiple involvements. Males predominated. Stone occurrence was more in the immediate family members than distant relatives. Brothers formed the most common group to be involved with stone disease. Study of stone risk in the family members should
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Özdemir, Osman; Coşkun, Salih; Aktan Mutlu, Elif; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Atli, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Ekrem; Keskin, Sıddık
In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother's or father's side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother's side and 25 patients were from the father's side in 63 cases. The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility.
Gundlund, Anna; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Kim, Sunghee
BACKGROUND: We addressed whether patients with a family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were diagnosed as having AF earlier in life, were more symptomatic, and had worse outcomes compared with those without a family history of AF. METHODS: Using the ORBIT-AF, we compared symptoms and disease...
... alcoholism, you may have wondered what your family's history of alcoholism means for you. Are problems with ... for people who do not have a family history of alcoholism? If so, what can you do ...
Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N.; Quillin, John M.
Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet, few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. Average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that, in turn, inform cancer prevention interventions. PMID:26735646
Rodríguez, Vivian M; Corona, Rosalie; Bodurtha, Joann N; Quillin, John M
Family health history about cancer is an important prevention and health promotion tool. Yet few studies have identified family context factors that promote such discussions. We explored relations among family context (cohesion, flexibility, and openness), self-efficacy, and cancer communication (gathering family history, sharing cancer risk information, and frequency) in a diverse group of women enrolled in a randomized control trial. Baseline survey data for 472 women were analyzed. The women's average age was 34 years, 59% identified as Black, 31% had graduated high school, and 75% reported a family history of any cancer. Results showed that greater family cohesion and flexibility were related to higher communication frequency and sharing cancer information. Women who reported greater self-efficacy were more likely to have gathered family history, shared cancer risk information, and communicated more frequently with relatives. Openness was not associated with communication but was related to greater family cohesion and flexibility. Adjusting for demographic variables, self-efficacy, and family cohesion significantly predicted communication frequency. Women with higher self-efficacy were also more likely to have gathered family health history about cancer and shared cancer risk information. Future research may benefit from considering family organization and self-efficacy when developing psychosocial theories that in turn inform cancer prevention interventions.
Sijmons, RH; Boonstra, AE; Reefhuis, J; Hordijk-Hos, JM; de Walle, HEK; Oosterwijk, JC; Cornel, MC
Family medical history is the cornerstone of clinical genetic diagnosis and management in cases of familial cancer. The soundness of medical decisions can be compromised if reports by the family on affected relatives are inaccurate. Although very time consuming, family medical histories are
Family history of depression significantly impacts life-long depression risk. Family history could impact the stress and emotion regulation system that involves the amygdala. This study\\'s purpose was to investigate family history\\'s effect on amygdala volumes, and differences in first degree relatives with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants, aged 18-65, were healthy volunteers (N=52) with (n=26) and without (n=26) first degree family history, and patients with MDD (N=48) with (n=27) and without (n=21)first-degree family history recruited for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants underwent clinical assessment followed by manual amygdala tracing. Patients with MDD without family history showed significantly larger right amygdala without a family history of MDD. These effects had larger right amygdala than healthy controls without MDD family history. These effects were pronounced in females. Family history and gender impacted amygdala volumes in all participants, providing a rationale for the inconsistent results in MDD amygdala studies. Higher familial risk in depression seems to be associated with smaller amygdala volumes, whereas depression alone is associated with larger amygdala volumes. Ultimately, these findings highlight consideration of family history and gender in research and treatment strategies.
Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.
Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa; Ruffin, Mack T; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Acheson, Louise S
This study examines the impact of Family Healthware™ on communication behaviors; specifically, communication with family members and health care providers about family health history. A total of 3786 participants were enrolled in the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr) in the United States from 2005-7. The trial employed a two-arm cluster-randomized design, with primary care practices serving as the unit of randomization. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), analyses focused on communication behaviors at 6month follow-up, adjusting for age, site and practice clustering. A significant interaction was observed between study arm and baseline communication status for the family communication outcomes (p'scommunicating at baseline and those who were not. Among participants who were not communicating at baseline, intervention participants had higher odds of communicating with family members about family history risk (OR=1.24, p=0.042) and actively collecting family history information at follow-up (OR=2.67, p=0.026). Family Healthware™ did not have a significant effect on family communication among those already communicating at baseline, or on provider communication, regardless of baseline communication status. Greater communication was observed among those at increased familial risk for a greater number of diseases. Family Healthware™ prompted more communication about family history with family members, among those who were not previously communicating. Efforts are needed to identify approaches to encourage greater sharing of family history information, particularly with health care providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa; Ruffin, Mack T.; O'Neill, Suzanne M.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Acheson, Louise S.
Objective This study examines the impact of Family Healthware™ on communication behaviors; specifically, communication with family members and health care providers about family health history. Methods A total of 3786 participants were enrolled in the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial (FHITr) in the United States from 2005-7. The trial employed a two-arm cluster-randomized design, with primary care practices serving as the unit of randomization. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), analyses focused on communication behaviors at 6 month follow-up, adjusting for age, site and practice clustering. Results A significant interaction was observed between study arm and baseline communication status for the family communication outcomes (psfamily members about family history risk (OR=1.24, p=0.042) and actively collecting family history information at follow-up (OR=2.67, p=0.026). Family Healthware™ did not have a significant effect on family communication among those already communicating at baseline, or on provider communication, regardless of baseline communication status. Greater communication was observed among those at increased familial risk for a greater number of diseases. Conclusion Family Healthware™ prompted more communication about family history with family members, among those who were not previously communicating. Efforts are needed to identify approaches to encourage greater sharing of family history information, particularly with health care providers. PMID:25901453
Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe; Chen, Tzu-An
This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session Family Eats web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families ( n = 126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questionnaires and were randomized into intervention or control groups. Data collection occurred at baseline, immediately postintervention (Post 1), and 4 months later (Post 2), for parents and children, separately. There were two group by time intervention effects: Control group parents reported a significantly greater frequency of drinking 100% fruit juice at Post 1 compared with intervention group parents. Parent menu planning skills were significantly higher at Post 2 for the intervention group compared with the control group. Significant positive changes overtime were noted for both groups for home fruit/vegetable availability, food preparation practices, and healthy restaurant selection. Intervention group children reported a significant increase in home juice availability at Post 1 compared with the control group; home fruit availability improved for both groups. There was no difference in log on rates by group: 84% and 86% for those who completed Post 1 and Post 2 measurements, respectively. Sixty-four participants completed the evaluation survey: 17 control (50%) and 47 intervention (51%) participants. All participants reported liking the program components; all but one gave it an A or B grade. An Internet-delivered nutrition intervention for families was successful in achieving change in some mediating variables, with good log on rates. Future research with Family Eats should include larger sample sizes, with longer follow-up and a more objective measure of diet.
Collecting family history information could save your child's life. Listen to learn more about how knowing your family history information could benefit your entire family. Created: 11/14/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. Date Released: 11/28/2007.
de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.
This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed
Turati, Federica; Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Montella, Maurizio; Talamini, Renato; Decarli, Adriano
The effect of dietary habits on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk may be modified by a family history of CRC. We analyzed data from an Italian case-control study, including 1953 CRC cases and 4154 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for combined categories of family history and tertiles of two a posteriori dietary patterns were derived using multiple logistic regression models. Compared with individuals without family history and in the lowest tertile category of the 'starch-rich' pattern, the ORs of CRC were 1.38 (95% CI: 1.19-1.61) for the group without family history and in the highest tertile, 2.89 (95% CI: 2.30-3.64) for the one with family history and in the lowest tertile, and 4.00 (95% CI: 3.03-5.27) for the one with family history and in the highest tertile. Compared with individuals without family history and in the highest tertile of the 'vitamins and fiber' pattern, the ORs were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.12-1.48) for the group without family history and in the lowest tertile, 2.89 (95% CI: 2.30-3.64) for the one with family history and in the highest tertile, and 3.74 (95% CI: 2.85-4.91) for the one with family history and in the lowest tertile. Family history of CRC and 'starch-rich' or 'vitamins and fiber' patterns has an independent effect on CRC risk in our population. However, as having a family history plausibly implies shared environmental and/or genetic risk factors, our results could not exclude that dietary habits can modify genetic susceptibility to CRC.
Agbaje Astrid B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The CDC's Family History Public Health Initiative encourages adoption and increase awareness of family health history. To meet these goals and develop a personalized medicine implementation science research agenda, the Genomedical Connection is using an implementation research (T3 research framework to develop and integrate a self-administered computerized family history system with built-in decision support into 2 primary care clinics in North Carolina. Methods/Design The family health history system collects a three generation family history on 48 conditions and provides decision support (pedigree and tabular family history, provider recommendation report and patient summary report for 4 pilot conditions: breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, and thrombosis. All adult English-speaking, non-adopted, patients scheduled for well-visits are invited to complete the family health system prior to their appointment. Decision support documents are entered into the medical record and available to provider's prior to the appointment. In order to optimize integration, components were piloted by stakeholders prior to and during implementation. Primary outcomes are change in appropriate testing for hereditary thrombophilia and screening for breast cancer, colon cancer, and ovarian cancer one year after study enrollment. Secondary outcomes include implementation measures related to the benefits and burdens of the family health system and its impact on clinic workflow, patients' risk perception, and intention to change health related behaviors. Outcomes are assessed through chart review, patient surveys at baseline and follow-up, and provider surveys. Clinical validity of the decision support is calculated by comparing its recommendations to those made by a genetic counselor reviewing the same pedigree; and clinical utility is demonstrated through reclassification rates and changes in appropriate screening (the primary outcome
This contribution is an essay about the notion of family identity reflecting shared significant experiences within a family system originating a set of signs used in social communication within and between families. Significant experiences are considered as experiences of events that have an immediate impact on the adaptation of the family in a given socio-ecological and cultural context at a given historical time. It is assumed that family history is stored in a shared "family memory" holding both implicit and explicit knowledge and exerting an influence on the behavior of each family member. This is described as transgenerational family memory being constituted of a system of meaningful signs. The crucial dimension underlying the logic of this essay are the ideas of adaptation as well as self-reproduction of systems.
Marino, Meghan J
Given the vast genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity seen in ocular genetic disorders, considering a patient's clinical phenotype in the context of the family history is essential. Clinicians can improve patient care by appropriately incorporating a patient's family history into their evaluation. Obtaining, reviewing, and accurately interpreting the pedigree are skills geneticists and genetic counselors possess. However, with the field of ophthalmic genetics vastly growing, it is becoming essential for ophthalmologists to understand the utility of the pedigree and develop their abilities in eliciting this information. By not considering a patient's clinical history in the context of the family history, diagnoses can be missed or inaccurate. The purpose of this review is to inform ophthalmologists on the importance of the family history and highlight how the pedigree can aid in establishing an accurate genetic diagnosis. This review also provides to ophthalmologists helpful tips on eliciting and interpreting a patient's family history.
Francisco R. Spivacow
Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of family history of nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of renal lithiasis. Different epidemiological studies have shown a family component in the incidence of it, which is independent of dietary and environmental factors. The role of heredity is evident in monogenic diseases such as cystinuria, Dent’s disease or primary hyperoxaluria, while a polygenic inheritance has been proposed to explain the tendency to form calcium oxalate stones. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the family history of patients with renal lithiasis and the correlation of family history with its corresponding biochemical alteration, considering only those with a single metabolic alteration. Methods: a prospective and retrospective observational and analytical study that included 1948 adults over 17 years of age and a normal control group of 165 individuals, all evaluated according to an ambulatory protocol to obtain a biochemical diagnosis. They were asked about their family history of nephrolithiasis and classified into five groups according to the degree of kinship and the number of people affected in the family. Results: a positive family history of nephrolithiasis was found in 27.4% of renal stone formers, predominantly in women, compared to 15.2% of normal controls. The family history of nephrolithiasis was observed especially in 31.4% of patients with hypomagnesuria and in 29.6% of hypercalciuric patients. The rest of the biochemical alterations had a positive family history between 28.6% in hyperoxaluria and 21.9% in hypocitraturia. The highest percentage of family history of nephrolithiasis was found in cystinuria (75% although there were few patients with this diagnosis. Conclusions: the inheritance has a clear impact on urolithiasis independently of the present biochemical alteration. Family history of nephrolithiasis of the first and second degree was observed between 21 and 32% of patients with renal
Hokanson, John E.; Lynch, David A.; Washko, George R.; Make, Barry J.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.
Background: Studies have shown that family history is a risk factor for COPD, but have not accounted for family history of smoking. Therefore, we sought to identify the effects of family history of smoking and family history of COPD on COPD susceptibility. Methods: We compared 821 patients with COPD to 776 control smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study. Questionnaires captured parental histories of smoking and COPD, as well as childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Socioeconomic status was defined by educational achievement. Results: Parental history of smoking (85.5% case patients, 82.9% control subjects) was more common than parental history of COPD (43.0% case patients, 30.8% control subjects). In a logistic regression model, parental history of COPD (OR, 1.73; P < .0001) and educational level (OR, 0.48 for some college vs no college; P < .0001) were significant predictors of COPD, but parental history of smoking and childhood ETS exposure were not significant. The population-attributable risk from COPD family history was 18.6%. Patients with COPD with a parental history had more severe disease, with lower lung function, worse quality of life, and more frequent exacerbations. There were nonsignificant trends for more severe emphysema and airway disease on quantitative chest CT scans. Conclusions: Family history of COPD is a strong risk factor for COPD, independent of family history of smoking, personal lifetime smoking, or childhood ETS exposure. Although further studies are required to identify genetic variants that influence COPD susceptibility, clinicians should question all smokers, especially those with known or suspected COPD, regarding COPD family history. PMID:21310839
Kallenberg, F G J; Aalfs, C M; The, F O; Wientjes, C A; Depla, A C; Mundt, M W; Bossuyt, P M M; Dekker, E
Identifying a hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome or familial CRC (FCC) in a CRC patient may enable the patient and relatives to enroll in surveillance protocols. As these individuals are insufficiently recognized, we evaluated an online family history tool, consisting of a patient-administered family history questionnaire and an automated genetic referral recommendation, to facilitate the identification of patients with hereditary CRC or FCC. Between 2015 and 2016, all newly diagnosed CRC patients in five Dutch outpatient clinics, were included in a trial with a stepped-wedge design, when first visiting the clinic. Each hospital continued standard procedures for identifying patients at risk (control strategy) and then, after a predetermined period, switched to offering the family history tool to included patients (intervention strategy). After considering the tool-based recommendation, the health care provider could decide on and arrange the referral. Primary outcome was the relative number of CRC patients who received screening or surveillance recommendations for themselves or relatives because of hereditary CRC or FCC, provided by genetic counseling. The intervention effect was evaluated using a logit-linear model. With the tool, 46/489 (9.4%) patients received a screening or surveillance recommendation, compared to 35/292 (12.0%) in the control group. In the intention-to-treat-analysis, accounting for time trends and hospital effects, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.58). A family history tool does not necessarily assist in increasing the number of CRC patients and relatives enrolled in screening or surveillance recommendations for hereditary CRC or FCC. Other interventions should be considered.
Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.
This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…
Al-Jhani, Ali S.; Nooh, Nasser S.; Al-Rajhi, Nasser M.; El-Sebaie, Medhat M.; Al-Amro, Abdullah S.; Mahasen, Ziyad Z.; Otieschan, Abdullah T.
To assess natural history, treatment outcome and pattern of relapse in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. A review was conducted of the medical records of all adult patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma, who were treated at King Faisal Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1990 and December 1999. A total of 60 patients were identified for analysis, 36 men and 24 women; the median age was 58-years (range 23-95). Major presenting symptoms were facial swelling 55%, facial pain 50%, and nasal obstruction 43.4%, with a median duration of 5-months (range 1-24). Histology was quamous cell carcinoma in 71.7% and adenoid cystic in 16.7%. They were restaged according to American Joint Committee on Cancer classification 1997 as II, III and IV in 1, 10 and 49. Thirty patients received treatment with curative intent (surgery in 4 patients, radiotherapy in 2, and combined modality in 24), 6 patients refused treatment and 24 were treated palliatively. With a median follow up of 50-months (range 2-128) in surviving patients treated with a curative intent, 12/30 failed locally, 4/30 in the regional neck nodes and 2/30 had systemic relapse. The actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS), relapse free survival (RFS) and local control rate (LC) were 55%, 39% and 51%. Treatment modality was the only significant prognostic factor for outcome, with 5 year OS, RFS and LC of 72%, 49% and 61%, for combined modality using surgery followed by radiotherapy compared to 0% for single approach (p=0.0003, p=0.0052 and p=0.0098). This study indicates that the majority of our patients presented with advanced disease, resulting in poor outcome to conventional treatment modalities. Efforts should be directed to minimize the delay in diagnosis at the primary care level. Combined modality treatment should be offered to all patients with locally advanced disease. New approaches such as neoadjuvant or concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery need to
Family medicine training and practice in Malawi: History, progress, and the anticipated role of the family physician in the Malawian health system. ... The idea of formal family medicine training and practice in Malawi started as early as 2001 but did not come to fruition until 2011, with the start of the undergraduate clerkship in ...
Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A
Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.
Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann
Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a…
Zick, Cathleen D; Mayer, Robert N; Smith, Ken R
Retirement confidence is a key social barometer. In this article, we examine how personal and parental health histories relate to working-age adults' feelings of optimism or pessimism about their overall retirement prospects. This study links survey data on retirement planning with information on respondents' own health histories and those of their parents. The multivariate models control for the respondents' socio-demographic and economic characteristics along with past retirement planning activities when estimating the relationships between family health histories and retirement confidence. Retirement confidence is inversely related to parental history of cancer and cardiovascular disease but not to personal health history. In contrast, retirement confidence is positively associated with both parents being deceased. As members of the public become increasingly aware of how genetics and other family factors affect intergenerational transmission of chronic diseases, it is likely that the link between family health histories and retirement confidence will intensify. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hjorth, Daniel; Dawson, Alexandra
In this article we focus on the study of history through the use of narratives, within the context of the prevalent form of organization worldwide: the family business. Specifically we consider the dilemma of the impossible gift of succession using Nietzsche’s discussion of the burden of history...... and paralleling the story of a family business succession with that of Shakespeare’s King Lear. This way, we seek to make a contribution to organizational studies by answering recent calls to engage more with history in studies of business organizations. By implication, the study also initiates an integration...... of family business studies into organization studies....
de Jongh, Saskia; Lilien, Marc R.; Bakker, Henk D.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Stroes, Erik S. G.
Objectives: in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the propensity towards atherosclerosis may vary considerably. In the general population, a positive family history is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Since endothelial dysfunction is predictive for future
Jul 2, 2013 ... features of familial and sporadic breast cancer in Moroccan patients. METHODS: A ... 1Genetics and Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Medical School of Casablanca, Morocco. 2Department of ... prognosis (9, 10), whereas others have found no significant ..... slightly higher rate of this histological subtype.
... are missing. If you're adopted, ask your adoptive parents if they received any medical information about your biological parents at the time of your adoption. Adoption agencies also might have family medical information on file. If you were adopted ...
Chung-Hwa Park; Seung-Hee Jeong; Hyeon-Woo Yim; Jin Dong Kim; Si Hyun Bae; Jong Young Choi; Seung Kew Yoon
AIM:To evaluate the relationship between a positive family history of primary liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Korean HCC patients.METHODS:We studied a total of 2242 patients diagnosed with HCC between January 1990 and July 2008,whose family history of primary liver cancer was clearly described in the medical records.RESULTS:Of the 2242 patients,165 (7.4％) had a positive family history of HCC and 2077 (92.6％) did not.The male to female ratio was 3.6:1,and the major causes of HCC were chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 75.1％,chronic hepatitis C virus infection in 13.2％ and alcohol in 3.1％.The median ages at diagnosis in the positive-and negative-history groups were 52 years (range:29-79 years) and 57 years (range:18-89 years),respectively (P ＜ 0.0001).Furthermore,among 1713 HCC patients with HBV infection,the number of patients under 45 years of age out of 136 patients with positive family history was 26 (19.1％),whereas those out of 1577 patients with negative family history was 197 (12.5％),suggesting that a positive family history may be associated with earlier development of HCC in the Korean population (P =0.0028).CONCLUSION:More intensive surveillance maybe recommended to those with a positive family history of HCC for earlier diagnosis and proper management especially when HBV infection is present.
Effect of escitalopram versus placebo on GRα messenger RNA expression in peripheral blood cells of healthy individuals with a family history of depression - a secondary outcome analysis from the randomized AGENDA trial
Knorr, Ulla; Koefoed, Pernille; Gluud, Christian
Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed as first-line drugs for the treatment of depression. However, the mechanisms of action for SSRIs are unclear and besides neurotransmitter modulation may depend on modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA......) system. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform α plays an important role in the negative feedback regulation of the HPA axis and reduced GRα messenger RNA (mRNA) expression has been shown in mood disorder patients and first-degree relatives compared to healthy individuals with no family history...
Hastrup, J L; Phillips, S M; Vullo, K; Kang, G; Slomka, L
Compared 309 youths ages 11 to 15 years and their parents with respect to their comprehension of terms for seven common medical disorders: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. For two thirds of the adolescent sample, accuracy of reporting of these disorders among the parents and grandparents was assessed. Results indicated considerable variation among disorders with respect to both comprehension of terms and accuracy of family health history. Adolescents' age was a major predictor of knowledge of medical terms (r = .41). Age was not related to accuracy of family health information. Consonant with this finding, adolescents' level of accuracy regarding family health history was generally similar to that of previous adult samples, suggesting that family health information is acquired and retained at an early age. Adolescents were more accurate concerning parents' compared with grandparents' history of hypertension.
Mesher, David; Dove-Edwin, Isis; Sasieni, Peter
Surveillance guidelines for the management of familial colorectal cancer (FCC), a dominant family history of colorectal cancer in which the polyposis syndromes and Lynch syndrome have been excluded, are not firmly established. The outcome of colonoscopic surveillance is studied using data from six...
Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.
Holmegard, Haya N; Benn, Marianne; Kaijer, Michelle Nymann
Reflex syncope is defined by a rapid transient loss of consciousness caused by global cerebral hypoperfusion resulting from vasodilatation and/or bradycardia attributable to inappropriate cardiovascular reflexes. A hereditary component has been suggested, but prevalence of family history may differ...... among subtypes of reflex syncope, as these have different autonomic responses and pathogeneses may be diverse. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of a positive family history of syncope and cardiovascular characteristics in patients with cardioinhibitory and vasodepressor reflex syncope....... Patients (n=74) were classified into subtypes of reflex syncope - cardioinhibition/asystole (Vasovagal Syncope International Study subtypes II-B [VASIS II-B], n=38) or vasodepressor (VASIS III, n=36) - using the head-up tilt test. Family history was obtained by questionnaires supplemented by interview...
Brewer, Hannah R; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J
Family history is an important risk factor for breast cancer incidence, but the parameters conventionally used to categorize it are based solely on numbers and/or ages of breast cancer cases in the family and take no account of the size and age-structure of the woman's family. Using data from the Generations Study, a cohort of over 113,000 women from the general UK population, we analyzed breast cancer risk in relation to first-degree family history using a family history score (FHS) that takes account of the expected number of family cases based on the family's age-structure and national cancer incidence rates. Breast cancer risk increased significantly (P trend history was that combining FHS and age of relative at diagnosis. A family history score based on expected as well as observed breast cancers in a family can give greater risk discrimination on breast cancer incidence than conventional parameters based solely on cases in affected relatives. Our modeling suggests that a yet stronger predictor of risk might be a combination of this score and age at diagnosis in relatives.
Bodurtha, Joann N; McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Maibauer, Alisa M; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J; Quillin, John M
Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner more effectively with their families and ultimately
Wu, R Ryanne; Himmel, Tiffany L; Buchanan, Adam H; Powell, Karen P; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Henrich, Vincent C; Orlando, Lori A
Studies have shown that the quality of family health history (FHH) collection in primary care is inadequate to assess disease risk. To use FHH for risk assessment, collected data must have adequate detail. To address this issue, we developed a patient facing FHH assessment tool, MeTree. In this paper we report the content and quality of the FHH collected using MeTree. A hybrid implementation-effectiveness study. Patients were recruited from 2009 to 2012. Two community primary care clinics in Greensboro, NC. All non-adopted adult English speaking patients with upcoming appointments were invited to participate. Education about and collection of FHH with entry into MeTree. We report the proportion of pedigrees that were high-quality. High-quality pedigrees are defined as having all the following criteria: (1) three generations of relatives, (2) relatives' lineage, (3) relatives' gender, (4) an up-to-date FHH, (5) pertinent negatives noted, (6) age of disease onset in affected relatives, and for deceased relatives, (7) the age and (8) cause of death (Prim Care31:479-495, 2004.). Enrollment: 1,184. Participant demographics: age range 18-92 (mean 58.8, SD 11.79), 56% male, and 75% white. The median pedigree size was 21 (range 8-71) and the FHH entered into MeTree resulted in a database of 27,406 individuals. FHHs collected by MeTree were found to be high quality in 99.8% (N = 1,182/1,184) as compared to quality of the FHH data that is collected and talking with relatives prior to the collection of FHH significantly improves the quantity and quality of the data provided. This allows more patients to be accurately risk stratified and offered appropriate preventive care guided by their risk level. NCT01372553.
Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian; Quillin, John; Gyure, Maria; Bodurtha, Joann
Although individuals recognize the importance of knowing their family's health history for their own health, relatively few people (e.g., less than a third in one national survey) collect this type of information. This study examines the rates of family communication about family health history of cancer, and predictors of communication in a sample of English-speaking Latino young adults. A total of 224 Latino young adults completed a survey that included measures on family communication, cultural factors, religious commitment, and cancer worry. We found that few Latino young adults reported collecting information from their families for the purposes of creating a family health history (18%) or sharing information about hereditary cancer risk with family members (16%). In contrast, slightly more than half of the participants reported generally "talking with their mothers about their family's health history of cancer." Logistic regression results indicated that cancer worry (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-4.93), being female (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.02-8.08), and being older (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.01-1.76) were associated with increased rates of collecting information from family members. In contrast, orientation to the Latino culture (OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 1.33-5.94) and religious commitment (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.02-2.32) were associated with increased rates of giving cancer information. Results highlight the need for prevention programs to help further general discussions about a family's history of cancer to more specific information related to family health history.
Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F.; Ritz, Beate
The relationship between Parkinson disease (PD) and smoking has been examined in several studies, but little is known about smoking in conjunction with other behaviors and a family history of PD. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we studied individual and joint associations...
Momanu, Mariana; Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Samoila, Magda-Elena
Starting from the state of conceptual diversity, semantic ambiguity, and poor connection of family life education practices to current policies and theoretical models in Romania, our study aims at understanding the underlying meanings of these issues by recourse to the history of approaches in the field. To this purpose, we carried out a…
Jobsen, J.J.; Meerwaldt, J.H.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria
The aim of this study is to determine if breast conservative treatment is justified for patients with a positive family history of breast cancer and to investigate whether they have a worse prognosis. We performed a prospective cohort study of breast cancer patients, treated with breast conservative
Poverty in Independent India : a History and Family Memoirs. India's Dalits have historically been subjected to devastating social and economic discrimination. The economic growth experienced by the country since 1990 has seen Dalit incomes more than double. Nevertheless, 300 million Indians still live below the poverty ...
Objectives: To investigate the clinical correlates of cannabis use in adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Inpatient psychiatric records provided demographic, lifetime cannabis use, family history of mental illness, and clinical data on 45 FEP adolescents, aged 12–18 years, admitted to a psychiatric unit in ...
Russo, Selena; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J
Estimates of the number of childhood cancers with a genetic basis range from 5-8.5% found in germline samples to 29% based on clinical criteria. Family history-taking practice is a fundamental first step in detecting at risk individuals and families. This study focused on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), a highly penetrant cancer syndrome. Reported family history in a cohort of 648 of cancer survivor cohort (CCS) was examined. Eligible CCS were: (i) aged up to 14 years at diagnosis; (ii) more than 5 years postdiagnosis; (iii) treated for a childhood cancer at the study hospitals in NSW, Australia; (iv) in remission for more than 3 years. CCS completed self-administered questionnaires. Medical records confirmed diagnosis and treatment-related information. Our findings reveal an increased cancer risk among sibling and relatives of CCS. 91% of siblings diagnosed with cancer were diagnosed under the age of 40 and about 30% diagnosed under the aged of 15 revealing a 5- (RR = 5.1; 95% CI, 3.3-7.9) and 44-fold (RR = 44.6; 95% CI, 18.4-108.3) increased risked of cancer compared with the Australian population, respectively. About 2% of CCS reported that they had been diagnosed with a genetic cancer syndrome. However, 11% of survivors described a family history pattern which met Chompret criteria for screening for TP53 mutations associated with LFS. Our data suggests that familial cancer predispositions may be initially overlooked. Aperiodic and accurate ascertainment of family cancer history of childhood cancer patients and survivors is therefore recommended.
Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...... relation between family structure changes and children's outcomes. Children who have experienced family structure changes during childhood seem to have worse educational outcomes and a higher propensity to being hospitalized and convicted of a crime. The children in the dataset experience up to 13 family...... structure changes during childhood. More family structure changes implies worse outcomes and might actually be more important than the number of years a child has spent in a single parent household. The age at which the family structure change occurs also seems to be important at least for some outcomes....
Yanchus, Nancy J.; Eby, Lilian T.; Lance, Charles E.; Drollinger, Sabrina
Theory and research on emotional labor at work is applied to the study of the work-family interface to explore how emotional experiences in both the work and the family domain relate to the experience of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, and ultimately attitudinal and health outcomes. Emotional intelligence is also examined as a…
Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb
In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…
Background Individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at much greater risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) than youth or adults without such history. A large body of research suggests that there are premorbid differences in brain structure and function in family history positive (FHP) individuals relative to their family history negative (FHN) peers. Methods This review summarizes the existing literature on neurobiological phenotypes present in FHP youth and adults by describing findings across neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Results Neuroimaging studies have shown FHP individuals differ from their FHN peers in amygdalar, hippocampal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar volume. Both increased and decreased white matter integrity has been reported in FHP individuals compared with FHN controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have found altered inhibitory control and working memory-related brain response in FHP youth and adults, suggesting neural markers of executive functioning may be related to increased vulnerability for developing AUDs in this population. Additionally, brain activity differences in regions involved in bottom-up reward and emotional processing, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, have been shown in FHP individuals relative to their FHN peers. Conclusions It is critical to understand premorbid neural characteristics that could be associated with cognitive, reward-related, or emotional risk factors that increase risk for AUDs in FHP individuals. This information may lead to the development of neurobiologically informed prevention and intervention studies focused on reducing the incidence of AUDs in high-risk youth and adults. PMID:26559000
Individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at much greater risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) than youth or adults without such history. A large body of research suggests that there are premorbid differences in brain structure and function in family history positive (FHP) individuals relative to their family history negative (FHN) peers. This review summarizes the existing literature on neurobiological phenotypes present in FHP youth and adults by describing findings across neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Neuroimaging studies have shown FHP individuals differ from their FHN peers in amygdalar, hippocampal, basal ganglia, and cerebellar volume. Both increased and decreased white matter integrity has been reported in FHP individuals compared with FHN controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have found altered inhibitory control and working memory-related brain response in FHP youth and adults, suggesting neural markers of executive functioning may be related to increased vulnerability for developing AUDs in this population. Additionally, brain activity differences in regions involved in bottom-up reward and emotional processing, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, have been shown in FHP individuals relative to their FHN peers. It is critical to understand premorbid neural characteristics that could be associated with cognitive, reward-related, or emotional risk factors that increase risk for AUDs in FHP individuals. This information may lead to the development of neurobiologically informed prevention and intervention studies focused on reducing the incidence of AUDs in high-risk youth and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Konstantopoulos, A; Yadegarfar, G; Elgohary, M
To investigate potential factors associated with the presence of myopia in a cohort of young adult men carrying out their military service in Greece. A nested case-control study of 200 conscripts (99 myopes and 101 non-myopes). The cohort consisted of approximately 1000 conscripts in compulsory national service. All cohort members had been screened for refractive errors by Snellen visual acuity measurement at presentation to military service; individuals not achieving visual activity 6/6 underwent noncycloplaegic refraction. The study sample consisted of the first 99 myopic and 101 nonmyopic conscripts who attended the study. In-person interviews of these 200 conscripts were conducted to obtain information on family history, occupation, level of education, near-work activities, and sleeping behaviour. chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests were used as univariate analysis methods to identify the potential factors associated with the presence of myopia. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted relative risk of myopia. Univariate analysis showed that parental family history (Pfamily history (OR=3.39, 95% CI 1.56-7.36) were independently associated with myopia. In young Greek conscripts, parental family history, older age, and education level are independently associated with myopia.
Jones, Terry L
Nurses have a social responsibility to evaluate the effect of nursing practice on patient outcomes in the areas of health promotion; injury and illness prevention; and alleviation of suffering. Quality assessment initiatives are hindered by the paucity of available data related to nursing processes and patient outcomes across these three domains of practice. Direct care nurses are integral to self-regulation for the discipline as they are the best source of information about nursing practice and patient outcomes. Evidence supports the assumption that nurses do contribute to prevention of adverse events but there is insufficient evidence to explain how nurses contribute to these and/or other patient outcomes. The purposes of this article are to examine the imperatives, ideal conditions, history, and challenges related to effective outcome measurement in nursing. The article concludes with recommendations for action to move quality assessment forward, such as substantial investment to support adequate documentation of nursing practice and patient outcomes.
Full Text Available The transitivizing/detransitivizing typology of Nichols et al. 2004 also proves useful to historical linguistics. We focus on language families of northern Eurasia, chiefly the three oldest families (Indo-European, Uralic, Nakh-Daghestanian, some of their daughter branches aged about 2000-3000 years, and one younger family for which we have data on enough daughters to support a family phylogeny (Tungusic. We use the 18-pair wordlist of Nichols et al. 2004, which typologizes each pair of verbs depending on which of the two is derived. We make some improvements in the coding of grammatical properties and the typologization of pairs. NeighborNet trees based on this information reveal family-wide linguistic geography and areal trends. Adding minimal information about the cognacy or non-cognacy of the roots of the wordlist items produces Neighbor- Net trees which approximate well the known phylogeny of the family. Thus very small closed data sets, collected originally for typology, yield rich information about language family history - strikingly, a mere 18 verbs (9 pairs, coded for morphological type and cognacy, yield a very good genealogical tree - while historical methods have also improved the typology.
THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.
Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634
Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Qian, Zhengmin
Multiple avenues of research (e.g., criminal careers, intergenerational family transmission, and epidemiological studies) have indicated a concentration of antisocial traits and behaviors that cluster among families and within individuals in a population. The current study draws on each of these perspectives in exploring the intergenerational contours of antisocial personality disorder across multiple generations of a large-scale epidemiological sample. The analytic sample of persons meeting criteria for antisocial personality disorder (N = 1,226) was derived from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Path analytic, latent class, and multinomial models were executed to describe and elucidate family histories among persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Three classes of an antisocial family tree were found: minimal family history of problem behaviors (70.3 % of sample) who were characterized by higher socioeconomic functioning, parental and progeny behavior problems (9.4 % of sample) who were characterized by criminal behaviors, psychopathology, and substance use disorders, and multigenerational history of problem behaviors (20.3 % of sample) who were characterized by alcoholism, psychopathology, and versatile criminal offending. These findings add a typology to intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior that can assist in identifying etiological and treatment factors among those for whom crime runs in the family.
Aronson Nathan N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitinases (EC.220.127.116.11 hydrolyze the β-1,4-linkages in chitin, an abundant N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine polysaccharide that is a structural component of protective biological matrices such as insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls. The glycoside hydrolase 18 (GH18 family of chitinases is an ancient gene family widely expressed in archea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mammals are not known to synthesize chitin or metabolize it as a nutrient, yet the human genome encodes eight GH18 family members. Some GH18 proteins lack an essential catalytic glutamic acid and are likely to act as lectins rather than as enzymes. This study used comparative genomic analysis to address the evolutionary history of the GH18 multiprotein family, from early eukaryotes to mammals, in an effort to understand the forces that shaped the human genome content of chitinase related proteins. Results Gene duplication and loss according to a birth-and-death model of evolution is a feature of the evolutionary history of the GH18 family. The current human family likely originated from ancient genes present at the time of the bilaterian expansion (approx. 550 mya. The family expanded in the chitinous protostomes C. elegans and D. melanogaster, declined in early deuterostomes as chitin synthesis disappeared, and expanded again in late deuterostomes with a significant increase in gene number after the avian/mammalian split. Conclusion This comprehensive genomic study of animal GH18 proteins reveals three major phylogenetic groups in the family: chitobiases, chitinases/chitolectins, and stabilin-1 interacting chitolectins. Only the chitinase/chitolectin group is associated with expansion in late deuterostomes. Finding that the human GH18 gene family is closely linked to the human major histocompatibility complex paralogon on chromosome 1, together with the recent association of GH18 chitinase activity with Th2 cell inflammation, suggests that its late expansion
Slesnick, N.; Prestopnik, J.L.
Runaway youth report a broader range and higher severity of substance-related, mental health and family problems relative to non-runaway youth. Most studies to date have collected self-report data on the family and social history; virtually no research has examined treatment effectiveness with this population. This study is a treatment development…
Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985...... is used for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....
Newcomb, Patricia; Canclini, Sharon; Cauble, Denise; Raudonis, Barbara; Golden, Paulette
In spite of the acknowledged importance of collecting family health information, methods of collecting, organizing, and storage of pedigree data are not uniformly utilized in practice, though several electronic tools have been developed for the purpose. Using electronic tools to gather health information may empower individuals to take responsibility in managing their family health history. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility and outcomes of introducing small groups to the My Family Health Portrait tool in faith-based communities using faith community nurses (FCNs). This pilot project adopted a mixed methods approach to assess the potential of an educational intervention delivered by FCNs for increasing the use of electronic technologies for organizing and storing family health histories among the general public. Treatment and control groups were recruited from four faith-based communities in north Texas using a parallel-groups quasi-experimental design. Qualitative data were gleaned from field notes made by investigators interacting with FCNs and observing their teaching. A majority of respondents believed that knowing one's health history and passing it on to family and medical personnel is important. Those receiving face-to-face instruction on the electronic tool were significantly more likely to have written down family health information than the control group who received only an informational handout (χ(2) = 5.96, P = .015). Barriers to teaching about and using the electronic tool included FCNs' lack of facility with computers in the educational context and FCN and respondent mistrust of electronic storage for family health information. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Pandya, Chintan; Garg, Priyanka; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina
Family history contributes to risk for many common chronic diseases. Little research has investigated patient factors affecting communication of this information. 1061 adult community health center patients were surveyed. We examined factors related to frequency of discussions about family health history (FHH) with family members and doctors. Patients who talked frequently with family members about FHH were more likely to report a family history of cancer (p =.012) and heart disease (p history of heart disease (p = .011), meet physical activity recommendations (p = .022), seek health information frequently in newspapers (p history of some diseases, those not meeting physical activity recommendations, and those who do not frequently seek health information may not have ongoing FHH discussions. Interventions are needed to encourage providers to update patients' family histories systematically and assist patients in initiating FHH conversations in order to use this information for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used...... for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests...
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of familial and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in Cape Town: A comparative study of 120 cases followed up over 14 years. NBA Ntusi, M Badri, F Gumedze, A Wonkam, BM Mayosi ...
Huebner, Ruth A.; Jones, Blake L.; Miller, Viola P.; Custer, Melba; Critchfield, Becky
Comprehensive Family Services (CFS) is a strengths-based and partnership-oriented approach to casework implemented through multiple initiatives. This study examines the relationship between the practice of CFS and satisfaction of clients, foster parents, and community partners. CFS indicators are paired with statewide customer satisfaction survey…
Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John
Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions. PMID:22309471
Eskow, Karen; Pineles, Lisa; Summers, Jean Ann
This study examined the effect of services provided through Maryland's Home and Community-Based Services Medicaid waiver for children with autism on several outcomes related to families, specifically family quality of life (FQoL) and employment. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the services provided through the Maryland autism…
Background: Pregnancy and delivery constitute a period of significant life changes in women with associated major physiological adjustments often associated with anxiety and stress. Providing family support by husbands/family members to the women is expected to reduce this stress and improve delivery outcomes.
Arim, Rubab G.; Tramonte, Lucia; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Willms, J. Douglas
The purpose of this study was to examine both the family antecedents and the outcomes of early puberty, with a particular focus on factors related to family socioeconomic status (SES). The study employed a comprehensive measurement of pubertal development and longitudinal data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.…
Despite the dramatic increase in incarcerated mothers that has occurred in the past decades, there is a paucity of family research focusing on the children affected by maternal imprisonment. The present study investigated family environments and intellectual outcomes in 60 children between the ages of 2 and 7 years during their mothers'…
Colón, Jeisianne Rosario
The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...
Janvier, Annie; Farlow, Barbara; Baardsnes, Jason; Pearce, Rebecca; Barrington, Keith J
Medium- and long-term outcomes have been collected and described among survivors of neonatal intensive care units for decades, for a number of purposes: (1) quality control within units, (2) comparisons of outcomes between NICUs, (3) clinical trials (whether an intervention improves outcomes), (4) end-of-life decision-making, (5) to better understand the effects of neonatal conditions and/or interventions on organs and/or long-term health, and finally (6) to better prepare parents for the future. However, the outcomes evaluated have been selected by investigators, based on feasibility, availability, cost, stability, and on what investigators consider to be important. Many of the routinely measured outcomes have major limitations: they may not correlate well with long-term difficulties, they may artificially divide continuous outcomes into dichotomous ones, and may have no clear relationship with quality of life and functioning of children and their families. Several investigations, such as routine term cerebral resonance imaging for preterm infants, have also not yet been shown to improve the outcome of children nor their families. In this article, the most common variables used in neonatology as well as some variables which are rarely measured but may be of equal importance for families are presented. The manner in which these outcomes are communicated to families will be examined, as well as recommendations to optimize communication with parents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Nina; Bredtmann, Julia
In this paper, we investigate sibling correlations in educational outcomes, which serve as a broad measure of the importance of family and community background. Making use of rich longitudinal survey and register data for Denmark, our main aim is to identify the parental background characteristics...... that are able to explain the resemblance in educational outcomes among siblings. We find sibling correlations in educational outcomes in the range of 15 to 33 percent, suggesting that up to a third of the variation in educational achievement can be explained by family and community background. Our results...... further reveal that parents' socio-economic background can account for a large part of the sibling correlation. Other family characteristics such as family structure, the incidence of social problems, and parents' educational preferences also play a role, though these factors only contribute to explaining...
Ruiter, J.S.; Berkenbosch-Nieuwhof, K.; van den Berg, M.P.; van Dijk, R.; Middel, B.; van Tintelen, J.P.
In potentially inherited cardiac diseases, the family history is of great importance. We looked at the way cardiologists take a family history in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or long QT syndrome (LQTS) and whether this led to screening of relatives or other follow-up. We
Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis...
Gundlund, Anna; Olesen, Jonas B.; Peterson, Eric D.
Several studies have suggested that family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important risk factor for AF, with several specific genetic regions now implicated through Genome Wide Association Studies. In addition, familial AF is associated with earlier age of onset and affects patients...
Bos, Karen; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nelson, Charles A.
Children raised in institutions, considered an extreme example of social deprivation, are one group through which we can better understand the impact of neglect on child health and development. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is the first randomized, controlled trial of foster care as an intervention for institutionalized children. In this review we describe the mental health outcomes from the BEIP. Specifically, we report findings on attachment styles, attachment disorders, emotional reactivity, and psychiatric symptomatology for children in the BEIP. We describe the impact of the foster care intervention on these outcomes and also describe how outcomes differ by gender and by length of time spent in the institution. In addition, we explore the influence of genetic variation on individual outcomes and recovery from early severe social deprivation, as well as the role of differences in brain development in mediating later psychiatric morbidity. The results from the BEIP confirm and extend the previous findings on the negative sequelae of early institutional care on mental health. The results also underscore the benefit of early family placement for children living in institutions. PMID:21250893
McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H.; Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Maibauer, Alisa M.; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J.; Quillin, John M.
Abstract Background: Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Methods: Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Results: Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. Conclusions: The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner
Svikis, Dace S; Berger, Nathan; Haug, Nancy A; Griffiths, Roland R
The purpose of the study was to examine whether caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism are associated with continued use of caffeine during pregnancy. Forty-four women seeking obstetrical care in an office-based practice completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples at three prenatal visits occurring 2-3, 3-4, and 7 months postconception. On visit 1, the patients received the physician's instructions to stop using caffeine. Structured interviews were used to assign a diagnosis of caffeine dependence (lifetime) and to identify family history of alcoholism. Outcome measures included self-reported levels of caffeine use and saliva caffeine levels at the three prenatal visits. Although most women eliminated or substantially reduced their caffeine consumption between pregnancy awareness and prenatal visit 1, those with a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism had higher levels of caffeine use and lower rates of abstinence throughout pregnancy. Saliva caffeine levels confirmed these effects. Withdrawal symptoms, functional impairment, and craving were cited as reasons they failed to eliminate or cut back on caffeine use. Fifty percent of the women with both a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism continued to use caffeine in amounts (>300 mg/day) greater than those considered safe during pregnancy, compared to none of the women without caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism. Women with a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism also reported higher rates of past cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol use. Caffeine-dependent women with a family history of alcoholism were not able to follow their physician's advice to reduce or eliminate caffeine consumption during pregnancy, despite their wanting to do so. This subgroup may require more intensive intervention to ensure caffeine abstinence and may be at greater risk for
Ma, Wei-Guo; Chou, Alan S; Mok, Salvior C M; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Charilaou, Paris; Zafar, Mohammad A; Sieller, Richard S; Tranquilli, Maryann; Rizzo, John A; Elefteriades, John A
Although family members of patients with aortic dissection (AoD) are believed to be at higher risk of AoD, the prognostic value of family history (FH) of aortic dissection (FHAD) in family members of patients with AoD has not been studied rigorously. We seek examine how much a positive FHAD increases the risk of developing new aortic dissection (AoD) among first-degree relatives. Patients with AoD at our institution were analyzed for information of FHAD. Positive FHAD referred to that AoD occurred in index patient and one or more first-degree relatives. Negative FHAD was defined as the condition in which only one case of AoD (the index patient) occurred in the family. The age at AoD, exposure years in adulthood before AoD, and annual probability of AoD among first-degree relatives were compared between patients with negative and positive FHADs. FHAD was positive in 32 and negative in 68 among the 100 AoD patients with detailed family history information. Mean age at dissection was 59.9±14.7years. Compared to negative FHAD, patients with positive FHAD dissected at significantly younger age (54.7±16.8 vs 62.4±13.0years, p=0.013), had more AoD events in first-degree relatives (2.3±0.6 vs 1.0±0.0, pfamily members, with a higher annual probability of aortic dissection, a shorter duration of "exposure time" before dissection occurs and a lower mean age at time of dissection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G; Tumanova, Victoria; Clark, Chagit E; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M
The purpose of this study was to determine whether young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) with a positive versus negative family history of stuttering differ in articulation, language and attentional abilities and family histories of articulation, language and attention related disorders. Participants were 25 young CWS and 50 young CWNS. All 75 participants' caregivers consistently reported a positive or negative family history of stuttering across three consecutive time points that were about 8 months apart for a total of approximately 16 months. Each participant's family history focused on the same, relatively limited number of generations (i.e., participants' parents & siblings). Children's family history of stuttering as well as articulation, language, and attention related disorders was obtained from one or two caregivers during an extensive interview. Children's speech and language abilities were measured using four standardized articulation and language tests and their attentional abilities were measured using caregiver reports of temperament. Findings indicated that (1) most caregivers (81.5% or 75 out 92) were consistent in their reporting of positive or negative history of stuttering; (2) CWNS with a positive family history of stuttering, compared to those with a negative family history of stuttering, were more likely to have reported a positive family history of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and (3) CWNS with a positive family history of stuttering had lower language scores than those with a negative family history of stuttering. However, there were no such significant differences in family histories of ADHD and language scores for CWS with a positive versus negative family history of stuttering. In addition, although 24% of CWS versus 12% of CWNS's caregivers reported a positive family history of stuttering, inferential analyses indicated no significant differences between CWS and CWNS in relative proportions of family
Full Text Available We present the results of the study of connection of psychological well-being of adolescents with their awareness of their own family history. We briefly overview the main trends and individual empirical studies on the influence of family history of psychological well-being of the individual. In the present study, we focuses not on pathological influence of family history, but on its resource and supporting effect during the difficulties of adolescence. The study involved 32 teenagers. The empirical study is based on data obtained using a questionnaire designed to examine the links of teenager with extended family members and his awareness of family history. We found that adolescents who know their family history, have an interest in it and keep in touch with the extended family, are characterized by high values of the level of psychological well-being.
Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão
ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in ﬁrst-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, ﬁndings on colonoscopy...
Ranthe, Mattis F; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Øyen, Nina
at the population level is unclear. In a nationwide cohort, we examined the risk of cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death (... ascertained family history of premature (... incidence rate ratios for cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death. Premature cardiomyopathy deaths in first- and second-degree relatives were associated with 29- and 6-fold increases in the rate of cardiomyopathy, respectively. If the first-degree relative died aged
Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie
The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor...... but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma...
Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...
Full Text Available Life History Theory is an explanatory evolutionary framework which explains differences in fitness-relevant outcomes using the characteristics of the environment and individual organisms. Basically, individuals can be positioned somewhere on the r/K continuum of the Life History Strategy (LHS: a K or slow strategy represents later maturity and reproduction, a smaller number of offspring with higher investment in them, while the r (or fast strategy follows the opposite pattern. Previous research offered evidence that psychopathy can represent a trait associated with fast LHS. In the present research we examined the relations between the family risk-factors, a four-factor model of psychopathy and the LHS in a sample of male convicts (N=181. The results have shown that a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style is associated with slow LHS while shallow affect and antisocial tendencies are related to fast LHS. The interactions between psychopathy and family risk-factors revealed that parental criminal behaviour enhances the relation between fast LHS and psychopathic traits, including the manipulative interpersonal style. The findings are in accordance with the Life History Theory and provide a deeper understanding of the preservation of psychopathy in contemporary populations.
Vuchinich, Samuel; And Others
Analyzes conflicts of 52 families observed during dinner. Findings suggest that family members frequently joined dyadic conflicts, they were equally likely to attempt to end or continue conflicts, they formed alliances half of the time, and their intervention strategies were related to the patterning and outcome of the conflicts. (RJC)
Wubs, Susanna; Grietens, Hans; Batstra, Laura
The impact of a history of sexual abuse on foster families has been studied, although never from a multilevel family perspective. Therefore, in Project Iris narratives are collected on the expertise, needs and experiences of family members in foster families concerning the care for a child with a
Gornitzky, Alex L; Mistovich, R Justin; Atuahuene, Brittany; Storey, Eileen P; Ganley, Theodore J
Although repetitive microtrauma and athletic overuse patterns are most commonly associated with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), recent studies have identified a potential genetic predisposition for OCD. Several case series have documented family pedigrees that support autosomal-dominant inheritance, but the families in these studies were all selected as a result of unique histories that may not accurately represent OCD inheritance patterns at large. Because there has been little investigation beyond these case reports, we aimed to describe a broader, more representative pattern of OCD inheritance applicable to all affected patients. (1) What proportion of patients treated for OCD of the knee have one or more immediate and/or extended family members with a history of OCD lesions? (2) Do patients with more phenotypically potent lesions, which we defined as patients with bilateral OCD lesions or patients who have undergone multiple procedures for OCD, have a higher frequency of affected relatives than those with less potent lesions? This retrospective study queried patient databases, diagnosis codes (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision), and surgical logs at a regional, tertiary care children's hospital to identify all patients treated over a 10-year period (March 2004-March 2014) by the senior author for OCD of the knee. All patients aged 0-18 years at the time of diagnosis were included. At our institution, patients with intact lesions are treated with a trial of conservative therapy; conversely, patients with a break in the articular cartilage and/or loose fragments of bone/cartilage are treated surgically. There were no OCD-specific contraindications to surgery. This search identified 543 patients. After patient identification, a questionnaire was designed that asked for the number, age, and gender of all immediate family members and the history of OCD lesions in any family member (immediate or extended). For all positive family members
Lou, Hanne; Pedersen, Birthe D; Hedegaard, Morten
OBJECTIVE: To explore positive aspects of family life after extremely premature childbirth, thereby supplementing current literature on long-term family outcome. DESIGN: Semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were analysed according to the editing strategy described by Miller and Crabtree....... SETTING: Denmark, Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Nine fathers and 11 mothers of 14 children born before 28 completed weeks of gestation at a tertiary centre were interviewed when their children were 7-10 years old. RESULTS: Whereas developmental delay, functional limitations, family burden, and parental distress...
Noyes-Grosser, Donna M.; Rosas, Scott R.; Goldman, Alyssa; Elbaum, Batya; Romanczyk, Ray; Callahan, Emily H.
State early intervention programs (EIPs) have been encouraged to develop and implement comprehensive outcomes measurement systems. As the number of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families receiving services in state EIPs increases, disability-specific outcomes data are needed to better understand issues of access, costs,…
Egbers, Lieke; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Aben, Katja K; Alfred Witjes, J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Vermeulen, Sita H
A history of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in first-degree relatives increases UBC risk by twofold. The influence of positive family history on UBC prognosis is unknown. Here, we investigated association of first-degree UBC family history with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of UBC patients. Detailed clinical data of 1,465 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 250 muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancer (MIBC) patients, diagnosed from 1995 to 2010, were collected through medical file review. Competing risk analyses were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of NMIBC patients according to self-reported UBC family history. Overall survival in MIBC patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The added value of family history in prediction of NMIBC prognosis was quantified with Harrell's concordance-index. Hundred (6.8%) NMIBC and 14 (5.6%) MIBC patients reported UBC in first-degree relatives. Positive family history was statistically significantly associated with smaller tumor size and non-significantly with more favorable distribution of other tumor characteristics. In univariable analyses, positive family history correlated with longer RFS (p = 0.11) and PFS (p = 0.04). Hazard ratios for positive vs. negative family history after adjustment for clinicopathological characteristics were 0.75 (95% CI = 0.53-1.07) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.18-1.12) for RFS and PFS, respectively. Five familial and 48 sporadic MIBC patients (Kaplan-Meier 10-year risk: 41% and 25%) died within 10 years. Family history did not improve the c-index of prediction models. This study shows that a first-degree family history of UBC is not clearly associated with NMIBC prognosis. Family history does not aid in prediction of NMIBC recurrence or progression. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.
Emmen, Rosalia Antonia Grada (Rosanneke)
The overall goal of the current dissertation is to uncover predictors and outcomes of positive parenting in ethnic minority families. Chapter 2 provides an overview of commonly used observational instruments to measure sensitivity, showing the versatility and scientific importance of the construct.
van Essen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357514491; Strike, Vanessa M.; Carney, M.; Sapp, S.
Manuscript Type Empirical Research Question/Issue Our study seeks to explain the relationship between publicly listed family-controlled firms (FCFs) and investor and employee outcomes before and during the global financial crisis. Theoretically, we develop hypotheses suggesting that FCF resilience
Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane; Han, Wen-Jui
This study investigates the link between the frequency of family breakfasts and dinners and child academic and behavioral outcomes in a panel sample of 21,400 children aged 5-15. It complements previous work by examining younger and older children separately and by using information on a large number of controls and rigorous analytic methods to…
Brown, Ryan; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Worthman, Carol M.
Recent research has shown how quantifiable aspects of community context affect a wide range of behaviors and outcomes. Due partially to the historical development of this field, currently published work focuses on urban rather than rural areas. We draw upon data from a longitudinal study of families and health in Appalachia--the Great Smoky…
Rubinstein, Wendy S; O'neill, Suzanne M; Rothrock, Nan; Starzyk, Erin J; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Acheson, Louise S; Wang, Catharine; Gramling, Robert; Galliher, James M; Ruffin, Mack T
To determine the specific components of family history and personal characteristics related to disease perceptions about breast, colon, and ovarian cancers. Baseline, cross-sectional data on 2,505 healthy women aged 35-65 years enrolled from 41 primary care practices in the cluster-randomized Family Healthware™ Impact Trial, assessed for detailed family history and perceived risk, perceived severity, worry, and perceived control over getting six common diseases including breast, colon, and ovarian cancers. Participants provided family history information on 41,841 total relatives. We found evidence of underreporting of paternal family history and lower perceived breast cancer risk with cancer in the paternal versus maternal lineage. We observed cancer-specific perceived risks and worry for individual family history elements and also found novel "spillover" effects where a family history of one cancer was associated with altered disease perceptions of another. Having a mother with early-onset breast or ovarian cancer was strongly associated with perceived risk of breast cancer. Age, parenthood, and affected lineage were associated with disease perceptions and ran counter to empiric risks. Understanding patients' formulation of risk for multiple diseases is important for public health initiatives that seek to inform risk appraisal, influence disease perceptions, or match preventive interventions to existing risk perceptions.
Geller, Alan C; Brooks, Daniel R; Colditz, Graham A; Koh, Howard K; Frazier, A Lindsay
Family history of skin cancer is an important determinant of skin cancer risk for offspring. No previous study of the effect of personal or family history of skin cancer on the sun protection behaviors of the offspring has been published. A retrospective study was conducted of the sun protection behaviors of the adolescent participants in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), who were offspring of mothers from the Nurses Health Study II. Adolescents' surveys were matched with their mothers' reports of a personal or family history of skin cancer and compared with adolescents whose mothers did not report a personal or family history of skin cancer. The outcome measures were (1) occurrence of frequent sunburns during the past summer, (2) use of a tanning bed during the past year, and (3) routine use of sunscreen. Frequent sunburns were defined as the report of > or = 3 sunburns during the past summer. We compared those who reported having used a tanning bed in the past year at least once with those who reported no tanning bed use in the past year. Routine use of sunscreen was defined as a respondent who replied that he or she "always" or "often" used sunscreen with sun protection factor of 15 or more when he or she was outside for > 15 minutes on a sunny day during the past summer. General estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for gender, age, color of untanned skin, and number of friends who were tanned. We also conducted an additional analysis restricted to children whose mothers had received a diagnosis of skin cancer in which we assessed sun protection behaviors according to the child's age and mother's age at the time of the mother's diagnosis and the number of years that had passed since the diagnosis of the mother's skin cancer. In 1999, 9943 children reported their sun protection behaviors; 8697 of their mothers had not received a diagnosis of skin cancer or reported a family history of melanoma, 463
Sheidow, Ashli J; Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Strachan, Martha K
Although research suggests that stress exposure and family functioning are associated with internalizing problems in adolescents and caregivers, surprisingly few studies have investigated the mechanisms that underlie this association. To determine whether family functioning buffers the development of internalizing problems in stress-exposed families, we assessed the relation between stress exposure, family functioning, and internalizing symptoms among a large sample of inner-city male youth and their caregivers living in poverty across five waves of data collection. We hypothesized that stress exposure and family functioning would predict development of subsequent youth and caregiver internalizing problems and that family functioning would moderate this relation, with higher functioning families demonstrating greater resiliency to stress exposure. We used a longitudinal, prospective design to evaluate whether family functioning (assessed at waves one through four) activated or buffered the effects of stress exposure (assessed at wave one) on subsequent internalizing symptoms (assessed at waves four and five). Stress from Developmental Transitions and family functioning were significant predictors of depressive symptoms and anxiety in youth; however, family functioning did not moderate the relation. Family functioning mediated the relation between stress from Daily Hassles and internalizing outcomes suggesting that poor parenting practices, low structure, and low emotional cohesion activate depression and anxiety in youth exposed to chronic and frequent everyday stressors. Surprisingly, only family functioning predicted depressive symptoms in caregivers. Results validate the use of a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of stress when investigating internalizing outcomes in youth and support using family-based interventions in the treatment and prevention of internalizing.
Cavallini, Adriane Q.; Erekson, David M.; Steinberg, Rachel M.; Clayson, Rachelle A.; Albright, Dallin D.
Family history events have been shown to be reliable predictors of eating and body image concerns; however, little is known regarding how family history events compare in a clinical sample, or if these events differ by gender. The current study addresses this paucity, focusing on 3,129 university students seeking clinical services. Having a family…
Das, Mithun; Pal, Susil; Ghosh, Arnab
Our objective was to test the association between familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult Asian Indians. A total of 448 adult (>30 years) individuals (257 males and 191 females) participated in the study. Familial risk of T2DM was classified into three groups viz., 1=both parents affected; 2=parent and/or siblings affected and 3=none or no family history for T2DM. Anthropometric measures, blood pressures, fasting blood glucose and metabolic profiles were studied using standard techniques. MS was defined accordingly. The prevalence of MS phenotypes was estimated and compared among the three familial risk strata. Individuals with a history of both parents affected from diabetes had significantly higher (Pfamily history of T2DM. Significant difference was also noticed between individuals with and without MS according to the family history of diabetes (Pfamily history of T2DM. Family history of T2DM had significant effect on individuals with MS as compared to their counterparts (individuals having no family history of T2DM). It therefore seems reasonable to argue that family history of T2DM could be useful as a predictive tool for early diagnosis and prevention of MS in Asian Indian population.
Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....
Asgari, Maryam M; Warton, E Margaret; Whittemore, Alice S
The contribution of family history to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) risk has not been systematically quantified. To examine the association between self-reported family history of skin cancer and SCC risk. Cases (n = 415) with a pathology-verified SCC and 415 age-, gender-, and race-matched controls were identified within a large integrated health care delivery system. Family history and skin cancer risk factors were ascertained by survey. Odds ratios (ORs) for associations of SCC with family history of skin cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for environmental and innate SCC risk factors. Any known family history of skin cancer was associated with a four-fold higher risk of SCC, adjusting for known environmental and innate SCC risk factors (OR, 4.0; confidence interval [CI]: 2.5-6.5). An unknown family history of skin cancer showed similar risk for SCC (OR, 3.9; CI: 2.4-6.5). In models including skin cancer type, the strongest association was for family history of basal cell carcinoma (OR, 9.8; CI: 2.6-36.8) and for multiple skin cancer types (OR, 10.5; CI: 3.7-29.6). Family history of skin cancer is an important independent risk factor for cutaneous SCCs.
Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.
Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…
Background: A family history of psychosis is associated with negative clinical characteristics of psychosis. Aim: We aimed to determine the relationship between a family history (in first-degree relatives) of psychosis (FHP) or of any mental illness (FHM), and the clinical features (including cannabis use) of first episode early ...
Berentzen, Nina E.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Koppelman, Gerard H.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Bo; Gehring, Ulrike; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Smit, Henriette A.
Aims/hypothesis Despite the overlap in occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes and their risk factors, family history of these diseases has not yet been investigated simultaneously in relation to cardiometabolic markers in offspring. We examined how a family history of CVD
Berentzen, Nina E; Wijga, Alet H; van Rossem, Lenie; Koppelman, Gerard H; van Nieuwenhuizen, Bo; Gehring, Ulrike; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Smit, Henriëtte A
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Despite the overlap in occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes and their risk factors, family history of these diseases has not yet been investigated simultaneously in relation to cardiometabolic markers in offspring. We examined how a family history of CVD
Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Petersen, Jonathan Aavang; Bundgård, Henning
of cardiovascular medications. CONCLUSION: A detailed family history, particularly number of affected first- and second-degree relatives, contributes meaningfully to risk assessment, especially in middle-aged persons. Future studies should test for potential improvement of risk algorithm prediction using detailed......BACKGROUND: Family history of myocardial infarction (MI) is an independent risk factor for MI. Several genetic variants are associated with increased risk of MI and family history of MI in a first-degree relative doubles MI risk. However, although family history of MI is not a simple dichotomous...... risk factor, the impact of specific, detailed family histories has not received much attention, despite its high clinical relevance. We examined risk of MI by MIs in first- and second-degree relatives and by number and age of affected relatives. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using Danish national registers, we...
Liu, Xiaowen; Cai, Hong; Yu, Lin; Huang, Hua; Long, Ziwen; Wang, Yanong
Family history of cancer is a risk factor for gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the prognoses of gastric cancer patients with family history of cancer. A total of 1805 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy from 2000 to 2008 were evaluated. The clinicopathologic parameters and prognoses of gastric cancer patients with a positive family history (PFH) of cancer were compared with those with a negative family history (NFH). Of 1805 patients, 382 (21.2%) patients had a positive family history of cancer. Positive family history of cancer correlated with younger age, more frequent alcohol and tobacco use, worse differentiation, smaller tumor size, and more frequent tumor location in the lower 1/3 of the stomach. The prognoses of patients with a positive family history of cancer were better than that of patients with a negative family history. Family history of cancer independently correlated with better prognosis after curative gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients.
Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Haug, Peter J; Williams, Marc S
The family health history has long been recognized as an effective way of understanding individuals' susceptibility to familial disease; yet electronic tools to support the capture and use of these data have been characterized as inadequate. As part of an ongoing effort to build patient-facing tools for entering detailed family health histories, we have compiled a set of concepts specific to familial disease using multi-source sampling. These concepts were abstracted by analyzing family health history data patterns in our enterprise data warehouse, collection patterns of consumer personal health records, analyses from the local state health department, a healthcare data dictionary, and concepts derived from genetic-oriented consumer education materials. Collectively, these sources yielded a set of more than 500 unique disease concepts, represented by more than 2500 synonyms for supporting patients in entering coded family health histories. We expect that these concepts will be useful in providing meaningful data and education resources for patients and providers alike.
Greg J. Duncan
Full Text Available Increases in family income inequality in the United States have translated into widening gaps in educational achievement and attainments between children from low- and high-income families. We describe the mechanisms that have produced this disturbing trend. We argue that the three dominant policy approaches states and the federal government have used to improve the education of the disadvantaged have had at best modest success in improving education for disadvantaged children. To conclude, we describe the building blocks for an American solution to the problem of growing inequality of educational outcomes.
Ruiter, Jolien S; Berkenbosch-Nieuwhof, Karin; van den Berg, Maarten P; van Dijk, Rene; Middel, Berrie; van Tintelen, J Peter
In potentially inherited cardiac diseases, the family history is of great importance. We looked at the way cardiologists take a family history in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or long QT syndrome (LQTS) and whether this led to screening of relatives or other follow-up. We performed retrospective cross-sectional analyses of adult index patients with DCM or LQTS in a general hospital (GH) or a University Medical Center (UMC). We identified 82 index patients with DCM (34 GH; 48 UMC) and 20 with LQTS (all UMC) between 1996 and 2005. Mean follow-up was 58 months. A family history was recorded in 90% of both LQTS and DCM patients most of the cases restricted to first-degree family members. The genetic aspects, counseling and screening of family members was discussed significantly more often with LQTS than DCM patients (all P family members, DNA analysis and referral) was performed significantly more often in LQTS than DCM patients. Cardiologists in the UMC referred DCM index patients for genetic counseling more often than those in the GH (25% vs. 6%; P familial. Since early recognition and treatment may reduce morbidity and mortality we recommend cardiologists take a more thorough family history and always consider referring to a clinical genetics department in such index patients. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K
This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.
Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein
Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…
Frahm, Kathryn; Gammonley, Denise; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Paek, Seung Chun
Using 2003 nursing home data from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) database, this study investigated the role of family support among nursing homes serving residents with a mental health history. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create and test a conceptual model of family support using indicators located within the MDS database. Families were…
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…
Putria Rayani Apandi
Full Text Available Background The prevalence of childhood obesity and atopy has increased in recent decades. Research on links between obesity and atopy has shown varied results. Few previous studies have reported on the significance of family history of atopic disease in children. Objective To determine correlation between obesity with atopy and family history of atopic disease in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to September 2010 in the Pediatric Allergy-Immunology subdivision, Hasan Sadikin Hospital. Children aged 6−11 years were divided into four groups of 40 each: obese subjects with and without family history of atopic disease, and normal weight subjects with and without family history of atopic disease. Skin prick test was performed to determine which subjects had atopy. Chi-square test was used to analyze mutual independence, and partial Chi-square test was used to analyze correlation of obesity to atopy and family history of atopic disease in children. Environmental factors, type of childbirth, and pregnancy history were also analyzed as risk factors for atopy. Results Of 80 obese children with and without family history of atopic disease, 40 (100% and 38 (95%, respectively, were atopic. Of 80 normal weight children with and without family history of atopic disease, 39 (98% and 9 (23%, respectively, were atopic. Thus atopy was observed in 126 subjects, while the remaining 34 subjects were non-atopic. Partial test showed a correlation between obesity with atopy and family history of atopic disease (P < 0.001. There were no significant differences in risk factors for atopy by group. Conclusion Obesity correlates with atopy and family history of atopic disease in children.
Gundlund, Anna; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Staerk, Laila
and multivariable Cox models, we examined the risk of long-term outcomes. We identified 8658 AF patients (4329 matched pairs) with and without familial AF. The median age was 50 years (interquartile range 43-54 years), and 21.4% were women. Compared with nonfamilial AF patients, those with familial AF had slightly...... less comorbid illness but similar overall CHA2DS2-VASc score (P=0.155). Median follow-up was 3.4 years (interquartile range 1.5-6.5 years). Patients with familial AF had risk of death and thromboembolism similar to those with nonfamilial AF (adjusted hazard ratio 0.91 [95% CI 0.79-1.04] for death and 0...
O'Leary, James; Edelson, Vaughn; Gardner, Nicora; Gepp, Alejandra; Kyler, Panelpha; Moore, Penelope; Petruccio, Claudia; Williams, Marc; Terry, Sharon; Bowen, Deborah
There has been little study of whether family health history (FHH) tools used by individuals, families, and communities inspire measurable changes in communication and behavior. The Community-Centered Family Health History (CCFHH) project was a collaborative endeavor among national and community-based organizations with an interest in genetics education and health. Using community- based participatory research principles as a foundation, CCFHH examined whether the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit, a set of two customizable booklets on health and genetics, encourages discussion and collection of FHH information across diverse communities. Five communities across the country measured the utility of customized versions of the Does It Run In the Family? toolkit. Each community partner recruited families, consisting of two or more blood relatives, to use the toolkit for 3 months, discuss it among their family members, and consider the implications of the health information. Pre- and postintervention surveys measured family communication about family history and disease risk and the use of FHH information in health care provider interactions. After aggregate, cross-community analysis of individual responses, from pre- to post-toolkit use family members showed increases in communication about family history of disease risk (p < .05) and in awareness about FHH (p < .05). These findings indicate that diverse communities are receptive to FHH intervention, and tailored health educational materials can lead to increased conversations and awareness about health issues across communities.
Moghimi-Dehkordi, B; Safaee, A; Vahedi, M; Pourhoseingholi, M A; Pourhoseingholi, A; Zali, M R
Family cancer history is an important risk factor for common cancers, thus, recognizing pattern of familial cancer can help us to identify individuals who may have higher chance to develop specified cancers. This cross-sectional survey assessed family history of cancer in first- and second degree relatives. Totally, 7,300 persons aged > or = 20 years selected by random sampling from Tehran general population. Age- and sex-specified prevalence of breast and ovarian cancer in respondent's family was calculated. Of all, 279(4.3%) individuals reported a history of breast or ovarian cancer in their relatives. The prevalence of breast cancer family history was 1.8% among first-degree relatives and 2.5% among second- degree relatives. For ovarian cancer, first- and second-degree prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 0.12%. Those with family history of cancer were more often young and female. Overall, the estimates of prevalence presented here are likely to be conservative compared with actual current prevalence because of some limitations. While family history is an important risk factor for common cancers such as breast cancer, recognizing pattern of familial cancer that signify increased risk can help us to identify individuals who may have higher chance to develop specified cancers.
McDowell, Michelle E; Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K
To examine how family history of prostate cancer, risk perceptions, and heuristic decision strategies influence prostate cancer screening behavior. Men with a first-degree family history of prostate cancer (FDRs; n = 207) and men without a family history (PM; n = 239) completed a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) examining prostate cancer risk perceptions, PSA testing behaviors, perceptions of similarity to the typical man who gets prostate cancer (representativeness heuristic), and availability of information about prostate cancer (availability heuristic). A path model explored family history as influencing the availability of information about prostate cancer (number of acquaintances with prostate cancer and number of recent discussions about prostate cancer) to mediate judgments of risk and to predict PSA testing behaviors and family history as a moderator of the relationship between representativeness (perceived similarity) and risk perceptions. FDRs reported greater risk perceptions and a greater number of PSA tests than did PM. Risk perceptions predicted increased PSA testing only in path models and was significant only for PM in multi-Group SEM analyses. Family history moderated the relationship between similarity perceptions and risk perceptions such that the relationship between these variables was significant only for FDRs. Recent discussions about prostate cancer mediated the relationships between family history and risk perceptions, and the number of acquaintances men knew with prostate cancer mediated the relationship between family history and PSA testing behavior. Family history interacts with the individuals' broader social environment to influence risk perceptions and screening behavior. Research into how risk perceptions develop and what primes behavior change is crucial to underpin psychological or public health intervention that seeks to influence health decision making.
Petermann, Fanny; Díaz-Martínez, Ximena; Garrido-Méndez, Álex; Leiva, Ana María; Martínez, María Adela; Salas, Carlos; Poblete-Valderrama, Felipe; Celis-Morales, Carlos
To investigate whether the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and family history of diabetes is modified by the levels of physical activity in the Chilean population. In this study were included 5129 participants from the cross-sectional 2009-2010 National Health Survey. Physical activity level was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and family history of T2D, through self-reporting. The association between diabetes, family history of diabetes and physical activity was determined using logistic regression. The odds of developing T2D in people with family history of this pathology is high, independent of their levels of physical activity and adiposity. Both men and women with family history of T2D have a higher probability of developing T2D. The odds ratio for having T2D was 5,49 (95%CI: 3,85-7,84; p <0,0001) in women, and 8,16 (95%CI: 4,96-13,4; p <0,0001) in men with family history of T2D and low levels of physical activity in comparison to those with high levels of physical activity and without a family history. Given the elevated risk of developing T2D presented by individuals with a family history of this pathology, and the effect of physical activity in reducing such risk, people with family history of diabetes may need higher levels of physical activity to attenuate their susceptibility to T2D. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
East, Patricia L; Reyes, Barbara T; Horn, Emily J
The extent to which young women's risk of adolescent pregnancy is associated with having a mother who was a teenage parent, a sister who was a teenage parent or both is not known. A sample of 127 Latina and black adolescent females completed in-depth surveys at three time points between 1994 and 2000. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether socioeconomic factors, mothers' parenting characteristics and certain sibling relationship qualities explain the association between a family history of teenage births and young women's risk of pregnancy. Compared with young women with no family history of teenage births, young women whose sister had had a teenage birth and those whose sister and mother both had had teenage births were significantly more likely to experience a teenage pregnancy (odds ratios, 4.8 and 5.1, respectively). Young women who had only a sister who had had a teenage birth had greater odds of pregnancy than young women who had only a mother who had had a teenage birth (4.5). Having both a mother and a sister who had had teenage births was independently associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.7), even after controlling for socioeconomic and mothers' parenting characteristics. Frequent companionship with an older sister was associated with increased odds of teenage pregnancy (4.5); frequent conflict with an older sister who had had a teenage birth was marginally associated with decreased odds of the outcome (0.3). Pregnancy prevention interventions targeting young women according to maternal and sibling teenage birth histories may be effective.
Knorr, Ulla; Søndergaard, Mia H Greisen; Koefoed, Pernille
The brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play an important role in the course of depression. We aimed to study the associations between peripheral whole blood BDNF levels in healthy individuals with and without a family history of depression. BDNF levels were significantly increased...... in healthy individuals with (n = 76), compared with healthy individuals without (n = 39) a family history of depression and persisted after adjustment for age and gender differences. Higher BDNF levels were associated with increasing age and seasonality. A family history of depression may contribute...... to an elevation of peripheral BDNF levels in healthy individuals....
Ripping, Theodora Maria; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Otten, Johannes D M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M
Several reviews have estimated the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic screening in the general population. The balance may, however, differ between individuals with and without family history. Therefore, our aim is to assess the cumulative risk of screening outcomes; screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer, and false-positive results, in women screenees aged 50-75 and 40-75, with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer at the start of screening. Data on screening attendance, recall and breast cancer detection were collected for each woman living in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) since 1975. We used a discrete time survival model to calculate the cumulative probability of each major screening outcome over 19 screening rounds. Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher risk of all screening outcomes. For women screened from age 50-75, the cumulative risk of screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer and false-positive results were 9.0, 4.4 and 11.1% for women with a family history and 6.3, 2.7 and 7.3% for women without a family history, respectively. The results for women 40-75 followed the same pattern for women screened 50-75 for cancer outcomes, but were almost doubled for false-positive results. To conclude, women with a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer are more likely to experience benefits and harms of screening than women without a family history. To complete the balance and provide risk-based screening recommendations, the breast cancer mortality reduction and overdiagnosis should be estimated for family history subgroups. © 2015 UICC.
Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H
Three of the most consistently reported and powerful predictors of depression are a recent major life event, a positive family history for depression, and a personal history of past depressive episodes. Little research, however, has evaluated the inter-relations among these predictors in depressed samples. Such information is descriptively valuable and potentially etiologically informative. In the present article we summarize the existing literature and test four predictions in a sample of 62 clinically depressed individuals: (1) participants who experienced a major life event prior to onset would be less likely than participants who did not experience a major life event to have a positive family history for depression; (2) participants with a recent major life event would have fewer lifetime episodes of depression than would participants without; (3) participants with a positive family history for depression would have more lifetime episodes of depression than would participants with a negative family history for depression; and (4) we would obtain a 3-way interaction in which participants with a positive family history and without a major life event would have the most lifetime episodes, whereas participants with a negative family history and a major life event would have the fewest lifetime episodes. The first three predictions were confirmed, and the fourth prediction partially confirmed. These novel findings begin to elucidate the complex relations among these three prominent risk factors for depression, and point to avenues of research that may help illuminate the origins of depressive episodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ostrom, Quinn T.; McCulloh, Christopher; Chen, Yanwen; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli
Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not been established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%), 78 meningioma (65%), 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1%), and 152 glioma patients (58.2%). The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusion: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases.
Ostrom, Quinn T. [Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); McCulloh, Christopher [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chen, Yanwen; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli, E-mail: email@example.com [Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States)
Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not been established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%), 78 meningioma (65%), 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1%), and 152 glioma patients (58.2%). The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusion: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases.
Full Text Available Purpose: Family history is associated with gliomas, but this association has not ben established for benign brain tumors. Using information from newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients, we describe patterns of family cancer histories in patients with benign brain tumors and compare those to patients with gliomas. Methods: Newly diagnosed primary brain tumor patients were identified as part of the Ohio Brain Tumor Study (OBTS. Each patient was asked to participate in a telephone interview about personal medical history, family history of cancer, and other exposures. Information was available from 33 acoustic neuroma (65%, 78 meningioma (65%, 49 pituitary adenoma (73.1% and 152 glioma patients (58.2%. The association between family history of cancer and each subtype was compared with gliomas using unconditional logistic regression models generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: There was no significant difference in family history of cancer between patients with glioma and benign subtypes. Conclusions: The results suggest that benign brain tumor may have an association with family history of cancer. More studies are warranted to disentangle the potential genetic and/or environmental causes for these diseases.
Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Shete, Sanjay; Lau, Ching C.; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Lai, Rose; Il'yasova, Dora; Houlston, Richard S.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Wrensch, Margaret; Davis, Faith G.; Merrell, Ryan; Johansen, Christoffer; Sadetzki, Siegal; Bondy, Melissa L.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Adatto, Phyllis; Morice, Fabian; Payen, Sam; McQuinn, Lacey; McGaha, Rebecca; Guerra, Sandra; Paith, Leslie; Roth, Katherine; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Yung, Alfred; Aldape, Kenneth; Gilbert, Mark; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Colman, Howard; Conrad, Charles; de Groot, John; Forman, Arthur; Groves, Morris; Levin, Victor; Loghin, Monica; Puduvalli, Vinay; Sawaya, Raymond; Heimberger, Amy; Lang, Frederick; Levine, Nicholas; Tolentino, Lori; Saunders, Kate; Thach, Thu-Trang; Iacono, Donna Dello; Sloan, Andrew; Gerson, Stanton; Selman, Warren; Bambakidis, Nicholas; Hart, David; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Alan; Cohen, Mark; Rogers, Lisa; Nock, Charles J; Wolinsky, Yingli; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Barrett, Wendi; Shimmel, Kristen; Ostrom, Quinn; Barnett, Gene; Rosenfeld, Steven; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weil, Robert; Ahluwalia, Manmeet; Peereboom, David; Staugaitis, Susan; Schilero, Cathy; Brewer, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; McGraw, Mary; Naska, Theresa; Rosenfeld, Steven; Ram, Zvi; Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix; Umansky, Felix; Zaaroor, Menashe; Cohen, Avi; Tzuk-Shina, Tzeela; Voldby, Bo; Laursen, René; Andersen, Claus; Brennum, Jannick; Henriksen, Matilde Bille; Marzouk, Maya; Davis, Mary Elizabeth; Boland, Eamon; Smith, Marcel; Eze, Ogechukwu; Way, Mahalia; Lada, Pat; Miedzianowski, Nancy; Frechette, Michelle; Paleologos, Nina; Byström, Gudrun; Svedberg, Eva; Huggert, Sara; Kimdal, Mikael; Sandström, Monica; Brännström, Nikolina; Hayat, Amina; Tihan, Tarik; Zheng, Shichun; Berger, Mitchel; Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan; Clarke, Jennifer; Prados, Michael; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jeannette; Kivett, Valerie; Duo, Xiaoqin; Hansen, Helen; Hsuang, George; Lamela, Rosito; Ramos, Christian; Patoka, Joe; Wagenman, Katherine; Zhou, Mi; Klein, Adam; McGee, Nora; Pfefferle, Jon; Wilson, Callie; Morris, Pagan; Hughes, Mary; Britt-Williams, Marlin; Foft, Jessica; Madsen, Julia; Polony, Csaba; McCarthy, Bridget; Zahora, Candice; Villano, John; Engelhard, Herbert; Borg, Ake; Chanock, Stephen K; Collins, Peter; Elston, Robert; Kleihues, Paul; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Gloria; Plon, Sharon; Thompson, Patricia; Johansen, C.; Sadetzki, S.; Melin, B.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Lau, Ching C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Yu, Robert K.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Houlston, Richard S.; Hosking, Fay J.; Robertson, Lindsay; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Sloan, Andrew E.; Barnett, Gene; Devine, Karen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Lai, Rose; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Sadetzki, Siegal; Yechezkel, Galit Hirsh; Bruchim, Revital Bar-Sade; Aslanov, Lili; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Broholm, Helle; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Olson, Sara H.; Schubert, Erica; DeAngelis, Lisa; Jenkins, Robert B.; Yang, Ping; Rynearson, Amanda; Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Henriksson, Roger; Melin, Beatrice S.; Cederquist, Kristina; Aradottir, Steina; Borg, Åke; Merrell, Ryan; Lada, Patricia; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Wiemels, Joe; McCoy, Lucie; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Davis, Faith G.
Background Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers. Methods Germline rearrangements in 146 glioma families (from the Gliogene Consortium; http://www.gliogene.org/) were examined using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1, and MSH2 were selected because these genes have been previously reported to be associated with cancer pedigrees known to include glioma. Results We detected a single structural rearrangement, a deletion of exons 1-6 in MSH2, in the proband of one family with 3 cases with glioma and one relative with colon cancer. Conclusions Large deletions and duplications are rare events in familial glioma cases, even in families with a strong family history of cancers that may be involved in known cancer syndromes. PMID:24723567
The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer...
The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...
Albright, Frederick; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Teerlink, Craig C; Lowrance, William T; Farnham, James M; Albright, Lisa A Cannon
Background Prostate cancer (PC) relative risks (RRs) are typically estimated based on status of close relatives or presence of any affected relatives. This study provides RR estimates using extensive and specific PC family history. Methods A retrospective population-based study was undertaken to estimate RRs for PC based on complete family history of PC. A total of 635,443 males, all with ancestral genealogy data, were analyzed. RRs for PC were determined based upon PC rates estimated from ma...
Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus W
BACKGROUND: Schizoaffective disorder may be related to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but no population-based studies, to our knowledge, have investigated this association in families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder......, or schizophrenia among parents and siblings is a risk factor for developing a schizoaffective disorder, and whether a specific pattern of family history of psychiatric illness exists in persons with schizoaffective disorder compared with persons with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN: Register-based cohort...... study. SETTING: Denmark. COHORT: The 2.4 million persons born in Denmark after 1952. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of the 3 illnesses estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1925 persons had a schizoaffective disorder, 3721 had a bipolar disorder, and 12 501 had schizophrenia...
Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie
The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree relatives and found only 1 case of melanoma which was not reported in a 3 case melanoma family. Melanoma patients in Denmark report family history of melanoma in first and second degree relatives with a high level of accuracy with a true positive predictive value between 77 and 87%. In 99% of probands reporting a negative family history of melanoma in first degree relatives this information is correct. In clinical practice we recommend that melanoma diagnosis in relatives should be verified if possible, but even unverified reported melanoma cases in relatives should be included in the indication of genetic testing and assessment of melanoma risk in the family.
Basit, A.; Hakeem, R.; Hydrie, M.Z.; Ahmadani, M.Y.; Masood, Q.
Objective: To assess the differences in relative risk of developing diabetes and CHD, obesity, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids of children having family history of diabetes or heart disease in first or second degree relatives as compared to control group. Design: Children were given a questionnaire to collect demographic data and to assess their dietary habits and family history. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids of 8-10 years old children from 4 schools was taken. Subjects: Children having positive family history of diabetes (n=44) or heart disease (n=16) in first or second degree relatives were compared with a control group (n=39). Results: Children having positive family history for diabetes had slightly higher mean values for BMI, waist circumference, arm fat % as compared to the controls but the differences were not statistically significant. Overweight children (>85th Percentile of BMI for age) did not differ significantly in terms of various risk indicators however those who were in the uppermost tertile of arm fat % had significantly higher total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C, LDL:HDL and Insulin levels (P<0.05 in each case). Conclusion: Diabetes and CVD risks from positive family history for the disease are probably mediated through increased body fat percentage. Thus even when information about family history of disease is lacking, arm-fat-percentage could be used as an important screening tool for determining the risk status of children. (author)
Luckhoff, Hilmar K; Brand, Theresa; van Velden, Dawid P; Kidd, Martin; Fisher, Leslie R; van Rensburg, Susan J; Kotze, Maritha J
Having a family history of Alzheimer' s disease (AD) may potentiate cumulative risk associated with phenotypic expression of the ε-4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. In this study, we compared the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of APOE ε-2 (rs7412) and ε -4 (rs429358) in 537 South African individuals participating in a chronic disease screening program, in order to establish whether AD family history modulates the expression of their dyslipidemic effects. Significant differences in the genotype distribution for APOE ε-2 (p=0.034) as well as APOE ε-4 (p=0.038) were found between study participants with (n=67) and without (n=470) a family history of AD. LDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated with physical activity in the study group with a positive family history of AD (pfamilial hypercholesterolemia, clinical inquiry regarding family history was identified as an important determinant of eligibility for APOE genotyping performed in the context of chronic disease risk management. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the modulating influence of AD family history on expression of a dyslipidemic phenotype associated with the APOE ε-4 allele. Our findings provide the scientific rationale supporting a novel clinical application for APOE genotyping as a means of identifying a genetic subgroup of dyslipidemic patients set to derive the greatest benefit from early lifestyle-based interventions aimed at decreasing cumulative risk for cardiovascular disease and prevention of AD later in life.
Son, Yedong; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Sang Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang Yoon
To investigate the completeness of pedigree and of number of pedigree analysis to know the acceptable familial history in Korean women with ovarian cancer. Interview was conducted in 50 ovarian cancer patients for obtaining familial history three times over the 6 weeks. The completeness of pedigree is estimated in terms of familial history of disease (cancer), health status (health living, disease and death), and onset age of disease and death. The completion of pedigree was 79.3, 85.1, and 85.6% at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd time of interview and the time for pedigree analysis was 34.3, 10.8, and 3.1 minutes, respectively. The factors limiting pedigree analysis were as follows: out of contact with their relatives (38%), no living ancestors who know the family history (34%), dispersed family member because of the Korean War (16%), unknown cause of death (12%), reluctance to ask medical history of relatives (10%), and concealing their ovarian cancer (10%). The percentage of cancers revealed in 1st (2%) and 2nd degree (8%) relatives were increasing through surveys, especially colorectal cancer related with Lynch syndrome (4%). Analysis of pedigree at least two times is acceptable in Korean woman with ovarian cancer from the first study. The completion of pedigree is increasing, while time to take family history is decreasing during three time survey.
Michael L Alosco
Full Text Available Background/Objective: Bariatric surgery can reverse cognitive impairments associated with obesity. However, such benefits may be attenuated in individuals with a predisposing risk for cognitive impairment such as family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: In all, 94 bariatric surgery participants completed a computerized cognitive test battery before and 12 weeks after surgery. Family history of Alzheimer’s disease was obtained through self-report. Results: In the overall sample, cognitive function improved in memory and attention/executive function 12 weeks post-surgery. Repeated measures showed similar rates of improvements in attention/executive function between patients with and without a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, only individuals without a family history of Alzheimer’s disease exhibited post-operative improvements in memory. A family history of Alzheimer’s disease was associated with greater post-surgery rates of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Family history of Alzheimer’s disease may limit post-surgery cognitive benefits. Future studies should examine whether weight loss can modify the course of cognitive decline in patients at-risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
Thériault, François L; Colman, Ian
Many adults suffering from mental disorders never receive the care they need. The role of family and friends in overcoming mental health treatment barriers is poorly understood. We investigated the association between awareness of lifetime mental health treatment history in one's family or friends, and likelihood of having recently received mental health care for oneself. Using Canadian Community Health Survey 2012-Mental Health data, we defined care seekers as individuals who talked about mental health issues to at least one health professional in the past 12 months. Seekers were matched to non-seekers based on estimated care seeking propensity, and 1933 matched pairs were created. Reported awareness of lifetime treatment history in family and friends was compared between seekers and non-seekers. There were no differences in the distribution of any confounder of interest between seekers and non-seekers. 73% of seekers were aware of treatment history in family or friends, compared to only 56% of non-seekers (RR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2, 1.3). Awareness of treatment history in family members had nearly identical associations with care seeking as awareness of treatment history in friends. We have found a social clustering of mental health care seeking behavior; individuals who were aware of lifetime treatment history in family or friends were more likely to have recently sought care for themselves. These novel results are consistent with a social learning model of care seeking behavior, and could inform efforts to bridge the current mental health treatment gap.
Pollak, Robert A.; Ginther, Donna K.
This paper examines correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Although popular discussions focus on distinctions between two-parent and single-parent families, earlier research shows that outcomes for stepchildren are similar to outcomes for children in single-parent families, and earlier researchers suggested that…
Full Text Available Myocarditis can lead to acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death and later, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM with chronic heart failure. We report the cases of two DCM induced by acute and past myocarditis in the same family and expressed by its two main complications within few weeks: an hemodynamic presentation as a fulminant myocarditis rapidly leading to cardiac tranplantation and a rythmologic presentation as an electrical storm leading to catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. These cases ask the question of the family predisposition to viral myocarditis leading to DCM.
Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.
The authors assessed how family history loading affected the course of illness in patients from the United States. A total of 676 outpatients with bipolar disorder from the United States rated their illness and provided a parental and grandparental history of mood disorder, substance abuse, and
Beckman, Paula J.; Bristol, Marie M.
This paper identifies four key issues in the implementation of Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) to provide services to young handicapped children as required by Public Law 99-457. These include sensitivity to cultural diversity, family assessment, intrusiveness, and establishing family outcomes. A typology of family outcomes which…
Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus Wentzer
, or schizophrenia among parents and siblings is a risk factor for developing a schizoaffective disorder, and whether a specific pattern of family history of psychiatric illness exists in persons with schizoaffective disorder compared with persons with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN: Register-based cohort...... study. SETTING: Denmark. COHORT: The 2.4 million persons born in Denmark after 1952. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of the 3 illnesses estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1925 persons had a schizoaffective disorder, 3721 had a bipolar disorder, and 12 501 had schizophrenia....... The relative risk of schizoaffective disorder was 2.76 (95% confidence interval, 2.49-3.06) if a first-degree relative had a history of mental illness compared with a person with no first-degree relatives with such a history. There was an additional risk (95% confidence interval) of 2.57 (2.11-3.13), 3.23 (2...
Ginzburg, Vitaly L.
In what proved to be his last paper, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg gives some autobiographical information about his family tree, relatives, ancestors, and descendents and where the name Ginzburg comes from. A major part of V L Ginzburg's memoir is about his father — making up for what he considered to be a 'somewhat neglected' filial duty.
Nickols, Sharon Y.; Sewell, Darby; Wilmarth, Melissa
The centennial of the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences (AAFCS) provides an opportunity to explore local as well as national aspects of the field. Studying events that shaped FCS and the women and men who provided early leadership reinforces the role of FCS in improving daily living conditions for the past century. Engaging…
Full Text Available There exists a strong relationship between having a criminal history and experiencing barriers to employment. Negative credentials facilitate the social and economic exclusion of individuals with criminal records. However, previous research has not concretely identified whether the stratification of economic opportunities by individual-level criminal records may be further affecting those who demonstrate substance use histories. In this study, we examine the substance use and criminal history profiles of probationers participating in an experimental drug treatment study and how probationer characteristics affect employment outcomes and gross earnings at both the 6- and 12-month follow-up periods. We hypothesize that substance use and criminal history have a main effect and interactional relationship that reduces the odds of self-reporting employment and decreases gross earnings outcomes of probationer. Our results demonstrate that substance use history and criminal history has a main effect on employment and earnings outcomes.
Shahid, Humma; Khan, Jane C; Cipriani, Valentina; Sepp, Tiina; Matharu, Baljinder K; Bunce, Catey; Harding, Simon P; Clayton, David G; Moore, Anthony T; Yates, John R W
Family history is considered a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped. Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. The ORs for reported family history of AMD were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. 495 AMD cases, 259 spouses and 171 siblings were recruited. The OR for AMD was 27.8 (CI 3.8 to 203.0; p=0.001) with a reported family history of an affected parent and 12.0 (CI 3.7 to 38.6; p<0.0001) with a history of an affected sibling. ORs adjusted for age and smoking were higher. Examination of siblings confirmed their increased risk with 23% affected by AMD and an OR of 10.8 (4.5 to 25.8; p<0.0001). Adjusting for age increased the OR to 16.1 (6.2 to 41.8). The risk of AMD is greatly increased by having an affected first-degree relative. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.
Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Christiansen, Michael; McKenna, William J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather A
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease. Studies suggest that fatal cardiovascular events and less severe cardiovascular diseases may co-occur in families. Consequently, a family history of premature death may indicate a familial cardiac frailty that predisposes to early cardiovascular disease. We ascertained family history of premature death (age Denmark from 1950 to 2008 and followed this cohort for early cardiovascular disease (age history of premature cardiovascular death in first-degree relatives were 1.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.77), 2.21 (95% CI: 2.11 to 2.31), and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.70 to 2.20), respectively. With ≥2 cardiovascular deaths in a family, corresponding IRRs were 3.30 (95% CI: 2.77 to 3.94), 5.00 (95% CI: 3.87 to 6.45), and 6.18 (95% CI: 3.32 to 11.50). The IRR for any early cardiovascular disease given a family history of premature noncardiovascular death was significantly lower, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.14) (p(cardiac vs. noncardiac) history of premature cardiovascular death was consistently and significantly associated with a risk of early cardiovascular disease, suggesting an inherited cardiac vulnerability. These results should be kept in mind when assessing cardiovascular disease risk in persons with a family history of premature cardiovascular death. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yamasaki, Jill; Hovick, Shelly R
Given the importance of family health history and the pivotal role of older adults in communicating it, this study examines how African American older adults (a) characterize their understandings of health-related conditions in their family histories and (b) rationalize their motivations and constraints for sharing this information with current family members. Using narrative theory as a framework, we illustrate how the participants reflect on prior health-related experiences within the family to respond to moral and practical calls for communicating family health information to current relatives. Specifically, our analysis highlights how storied family secrets--as constructed by 28 participants in group and individual interviews--reveal and inform shifting cultural and generational practices that shape the lived health behaviors and communication of older adults at greater risk for health disparities.
Skibola, Christine F; Slager, Susan L; Berndt, Sonja I; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case-control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kessels, Koen; Eisinger, Joey D; Letteboer, Tom G; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Siersema, Peter D; Moons, Leon M G
To investigate whether sending a family history questionnaire to patients prior to undergoing colonoscopy results in an increased availability of family history and better genetic counseling. A questionnaire was mailed to patients before they underwent outpatient colonoscopy at a university hospital in 2013. These patients' additional characteristics and referral for genetic evaluation were retrieved from the electronic medical records. Patients undergoing inpatient coloboscopy, with confirmed hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) or inflammatory bowel disease were excluded. All study patients from 2010 to 2013 were matched with the database of the genetics department to determine who consulted a geneticist. A total of 6163 patients underwent colonoscopy from 2010 to 2013. Of 1421 who underwent colonoscopy in 2013, 53 (3.7%) consulted a geneticist, while 75 (1.6%) of 4742 patients undergoing colonoscopy between 2010 and 2012 did so (P history was not recorded in the electronic medical records of 393 (40.3%). In 129 (32.8%), family history was obtained from the completed questionnaire. In 2013, 49 (60.5%) out of 81 patients referred for genetic counseling were referred based on their family history. Eight (9.9%) patients were referred based on the completed questionnaire. Screening for hereditary CRC in a population undergoing outpatient colonoscopy with a questionnaire sent by mail resulted in an increased availability of family histories and genetic counseling. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Nathan, Paul; Ahluwalia, Aneeta; Chorley, Wendy
Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, both in the UK and worldwide. A small proportion of women are at very high risk of breast cancer, having a particularly strong family history. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has advised that practitioners should not, in most instances, actively seek to identify women with a family history of breast cancer. An audit was undertaken at an urban primary care practice of 15,000 patients, using a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire sent to patients identified with a personal history of breast cancer. The aim of this audit was to determine whether using targeted screening of relatives of patients with breast cancer to identify familial cancer risk is worthwhile in primary care. Since these patients might already expected to have been risk assessed following their initial diagnosis, this audit acts as a quality improvement exercise. The audit used a validated family history questionnaire and risk assessment tool as a screening approach for identifying and grading familial risk in line with the NICE guidelines, to guide referral to the familial cancer screening service. The response rate to family history questionnaires was 54 % and the majority of patients responded positively to their practitioner seeking to identify familial cancer risks in their family. Of the 57 returned questionnaires, over a half (54 %) contained pedigrees with individuals eligible for referral. Patients and their relatives who are often registered with the practice welcome the discussion. An appropriate referral can therefore be made. The findings suggest a role for primary care practitioners in the identification of those at higher familial risk. However integrated systems and processes need designing to facilitate this work.
Dishion, T J; Kavanagh, K
The Adolescent Transitions Program (ATP) is a multilevel approach to family-based interventions within a middle-school setting. The intervention strategy is based on an ecological framework for studying social and emotional development in children and adolescents, emphasizing a network of contextual factors within which parenting is both directly and indirectly influential on the development of problem behavior. The ATP model includes a universal, selected, and indicated strategy for serving families with young adolescents. The model is designed to address the needs of families of young adolescents that present with a range of problem behavior and diverse developmental histories. The three interventions levels are described, and outcome data are presented, that support the effectiveness of the ATP model. This approach and the associated data are consistent with a broad literature supporting the effectiveness of family interventions, especially for high-risk youth. The effective implementation of family interventions within a school context suggests that these interventions can make a significant contribution to reducing problem behavior and substance use from a public health perspective.
Melin, Beatrice; Dahlin, Anna M; Andersson, Ulrika
significantly associated with glioma risk, rs6010620 (ORtrend for the minor (A) allele, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25-0.61; Bonferroni adjusted ptrend , 1.7 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, as previously shown for glioma regardless of family history of brain tumours, rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with an increased risk...... family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies...... and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain...
Burke, Lora A
The interplay of genetic and environmental factors places first-degree relatives of individuals with premature coronary heart disease at greater risk of developing the disease than the general population. Disease processes, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose and insulin metabolism, and lifestyle habits, such as eating and exercise patterns, as well as socioeconomic status aggregate in families with coronary heart disease. The degree of risk associated with a family history varies with the degree of relationship and the age at onset of disease. All individuals with a family history of premature heart disease should have a thorough coronary risk assessment performed, which can be initiated in an office visit. Absolute risk for coronary heart disease determination will predict the intensity of preventive interventions. This article reviews the components of risk determination and primary prevention in individuals with a strong family history of coronary heart disease.
Hong, Soo Jung
This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.
Aim. We aimed to study functional mobility and visual performance in spastic diplegic children and adolescents attending specialised schools. Methods. Spastic diplegia (SD) was confirmed by clinical examination. Birth and related history were added to explore relationships between SD, birth weight (BW) and duration of ...
Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most important modifiable risk factors of vascular heart disease. Control of hypertension in different age groups has a significant effect upon the control and prevention of vascular heart disease. A familial pattern is observed in the distribution of blood pressure in different societies. Family history of hypertension has a profound effect on the future risk of developing hypertension. The blood pressure of approximately 8150 inhabitants of Isfahan aged above 18 years was measured during 1993-94. Blood pressure measurements were performed according to the standards set by WHO i.e., on two separate occasions, in the sitting position, and from both arms. A questionnaire was completed consisting of 26 questions, including questions regarding history of hypertension in first and second-degree relatives. Cases with a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more, were referred to the Cardiovascular Research Center of Isfahan for further evaluation. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was higher in cases with a positive family history of hypertension. In this study, 37.4% of the men with hypertension and 45.4% of hypertensive women had positive history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. The association between positive family history and hypertension was not significant in men (P=0.62, but it was significant in women (P=0.000. This difference was less pronounced in the older age groups, which could be explained by the illiteracy of most of the older cases and their ignorance of the existence of hypertension in family members. After correcting for the effects of confounding factors, it appears that positive family history has a stronger association with the development of hypertension in women. Moreover, positive family history is a strong prognostic factor in the likelihood of hypertension in the children of affected cases. These findings emphasize the importance of routine blood pressure measurement in children and
Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J
Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.
Shaha, Ashok R.
Objectives: To understand the natural history of thyroid cancer and high risk groups; To define the biological behavior of thyroid cancer and relate it to various prognostic factors and risk groups; To divide the management strategies into conservation, radical surgery and radioactive iodine treatment; To define the role of external radiation therapy and the management of complex and advanced thyroid cancer; To analyze the results of management of anaplastic thyroid cancer and make a plea for combined modality treatment; To define the current role of genetic studies in medullary thyroid cancer. At the end of this refresher course, the attendees will be able to understand the natural history, the prognostic factors and risk groups and surgical and combined modality treatment in thyroid cancer
Ripping, Theodora Maria; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Otten, Johannes D. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Verbeek, André L. M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.
Several reviews have estimated the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic screening in the general population. The balance may, however, differ between individuals with and without family history. Therefore, our aim is to assess the cumulative risk of screening outcomes; screen-detected
Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, M G; Pedersen, C B
A family history of schizophrenia is the strongest single indicator of individual schizophrenia risk. Bipolar affective disorder and schizo-affective disorders have been documented to occur more frequently in parents and siblings of schizophrenia patients, but the familial occurrence of the broader range of mental illnesses and their role as confounders have not been studied in large population-based samples. All people born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991 (1.74 million) were followed for the development of schizophrenia (9324 cases) during 28 million person-years at risk. Information of schizophrenia in cohort members and psychiatric history in parents and siblings was established through linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Data were analysed using log-linear Poisson regression. Schizophrenia was, as expected, strongly associated with schizophrenia and related disorders among first-degree relatives. However, almost any other psychiatric disorder among first-degree relatives increased the individual's risk of schizophrenia. The population attributable risk associated with psychiatric family history in general was 27.1% whereas family histories including schizophrenia only accounted for 6.0%. The general psychiatric family history was a confounder of the association between schizophrenia and urbanization of place of birth. Clinically diagnosed schizophrenia is associated with a much broader range of mental disorders in first-degree relatives than previously reported. This may suggest risk haplotypes shared across many disorders and/or shared environmental factors clustering in families. Failure to take the broad range of psychiatric family history into account may bias results of all risk-factor studies of schizophrenia.
Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A
There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bharath, R D; Chaitanya, G; Panda, R; Raghavendra, K; Sinha, S; Sahoo, A; Gohel, S; Biswal, B B; Satishchandra, P
The role of inheritance in ascertaining susceptibility to epilepsy is well established, although the pathogenetic mechanisms are still not very clear. Interviewing for a positive family history is a popular epidemiological tool in the understanding of this susceptibility. Our aim was to visualize and localize network abnormalities that could be associated with a positive family history in a group of patients with hot water epilepsy (HWE) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Graph theory analysis of rsfMRI (clustering coefficient γ; path length λ; small worldness σ) in probands with a positive family history of epilepsy (FHE+, 25) were compared with probands without FHE (FHE-, 33). Whether a closer biological relationship was associated with a higher likelihood of network abnormalities was also ascertained. A positive family history of epilepsy had decreased γ, increased λ and decreased σ in bilateral temporofrontal regions compared to FHE- (false discovery rate corrected P ≤ 0.0062). These changes were more pronounced in probands having first degree relatives and siblings with epilepsy. Probands with multiple types of epilepsy in the family showed decreased σ in comparison to only HWE in the family. Graph theory analysis of the rsfMRI can be used to understand the neurobiology of diseases like genetic susceptibility in HWE. Reduced small worldness, proportional to the degree of relationship, is consistent with the current understanding that disease severity is higher in closer biological relations. © 2016 EAN.
McMahon, Catherine M; Kifley, Annette; Rochtchina, Elena; Newall, Philip; Mitchell, Paul
Although it has been well established that the prevalence of and severity of hearing loss increase with age, the contribution of familial factors to age-related hearing loss cannot be quantified. This is largely because hearing loss in older people has both genetic and environmental contributions. As environmental factors play an increasing role with age, it is difficult to delineate the separate contribution of genetic factors to age-related hearing loss. In a population-based survey of hearing loss in a representative older Australian community, we attempted to overcome this using logistic regression analysis, accounting for known factors associated with hearing loss including age, sex, noise exposure at work, diabetes, and current smoking. We tested hearing thresholds using pure tone audiometry and used a forced choice questionnaire to determine the nature of family history in a population of individuals aged 50 yrs or older in a defined region, west of Sydney, Australia (N = 2669). We compared the characteristics of participants with and without family history of hearing loss. Of those reporting a positive family history, we compared subgroups for age, gender and severity of hearing loss, and trends by the severity of hearing loss. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that compared the chances of having hearing loss in participants with and without family history, after adjusting for other factors known associated with hearing loss. Our findings indicate that family history was most strongly associated with moderate to severe age-related hearing loss. We found a strong association between maternal family history of hearing loss and moderate to severe hearing loss in women (adjusted OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.6 in women with without a maternal history). Paternal family history of hearing loss was also significantly, though less strongly, associated with moderate-severe hearing loss in men (adjusted OR 2.0; CI 1
Bigdeli, Tim B.; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A.; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Malhotra, Anil K.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Fanous, Ayman H.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N = 978), cases reporting no such family history (N = 4,503), and unscreened controls (N = 8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup. We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.0021; P = 0.00331; P-value threshold history positive compared to family history negative cases (0.32 and 0.22, respectively; P = 0.031).We found suggestive evidence of allelic effects detectable in large GWAS of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant enrichment among family history positive cases for common allelic effects. Familial illness might, therefore, represent a more heritable form of schizophrenia, as suggested by
Steele, Fiona; Sigle-Rushton, Wendy; Kravdal, Øystein
Using high-quality data from Norwegian population registers, we examine the relationship between family disruption and children's educational outcomes. We distinguish between disruptions caused by parental divorce and paternal death and, using a simultaneous equation model, pay particular attention to selection bias in the effect of divorce. We also allow for the possibility that disruption may have different effects at different stages of a child's educational career. Our results suggest that selection on time-invariant maternal characteristics is important and works to overstate the effects of divorce on a child's chances of continuing in education. Nevertheless, the experience of marital breakdown during childhood is associated with lower levels of education, and the effect weakens with the child's age at disruption. The effects of divorce are most pronounced for the transitions during or just beyond the high school level. In models that do not allow for selection, children who experienced a father's death appear less disadvantaged than children whose parents divorced. After we control for selection, however differences in the educational qualifications of children from divorced and bereaved families narrow substantially and, at mean ages of divorce, are almost non-existent.
Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…
Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Li, Lin
Though growing attention has been devoted to examining informant discrepancies of family attributes in social science research, studies that examine how interactions between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning predict adolescent developmental outcomes in underprivileged families are severely lacking. The current study investigated the difference between mothers and adolescents in their reports of family functioning, as well as the relationships between mother-reported and adolescent-reported family functioning and adolescent developmental outcomes in a sample of 432 Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years, 51.2 % girls, mean age of mothers = 43.5 years, 69.9 % divorced) experiencing economic disadvantage in Hong Kong. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to assess whether discrepancy in family functioning between mother reports and adolescent reports predicted resilience, beliefs in the future, cognitive competence, self-efficacy and self-determination of adolescents. The results indicated that adolescents reported family functioning more negatively than did their mothers. Polynomial regression analyses showed that the interaction term between mothers' reports and adolescents' reports of family functioning predicted adolescent developmental outcomes in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty. Basically, under poor adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescent development would be relatively better if their mothers reported more positive family functioning. In contrast, under good adolescent-reported family functioning, adolescents expressed better developmental outcomes when mothers reported lower levels of family functioning than those mothers who reported higher levels of family functioning. The findings provide insights on how congruency and discrepancy between informant reports of family functioning would influence adolescent development. Theoretical and practical implications of
ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.
Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work interference (FWI) experienced by the employee also affects the work outcomes of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWI has an effect on the co-worker's outcomes through the crossover of positive and…
The "Supportive Housing for Homeless Families: Foster Care Outcomes and Best Practices" report describes the outcome evaluation of Cottage Housing Incorporated's Serna Village program in Sacramento, California. Serna Village is a supportive housing program serving homeless families. Outcomes from the program illustrate that it is…
Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.
Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…
Johnatty, Sharon E; Tan, Yen Y; Buchanan, Daniel D; Bowman, Michael; Walters, Rhiannon J; Obermair, Andreas; Quinn, Michael A; Blomfield, Penelope B; Brand, Alison; Leung, Yee; Oehler, Martin K; Kirk, Judy A; O'Mara, Tracy A; Webb, Penelope M; Spurdle, Amanda B
To determine endometrial cancer (EC) risk according to family cancer history, including assessment by degree of relatedness, type of and age at cancer diagnosis of relatives. Self-reported family cancer history was available for 1353 EC patients and 628 controls. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between EC and cancer diagnosis in ≥1 first or second degree relative, and to assess whether level of risk differed by degree of relationship and/or relative's age at diagnosis. Risk was also evaluated for family history of up to three cancers from known familial syndromes (Lynch, Cowden, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) overall, by histological subtype and, for a subset of 678 patients, by EC tumor mismatch repair (MMR) gene expression. Report of EC in ≥1 first- or second-degree relative was associated with significantly increased risk of EC (P=3.8×10 -7 ), independent of lifestyle risk factors. There was a trend in increasing EC risk with closer relatedness and younger age at EC diagnosis in relatives (P Trend =4.43×10 -6 ), and with increasing numbers of Lynch cancers in relatives (P Trend ≤0.0001). EC risk associated with family history did not differ by proband tumor MMR status, or histological subtype. Reported EC in first- or second-degree relatives remained associated with EC risk after conservative correction for potential misreported family history (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.24-3.37, P=0.004). The strongest predictor of EC risk was closer relatedness and younger EC diagnosis age in ≥1 relative. Associations remained significant irrespective of proband MMR status, and after excluding MMR pathogenic variant carriers, indicating that Lynch syndrome genes do not fully explain familial EC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frisell, Thomas; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Askling, Johan
To assess whether family history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), among the strongest risk factors for developing RA, also carries information on the clinical presentation and treatment response. The prospective Swedish Rheumatology register was linked to family history of RA, defined as diagnosed RA in any first-degree relative, ascertained through the Swedish Multi-Generation and Patient registers. Clinical presentation was examined among patients with early RA 2000-2011 (symptom onset clinical characteristics, drug survival, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response and change in disease activity at 3 and 6 months was estimated using linear and generalised logistic regression models. Correlation in relatives' response measures was also assessed. Patients with early RA with family history of RA were more often rheumatoid factor positive, but with no other clinically meaningful differences in their clinical presentation. Family history of RA did not predict response to MTX or TNFi, with the possible exception of no versus good EULAR response to TNFi at 6 months (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7). Having a relative who discontinued TNFi within a year increased the odds of doing the same (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 7.5), although we found no significant familial correlations in change in disease activity measures. Family history of RA did not modify the clinical presentation of RA or predict response to standard treatment with MTX or TNFi. Treatment response, particularly drug survival, may itself be familial. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Birt, Linda; Emery, Jon D; Prevost, A Toby; Sutton, Stephen; Walter, Fiona M
Routine family history risk assessment for chronic diseases could enable primary care practitioners to efficiently identify at-risk patients and promote preventive management strategies. To investigate patients' understanding and responses to family history risk assessment in primary care. A mixed methods study set in 10 Eastern England general practices. Participants in a family history questionnaire validation study were triaged into population or increased risk for four chronic diseases (type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, colorectal cancer). Questionnaires completed immediately prior to the family history consultation (baseline) and 4 weeks later (follow-up) assessed the psychological impact, including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Semi-structured interviews explored the meaning participants gave to their personal familial disease risk. Four hundred and fifty-three participants completed both baseline and follow-up questionnaires and 30 were interviewed. At follow-up, there was no increase in anxiety among either group, or differences between the groups [difference in mean change 0.02, 95% confidence interval -2.04, 2.08, P = 0.98]. There were no significant changes over time in self-rated health in either group. At follow-up, participants at increased risk (n = 153) were more likely to have recent changes to behaviour and they had stronger intentions to make changes to diet (P = 0.001), physical activity (P = 0.006) and to seek further information in the future than those at population risk (n = 300; P assessment for familial risk of chronic diseases may be undertaken in primary care without causing anxiety or reducing self-rated health. Patient responses to family history risk assessment may inform promotion of preventive management strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Delgado, Christine E. F.
Special education outcomes were evaluated for 3,608 children (2,513 males) with a preschool history of developmental disability. Sixty-six percent of the children had an identified disability in fourth grade. The percentage of children with a disability at outcome varied across preschool disability categories from 54% to 96%. The consistency of…
Palombo, C.; Michelassi, C.; Ghione, S.
In order to assess the short-term variability of the hemodynamic pattern in healthy normal subjects, Transcutaneous Aortovelography, a continuous wave Doppler technique, was performed in 17 normotensive males, 11 with and 6 without hypertensive family history and repeated after 30'. Reproducibility of measurements in the whole sample was comparable with previous observation reported in literature, but in the group with a positive family history of hypertension the reproducibility of most parameters was lower than in the other, suggesting the existence of a greater hemodynamic variability in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents
Lu, Y.; Pouget, J. G.; Andreassen, O. A.
through the quality control procedures used by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Using external training data, GRS were estimated for SCZ, bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression, autism, educational attainment, and body mass index. Multivariable modeling was used to estimate effect sizes. Results......: Using harmonized genomic and national register data from Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden, we confirmed that family history of SCZ and GRS for SCZ and BIP were risk factors for SCZ. In a joint model, the effects of GRS for SCZ and BIP were essentially unchanged, and the effect of family history...
McGarvey, E L; Canterbury, R J; Waite, D
In this retrospective study of incarcerated adolescents, inhalants were used by significantly more nonminority than minority youth. Among both minority and nonminority groups, family problems and delinquent behaviors were higher among those youth with a history of inhalant use than those who reported no use. Family problems included history of running away from home, breaking rules, fighting with parents, and having relatives who had attempted suicide. Delinquent behavior included earlier personal use of drugs, selling illegal drugs, buying drugs from dealers, committing crimes while under the influence, committing crimes to get money to buy drugs, and threatening to hurt people.
The known association between insulin resistance and polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) has been studied by determination of the prevalence of a positive family history of diabetes in a consecutive series of oligomenorrheic women with polycystic ovaries and eumenorrheic women with normal ovaries who served as controls. A significantly greater proportion of the families of the patients with PCOD had at least one member affected by type 2 diabetes (39.1% of the PCOD group and 7.6% of the controls; p PCOD had an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes within their families. Paternal and maternal family members affected were in similar proportions, there being no evidence of preferential transmission through the female line in this study. The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the families of women with polycystic ovaries is further evidence for the association between PCOD and insulin resistance, and provides a possible explanation for the familial nature of the ovarian disorder.
This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Sibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Sibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Andeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Sibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris' publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century.
Li, G; Aryan, M; Silverman, J M; Haroutunian, V; Perl, D P; Birstein, S; Lantz, M; Marin, D B; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L
To examine the validity of the family history method for identifying Alzheimer disease (AD) by comparing family history and neuropathological diagnoses. Seventy-seven former residents of the Jewish Home and Hospital for the Aged, New York, NY, with neuropathological evaluations on record were blindly assessed for the presence of dementia and, if present, the type of dementia through family informants by telephone interviews. The Alzheimer's Disease Risk Questionnaire was used to collect demographic information and screen for possible dementia. If dementia was suspected, the Dementia Questionnaire was administered to assess the course and type of dementia, i.e., primary progressive dementia (PPD, likely AD), multiple infarct dementia, mixed dementia (i.e., PPD and multiple infarct dementia), and other dementias based on the modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, criteria. Sixty (77.9%) of 77 elderly subjects were classified as having dementia and 17 (22.1%) were without dementia by family history evaluation. Of the 60 elderly subjects with dementia, 57 (95%) were found at autopsy to have had neuropathological changes related to dementia. The sensitivity of the family history diagnosis for dementia with related neuropathological change was 0.84 (57 of 68) and the specificity was 0.67 (6 of 9). Using family history information to differentiate the type of dementia, the sensitivity for definite or probable AD (with or without another condition) was 0.69 (36 of 51) and the specificity was 0.73 (19 of 26). The majority (9 of 15) of patients testing false negative for PPD had a history of stroke associated with onset of memory changes, excluding a diagnosis of PPD. Identifying dementia, in general, and AD, in particular, has an acceptable sensitivity and specificity. As is true for direct clinical diagnosis, the major issue associated with misclassifying AD in a family history assessment is the masking effects of a coexisting non
Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C
This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI). Family history of alcohol disorders for parents was based on assessments by mothers, fathers, and young adults. Parental divorce significantly predicted marijuana use but not alcohol problems. Maternal, but not paternal, alcoholism also significantly predicted marijuana use. Two-way interactions indicated that sex moderated several of the relationships. For example, among those with divorced parents, daughters reported higher levels of conflict with fathers than sons, and sons reported lower levels of maternal support than daughters. Paternal alcoholism was also associated with higher levels of alcohol problems among sons relative to daughters. There was also a significant 2-way interaction between divorce status and maternal alcoholism indicating that young adults who experienced both maternal alcoholism and parental divorce had the highest levels of marijuana use. These findings highlight the role that parental divorce and FH+ have on alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships in young adulthood, and how sex may moderate some of these more nuanced relationships. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Korfmacher, Jon; McKelvey, Lorraine; Zhang, Dong; Atwater, Jane B.
Variations in dosage, content, and family engagement with Early Head Start (EHS) home visiting services were examined for families participating in the EHS Research and Evaluation Project. Families were grouped by characteristics of maternal age, maternal ethnicity, and level of family risk. All home visiting variables were related differentially…
Matthew Lee eSmith
Full Text Available Background: Genetic predisposition is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, yet little is known about the frequency in which college students seek out their family health history or with whom they communicate relevant information.Purpose: This study examines motivations and barriers associated with obtaining one’s family health history and discussing it with others. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students using an internet-delivered questionnaire. Questions asked respondents about intentions and motivations to obtain and share family health history as well as barriers encountered in obtaining family health history. Responses were bifurcated by participants’ sex. Chi-squared and t statistics were used to identify response differences by sex. Results: Females were significantly more likely than males to be motivated to obtain their family health history, and more likely to have: shared their family health history with others; state they would share their family health history with others; and express a preference for sharing their family health history with a wider range of people. Discussion: Educational interventions and improved student health services could be effective mechanisms to increase college students’ knowledge, awareness, and perceived importance of obtaining their family health history.
Smith, Matthew Lee; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Sosa, Erica T; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Ory, Marcia G; McKyer, E Lisako J
Genetic predisposition is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, yet little is known about the frequency in which college students seek out their family health history or with whom they communicate relevant information. This study examines motivations and barriers associated with obtaining one's family health history and discussing it with others. Data were analyzed from 625 college students using an internet-delivered questionnaire, which comprised of questions about intentions and motivations to obtain and share family health history as well as barriers encountered when obtaining family health history. Responses were bifurcated by participants' sex. Chi-squared and t statistics were used to identify response differences by sex. Females were significantly more likely than males to be motivated to obtain their family health history, and more likely to have shared their family health history with others; state that they would share their family health history with others; and express a preference for sharing their family health history with a wider range of people. Educational interventions and improved student health services could be effective mechanisms to increase college students' knowledge, awareness, and perceived importance of obtaining their family health history.
Koebnick, C; Kelly, L A; Lane, C J; Roberts, C K; Shaibi, G Q; Toledo-Corral, C M; Davis, J N; Weigensberg, M J; Goran, M I
To investigate the importance of a maternal and paternal family history of Type 2 diabetes and their combined association with plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in overweight Latino children with a family history of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This cross-sectional study investigated the combined association of a maternal and paternal family history of T2DM with leptin and adiponectin in 175 overweight Latino children (age 11.1 +/- 1.7 years). All subjects had a family history of T2DM. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Tanner stage, age and insulin sensitivity were assessed. After adjustment for age, gestational diabetes, insulin sensitivity and body fat, a combined maternal and paternal family history of T2DM was associated with higher leptin concentrations (P = 0.004) compared with a maternal or paternal family history alone. This association was most pronounced at Tanner stage 1 (P for interaction family history x tanner stage = 0.022). The presence of a combined maternal and paternal family history of T2DM accounted for 4% (P = 0.003) of the variation in leptin concentrations. No such combined association was observed for adiponectin levels. Maternal and paternal family history of T2DM may have an additive impact on leptin, but not on adiponectin levels independent of adiposity and insulin sensitivity in overweight Latino children. This may contribute to a further clinically relevant deterioration of metabolic health in this population.
Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J.
Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father’s education level, mother’s education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother’s education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%–75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance. PMID:28316252
van Summeren, Jojanneke J. G. T.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Schuling, Jan
ObjectivesTo explore an outcome prioritization tool (OPT) in eliciting individuals' preferred health outcomes (remaining alive, maintaining independence, reducing pain, reducing other symptoms) in the context of medication review in family practice. DesignCross-sectional pilot study with
Wang, Yao; Sun, Yun; Di, Wen; Kuang, Yan-Ping; Xu, Bing
To establish an effective and safe clinical fertility strategy by investigating the relationship between abortion history and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. In the present retrospective cohort study, data from IVF treatment cycles performed at a reproductive center in China between October 1, 2014, and October 31, 2015, were assessed. Outcomes were compared between women with a history of induced abortion and those without. There were 1532 IVF treatment cycles included; 454 patients had a history of induced abortion and 1078 did not. The spontaneous abortion rate was significantly higher (30/170 [17.6%] vs 41/420 [9.8%]; P=0.002) and the endometrium was significantly thinner (8.8 ± 1.8 vs 9.7 ± 1.8 cm; P=0.001) among patients with a history of induced abortion compared with those without. In a subgroup analysis of patients with a history of induced abortion, women who had undergone surgical abortions had a lower live delivery rate compared with medical abortions (29/76 [38%] vs 101/378 [27%]; P=0.039). Further, women who had a history of more than two surgical abortions had lower live delivery and clinical pregnancy rates (both Pabortion was associated with worse IVF outcomes, especially a history of more than two surgical abortions. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Madersbacher, Stephan; Alcaraz, Antonio; Emberton, Mark; Hammerer, Peter; Ponholzer, Anton; Schroeder, Fritz H.; Tubaro, Andrea
A family history of prostate cancer has long been identified as an important risk factor for developing the disease. This risk factor can be easily assessed in clinical practice and current guidelines recommend to initiate prostate cancer early detection 5 years earlier (i.e. around the age of 40
Schmidt, Maria Auxiliadora; Garcia, Tania Maria F. Braga
This paper presents the results of an investigation which was part of a project called "Recreating Histories". It is concerned with the analysis of historical narratives created by the children who participated in the project and an analysis of historical sources kept by families who live in Campina Grande do Sul (Brazil). It draws on…
Searching for individual radiosensitivity could improve the quality of the medical examination of occupationally exposed employees and thus provide real protection of the individual against ionizing radiation. For this purpose genetic family history should be recorded by a skilled interviewer. (orig.) [de
Egeberg, Alexander; Bruun, Louise E; Mallbris, Lotus
BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE), and a family history of CV disease (CVD) is an independent risk factor for MACE. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the risk of first-time MACE in patients with psoriasis with or without a fami....... The findings call for increased focus on a family history of CVD in CV risk assessment of patients with psoriasis.......BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE), and a family history of CV disease (CVD) is an independent risk factor for MACE. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the risk of first-time MACE in patients with psoriasis with or without a family...... history of CVD. METHODS: Between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, we identified 2,722,375 individuals, including 25,774 and 4504 patients with mild and severe psoriasis, through administrative registers. Incidence rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Mean baseline age was 26...
This first written assignment of the semester for the author's undergraduate introductory art history class--an essay where students describe and reflect upon the significance of a family heirloom--is instrumental in meeting class objectives. The author's objectives in this class are for students: (1) to broaden their conception of what art is…
Berends, MJW; Kleibeuker, JH; de Vries, EGE; Mourits, MJE; Hollema, H; Pras, E; van der Zee, AGJ
Endometrial cancer occurs primarily in postmenopausal women older than 60 years of age. Especially in young patients with endometrial cancer, a positive family history with respect to cancer and/or development of synchronous or metachronous tumors can be indicative of hereditary factors. One generic
Rooks, Ronica N.; Ford, Cassandra
This personal reflection describes our experiences with incorporating the scholarship of teaching and learning and problem-based techniques to facilitate undergraduate student learning and their professional development in the health sciences. We created a family health history assignment to discuss key concepts in our courses, such as health…
Full Text Available Although a history of first-trimester recurrent spontaneous abortion (FRSA is regarded as a risk factor in antenatal care, the characteristic of subsequent pregnancy outcome is not clearly elucidated. Here, a retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 492 singleton pregnant women. 164 of them with the history of FRSA were enrolled in study group, compared to 328 deliveries without the history of FRSA. For maternal outcomes, patients in the study group delivered earlier with mean gestational age and the incidences of cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage were higher compared to the control group. For placental outcomes, the incidence of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC in the study group increased in terms of late-onset preeclampsia, oligohydramnios, early-onset fetal growth restriction, and second-trimester abortion. Patients in the study group were more likely to suffer from placenta accreta, placenta increta, and placenta percreta. For perinatal outcomes, the proportion of birth defects of newborns in the study group was greater. At last, logistic regression analyses showed that the history of FRSA was an independent risk factor for cesarean section and pregnancy complications. In conclusion, women with the history of FRSA are often exposed to an elevated incidence of maternal-placental-perinatal adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Full Text Available Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (2004–2006, we examined the relation of combined risk factors with adenoma occurrence in 5,395 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Self-reported data on smoking, family history and other factors were linked to pathology reports identifying adenomatous polyps and modeled with multiple logistic regression. In adjusted models a >15 pack-year smoking history increased the likelihood of an adenoma (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.28–1.86, although ≤15 pack-years did not (OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87–1.32. Gender-stratified models showed a significantly increased risk of adenoma at lower smoking exposure even for men (OR=1.32; 95% CI:1.00–1.76, but not for women (OR=0.85; 95% CI:0.61–1.14. An ordered logistic regression model of adenoma occurrence showed a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years associated with 61% higher odds of adenoma at successively larger size categories (95% CI 1.34–1.93. For individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, smoking does not further increase the risk of adenomas. Smoking duration is linked to occurrence and size of adenoma, especially for men.
Onega, T.; Goodrich, M.; Dietrich, A.; Onega, T.; Goodrich, M.; Dietrich, A.; Butterly, L.; Butterly, L.
Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (2004-2006), we examined the relation of combined risk factors with adenoma occurrence in 5,395 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Self-reported data on smoking, family history and other factors were linked to pathology reports identifying adenomatous polyps and modeled with multiple logistic regression. In adjusted models a >15 pack-year smoking history increased the likelihood of an adenoma (OR=1.54 , 95% CI 1.28-1.86), although ≤15 pack-years did not (OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.32). Gender-stratified models showed a significantly increased risk of adenoma at lower smoking exposure even for men ( OR = 1.32; 95% CI:1.00-1.76. but not for women (OR = 0.85; 95% CI:0.61-1.14). An ordered logistic regression model of adenoma occurrence showed a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years associated with 61% higher odds of adenoma at successively larger size categories (95% CI 1.34-1.93). For individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, smoking does not further increase the risk of adenomas. Smoking duration is linked to occurrence and size of adenoma, especially for men.
Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.
Zhou, Xue-Fu; He, Yu-Long; Song, Wu; Peng, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Chang-Hua; Li, Wen; Wu, Hui
To compare the gastric cancer (GC) patients by their family history with gastric and non-GC. Positive family histories within second-degree relatives and clinicopathological features were obtained for 256 patients. Of the 256 probands, 112 (76 male, 36 female) were incorporated into familial GC (FGC) group: at least two GC members; 144 (98 male, 46 female) were included in the non-FGC group (relatives only affected with non-GCs). Of 399 tumors in relatives (181 from FGC against 212 from non-FGC), GC was the most frequent, followed by esophageal, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer. Nasopharyngeal cancer was next to lung cancer but prior to breast and urogenital cancers. Most affected members aggregated within first-degree relatives (FGC: 66 siblings, 48 fathers, 31 mothers, four offspring; non-FGC: 56 fathers, 55 siblings, 43 mothers, and 15 offspring). The ratio of males to females in affected first-degree relatives was usually higher in male probands. Paternal history of GC was a slight risk for GC in males (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.53-2.69), while risk of GC by maternal history of non-GCs was increased in females (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97). Diffuse-GC was the major histological type in all subgroups. Difference in tumor sites between the two groups was derived from an excess of upper sites in non-FGC female probands. Distribution of associated non-GCs in a family history of GC may vary with geographic areas. GC may have different genetic and/or environmental etiology in different families, and a certain subtype may be inherited in a female-influenced fashion.
Anthanont, P; Ramos, P; Jensen, M D; Hames, K C
A major risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a positive family history of diabetes. First degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T2DM are more insulin resistant and are reported to have larger abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes than adults without a family history. Our objectives were to assess whether FDR of T2DM are associated with larger abdominal adipocytes independent of age, sex and abdominal subcutaneous fat and to assess whether a family history of T2DM is also independently related to femoral adipocyte size, as well as visceral fat and fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations. We extracted adipocyte size, body composition, plasma TG and demographic data of non-diabetic research participants of previous studies conducted in our laboratory. We ascertained the family history of T2DM from the electronic medical records. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess whether FDR of T2DM are more likely to have other risk factors after adjusting for known covariates. Of 604 participants, 148 were FDR of T2DM. Although abdominal and femoral adipocyte size was greater in FDR of T2DM than those without a family history (0.74±0.33 vs 0.63±0.33 μg lipid per cell, Phistory of T2DM was a significant predictor of abdominal adipocyte size after adjustment for age and body fat distribution parameters in females (total R 2 =0.5, Phistory of T2DM was not independently predictive of femoral adipocyte size, visceral fat area or TG. Female FDR of T2DM have larger abdominal, but not femoral, adipocytes, even after accounting for age and body fat distribution.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.
Sá, Cacilda Andrade; Gusmão Paiva, Ana Carolina; de Menezes, Maria Clotilde Lima Bezerra; de Oliveira, Liliana Fajardo; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; de Figueiredo, André Avarese; de Bessa, José; Netto, José Murillo B
Some parents blame their children for bedwetting and, therefore, punish them. This study aimed to assess the rate of punishment experienced by enuretic children and associated causative factors. A total of 87 children 6 to 15 years old with monosymptomatic enuresis were assessed individually. Parents answered the questions in the tolerance scale. The forms of punishment were classified as verbal, chastisement and physical aggression. Family history of enuresis was considered only when 1 or both parents had experienced enuresis. Of the 35 girls and 52 boys with a mean ± SD age of 9.3 ± 2.3 years 67 had a family history of enuresis. Of the 67 parents 57 (85.0%) had a history of being punished due to enuresis. All children experienced some sort of verbal punishment. Children who had a family history of enuresis were more prone to being punished by physical aggression than those without such a family history (32 of 67 or 47.8% vs 4 of 20 or 20%, OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.1, p = 0.03). Punishment was found 3 times more frequently in girls than in boys (20 of 35 or 57.1% vs 16 of 52 or 30.8%, OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3). Parents of 79 of the 87 children (90.8%) had high scores on the tolerance scale regardless of the history of enuresis. Enuretic children are at a high risk for experiencing some kind of punishment. Children whose parents had enuresis are at risk for being physically punished. Parents should be taught about the involuntary nature of enuresis and the fact that no punishment would help improve the condition. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wallace, Sarah J.; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Tanya
Purpose: To identify important treatment outcomes from the perspective of people with aphasia and their families using the ICF as a frame of reference. Methods: The nominal group technique was used with people with aphasia and their family members in seven countries to identify and rank important...... for research outcome measurement and clinical service provision which currently focuses on the measurement of body function outcomes. The wide range of desired outcomes generated by both people with aphasia and their family members, highlights the importance of collaborative goal setting within a family...... function components of the ICF. • The outcomes identified in this study suggest a broad role for clinicians working in aphasia rehabilitation. The categories of identified outcomes may be used clinically as a starting point in goal-setting discussions with clients and their families....
Wallis, Andrew; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Madden, Sloane; Rhodes, Paul; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Touyz, Stephen
The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between family functioning, adolescent-parent attachment and remission, as well as changes in these variables over time for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa treated with family based treatment (FBT). Understanding how families respond to treatment is important because the family will be the ongoing context for psychosocial development in the longer term. The relationship between family functioning and outcome is also an important variable because it is potentially modifiable during treatment and this may improve outcome. Fifty-seven female adolescents treated with FBT in a randomised controlled trial were assessed at baseline, FBT session 20 and 12-months post FBT session 20. Data on family functioning and adolescent-parent attachment was collected from patients and their parents at each time point. A series of regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between family functioning and comorbidity at baseline, and the relationship with remission status over time. Repeat measure mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in family functioning and attachment quality over time. Greater adolescent perceived family functioning impairment was positively related to psychiatric comorbidity at the start of treatment. Conversely, better family functioning predicted higher self-esteem and stronger attachment quality. Adolescent's reporting better general family functioning, communication and problem solving were more likely to be remitted at session 20, but not at 12-month follow-up. There was no overall improvement in family functioning for any respondent either during treatment or at follow-up, and no significant relationship between change and remission at either session 20 or follow-up. The adolescent's perspective on family functioning at the start of treatment impacts on a positive outcome. Addressing family issues earlier in FBT may be important for some patients. Further
Yi Chun Lai
Full Text Available Background: Herpes zoster (HZ results from the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV residing in dorsal root and cranial nerve ganglia. Advanced age and dysfunctional cell-mediated immune responses are well-established risk factors for VZV reactivation. There have been recent interests in whether there is an increased risk of the disease associated with a positive family history. Aims and Objectives: We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between HZ infection and family history. In addition, we investigated the dose-response relationship between HZ infection and the number of relatives with a history of HZ. Materials and Methods: Observational studies were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register from inception to April 15, 2015. The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines were followed in conducting this study. To estimate the pooled odds ratio, random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird was used. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the I2 statistic. A dose-response meta-analysis with studies that reported appropriate data were done using the generalized least squares for trend method. Results: Five studies, yielding a total of 4169 subjects, were identified for meta-analysis. Cases with HZ were 3.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86–4.94, P < 0.001 and 3.27 (95% CI: 1.75–6.10, P < 0.001 times more likely to report the first-degree relatives and total relatives with a history of HZ, respectively. A significant positive dose-response relationship between the risk of HZ infection and the number of relatives with a history of HZ was also demonstrated (P < 0.001. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated that family history is a significant risk factor for HZ infection. This risk has a dose-response relationship with the number of relatives with a history of HZ.
... Susco Chair of Research North Shore University Hospital, Brain Aneurysm Center Chair of Research The Christopher C. Getch, MD Chair of Research Carol W. Harvey Memorial Chair of Research Kristen’s Legacy of Love Chair of Research TeamCindy Alcatraz Chair of Research ...
Dickstein, Susan; St. Andre, Martin; Sameroff, Arnold; Seifer, Ronald; Schiller, Masha
Investigated differences in family narratives between mothers with and those without current depressive symptoms as an indicator of family functioning. Found that Family Narrative Consortium measures of narrative coherence distinguished level of symptom severity. Found that more coherent narratives were associated with marital satisfaction,…
Kotler, Tamara; Hammond, S. B.
A sample of 41 migrant mothers and their sons is used to develop an analysis of family environment and parental competence, using the concept of resources as a conceptual framework that includes and extends beyond socioeconomic indicators of family contexts. Also discussed are the relation of this resources scale to other family attributes, the…
Khalaf, N; Ramsey, D; Kramer, J R; El-Serag, H B
The association between Barrett's esophagus (BE) and a personal or family history of cancer other than gastroesophageal remains unknown. To evaluate the effect of personal and family history of certain cancers and cancer treatments on the risk of BE, we analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs case-control study that included 264 men with definitive BE (cases) and 1486 men without BE (controls). Patients with history of esophageal or gastric cancer were excluded. Patients underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy or a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy concurrently with screening colonoscopy to determine BE status. Personal and family history of several types of cancer was obtained from self-reported questionnaires, supplemented and verified by electronic medical-record reviews. We estimated the association between personal and family history of cancer or radiation/chemotherapy, and BE. Personal history of oropharyngeal cancer (1.5% vs. 0.4%) or prostate cancer (7.2% vs. 4.4%) was more frequently present in cases than controls. The association between BE and prostate cancer persisted in multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio 1.90; 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.38, P = 0.028) while that with oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio 3.63; 95% confidence interval 0.92-14.29, P = 0.066) was attenuated after adjusting for retained covariates of age, race, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, and proton pump inhibitor use. Within the subset of patients with cancer, prior treatment with radiation or chemotherapy was not associated with BE. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the proportions of subjects with several specific malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives. In conclusion, the risk of BE in men may be elevated with prior personal history of oropharyngeal or prostate cancer. However, prior cancer treatments and family history of cancer were not associated with increased risk of BE. Further studies are needed
Huang, Philip C C
Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.
Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Novak, Scott P.; Sam, Ann M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Guillen, Chelsea
Few psychometrically valid scales exist to assess family outcomes and the helpfulness of early intervention. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Family Outcomes Survey-Revised. The revision was prompted by the need to (a) create a new format that would be easier for parents to understand, (b) revise and expand…
Stephens, D.; Kramer, S.E.
The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of a family history of hearing impairment on those people with the hearing impairment themselves. The subjects were 102 consecutive patients with a family history of hearing impairment, seen in an audiological rehabilitation clinic. Each was
Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir
The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…
Boer, J M; Feskens, E.J.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.
We investigated the impact of family history of myocardial infarction on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality. Men and women with a family history had an increased risk for coronary heart disease death, irrespective of other risk factors (RR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.17-2.13 and RR = 2.12; 95% CI =
Emery, Charles F; Stoney, Catherine M; Thayer, Julian F; Williams, DeWayne; Bodine, Andrew
Studies of sex differences in heart rate variability (HRV) typically have not accounted for the influence of family history (FH) of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated sex differences in HRV response to speech stress among men and women (age range 30-49 years) with and without a documented FH of CVD. Participants were 77 adults (mean age = 39.8 ± 6.2 years; range: 30-49 years; 52% female) with positive FH (FH+, n = 32) and negative FH (FH-, n = 45) of CVD, verified with relatives of participants. Cardiac activity for all participants was recorded via electrocardiogram during a standardized speech stress task with three phases: 5-minute rest, 5-minute speech, and 5-minute recovery. Outcomes included time domain and frequency domain indicators of HRV and heart rate (HR) at rest and during stress. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, with sex and FH as between subject variables and time/phase as a within subject variable. Women exhibited higher HR than did men and greater HR reactivity in response to the speech stress. However, women also exhibited greater HRV in both the time and frequency domains. FH+ women generally exhibited elevated HRV, despite the elevated risk of CVD associated with FH+. Although women participants exhibited higher HR at rest and during stress, women (both FH+ and FH-) also exhibited elevated HRV reactivity, reflecting greater autonomic control. Thus, enhanced autonomic function observed in prior studies of HRV among women is also evident among FH+ women during a standardized stress task. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verfaillie, Sander C J; Pichet Binette, Alexa; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Tabrizi, Shirin; Savard, Mélissa; Bellec, Pierre; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Breitner, John C S; Villeneuve, Sylvia
Both subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) portend risk of brain abnormalities and progression to dementia. Posterior default mode network (pDMN) connectivity is altered early in the course of AD. It is unclear whether SCD predicts similar outcomes in cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD. We studied 124 asymptomatic individuals with a family history of AD (age 64 ± 5 years). Participants were categorized as having SCD if they reported that their memory was becoming worse (SCD + ). We used extensive neuropsychological assessment to investigate five different cognitive domain performances at baseline (n = 124) and 1 year later (n = 59). We assessed interconnectivity among three a priori defined ROIs: pDMN, anterior ventral DMN, medial temporal memory system (MTMS), and the connectivity of each with the rest of brain. Sixty-eight (55%) participants reported SCD. Baseline cognitive performance was comparable between groups (all false discovery rate-adjusted p values > .05). At follow-up, immediate and delayed memory improved across groups, but the improvement in immediate memory was reduced in SCD + compared with SCD - (all false discovery rate-adjusted p values < .05). When compared with SCD - , SCD + subjects showed increased pDMN-MTMS connectivity (false discovery rate-adjusted p < .05). Higher connectivity between the MTMS and the rest of the brain was associated with better baseline immediate memory, attention, and global cognition, whereas higher MTMS and pDMN-MTMS connectivity were associated with lower immediate memory over time (all false discovery rate-adjusted p values < .05). SCD in cognitively normal individuals is associated with diminished immediate memory practice effects and a brain connectivity pattern that mirrors early AD-related connectivity failure. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear.To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records.Cross-sectional study.537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database.Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st January 1998 and 31(st December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively.In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25, however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88. Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort, age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration.Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.
Dhiman, Paula; Kai, Joe; Horsfall, Laura; Walters, Kate; Qureshi, Nadeem
The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear. To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records. Cross-sectional study. 537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database. Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st) January 1998 and 31(st) December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively. In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25)), however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88)). Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort), age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration. Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.
Rosato, Valentina; Bosetti, Cristina; Dal Maso, Luigino; Montella, Maurizio; Serraino, Diego; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo
Scanty data exist on the role of personal medical conditions, except for gallstones, and family history of cancer on the risk of biliary tract cancers (BTC). We analyzed this issue using data from two Italian case-control studies, including 159 cases of BTC and 795 matched hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of BTC and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Gallstones were associated with a 2-fold excess risk of BTC (95% CI 1.24-3.45). No significant associations were observed with other conditions investigated, including diabetes (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.63-2.11), hypertension (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39-1.11), hyperlipidemia (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.31-1.21), allergy (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.29-1.40), gastroduodenal ulcer (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.24-1.12), hepatitis (OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.35-11.67), benign thyroid diseases (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.56-2.40), hysterectomy (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.53-2.68), unilateral oophorectomy (OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.44-6.93), and bilateral oophorectomy (OR 2.48, 95% CI 0.79-7.82). We found an excess risk of BTC in relation to family history of any cancer (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24) and family history of gallbladder cancer (OR 3.83, 95% CI 0.59-24.75). The present study confirms a strong association between BTC and history of gallstones, and provides further evidence of a positive association with family history of cancer.
Fernandez, E; La Vecchia, C; D'Avanzo, B; Negri, E; Franceschi, S
The relationship between lifestyle factors, past medical conditions, daily meal frequency, diet and the risk of 'familial' colorectal cancer has been analysed using data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy. A total of 1584 colorectal cancer patients and 2879 control subjects were admitted to a network of hospitals in the Greater Milan area and the Pordenone province. The subjects included for analysis were the 112 cases and the 108 control subjects who reported a family history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives. Colorectal cancer cases and control subjects with family history were similarly distributed according to sex, age, marital status, years of schooling and social class. Familial colorectal cancer was associated with meal frequency, medical history of diabetes (relative risk, RR = 4.6) and cholelithiasis (RR = 5.2). Significant positive trends of increasing risk with more frequent consumption were observed for pasta (RR = 2.5, for the highest vs the lowest intake tertile), pastries (RR = 2.4), red meat (RR = 2.9), canned meat (RR = 1.9), cheese (RR = 3.5) and butter (RR = 1.9). Significant inverse associations and trends in risk were observed for consumption of poultry (RR = 0.4), tomatoes (RR = 0.2), peppers (RR = 0.3) and lettuce (RR = 0.3). Significant inverse trends in risk with increasing consumption for beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were observed (RR = 0.5 and 0.4 respectively, highest vs lowest intake tertile). These results suggest that risk factors for subjects with a family history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives are not appreciably different from recognized risk factors of the disease in the general population.
Welsh, Marilyn C.; Peterson, Eric; Jameson, Molly M.
College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF). Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively “cool” EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional o...
Eliraqi, G M; Vistisen, D; Lauritzen, T
Aim To investigate whether intensive multifactorial treatment can reverse the predisposed adverse phenotype of people with Type 2 diabetes who have a family history of diabetes. Methods Data from the randomized controlled trial ADDITION-Denmark were used. A total of 1441 newly diagnosed patients...... pressure, lipids and HbA1c) after 5 years of follow-up in participants with and without a family history of diabetes. An interaction term between family history of diabetes and treatment group was included in the models to test for a modifying effect of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for age...... with diabetes (598 with family history of diabetes) were randomized to intensive treatment or routine care. Family history of diabetes was defined as having one parent and/or sibling with diabetes. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the changes in risk factors (BMI, waist circumference, blood...
Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Coppel-Batsch, Marthe; Couraud, Simone
Assessment of adult outcomes of 59 children from severely psychosocially dysfunctional families, who were placed in foster families for at least five years, found most had overcome their childhood adversities with 56% well-integrated socially and only 10% in situations of failure. Difficulties were linked to multiple family disturbances, traumatic…
Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John
Objective: To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youths receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: We analyzed data from a sample of youths who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; M age = 12.43 years) as…
Barth, Richard P.; Brooks, Devon
This follow-up study of international and domestic adoptions, involving participants first studied in 1981, investigated the role of family size and structure, particularly the presence of both biological and adopted children in a family, on adoption outcomes. Data suggested that families who adopt children and have birth children may have less…
Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Nolen, Willem A
Patients with bipolar disorder from the US have more early-onset illness and a greater familial loading for psychiatric problems than those from the Netherlands or Germany (abbreviated here as Europe). We hypothesized that these regional differences in illness burden would extend to the patients siblings. Outpatients with bipolar disorder gave consent for participation in a treatment outcome network and for filling out detailed questionnaires. This included a family history of unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, suicide attempt, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and "other" illness elicited for the patients' grandparents, parents, spouses, offspring, and siblings. Problems in the siblings were examined as a function of parental and grandparental problems and the patients' adverse illness characteristics or poor prognosis factors (PPFs). Each problem in the siblings was significantly (pUS than in those from Europe. In the US, problems in the parents and grandparents were almost uniformly associated with the same problems in the siblings, and sibling problems were related to the number of PPFs observed in the patients. Family history was based on patient report. Increased familial loading for psychiatric problems extends through 4 generations of patients with bipolar disorder from the US compared to Europe, and appears to "breed true" into the siblings of the patients. In addition to early onset, a variety of PPFs are associated with the burden of psychiatric problems in the patients' siblings and offspring. Greater attention to the multigenerational prevalence of illness in patients from the US is indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lidija Kostic-Banovic; Ljubisa Milosavljevic; Radovan Karadzic; Aleksandra Antovic
Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and d...
Kolokotroni, Ourania; Middleton, Nicos; Gavatha, Marina; Lamnisos, Demetris; Priftis, Kostas N; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K
Studies on the association of birth by caesarean section (C/S) and allergies have produced conflicting findings. Furthermore, evidence on whether this association may differ in those at risk of atopy is limited. This study aims to investigate the association of mode of delivery with asthma and atopic sensitization and the extent to which any effect is modified by family history of allergies. Asthma outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally in 2216 children at age 8 on the basis of parents' responses to the ISAAC questionnaire whilst skin prick tests to eleven aeroallergens were also performed in a subgroup of 746 children. Adjusted odds ratios of asthma and atopy by mode of delivery were estimated in multivariable logistic models while evidence of effect modification was examined by introducing interaction terms in the models. After adjusting for potential confounders, children born by C/S appeared significantly more likely than those born vaginally to report ever wheezing (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71), asthma diagnosis (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83) and be atopic (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.60). There was modest evidence that family history of allergies may modify the effect of C/S delivery on atopy (p for effect modification=0.06) but this was not the case for the asthma outcomes. Specifically, while more than a two-fold increase in the odds of being a topic was observed in children with a family history of allergies if born by C/S (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.38-5.00), no association was observed in children without a family history of allergies (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64-2.11). Birth by C/S is associated with asthma and atopic sensitization in childhood. The association of C/S and atopy appears more pronounced in children with family history of allergies.
Westerdahl, Christina; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Zöller, Bengt
Hypertension clusters in families. However, no nationwide study has investigated the family history as a predictor of hospitalization for hypertension, which was the purpose of this study. The study is a nationwide follow-up study. Swedish Multigeneration Register data for individuals aged 0-76 years were linked to Hospital Discharge Register data for 1964-2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for individuals whose relatives were hospitalized with a main diagnosis of hypertension compared with those whose relatives were not. The total number of patients hospitalized with hypertension was 37,686. The familial SIR was 2.18 for individuals with one affected sibling, 44.83 for individuals with two affected siblings and 57.18 for individuals with three or more affected siblings. The SIR was 1.95 for parents with one affected child, 3.73 for parents with two affected children and 9.22 for parents with three or more affected children. The familial SIR among offspring was 1.84 for those with one affected parent and 3.62 for those with two affected parents. The familial risk for hospitalization with hypertension among offspring aged less than 30 years was 2.50 and 1.57 in those aged more than 60 years. Familial risks were similar for men and women. Spouses had low overall familial risks (SIR=1.2). Hospitalization for hypertension clusters in families. Very high risks were observed in families with multiple affected siblings, though the parent-offspring transmission was lower, suggesting the segregation of recessive or interacting susceptibility genes. The low familial risk in spouses suggests a minor nongenetic contribution.
García, Manuel Pérez
In this article, the author explains how the support of new technologies has helped historians to develop their research over the last few decades. The author, therefore, summarizes the application of both database and genealogical programs for the southern Europe family studies as a methodological tool. First, the author will establish the importance of the creation of databases using the File Maker program, after which they will explain the value of using genealogical programs such as Genopro and Heredis. The main aim of this article is to give detail about the use of these new technologies as applied to a particular study of southern Europe, specifically the Crown of Castile, during the late modern period. The use of these computer programs has helped to develop the field of social sciences and family history, in particular, social history, during the last decade.
Albright, Frederick; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Teerlink, Craig C; Lowrance, William T; Farnham, James M; Albright, Lisa A Cannon
Prostate cancer (PC) relative risks (RRs) are typically estimated based on status of close relatives or presence of any affected relatives. This study provides RR estimates using extensive and specific PC family history. A retrospective population-based study was undertaken to estimate RRs for PC based on complete family history of PC. A total of 635,443 males, all with ancestral genealogy data, were analyzed. RRs for PC were determined based upon PC rates estimated from males with no PC family history (without PC in first, second, or third degree relatives). RRs were determined for a variety of constellations, for example, number of first through third degree relatives; named (grandfather, father, uncle, cousins, brothers); maternal, paternal relationships, and age of onset. In the 635,443 males analyzed, 18,105 had PC. First-degree RRs ranged from 2.46 (=1 first-degree relative affected, CI = 2.39-2.53) to 7.65 (=4 first-degree relatives affected, CI = 6.28-9.23). Second-degree RRs for probands with 0 affected first-degree relatives ranged from 1.51 (≥1 second-degree relative affected, CI = 1.47-1.56) to 3.09 (≥5 second-degree relatives affected, CI = 2.32-4.03). Third-degree RRs with 0 affected first- and 0 affected second-degree relatives ranged from 1.15 (≥1 affected third-degree relative, CI = 1.12-1.19) to 1.50 (≥5 affected third-degree relatives, CI = 1.35-1.66). RRs based on age at diagnosis were higher for earlier age at diagnoses; for example, RR = 5.54 for ≥1 first-degree relative diagnosed before age 50 years (CI = 1.12-1.19) and RR = 1.78 for >1 second-degree relative diagnosed before age 50 years, CI = 1.33, 2.33. RRs for equivalent maternal versus paternal family history were not significantly different. A more complete PC family history using close and distant relatives and age at diagnosis results in a wider range of estimates of individual RR that are potentially more accurate than RRs estimated
Ohel, Iris; Levy, Amalia; Zweig, Aya; Holcberg, Gershon; Sheiner, Eyal
Pregnancy outcome in women with a previous history of drug allergy and the role of drug allergies in adverse pregnancy outcomes is unclear. A retrospective cohort study comparing pregnancies of women with and without history of drug allergy was conducted. Data were collected from the computerized perinatal database. A multiple logistic regression model, with background elimination, was constructed to control for confounders. Of 186,443 deliveries, 4.6% (n = 8647) occurred in patients with a history of drug allergy. The following conditions were significantly associated with a history of drug allergy: advanced maternal age, recurrent abortions, fertility treatments, hypertensive disorders, and diabetes mellitus. Using multivariate analysis, with background elimination, history of drug allergy was significantly associated with intrauterine growth restriction (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.3-0.8, P < 0.001) and with preterm delivery (OR = 1.26, CI = 1.14-1.38, P < 0.001). A history of drug allergy is an independent risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction and preterm delivery. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate the nature of this association.
Ward, Peter J.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.
Family leisure involvement may provide the first and most essential context for positive youth development in today's society. Similar to the broader ecological perspective used in the youth development literature, family systems theory suggests that each individual in the family influences the whole, while the whole family also influences each…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…
The time-honoured mnemonic of \\'5Fs\\' is a reminder to students that patients with upper abdominal pain and who conform to a profile of \\'fair, fat, female, fertile and forty\\' are likely to have cholelithiasis. We feel, however, that a most important \\'F\\'-that for \\'family history\\'-is overlooked and should be introduced to enhance the value of a useful aide memoire.
Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C.; Wood, Grant M.; Oniki, Thomas A.; Huff, Stanley M.
In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM ...
García Nieto, Víctor; Sotoca Fernández, Jorge; O'Hagan, Monica; Arango Sancho, Pedro; Luis Yanes, Maria Isabel
Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) are common in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. As both UTI and hypercalciuria (prelithiasis) have a genetic basis, we wanted to know whether the family history of urolithiasis is more common in children with UTIs caused by E. coli. Secondarily, we wondered if the renal scars are more common in children with prelithiasis. Ambispective study with collected data from 104 patients (40 male, 64 female) followed after having been diagnosed of UTI by E. coli at least once. These patients were asked about the existence of urolithiasis in relatives. The calcium and citrate urinary elimination was qunatified in 80 children. In the total sample, family history was positive for urolithiasis in a significantly higher frequency in those children (n=71; 68.3%) than in the control population in our area (29.7%; previously published data). Prelithiasis frequency in children with UTI was 47.5% (38/80). An association was observed between the diagnosis of prelithiasis both with family history of urolithiasis (P=.030) and the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (P=.034). Children who developed renal scarring had an increased risk of prelithiasis (OR 5.3; P=.033). The frequency of family history of urolithiasis in children with UTI caused by E. coli is very high. Based on our results we hypothesize that the predisposition to lithiasis can involve a constitutively altered defense to E. coli and, therefore, a greater possibility for renal scars. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Moatter, T.; Pervez, S.; Khan, S.; Azam, I.
Objective: To determine BRCA1 status in breast carcinoma patients of Pakistani origin. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Oncology Clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between May 2005 and December 2009. Methodology: Fifty three breast cancer patients based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis were recruited for this study. Moderate family history was defined as having a close relative (mother, daughter, sister) diagnosed with breast cancer under 45 years. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each patient in a 5 ml tube containing EDTA as anticoagulant. Subsequent to DNA extraction, mutational analysis of BRCA1 exons 2, 5, 6, 16, 20 and 22 was carried out using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay while protein truncation test (PTT) was used to examine mutations in exon 11. All BRCA1 sequence variants were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results: Twenty-three patients were diagnosed with early onset breast cancer, 30 patients had moderate family history. At the time of diagnosis, the median age of enrolled patients was 39 years (range 24-65 years). Out of 53 patients, analyzed by SSCP assay, mobility shift was detected in exon 6, 16 and 20 of three patients, whereas one patient was tested positive for mutation in exon 11 by PTT assays. All patients with BRCA1 mutations were further confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. In exon 16 c.4837A > G was confirmed, which is a common polymorphism reported in several populations including Asians. Moreover, mutations in exon 6 (c.271T > G), exon 20 (c.5231 del G) and exon 11 (c.1123 T > G) were reported first time in the Pakistani population. Several BRCA1 mutations were observed in Pakistani breast cancer patients with moderate family history. Therefore, mutation-based genetic counselling for patients with moderate family history can facilitate management, if one first or second degree relative or early onset disease is apparent. (author)
Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain
The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.
DeVito, Elise E; Meda, Shashwath A; Jiantonio, Rachel; Potenza, Marc N; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D
Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females. FHP (N=28) and family-history negative (FHN, N=31) healthy, non-substance-abusing adults completed an fMRI Go/No-Go task and were assessed on impulsivity and alcohol use. Effects of family history and sex were investigated as were associations between neural correlates of impulse control and out-of-scanner measures of impulsivity and alcohol use. FHP individuals showed greater activation in the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus during successful inhibitions, an effect that was driven primarily by FHP males. Higher self-reported impulsivity and behavioral discounting impulsivity, but not alcohol use measures, were associated with greater BOLD signal in the region that differentiated the FHP and FHN groups. Impulsivity factors were associated with alcohol use measures across the FHP and FHN groups. These findings are consistent with increased risk for addiction among FHP individuals being conferred through disrupted function within neural systems important for impulse control. PMID:23584260
Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna
The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Soeurt, Christina M; Carron, Claire R; Oberlin, Brandon G; Considine, Robert V; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Kareken, David A
A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M). In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.
William J.A. Eiler, II
Full Text Available A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP or negative (FHN for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M. In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.
Gramer, Gwendolyn; Gramer, Eugen; Weisschuh, Nicole
Prospective evaluation of family history (FH) of glaucoma and FH of optic disc drusen (ODD) in patients with sonographically confirmed ODD. A total of 87 patients with ODD interviewed all their first-degree and second-degree relatives using a detailed questionnaire on whether an ophthalmologist had diagnosed or excluded glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OH). Using a second questionnaire, 62 of these patients also provided information about ODD in their FH. Control groups for FH of glaucoma consisted of 2170 patients with glaucoma or OH evaluated with the same methods and identical questions for FH of glaucoma in a previous study, and of 176 healthy individuals without glaucoma or ODD who were interviewed on family history of glaucoma. Glaucoma in FH was significantly more frequent in patients with ODD with an incidence of 20.7% compared with healthy controls with an incidence of 2.8%, and half as frequent as in glaucoma patients with an incidence of 40%. ODD in FH were found in 9.7% of patients with ODD. As there is a high frequency of family history of glaucoma in patients with ODD, evaluation of FH of ODD and FH of glaucoma is essential in patients with ODD. Glaucoma in FH of ODD patients requires intraocular pressure monitoring and whenever deemed beneficial timely initiation of intraocular pressure-lowering therapy.
Cascella, R; Strafella, C; Longo, G; Manzo, L; Ragazzo, M; De Felici, C; Gambardella, S; Marsella, L T; Novelli, G; Borgiani, P; Sangiuolo, F; Cusumano, A; Ricci, F; Giardina, E
PurposeThe goal was to develop a simple model for predicting the individual risk profile for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on the basis of genetic information, disease family history, and smoking habits.Patients and methodsThe study enrolled 151 AMD patients following specific clinical and environmental inclusion criteria: age >55 years, positive family history for AMD, presence of at least one first-degree relative affected by AMD, and smoking habits. All of the samples were genotyped for rs1061170 (CFH) and rs10490924 (ARMS2) with a TaqMan assay, using a 7500 Fast Real Time PCR device. Statistical analysis was subsequently employed to calculate the real individual risk (OR) based on the genetic data (ORgn), family history (ORf), and smoking habits (ORsm).Results and conclusionThe combination of ORgn, ORf, and ORsm allowed the calculation of the Ort that represented the realistic individual risk for developing AMD. In this report, we present a computational model for the estimation of the individual risk for AMD. Moreover, we show that the average distribution of risk alleles in the general population and the knowledge of parents' genotype can be decisive to assess the real disease risk. In this contest, genetic counseling is crucial to provide the patients with an understanding of their individual risk and the availability for preventive actions.
Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R
Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.
Garcia, Patrick Raymund James M; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Kiewitz, Christian; Scott, Kristin L; Tang, Robert L
In this article, we examine the relationships between supervisor-level factors and abusive supervision. Drawing from social learning theory (Bandura, 1973), we argue that supervisors' history of family aggression indirectly impacts abusive supervision via both hostile cognitions and hostile affect, with angry rumination functioning as a first-stage moderator. Using multisource data, we tested the proposed relationships in a series of 4 studies, each providing evidence of constructive replication. In Study 1, we found positive relationships between supervisors' history of family aggression, hostile affect, explicit hostile cognitions, and abusive supervision. We obtained the same pattern of results in Studies 2, 3, and 4 using an implicit measure of hostile cognitions and controlling for previously established antecedents of abusive supervision. Angry rumination moderated the indirect relationship between supervisors' history of family aggression and abusive supervision via hostile affect only. Overall, the results highlight the important role of supervisor-level factors in the abusive supervision dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrue, Aurora; Goienetxea, Biotza; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Guimón, José
It has been suggested that the family history of psychotic disorders is useful in defining homogeneous groups of bipolar patients. The plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations have been related to the effect of antipsychotic treatment in psychotic patients. We have studied the influence of a positive family history of psychotic disorders both on the variation of pHVA levels and on the relation between pHVA concentrations and the clinical response to treatment. Clinical status and pHVA levels were assessed in 58 medication free patients before and after 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine and lithium. Clinical improvement correlated positively with pHVA levels on the 28th day of treatment only in the patients having first degree relatives with psychotic disorders. The pHVA levels did not decrease after 28 days of treatment. Our results reinforce the idea that a positive family history of psychosis in psychotic bipolar disorders may constitute a good basis for sub-grouping these patients.
Chen, Tiantian; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Xingdong; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhuang, Maoqiang; Lu, Ming; Jin, Li; Ye, Weimin
A population-based case-control was performed to explore familial aggregation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Family history of cancer was assessed by a structured questionnaire, and from which 2 cohorts of relatives of cases and controls were reconstructed. Unconditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were applied for case-control design and reconstructed cohort design, respectively. We observed a close to doubled risk of ESCC associated with a positive family history of esophageal cancer among first degree relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42–2.41), after adjusting age, sex, family size and other confounders. The excess risks of ESCC increased with the increasing of first-degree relatives affected by esophageal cancer (p < 0.001). In particular, those individuals whose both parents with esophageal cancer had an 8-fold excess risk of ESCC (95% CI: 1.74–36.32). The reconstructed cohort analysis showed that the cumulative risk of esophageal cancer to age 75 was 12.2% in the first-degree relatives of cases and 7.0% in those of controls (hazard ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.54–2.37). Our results suggest family history of esophageal cancer significantly increases the risk for ESCC. Future studies are needed to understand how the shared genetic susceptibility and/or environmental exposures contribute to the observed excess risk. PMID:26526791
Cowan, P A; Cowan, C P; Cohn, D A; Pearson, J L
Twenty-seven mothers and 27 fathers were given the Adult Attachment Interview (M. Main & R. Goldwyn, in press) when their children were 3.5 years old. Continuous ratings of narrative coherence, probable experience quality (parents perceived as loving), and state of mind (current anger at parents) were entered as latent variables in partial least squares structural equation models that included observational measures of marital quality and parenting style. Models that include fathers' attachment histories predicted more variance in kindergarten teachers' descriptions of children's externalizing behavior, whereas models that include mothers' attachment histories predicted more variance in children's internalizing behavior. Marital data added predictive power to the equations. Discussion is focused on the importance of integrating attachment and family systems approaches, and of parents' gender and marital quality, in understanding specific links between parents' attachment histories and their young children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors.
Jeppesen, Pia; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Clemmensen, Lars
in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years...... by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder...... with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3...
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W Scott; Best, Karin; Elia, Carla; Peters, Katherine; Li, Li; Green, Sara; Valladares, Ena
We evaluate the efficacy of a family-based intervention over time among HIV-affected families. Mothers living with HIV (MLH; n = 339) in Los Angeles and their school-aged children were randomized to either an intervention or control condition and followed for 18 months. MLH and their children in the intervention received 16 cognitive-behavioral, small-group sessions designed to help them maintain physical and mental health, parent while ill, address HIV-related stressors, and reduce HIV-transmission behaviors. At recruitment, MLH reported few problem behaviors related to physical health, mental health, or sexual or drug transmission acts. Compared to MLH in the control condition, intervention MLH were significantly more likely to monitor their own CD4 cell counts and their children were more likely to decrease alcohol and drug use. Most MLH and their children had relatively healthy family relationships. Family-based HIV interventions should be limited to MLH who are experiencing substantial problems.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...
Bigdeli, Tim B.; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence...... of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N...... history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R2=0.0021; P=0.00331; P-value threshold
Rauscher, Emily A; Hesse, Colin
Although the importance of being knowledgeable of one's family health history is widely known, very little research has investigated how families communicate about this important topic. This study investigated how young adults seek information from parents about family health history. The authors used the Theory of Motivated Information Management as a framework to understand the process of uncertainty discrepancy and emotion in seeking information about family health history. Results of this study show the Theory of Motivated Information Management to be a good model to explain the process young adults go through in deciding to seek information from parents about family health history. Results also show that emotions other than anxiety can be used with success in the Theory of Motivated Information Management framework.
Fenton, M C; Geier, T; Keyes, K; Skodol, A E; Grant, B F; Hasin, D S
Studies of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol dependence have not controlled comprehensively for potential confounding by co-occurring maltreatments and other childhood trauma, or determined whether parental history of alcohol disorders operates synergistically with gender and maltreatment to produce alcohol dependence. We addressed these issues using national data. Method Face-to-face surveys of 27 712 adult participants in a national survey. Childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical neglect were associated with alcohol dependence (prelationships for physical abuse in the entire sample, and for sexual abuse and emotional neglect in women (APs, 0.21, 0.31, 0.26 respectively), indicating that the odds of alcohol dependence given both parental history and these maltreatments were significantly higher than the additive effect of each alone (pdependence. Importantly, results suggest a synergistic role of parental alcoholism: the effect of physical abuse on alcohol dependence may depend on parental history, while the effects of sexual abuse and emotional neglect may depend on parental history among women. Findings underscore the importance of early identification and prevention, particularly among those with a family history, and could guide genetic research and intervention development, e.g. programs to reduce the burden of childhood maltreatment may benefit from addressing the negative long-term effects of maltreatments, including potential alcohol problems, across a broad range of childhood environments.
ten Brummelhuis, L.L.
Juggling work and family life has become a daily topic of conversation. As more women enter the workforce and as men increasingly take on household chores and childcare duties, it has become more likely that employees are combining work and a considerable number of family responsibilities. The impact of working on family life has been widely discussed in the media, in research, and at home. Less attention has been paid to the question how family life affects work. Do employees with heavy fami...
Albers-Heitner, P; Bekkers, L; Moossdorff, H; Berghmans, B; Verdonk, P
The authors studied whether family history of urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with pre- and postpartum UI. In 2010, Dutch postpartum women at three months were approached to fill in a Web-based questionnaire on UI and risk factors (body mass index, BMI), parity, pelvic organ prolapse, and family history. Results were analyzed with Chi-square and logistic regression analyses. 162 (61%) questionnaires were analyzed, 76 (47%) women reported UI before, during and/or after pregnancy, of which 34% also reported a UI family history. Sixteen (19%) out of 84 women without UI reported UI family history (p = 0.05). BMI was associated with prepartum UI (p = 0.035), but the association disappears when adding family history. Women with unknown UI family history had higher risk for postpartum U. UI family history is associated with UI during pregnancy. More awareness and research is needed whether adding family history questions on UI in prepartum consultations improves timely prevention.
Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.
Bylsma, Lauren M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kiss, Enikő; Kapornai, Krisztina; Halas, Kitti; Dochnal, Roberta; Lefkovics, Eszter; Baji, Ildikό; Vetrό, Ágnes; Kovacs, Maria
Affect regulation skills develop in the context of the family environment, wherein youths are influenced by their parents', and possibly their siblings', regulatory responses and styles. Regulatory responses to sadness (mood repair) that exacerbate or prolong dysphoria (maladaptive mood repair) may represent one way in which depression is transmitted within families. We examined self-reported adaptive and maladaptive mood repair responses across cognitive, social and behavioural domains in Hungarian 11- to 19-year-old youth and their parents. Offspring included 214 probands with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorder, 200 never depressed siblings and 161 control peers. Probands reported the most problematic mood repair responses, with siblings reporting more modest differences from controls. Mood repair responses of parents and their offspring, as well as within sib-pairs, were related, although results differed as a function of the regulatory response domain. Results demonstrate familiality of maladaptive and adaptive mood repair responses in multiple samples. These familial associations suggest that relationships with parents and siblings within families may impact the development of affect regulation in youth.
Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Hori, Yoko; Tokui, Noritaka; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Kikuchi, Shogo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Takesumi
Familial aggregation of stomach cancer has long been observed. The effect on disease risk of family history and its magnitude according to the type of affected relatives, however, is not well known. We conducted a prospective analysis using the JACC study (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study For Evaluation of Cancer Risk, sponsored by Monbusho) data. During the follow-up period, 662 stomach cancer deaths were documented. A positive history of stomach cancer in one or more first-degree relatives was associated with a significantly increased risk of death from the disease in both men (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.11-2.31) and women (RR 2.47; 95% CI 1.50-4.06). In the subanalysis stratified by age, the association between positive family history and stomach cancer was stronger in the age group from 40-59 (RR 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.11 for men and RR 5.88; 95% CI 2.70-12.82 for women) than in the age group from 60-79 (RR 1.31; 95% CI 0.84-2.05 for men and RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.72-2.88 for women). In the age group from 40-59, men with father's history and women with mother's and sister's history of the disease had a significantly increased risk (RR 3.14; 95% CI 1.51-6.55, RR 10.46; 95% CI 4.54-24.12, RR 13.39; 95% CI 3.89-46.12, respectively). When 2 or more family members were affected, the increment in the risk was prominent especially in women (RR 9.45; 95% CI 4.46-20.05). These results suggest the existence of a certain subtype of stomach cancer that is inherited more often by women from one generation to the next in gender-influenced fashion. Any preventive strategy should take into account the degree of individual susceptibility. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Wijdenes-Pijl, Miranda; Dondorp, Wybo J; Timmermans, Danielle Rm; Cornel, Martina C; Henneman, Lidewij
This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment (DNA test or obtaining family history) and also differ from
Cornel Martina C
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Methods Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3 and without (n = 1 a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2, and diabetes patients (n = 2. All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Results Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. Conclusion The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment
Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi
Family studies, including twin and adoption designs, have shown familial transmission of suicidal behaviors. Early environmental risk factors have an important role in the etiology of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of family history of suicide and childhood trauma on suicide risk and on severity of suicide attempt in suicide attempters. A total of 181 suicide attempters were included. Family history of suicide was assessed with the Karolinska Suicide History Interview or through patient records. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6 and 14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Suicide intent was measured with the Freeman scale. Male suicide attempters with a positive family history of suicide made more serious and well planned suicide attempts and had a significantly higher suicide risk. In logistic regression, family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child were independent predictors of suicide in male suicide attempters. The information about family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child derives from the patients only. In the first part of the inclusion period the information was collected from patient records. The results of this study imply that suicides among those at biological risk might be prevented with the early recognition of environmental risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sun, Baochun; Zhou, Chengyong; Han, Zeli
The aim of this study was to compare genetic predilection and recurrence tendency between facial palsy in Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) and Bell's palsy We carried out an investigation on patients with facial palsy in MRS and those with Bell's palsy who visited the outpatient department in our hospital between February 2009 and February 2013. They were asked about familial history and whether it was the first episode, with the results recorded and compared. There were 16 patients with facial palsy in MRS and 860 patients with Bell's palsy involved in the study. Familial history was positive in 5 of 16 patients (31.3%) with facial palsy in MRS and 56 of 860 patients (6.5%) with Bell's palsy (P palsy in MRS and 88 of 860 cases (10.2%) with Bell's palsy had a history of facial palsy in the past (P Bell's palsy, facial palsy in MRS has an obvious genetic predilection and recurrence tendency. © The Author(s) 2014.
Advanced maternal age (AOR=4.79;95% CI 1.031-22.18, family history of hypertension (AOR=11.16;95% CI 5.41-41.43, history of diabetes mellitus (AOR=6.17;95% CI 2.11-20.33, UTI in the current pregnancy (AOR=6.58;95% CI 2.93-14.73, failure to comply with iron and folic acid supplement during pregnancy (AOR=8.32;95% CI 3.35-20.62, lack of exercise (AOR=3.33;95% CI 1.35-8.17, multiple pregnancy (AOR=4.05;95% CI 1.57-12.27, anemia (AOR=4.19;95% CI 1.27-13.92, and periodontal disease or gingivitis (AOR =3.51;95% CI 1.14-10.83 were associated with preeclampsia. Conclusion Family history of hypertension was the most dominant risk factor for preeclampsia in pregnant women. Encouraging pregnant women to have health seeking behavior during pregnancy would provide a chance to diagnose preeclampsia as early as possible.
Hackett, Christina; Feeny, David; Tompa, Emile
We estimate the intergenerational relationship between the residential school (RS) attendance of an older generation family member and the physical and mental health of a younger generation. Data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is used to examine the relationship between previous generational family RS attendance and the current physical and mental health of off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit Canadians. Five outcomes are considered (self-perceived health, mental health, distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Direct (univariate) and indirect (multivariate) effects of family RS attendance are examined for each dependent variable. We draw from the general and indigenous-specific social determinants of health literature to inform the construction of our models. Familial RS attendance is shown to affect directly all five health and mental health outcomes, and is associated with lower self-perceived health and mental health, and a higher risk for distress and suicidal behaviours. Background, mediating and structural-level variables influence the strength of association. Odds of being in lower self-perceived health remain statistically significantly higher with the presence of familial attendance of RS when controlling for all covariates. The odds of having had a suicide attempt within the past 12 months remain twice as high for those with familial attendance of RS. Health disparities exist between indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians, an important source of which is a family history of RS attendance. This has implications for clinical practice and Canadian public health, as well as countries with similar historical legacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Gordon, Judith R; Whelan-Berry, Karen S; Hamilton, Elizabeth A
This article examines the relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and four work outcomes for 489 working women over the age of 50. Survey results from two U.S. health care organizations and one U.S. financial services organization indicate that older working women experience differing amounts of work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, work-to-family enhancement, and family-to-work enhancement. Hypotheses relating organizational work-family culture to work-family conflict and enhancement were partially supported, and hypotheses relating conflict and enhancement to four work outcomes were partially supported. Work-to-family conflict and work-to-family enhancement partially mediate the relationship between organizational work-family culture and selected work outcomes. Implications for theory and practice, limitations of this study, and directions for future research are also presented.
Greef, M. de; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Hattum, M.J.C. van; McLeod, B.D.; Scholte, R.H.J.
This review systematically explored research examining the relation between parent-professional alliance and outcomes of psychosocial treatments provided to children, and their parents and families. Study findings and methodological characteristics were reviewed to investigate the evidence linking
Ferro, T; Klein, D N
The present study examined the concordance of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD) with diagnoses based on direct interviews and between pairs of informants. Subjects were 224 probands participating in a series of studies of the familial transmission of mood and personality disorders and their first-degree relatives. Proband informants and relatives provided information about themselves on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Information from informants about relatives was collected with the FHIPD. All assessments were made blindly and independently. Using Kappa, concordance between proband informants' family histories and relative direct reports on specific personality disorders was low, ranging from -.01 to .28, with a median of .10. Kappa for a diagnosis of any personality disorder was .16. When two independent informant reports were compared, Kappas for specific Axis II disorders ranged from .10 to .72, with a median of .28. Kappa for a diagnosis of any personality disorder was .36. These data suggest that subjects and informants provide different perspectives on Axis II psychopathology, and support the use of both sources of information whenever possible.
Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Skliros, Eystathios; Kardara, Marina; Kokolaki, Anthi; Apostolou, Ourania; Pappas, Stavros
A lot of studies have showed an excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim, therefore, of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of familial history of T2D in Greek patients, and to evaluate its potential effect on the patient's metabolic control and the presence of diabetic complications. A total of 1,473 T2D patients were recruited. Those with diabetic mothers, diabetic fathers, diabetic relatives other than parents and no known diabetic relatives, were considered separately. The prevalence of diabetes in the mother, the father and relatives other than parents, was 27.7, 11.0 and 10.7%, respectively. Patients with paternal diabetes had a higher prevalence of hypertension (64.8 vs. 57.1%, P = 0.05) and lower LDL-cholesterol levels (115.12 +/- 39.76 vs. 127.13 +/- 46.53 mg/dl, P = 0.006) than patients with diabetes in the mother. Patients with familial diabetes were significantly younger (P Greek diabetic patients. However, no different influence was found between maternal and paternal diabetes on the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients except for LDL-cholesterol levels and presence of hypertension. The presence of a family history of diabetes resulted to an early onset of the disease to the offspring.
Labauge, P.; Laberge, S.; Brunereau, L.; Levy, C.; Houtteville, J.P.
Our objective was to determine the natural history and prognostic factors of familial forms of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). Cavernomas are one of the most common central nervous system vascular malformations. Familial CCM is increasingly diagnosed, but little is known about its natural history. In a national survey, we analysed clinical and MRI features of 173 patients from 57 unrelated French families. Of these 40 had undergone at least two clinical and MRI examinations. Occurrence of haemorrhage, new lesions, change in signal intensity and size of lesions have been studied by comparison between first and last MRI studies. The CCM were classified according to Zabramski et al. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years (range 0.5-6.5 years). We followed 232 cavernomas (mean 5.9 per patient, range 1-17). Serial MRI demonstrated changes in 28 patients (70 %). Bleeding occurred in 21 lesions (9.1 %) in 14 patients (35 %). The haemorrhagic risk was 2.5 % per lesion-year, higher in type I and brain-stem CCM. We saw 23 new lesions appear in 11 patients (27.5 %), with an incidence of 0.2 lesions per patient year. Signal change was observed in 11 patients (27.5 %), in 14 lesions (6 %), while 9 lesions (3.9 %) in 9 patients (22.5 %) changed significantly in size. (orig.)
Dunlop, K; Barlow-Stewart, K
Evidence that family health history (FHH) informs recommendations for appropriate early detection strategies used for the prevention of many health conditions underscores the importance of optimizing a patient's knowledge of his/her personal FHH. For some conditions, FHH also underpins identifying those at potentially high risk for whom genetic testing may be possible and suitable to further inform the advice. The Family Health History Campaign 'Start the Conversation' was conducted in New South Wales (Australia) in August 2006 as a small state-wide media campaign with the aim of encouraging individuals to discuss and gather their FHH information about several conditions and report it to their doctor. Campaign development included consultations with consumers and primary care practitioners (general practitioners - GPs), development of campaign resources, and establishment of partnerships. Evaluation methodologies included community poll surveys pre- and post-campaign, a GP mail survey, and website usage analysis. While only 112/403 of the polled community reported hearing about the campaign in the media, 48% of those men and women were encouraged to start the conversation with their families. Limited findings from the GP survey respondents suggested they were engaged, made aware of the potential lack of patient knowledge about FHH and generated referral for several high-risk patients. Campaigns that use the media to encourage the community to take action and also engage the GPs can create a supportive environment that has the potential to increase the accuracy with reporting of FHH to maximize benefit for early detection and prevention.
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.
Gundlund, Anna; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Staerk, Laila
BACKGROUND: We examined all-cause mortality and long-term thromboembolic risk (ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic thromboembolism) in patients with and without familial atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Danish nationwide registry data, we identified all patients...
Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Kong, Angela; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Odoms-Young, Angela; Van Horn, Linda; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Dyer, Alan R
This pilot study tested the feasibility of Family-Based Hip-Hop to Health, a school-based obesity prevention intervention for 3-5-year-old Latino children and their parents, and estimated its effectiveness in producing smaller average changes in BMI at 1-year follow-up. Four Head Start preschools administered through the Chicago Public Schools were randomly assigned to receive a Family-Based Intervention (FBI) or a General Health Intervention (GHI). Parents signed consent forms for 147 of the 157 children enrolled. Both the school-based and family-based components of the intervention were feasible, but attendance for the parent intervention sessions was low. Contrary to expectations, a downtrend in BMI Z-score was observed in both the intervention and control groups. While the data reflect a downward trend in obesity among these young Hispanic children, obesity rates remained higher at 1-year follow-up (15%) than those reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010) for 2-5-year-old children (12.1%). Developing evidence-based strategies for obesity prevention among Hispanic families remains a challenge. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew
Abstract Background Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. Aims To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age‐matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Methods & Procedures Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age‐matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Outcomes & Results Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age‐matched peers was
Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het
Background: Individuals with a family history of depression show subtle abnormalities in the processing of social stimuli. This could negatively affect their interpersonal functioning and contribute to their depression risk. Repeated administration of the serotonin precursor tryptophan has
Cézane Priscila Reuter
Conclusions: There is an association between the AA genotype of rs9939609 polymorphism and BMI among schoolchildren. The association between overweight/obesity in schoolchildren with a family history of obesity was found mainly among students with the AA genotype.
Aryee, Samuel; Srinivas, E S; Tan, Hwee Hoon
This study examined antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in terms of the direction of influence (work-family vs. family-work) and type of effect (conflict vs. facilitation). Respondents were full-time employed parents in India. Confirmatory factor analysis results provided evidence for the discriminant validity of M. R. Frone's (2003) fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that different processes underlie the conflict and facilitation components. Furthermore, gender had only a limited moderating influence on the relationships between the antecedents and the components of work-family balance. Last, work-family facilitation was related to the work outcomes of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Abstract Objective: We sought to determine subsequent pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of women with a history of unexplained RM who were not receiving medical treatment. Study Design: This was a prospective cohort study, of women with a history of three unexplained consecutive first trimester losses, who were recruited and followed in their subsequent pregnancy. Control patients were healthy pregnant patients with no previous adverse perinatal outcome. Results: A total of 42 patients with a history of unexplained RM were recruited to the study. 9 (21.4%) experienced a further first trimester miscarriage, 1 case of ectopic and 1 case of partial molar pregnancy. 74% (23\\/31) of the RM cohort had a vaginal delivery. There was one case of severe pre-eclampsia. The RM group delivered at a mean gestational age of 38+2 weeks and with a mean birth-weight of 3.23kg. None of the neonates were under the 10(th) centile for gestational age. Overall, there was no significant difference in pregnancy outcomes between the two cohorts. Conclusion: Our study confirms the reassuring prognosis for achieving a live birth in the unexplained RM population with a very low incidence of adverse events with the majority delivering appropriately grown fetuses at term.
Gordon, C T; Jimenez-Fernandez, S; Daniels, L B; Kahn, A M; Tarsa, M; Matsubara, T; Shimizu, C; Burns, J C; Gordon, J B
To characterise the obstetrical management and outcomes in a series of women with a history of Kawasaki disease (KD) in childhood. Retrospective case series. Tertiary healthcare setting in the USA. Women with a history of KD in childhood. Women completed a detailed health questionnaire and participated in research imaging studies as part of the San Diego Adult KD Collaborative Study. Obstetrical management, complications during pregnancy and delivery, and infant outcomes. Ten women with a history of KD in childhood carried a total of 21 pregnancies to term. There were no cardiovascular complications during labour and delivery despite important cardiovascular abnormalities in four of the ten subjects. Pregnancy was complicated by pre-eclampsia and the post-partum course was complicated by haemorrhage in one subject each. Two of the 21 progeny subsequently developed KD. Women with important cardiovascular sequelae from KD in childhood should be managed by a team that includes both a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a cardiologist. Pre-pregnancy counselling should include delineation of the woman's current functional and structural cardiovascular status and appropriate adjustment of medications, but excellent outcomes are possible with appropriate care. Review of the English and Japanese literature on KD and pregnancy revealed the occurrence of myocardial infarction during pregnancy in women with missed KD and aneurysms that were not diagnosed until their acute event. Our study highlights the need for counselling with regard to the increased genetic risk of KD in offspring born to these mothers. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Greef, M. de; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Hattum, M.J.C. van; McLeod, B.D.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Valle, J.F. del; Bravo, A.; López, M.
This presentation is based on a systematic review on the association between the parent-professional alliance and outcomes of youth and family care. In child and family social services, parents play an important role (Accurso, Hawley, & Garland, 2013; Chaffin & Bard, 2011). They are either the main
Karst, Jeffrey S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Carson, Audrey M.; Stevens, Sheryl; Schohl, Kirsten; Dolan, Bridget
Raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with increased family chaos and parent distress. Successful long-term treatment outcomes are dependent on healthy systemic functioning, but the family impact of treatment is rarely evaluated. The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) is a social…
Le Grange, Daniel; Crosby, Ross D.; Lock, James
The predictors and moderators of treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) are explored among those who participated in family based treatment or individual supportive psychotherapy. It is concluded that family-based treatment of BN may be most effective in those cases with low levels of eating disorder psychopathology.
Heinrichs, Nina; Jensen-Doss, Amanda
To examine the impact of paying for participation in a preventive parenting program on treatment outcomes, 197 families with preschool-aged children were randomized to paid or unpaid conditions. Although both groups improved on nearly all measures, paid families showed less improvement on 3 of 10 variables, including father-reported child…
Bhopti, Anoo; Brown, Ted; Lentin, Primrose
A scoping review was conducted to identify factors influencing the quality of life of families of children with disability. The review also explored the scales used to measure family quality of life (FQOL) as an outcome in early childhood intervention services (ECIS). Multiple databases were searched from 2000 to 2013 to include studies pertinent…
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…
Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006
"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" discusses family-based interventions and how they may have both direct and indirect effects. While the measurement of direct outcomes for a targeted group is important, a…
Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Green, Richard; Jones, Clair
Purpose: The study aimed to understand how use and satisfaction with services following discharge from an acquired brain injury (ABI) acute-care facility related to family caregiver outcomes. Methods: A correlational and descriptive study design was used. Nineteen primary family caregivers of persons recently discharged from an ABI acute-care…
Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yasuki
Both elevated liver enzymes and a family history of diabetes mellitus (FHDM) are independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes. This study evaluates the epidemiological association between elevated liver enzymes and FHDM. Subjects included 3512 women workers without diabetes, hepatitis, a smoking habit, or a history of alcohol intake. Blood samples and personal data were collected from all subjects. Subjects with FHDM had a higher mean body mass index (BMI: 23.9kg/m(2) vs. 23.4kg/m(2); p=0.003). Laboratory testing also revealed higher mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG: 5.67mmol/L vs. 5.22mmol/L; penzymes were associated with FHDM. In particular, elevated GGT was related to FHDM, independent of the other variables. Elevated liver enzymes, probably due to fat deposition in the liver, may play a role in increasing the risk of diabetes in individuals with FHDM.
Tsai, Meng-Han; Xirasagar, Sudha; Li, Yi-Jhen; de Groen, Piet C
Colonoscopy screening reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. CRC screening is recommended at age 50 for average-risk people. Screening of first-degree relatives of CRC patients is recommended to begin at age 40 or 10 years before the age at diagnosis of the youngest relative diagnosed with CRC. CRC incidence has increased recently among younger Americans while it has declined among older Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether first-degree relatives of CRC patients are being screened according to recommended guidelines. We studied colonoscopy screening rates among the US population reporting a CRC family history using 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Of 26,064 study-eligible respondents, 2,470 reported a CRC family history; of those with a family history, 45.6% had a colonoscopy (25.2% in 2005 and 65.8% 2010). The colonoscopy rate among first-degree relatives aged 40 to 49 in 2010 (38.3%) was about half that of first-degree relatives aged 50 or older (69.7%). First-degree relatives were nearly twice as likely as nonfirst-degree relatives to have a colonoscopy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9), but those aged 40 to 49 were less likely to have a colonoscopy than those in older age groups (AOR, 2.6 for age 50-64; AOR, 3.6 for age ≥65). Interactions with age, insurance, and race/ethnicity were not significant. Having health insurance tripled the likelihood of screening. Despite a 5-fold increase in colonoscopy screening rates since 2005, rates among first-degree relatives younger than the conventional screening age have lagged. Screening promotion targeted to this group may halt the recent rising trend of CRC among younger Americans.
Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Gupta, Samir; Baron, John A; Cross, Amanda J; Lieberman, David A; Murphy, Gwen; Martínez, María Elena
Little is known about the relationship between having a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) and risk for metachronous colorectal adenoma (CRA) following polypectomy. We pooled data from seven prospective studies of 7697 patients with previously resected CRAs to quantify the relationship between having a FDR with CRC and risk for metachronous adenoma. Compared with having no family history of CRC, a positive family history in any FDR was significantly associated with increased odds of developing any metachronous CRA (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.01-1.29). Higher odds of CRA were observed among individuals with an affected mother (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.05-1.53) or sibling (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.11-1.62) as compared with those without, whereas no association was shown for individuals with an affected father. Odds of having a metachronous CRA increased with number of affected FDRs, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.07 (0.93-1.23) for one relative and 1.39 (1.02-1.91) for two or more. Younger age of diagnosis of a sibling was associated with higher odds of metachronous CRA, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.66 (1.08-2.56) for diagnosis at 65 years (p-trend = 0.008). Although limited by sample size, results for advanced metachronous CRA were similar to those for any metachronous CRA. A family history of CRC is related to a modestly increased odds of metachronous CRA. Future research should explore whether having a FDR with CRC, particularly at a young age, should have a role in risk stratification for surveillance colonoscopy.
Wittenberg, Elaine; Kravits, Kate; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty; Fujinami, Rebecca
Caring for the family is included as one of the eight domains of quality palliative care, calling attention to the importance of the family system and family communications about cancer during care and treatment of the disease. Previously, a model of family caregiver communication defined four caregiver communication types-Manager, Carrier, Partner, Lone-each with a unique communication pattern. The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of family caregiver communication in cancer care to further understand the impact of family communication burden on caregiving outcomes. This mixed-method study employed fieldnotes from a family caregiver intervention focused on quality of life and self-reported caregiver communication items to identify a specific family caregiver type. Caregiver types were then analyzed using outcome measures on psychological distress, skills preparedness, family inventory of needs, and quality-of-life domains. Corroboration between fieldnotes and self-reported communication for caregivers (n = 21, 16 women, mean age of 53 years) revealed a definitive classification of the four caregiver types (Manager = 6, Carrier = 5, Partner = 6, Lone = 4). Mean scores on self-reported communication items documented different communication patterns congruent with the theoretical framework of the model. Variation in caregiver outcomes measures confirmed the model of family caregiver communication types. Partner and Lone caregivers reported the lowest psychological distress, with Carrier caregivers feeling least prepared and Manager caregivers reporting the lowest physical quality of life. This study illustrates the impact of family communication on caregiving and increases our knowledge and understanding about the role of communication in caregiver burden. The research provides the first evidence-based validation for a family caregiver communication typology and its relationship to caregiver outcomes. Future research is needed to develop and test
Powers, Gregory; Berger, Lisa; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Fendrich, Michael
A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals. Copyright
Viehweg, P.; Bernerth, T.; Kiechle, M.; Buchmann, J.; Heinig, A.; Koelbl, H.; Laniado, M.; Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H.
Objective: A study was undertaken to assess the clinical value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided interventions in women with a family history, but no personal history of breast cancer. Methods and patients: Retrospective review was performed on 63 consecutive women who had a family history, but no personal history of breast cancer. A total of 97 lesions were referred for an MR-guided intervention. Standardized MR examinations (1.0 T, T1-weighted 3D FLASH, 0.15 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg body weight, prone position) were performed using a dedicated system which allows vacuum assisted breast biopsy or wire localization. Results: Histologic findings in 87 procedures revealed 9 (10%) invasive carcinomas, 12 (14%) ductal carcinomas in situ, 2 atypical ductal hyperplasias (2.5%) and 2 atypical lobular hyperplasias (2.5%). Sixty-two (71%) benign histologic results are verified by an MR-guided intervention, retrospective correlation of imaging and histology and by subsequent follow-up. In ten lesions the indication dropped since the enhancing lesion was no longer visible. Absent enhancement was confirmed by short-term re-imaging of the noncompressed breast and by follow-up. Conclusion: Malignancy was found in 24%, high-risk lesions in 5% of successfully performed MR-guided biopsy procedures. A 57% of MR-detected malignancies were ductal carcinoma in situ. In 10% of the lesions the intervention was not performed, since no enhancing lesion could be reproduced at the date of anticipated intervention. Such problems may be avoided if the initial MRI is performed in the appropriate phase of the menstrual cycle and without hormonal replacement therapy
Viehweg, P. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: Petra.Viehweg@uniklinikum-dresden.de; Bernerth, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 16, 06097 Halle (Germany); Kiechle, M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Buchmann, J. [Department of Pathology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 14, 06097 Halle (Germany); Heinig, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 16, 06097 Halle (Germany); Koelbl, H. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 24, 06097 Halle (Germany); Laniado, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Heywang-Koebrunner, S.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Magdeburger Strasse 16, 06097 Halle (Germany); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 19, 81675 Munich (Germany)
Objective: A study was undertaken to assess the clinical value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided interventions in women with a family history, but no personal history of breast cancer. Methods and patients: Retrospective review was performed on 63 consecutive women who had a family history, but no personal history of breast cancer. A total of 97 lesions were referred for an MR-guided intervention. Standardized MR examinations (1.0 T, T1-weighted 3D FLASH, 0.15 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg body weight, prone position) were performed using a dedicated system which allows vacuum assisted breast biopsy or wire localization. Results: Histologic findings in 87 procedures revealed 9 (10%) invasive carcinomas, 12 (14%) ductal carcinomas in situ, 2 atypical ductal hyperplasias (2.5%) and 2 atypical lobular hyperplasias (2.5%). Sixty-two (71%) benign histologic results are verified by an MR-guided intervention, retrospective correlation of imaging and histology and by subsequent follow-up. In ten lesions the indication dropped since the enhancing lesion was no longer visible. Absent enhancement was confirmed by short-term re-imaging of the noncompressed breast and by follow-up. Conclusion: Malignancy was found in 24%, high-risk lesions in 5% of successfully performed MR-guided biopsy procedures. A 57% of MR-detected malignancies were ductal carcinoma in situ. In 10% of the lesions the intervention was not performed, since no enhancing lesion could be reproduced at the date of anticipated intervention. Such problems may be avoided if the initial MRI is performed in the appropriate phase of the menstrual cycle and without hormonal replacement therapy.
Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Houlind, K; Green, A
and a half times increased prevalence of AAA compared with +FH with male relatives with AAA with an OR of 2.65. CONCLUSIONS: First-degree male relatives of AAA patients have wider aortas and a twofold higher prevalence of AAA compared with the age adjusted background population. The prevalence of AAA...... measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication. RESULTS: From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative...
Davis, D.R.; Chapman, C.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Greenberg, R.
Numerical simulations of the collisional evolution of hypothetical initial asteroid populations have been run which are subject to three constraints: they must evolve to the current asteroid size distribution, preserve Vesta's basaltic crust, and produce at least the observed number of major Hirayama families. A runaway growth initial asteroid population distribution is found to best satisfy these constraints, and a model is developed for the calculation of fragment size distribution in the disruption of large, gravitationally bound bodies in which the material strength is enhanced by hydrostatic self-compression. This model predicts that large asteroids behave as intrinsically strong bodies despite histories of collisional fracture. 51 references
Full Text Available The contemporary popularity of genetic genealogy has been accompanied by concerns about its potential reifying of identity. This has referred in particular to ethnicity, but also to gender, with fears that looking at the past through the lens of popular genetics reinforces patriarchal views of the family and traditional heteronormative understandings of masculinity and femininity. This study investigates whether such understandings are drawn upon by male participants in a population genetics study. Discursive analysis of 128 responses to a participant motivation survey and 18 follow-up interviews explores how participants construct masculinity when discussing genetics and their own family history. It is argued that while there is some evidence for the “patriarchal” argument, a subtler form of masculine legacy creation and maintenance is the primary narrative.
Lee, Jaehoon; Hulse, Nathan C; Wood, Grant M; Oniki, Thomas A; Huff, Stanley M
In this study we developed a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) profile to support exchanging a full pedigree based family health history (FHH) information across multiple systems and applications used by clinicians, patients, and researchers. We used previously developed clinical element models (CEMs) that are capable of representing the FHH information, and derived essential data elements including attributes, constraints, and value sets. We analyzed gaps between the FHH CEM elements and existing FHIR resources. Based on the analysis, we developed a profile that consists of 1) FHIR resources for essential FHH data elements, 2) extensions for additional elements that were not covered by the resources, and 3) a structured definition to integrate patient and family member information in a FHIR message. We implemented the profile using an open-source based FHIR framework and validated it using patient-entered FHH data that was captured through a locally developed FHH tool.
Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Karlsson, Magnus; Ohlin, Acke; Gerdhem, Paul
To study family history in relation to curve severity, gender, age at diagnosis and treatment in idiopathic scoliosis. A self-assessment questionnaire on family history of scoliosis was administered to 1,463 untreated, brace or surgically treated idiopathic scoliosis patients. Out of the 1,463 patients, 51 % had one or more relatives with scoliosis. There was no significant difference between females and males, nor between juvenile and adolescent study participants in this respect (p = 0.939 and 0.110, respectively). There was a significant difference in maximum curve size between patients with one or more relatives with scoliosis (median 35°, interquartile range 25) and patients without any relative with scoliosis (median 32°, interquartile range 23) (p = 0.022). When stratifying patients according to treatment (observation, brace treatment or surgery), we found that it was more common to have a relative with scoliosis among the treated patients (p = 0.011). The OR for being treated was 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) when the patient had a relative with scoliosis, compared to not having. Larger curve sizes were found in patients with a family history of scoliosis than in the ones without. No relation between family history and gender or between family history and age at onset of idiopathic scoliosis was found. Although the presence of a family history of scoliosis may not be a strong prognostic risk factor, it indicates that these patients are at higher risk of developing a more severe curve.
Svingen, Leah; Dykstra, Rita E; Simpson, Jamie L; Jaffe, Anna E; Bevins, Rick A; Carlo, Gustavo; DiLillo, David; Grant, Kathleen M
The current study examined the association among family history of substance use problems, childhood maltreatment, and age of first drug use in a sample of men and women seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Various forms of childhood maltreatment were considered as mediators of the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. Participants (N = 99, 40% women, mean age 33) who were under treatment for methamphetamine dependence completed a baseline interview that obtained demographic information, past substance use by participants, history of drug/alcohol problems in their family of origin, and age at first use of any drug (excluding alcohol and tobacco). The Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form was used to assess child maltreatment experiences before the age of 18. Family history of substance use problems and childhood physical (but not emotional or sexual) trauma significantly predicted age of first drug use. Further, childhood physical trauma mediated the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. These findings suggest that the experience of childhood physical abuse may be an important mechanism through which family history of substance use is associated with an earlier age of first drug use.
ten Brummelhuis, L.L.
Juggling work and family life has become a daily topic of conversation. As more women enter the workforce and as men increasingly take on household chores and childcare duties, it has become more likely that employees are combining work and a considerable number of family responsibilities. The
Jackson, Jerrold M.
Purpose: To examine the influence of caregiver stress on attendance among urban families involved in a multiple family group (MFG) intervention, as well as pre/post changes in childhood behavioral difficulties, caregiver stress, caregiver depressive symptoms, caregiver coping by substance use, and caregiver motivation to change. Methods:…
Crain, Tori L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M.
Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on Conservation of Resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a one week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew
Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively sparse data exist, however, on current cohorts and the factors that predict outcomes. To examine educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood in a sample of people with histories of DLD compared with an age-matched peer group without DLD. We ask: How do educational pathways and early jobs compare between those with and without DLD? Are young adults with DLD receiving similar levels of income as their peers? To what extent are language and literacy abilities associated with outcomes? Participants included 84 individuals with DLD (67% males) and 88 age-matched peers without DLD (56% males). Participants were on average 24 years of age. They completed a battery of psycholinguistic, literacy and nonverbal skills assessments. Data were also collected on educational qualifications, current educational status, extent of educational support received, employment status, history and support, as well as current income. Those with DLD obtained lower academic and vocational qualifications. Higher educational/vocational qualifications were associated with better language, better reading and higher performance IQ (PIQ). There were few differences between the two groups in terms of engagement with education, but the mean age at leaving education was significantly earlier in the participants with DLD. Substantially more participants with DLD reported receiving support or dispensation from their educational institution. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of young people currently employed, though a higher proportion of the age-matched peers was in work full time. Participants with DLD were much more likely to be
Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; Hickey, B B; Radford, S T; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A
We aimed to describe the experiences of families of potential organ and tissue donors eligible for donation after circulatory death or brain death. Forty-nine family members of potential donors from four Melbourne hospitals were interviewed to assess their experiences of communication, processes and the outcomes of donation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Families expressed a range of perspectives on themes of communication, hospital processes and care, the processes of consent and donation and reflected on decisions and outcomes. They expressed satisfaction overall with communication when receiving bad news, discussing death and donation. Honest and frank communication and being kept up-to-date and prepared for potential outcomes were important aspects for families, especially those of post circulatory death donors. Participants reported high levels of trust in healthcare professionals and satisfaction with the level of care received. Many donor families indicated the process was lengthy and stressful, but not significantly enough to adversely affect their satisfaction with the outcome. Both the decision itself and knowing others' lives had been saved provided them with consolation. No consenting families, and only some non-consenting families, regretted their decisions. Many expressed they would benefit from a follow-up opportunity to ask questions and clarify possible misunderstandings. Overall, while experiences varied, Australian families valued frank communication, trusted health professionals, were satisfied with the care their family member received and with donation processes, despite some apparent difficulties. Family satisfaction, infrequently assessed, is an important outcome and these findings may assist education for Australian organ donation professionals.
Ghidini, Filippo; Sekulovic, Sasa; Castagnetti, Marco
Decisional regret is defined as distress after making a health care choice and can be an issue for parents electing distal hypospadias repair for their sons. We assessed the influence on decisional regret of variables related to the family, surgery and outcomes. Charts for 372 patients undergoing primary distal hypospadias repair between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed, and validated questionnaires, including the Decisional Regret Scale, Pediatric Penile Perception Score and Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System, were administered to parents. Data were available for 172 of 372 families (response rate 46.2%). Of 323 parents 128 (39.6%) presented with moderately strong decisional regret, with good agreement within couples. Predictors of decisional regret included intermediate parental educational level (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.52-6.69), patient not being the first born (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.07-3.78), family history of hypospadias (OR 4.42, 95% CI 1.96-9.97), initial desire to avoid surgery (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04-4.12), younger age at followup (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.91), presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.53-15.81) and lower Pediatric Penile Perception Score (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). Decisional regret was unrelated to parental desire to avoid circumcision, surgical variables, development of complications and duration of followup. Decisional regret is a problem in a significant proportion of parents electing distal hypospadias repair for their sons. In our experience family variables seemed to be predictors of decisional regret, while surgical variables did not. Predictors of decisional regret included worse parental perception of penile appearance and the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, the latter could be unrelated to surgery. Irrespective of the duration of followup, decisional regret seems decreased in parents of older patients. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc
Cammack, Alison L; Hogue, Carol J; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kramer, Michael R; Pearce, Brad D; Knight, Bettina; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey
Childhood maltreatment is common and has been increasingly studied in relation to perinatal outcomes. While retrospective self-report is convenient to use in studies assessing the impact of maltreatment on perinatal outcomes, it may be vulnerable to bias. We assessed bias in reporting of maltreatment with respect to women's experiences of adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of 230 women enrolled in studies of maternal mental illness. Each woman provided a self-reported history of childhood maltreatment via the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire at two time points: 1) the preconception or prenatal period and 2) the postpartum period. While most women's reports of maltreatment agreed, there was less agreement for physical neglect among women experiencing adverse perinatal outcomes. Further, among women who discrepantly reported maltreatment, those experiencing adverse pregnancy outcomes tended to report physical neglect after delivery but not before, and associations between physical neglect measured after delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes were larger than associations that assessed physical neglect before delivery. There were larger associations between post-delivery measured maltreatment and perinatal outcomes among women who had not previously been pregnant and in those with higher postpartum depressive symptoms. Although additional larger studies in the general population are necessary to replicate these findings, they suggest retrospective reporting of childhood maltreatment, namely physical neglect, may be prone to systematic differential recall bias with respect to perinatal outcomes. Measures of childhood maltreatment reported before delivery may be needed to validly estimate associations between maternal exposure to childhood physical neglect and perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patel, Sita G; Clarke, Annette V; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E; Wickham, Robert E
Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods design, we used quantitative methods to explore interactions between family separation, acculturative family conflict, and family life events to predict 2 school outcomes, academic achievement (via grade point average [GPA]), and externalizing problems (student- and teacher-reported). The sample included 189 newcomer immigrant public high school students from 34 countries of origin. Quantitative measures included the Multicultural Events Scale for Adolescents, Family Conflicts Scale, and the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Qualitative data were collected through a semi-structured interview. Quantitative results found that more family life events were associated with lower GPA, but this association was weaker for participants who had been separated from their parents. More family conflict was associated with more externalizing symptoms (both youth- and teacher-reported). However, the association between family conflict and teacher-reported externalizing symptoms was found only among participants reporting a greater than average number of life events. Qualitative results show that separation from extended family networks was among the most stressful of experiences, and demonstrate the highly complex nature of each family stressor domain. At a time when immigration is rapidly changing our school system, a better understanding of early risk factors for new immigrants can help teachers, administrators, and mental health practitioners to identify students with greatest need to foster behavioral, academic, and emotional well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sandberg, John; Rafail, Patrick
Measures of children's time use, particularly with parents and siblings, are used to evaluate three hypotheses in relation to the vocabulary and mathematical skills development: (1) the resource dilution hypothesis, which argues that parental and household resources are diluted in larger families; (2) the confluence hypothesis, which suggests that the intellectual milieu of families is lowered with additional children; and (3) the admixture ("no effect") hypothesis, which suggests that the negative relationship between family size and achievement is an artifact of cross-sectional research resulting from unobserved heterogeneity. Each hypothesis is tested using within-child estimates of change in cognitive scores over time with the addition of new children to families.
Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila
Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples’ family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671
Clark, Malissa A; O'Neal, Catherine W; Conley, Kate M; Mancini, Jay A
Deployment affects not just the service members, but also their family members back home. Accordingly, this study examined how resilient family processes during a deployment (i.e., frequency of communication and household management) were related to the personal reintegration of each family member (i.e., how well each family member begins to "feel like oneself again" after a deployment), as well as several indicators of subjective well-being. Drawing from the family attachment network model (Riggs & Riggs, 2011), the present study collected survey data from 273 service members, their partners, and their adolescent children. Resilient family processes during the deployment itself (i.e., frequency of communication, household management), postdeployment positive and negative personal reintegration, and several indicators of well-being were assessed. Frequency of communication was related to personal reintegration for service members, while household management was related to personal reintegration for nondeployed partners; both factors were related to personal reintegration for adolescents. Negative and positive personal reintegration related to a variety of subjective well-being outcomes for each individual family member. Interindividual (i.e., crossover) effects were also found, particularly between adolescents and nondeployed partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Wemmelund, Holger; Green, Anders
Title: Abdominal aortic aneurysms no not develop more aggressively among patients with a positive family history of the disease Authors: Trine M. M. Joergensen, Holger Wemmelund, Anders Green, Jes Lindholt, Kim Houlind. Introduction: It is well known, that a family history of abdominal aortic...... aneurysm (AAA) strongly increases the risk of developing AAA, but it is still uncertain whether familial AAA’s develops differently than non-familial AAA’s. Objectives: To investigate whether familial AAA’s develop more aggressively than non-familial AAA’s by looking at growth rate, risk of surgery...... and rupture, as well as the size of the aneurysm at the time of diagnosis and the patient´s age at the time of operation, rupture and diagnosis. Design: Observational retrospective longitudinal study Materials: 318 patients (273 men and 45 women) with AAA diagnosed between 1996-2008 in Jutland, Denmark...
Lipińska, Anna; Koczaj-Bremer, Magdalena; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Kaźmierczak, Agnieszka; Ciurzyński, Michał; Ou-Pokrzewińska, Aisha; Mikocka, Ewelina; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Demkow, Urszula; Pruszczyk, Piotr
Early identification of high-risk individuals is key for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of a family history of metabolic syndrome (fhMetS) on the risk of metabolic disorders (abnormal body mass, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and blood pressure) in healthy young individuals. We studied CVD risk factors in 90 healthy volunteers, aged 27-39 years; of these, 78 had fhMetS and 12 were without fhMetS (control group). Fasting serum lipids, glucose, and insulin levels were assayed, and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure using, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system, were measured. Nutritional and physical activity habits were assessed. Despite similar nutritional and physical activity habits, abnormal body mass was found in 53.2% of the fhMetS participants and 46.1% of the control participants (p = 0.54). The occurrence of obesity was 19.4% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.69). Compared to the control participants, fhMetS was associated with significantly higher total cholesterol (5.46 mmol/L vs. 4.69 mmol/L, p family history of MetS.
Ramesh, Nikhila; Abilash, V. G.
Diabetes has been documented to cause high levels of DNA fragmentation in some cases. As diabetes is inheritable and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, an investigation into the genomic stability of individuals who are strongly at risk of inheriting diabetes was conducted by inducing oxidative stress, as DNA damage in unaffected individuals could be a sign of onset of the disease or the presence of genetic alterations that reduce cellular defences against reactive oxygen species. In this study, alkaline comet assay was performed on isolated human leukocytes to determine whether individuals with a family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are more prone to DNA damage under oxidative stress. Visual scoring of comets showed that these individuals have higher degree of DNA damage compared to a control individual with no family history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Further studies with large sample could determine the presence of disabled cellular defences against oxidative stress in unaffected individuals and intervention with antioxidants could prevent or manage Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its complications.
Quinonez, Shane C; Yeshidinber, Abate; Lourie, Michael A; Bekele, Delayehu; Mekonnen, Yemisrach; Nigatu, Balkachew; Metaferia, Gesit; Jebessa, Solomie
Almost all low-income countries and many middle-income countries lack the capacity to deliver medical genetics services. We developed the MiGene Family History App (MFHA), which assists doctors with family history collection and population-level epidemiologic analysis. The MFHA was studied at St. Paul's Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A needs assessment was used to assess Ethiopian physicians' experience with genetics services. The MFHA then collected patient data over a 6-month period. The majority of doctors provide genetics services, with only 16% reporting their genetics knowledge is sufficient. A total of 1699 patients from the pediatric ward (n = 367), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (n = 477), and antenatal clinic (n = 855) were collected using the MFHA with a 4% incidence of a MFHA-screened condition present. The incidence was 11.7% in the pediatric ward, 3% in the NICU, and 0.5% in the antenatal clinic. Heart malformations (5.5% of patients) and trisomy 21 (4.4% of patients) were the most common conditions in the pediatric ward. Medical genetics services are needed in Ethiopia. As other countries increase their genetics capacity, the MFHA can provide fundamental genetics services and collect necessary epidemiologic data.
La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana E; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A
An exaggerated recency effect (ie, disproportionate recall of last-presented items) has been consistently observed in the word list learning of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our study sought to determine whether there were similar alterations in serial position learning among asymptomatic persons at risk for AD as a result of parental family history. Subjects included 623 asymptomatic middle-aged children of patients with AD (median, 53 years) and 157 control participants whose parents survived to at least age 70 without AD or other memory disorders. All participants were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which requires learning and recall of 15 unrelated nouns. There was no significant difference in total words recalled between the AD children and control groups. However, compared with controls, AD children exhibited a significantly greater tendency to recall words from the end (recency) versus beginning (primacy) of the list. Serial position effects were unrelated to apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 or depressive symptoms. Asymptomatic persons at risk for AD by virtue of family history do not show a difference in total words recalled compared with controls, but they exhibit a distinctly different serial position curve, suggesting greater reliance on immediate as opposed to episodic memory. This is the same serial position pattern observed in mild AD, seen here in reduced severity. Longitudinal follow-up is planned to determine whether changes in serial position patterns are a meaningful marker for preclinical detection of AD.
Lim, Sandy; Lee, Alexia
This study extended incivility research beyond the confines of the workplace by exploring the relationships between incivility, work-to-family conflict and family support. Data collected from 180 employees from various organizations in Singapore showed that incivility is not a rare phenomenon in Asian cultures. Employees experienced more incivility from superiors than coworkers or subordinates, and these experiences were related to different outcomes. Coworker-initiated incivility was associated with decreased coworker satisfaction, increased perceptions of unfair treatment, and increased depression. On the other hand, superior-initiated incivility was associated with decreased supervisor satisfaction and increased work-to-family conflict. Results also revealed that employees with high family support showed stronger relationships between workplace incivility and negative outcomes, compared with employees with low family support.
Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Friend, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Background Family meal frequency has been consistently and significantly associated with positive youth dietary and psychosocial outcomes but less consistently associated with weight outcomes. Family meal frequency measurement has varied widely and it is unclear how this variation may impact relationships with youth weight, dietary, and psychosocial outcomes. Objective This study assesses how five parent/caregiver-reported and four child-reported family dinner frequency measures correlate with each other and are associated with health-related outcomes. Design/Participants This secondary, cross-sectional analysis uses baseline, parent/caregiver (n=160) and 8–12 year old child (n=160) data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus trial (collected 2011–2012). Data were obtained from objective measurements, dietary recall interviews, and psychosocial surveys. Outcome measures Outcomes included child body mass index z-scores (BMIz), fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010 [HEI-2010]), family connectedness, and meal conversations. Statistical analyses performed Pearson correlations and general linear models were used to assess associations between family dinner frequency measures and outcomes. Results All family dinner frequency measures had comparable means and were correlated within and across parent/caregiver- and child-reporters (r=0.17–0.94, pdinner frequency measures were significantly associated with BMIz scores and 100% were significantly associated with fruit/vegetable intake and HEI-2010. In adjusted models, most significant associations with dietary and psychosocial outcomes remained but associations with child BMIz remained significant only for parent/caregiver- (β±SE= −0.07±0.03; pdinner frequency measures asking about ‘sitting and eating’ dinner. Conclusions In spite of phrasing variations in family dinner frequency measures (e.g., which family members
Matthews, Evan L; Greaney, Jody L; Wenner, Megan M
What is the central question of this study? Alterations in blood pressure control at exercise onset are apparent in older adults with established cardiovascular disease. It is currently not known whether these alterations are evident in young adults with a family history of hypertension. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that young women with a family history of hypertension display a larger change in blood pressure within the first 10 s of isometric exercise. These data suggest altered blood pressure control in young women with a family history of hypertension. Hypertensive adults demonstrate atypical increases in blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at the immediate onset of static muscle contraction. However, it is unknown whether these abnormal responses occur in young, otherwise healthy adults at risk for developing future disease, such as those with a family history of hypertension (+FH). We tested the hypothesis that +FH young women have exaggerated increases in BP and MSNA at the onset of static muscle contraction compared with those without a family history of hypertension (-FH). We retrospectively examined beat-by-beat BP and MSNA during the initial 30 s of isometric handgrip exercise (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) in 16 +FH (22 ± 2 years old, 22 ± 3 kg m -2 ) and 16 -FH (22 ± 3 years old, 22 ± 3 kg m -2 ) women. Resting mean arterial pressure (+FH 80 ± 11 mmHg versus -FH 84 ± 13 mmHg), MSNA burst frequency (+FH 7 ± 3 bursts min -1 versus -FH 9 ± 5 bursts min -1 ) and burst incidence [+FH 12 ± 4 bursts (100 heart beats) -1 versus -FH 12 ± 8 bursts (100 heart beats) -1 ] were similar between groups (all P > 0.05). Within the first 10 s of exercise, changes in mean arterial pressure (+FH Δ8 ± 6 mmHg versus -FH Δ3 ± 2 mmHg, P exercise was not different between groups (-FH 7 ± 5 bursts min -1 versus +FH 9 ± 3 bursts min -1
Weidt, Steffi; Bruehl, Annette Beatrix; Delsignore, Aba; Zai, Gwyneth; Kuenburg, Alexa; Klaghofer, Richard; Rufer, Michael
Many patients suffering from trichotillomania (TTM) have never undergone treatment. Without treatment, TTM often presents with a chronic course. Characteristics of TTM individuals who have never been treated (untreated) remain largely unknown. Whether treatment history impacts Internet-based interventions has not yet been investigated. We aimed to answer whether Internet-based interventions can reach untreated individuals and whether treatment history is associated with certain characteristics and impacts on the outcome of an Internet-based intervention. We provided Internet-based interventions. Subjects were characterized at three time points using the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Of 105 individuals, 34 were untreated. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was markedly impaired in untreated and treated individuals. Symptom severity did not differ between untreated and treated individuals. Nontreatment was associated with fewer depressive symptoms ( P =0.002). Treatment history demonstrated no impact on the outcome of Internet-based interventions. Results demonstrate that Internet-based interventions can reach untreated TTM individuals. They show that untreated individuals benefit as much as treated individuals from such interventions. Future Internet-based interventions should focus on how to best reach/support untreated individuals with TTM. Additionally, future studies may examine whether Internet-based interventions can reach and help untreated individuals suffering from other psychiatric disorders.
Burrows, Raquel; Atalah, Eduardo; Leiva, Laura; Rojas, Pamela; Maza, María Pía de la; Vásquez, Fabian; Lera, Lydia; Díaz, Erick
Family history (FH+) of non transmisible chronic diseases (NTCD) increase MetS risk. In Chile, the MetS affects 27% of overweight children, and fasting hyperglycemia is very low prevalent (4,0%). The objective was to study the prevalence of MetS and the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in overweight children with a family background of NTCD and analyze its association with the number of relatives witth NTCD and with parental history (PH). In 183 overweight children (BMI > or = p85) mean age 11,8 +/- 1,8 (86 males) with a FH+ (parental or grandparental) of NTCD, were assessed the BMI z (CDC / NCHS), waist circumference, blood arterial pressure, fasting Glucose and Insulin (RIA), triglycerides, HDL chol. The MetS and the CVRF were diagnosed using the Cook phenotype and the insulin resistance (IR) through the HOMA-IR. Chi2, ANOVA, t Student and Willcoxon test were performed. The frequency of FH+ of DM2, hypertension and dyslipidemia were 81,4%, 88,0% and 71,6 % respectively. The MeTS prevalence was 46,5 % associated to overweight magnitude an parental history of NTCD. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 54,6%, while fasting hyperglycemia affected 31,4% of the sample. There was no association between number of relatives with NTCD and CV risk profile. We conclude that in overweight children with FH+ of NTCD, the prevalence of MetS, dyslipidemia and fasting hyperglycemia are significantly higher, than those observed in the general population of obese children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background SAL1 (salivary lipocalin is a member of the OBP (Odorant Binding Protein family and is involved in chemical sexual communication in pig. SAL1 and its relatives may be involved in pheromone and olfactory receptor binding and in pre-mating behaviour. The evolutionary history and the selective pressures acting on SAL1 and its orthologous genes have not yet been exhaustively described. The aim of the present work was to study the evolution of these genes, to elucidate the role of selective pressures in their evolution and the consequences for their functions. Results Here, we present the evolutionary history of SAL1 gene and its orthologous genes in mammals. We found that (1 SAL1 and its related genes arose in eutherian mammals with lineage-specific duplications in rodents, horse and cow and are lost in human, mouse lemur, bushbaby and orangutan, (2 the evolution of duplicated genes of horse, rat, mouse and guinea pig is driven by concerted evolution with extensive gene conversion events in mouse and guinea pig and by positive selection mainly acting on paralogous genes in horse and guinea pig, (3 positive selection was detected for amino acids involved in pheromone binding and amino acids putatively involved in olfactory receptor binding, (4 positive selection was also found for lineage, indicating a species-specific strategy for amino acid selection. Conclusions This work provides new insights into the evolutionary history of SAL1 and its orthologs. On one hand, some genes are subject to concerted evolution and to an increase in dosage, suggesting the need for homogeneity of sequence and function in certain species. On the other hand, positive selection plays a role in the diversification of the functions of the family and in lineage, suggesting adaptive evolution, with possible consequences for speciation and for the reinforcement of prezygotic barriers.
Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of studies have showed an excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The aim, therefore, of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of familial history of T2D in Greek patients, and to evaluate its potential effect on the patient's metabolic control and the presence of diabetic complications. Methods A total of 1,473 T2D patients were recruited. Those with diabetic mothers, diabetic fathers, diabetic relatives other than parents and no known diabetic relatives, were considered separately. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the mother, the father and relatives other than parents, was 27.7, 11.0 and 10.7%, respectively. Patients with paternal diabetes had a higher prevalence of hypertension (64.8 vs. 57.1%, P = 0.05 and lower LDL-cholesterol levels (115.12 ± 39.76 vs. 127.13 ± 46.53 mg/dl, P = 0.006 than patients with diabetes in the mother. Patients with familial diabetes were significantly younger (P 2, P = 0.08, higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (49.8 vs. 44.6%, P = 0.06 and retinopathy (17.9 vs. 14.5%, P = 0.08 compared with patients with no diabetic relatives. No difference in the degree of metabolic control and the prevalence of chronic complications were observed. Conclusion The present study showed an excess maternal transmission of T2D in a sample of Greek diabetic patients. However, no different influence was found between maternal and paternal diabetes on the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients except for LDL-cholesterol levels and presence of hypertension. The presence of a family history of diabetes resulted to an early onset of the disease to the offspring.
Carroll, Catherine; Dockrell, Julie
Research studies have begun to investigate the post-16 outcomes for young adults with a specific language impairment (SLI). As yet only tentative conclusions can be drawn with respect to academic and employment outcomes and the factors that are associated with more positive outcomes. Evidence for these findings has relied predominantly on associations between various language, academic and psychosocial assessments. Little attention has been paid to the perspective of the young person. To investigate from the perspective of a group of young people with a history of SLI the factors they believed have enabled and presented a challenge to their post-16 education and employment outcomes and experiences. Nineteen (four female, 15 male) young people aged from 19 to 23 years (average age 21 years), who had all attended the same residential special school for pupils with SLI, were interviewed face to face to explore their views as to what had enabled and limited their transition experiences to date. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The majority of the young people saw themselves as key agents of change and very active participants in steering their own transition since leaving school. They acknowledged the important role played by their parents and families and how factors such as SLI had affected their transition experiences. The study supports evidence from research with different groups of young people with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities of the importance of school and post-16 curriculums which develop agency on behalf of the young person. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Research purpose: The objective was to determine the relationship between work resources,home resources, work engagement, family engagement and work-family enrichment. The aim was also to test two models representing work-to-family and family-to-work enrichment as mediators. Motivation for the study: By investigating work-family enrichment, as a new research concept,and its antecedents and outcomes, this study will add to the positive side of the work-family interface literature and provide information to organisations.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study with a sample of female workers (N = 420 in South Africa. Polychoric correlations, fit indices, structural equation modelling and testing mediation were used to analyse the data.Omegas and alpha coefficients were employed to determine the reliability. Main findings: A positive relationship between work-family enrichment and its antecedents and outcomes was found. Furthermore, work-family enrichment (W-FE mediated (large effectthe relationship between work resources and work engagement and family-work enrichment mediated (small effect the relationship between home resources and family engagement. Practical/managerial implications: The results provide more insight and understanding to organisations and female workers on the benefits of being involved in both the domain of work life and the domain of family life. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the limited research undertaken on work family enrichment within the South African context. The present study also contributes to the literature on the use of the newly developed MACE Work-Family Enrichment Instrument.
Gualco, G.; Ortega, V.; Musto, M.; Delgado, L.
Objective: To investigate histopathological and immuno phenotypic differences between breast carcinomas sporadic (CM E) and developed in the context of breast cancer (B C) Family (CM F). Methodology: The study included in the CME group (n = 34) patients (pts) with unilateral CM diagnosed after age 30 without family history of CM. In CM F group (n = 26) family members were included pts with 3 or more cases of CM (at least one diagnosed before age 50) or two cases with any of the following sub-criteria: at least one case diagnosed before age 35, paternal transmission, bilateral breast cancer, cancer ovary. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups according to age at diagnosis of CM: age equal to or greater than 40 years (subgroup 1) and age under 40 years (subgroup 2). It recorded the clinical characteristics and conventional anatomical and pathological parameters. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of estrogen receptors was studied and progesterone (E R, P R), HER2, p3, bcl-2 and Ki67. Appropriate statistical tests were applied to Univariate and multivariate analyzes. Results: Mean age at diagnosis (45 vs 58, p <0.001) and tumor size (p <0.05) were lower in the CMF group than in the group with CME. In both groups predominant histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS. He documented a tendency to higher histological grade and lower E R expression in CMF regarding CME. There were no differences in the expression of Pr, HER2, Ki67, bcl2 and p53. while in the CMF group no differences in tumor characteristics were observed by age diagnosis, in the CME, subgroup 2 showed a predominance of edges expansive growth, lower tubular differentiation, histological grade end stores III, minor component in situ, and low expression of RE. Discussion: Morphologic and immune phenotypic features are similar to the CMF studies documented in the United States and Europe, which agrees with the ancestral origin predominant in our population. Overall, the group presented
Livshits, Gregory; Cohen, Zvi; Higla, Orabi; Yakovenko, Konstantin
The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance
Goldfarb, Samantha S; Tarver, Will L; Locher, Julie L; Preskitt, Julie; Sen, Bisakha
To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining the relationship between family meals and adolescent health risk outcomes. We performed a systematic search of original empirical studies published between January 1990 and September 2013. Based on data from selected studies, we conducted logistic regression models to examine the correlates of reporting a protective association between frequent family meals and adolescent outcomes. Of the 254 analyses from 26 selected studies, most reported a significant association between family meals and the adolescent risk outcome-of-interest. However, model analyses which controlled for family connectedness variables, or used advanced empirical methods to account for family-level confounders, were less likely than unadjusted models to report significant relationships. The type of analysis conducted was significantly associated with the likelihood of finding a protective relationship between family meals and the adolescent outcome-of-interest, yet very few studies are using such methods in the literature. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
G. S. Samoylova
Full Text Available The article consider the structure of a word meaning a family in diachronic aspect. The valuable attitude towards concept «family» is characteristic of the entire periods in the history of Russian, and transformation of semantics of the word concept is insignificant. The central idea in definition of a family in modern Russian is the idea of spiritual proximity of people, the close emotional relations. The word is actively used in figurative sense for expression of estimated meanings. In a different way there is a history of values of the terms of relationship entering a theme group «family». In modern Russian these words cease to express a positive emotional assessment at the use in relation to not relatives. According to authors, it demonstrates change of valuable reference points in a modern language picture of the world.
Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie; Haller, Moira M.; Bountress, Kaitlin E.; Dandreaux, Danielle; Beltran, Iris
The present study examined the potential mediating roles of executive and reactive disinhibition in predicting conduct problems, ADHD symptoms, and substance use among adolescents with and without a family history of substance use disorders. Using data from 247 high-risk adolescents, parents, and grandparents, structural equation modeling indicated that reactive disinhibition, as measured by sensation seeking, mediated the effect of familial drug use disorders on all facets of the adolescent externalizing spectrum. Executive disinhibition, as measured by response disinhibition, spatial short term memory, and “trait” impulsivity, was associated with ADHD symptoms. Moreover, although executive functioning weakness were unrelated to familial substance use disorders, adolescents with familial alcohol use disorders were at risk for “trait” impulsivity marked by a lack of planning. These results illustrate the importance of “unpacking” the broad temperament style of disinhibition and of studying the processes that underlie the commonality among facets of the externalizing spectrum and processes that that predict specific externalizing outcomes. PMID:21668077
Chartier, K G; Thomas, N S; Kendler, K S
Both a family history of alcoholism and migration-related factors like US v. foreign nativity increase the risk for developing alcohol use disorders in Hispanic Americans. For this study, we integrated these two lines of research to test whether the relationship between familial alcoholism and alcohol dependence changes with successive generations in the United States. Data were from the waves 1 and 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Subjects self-identified Hispanic ethnicity (N = 4122; n = 1784 first, n = 1169 second, and n = 1169 third or later generation) and reported ever consuming ⩾12 drinks in a 1-year period. A family history of alcoholism was assessed in first- and second-degree relatives. Analyses predicting the number of alcohol dependence symptoms were path models. Alcohol dependence symptoms were associated with a stronger family history of alcoholism and later generational status. There was a significant interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status; the relationship of familial alcoholism with alcohol dependence symptoms increased significantly with successive generations in the United States, more strongly in women than men. Acculturation partially mediated the interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status on alcohol dependence, although not in the expected direction. Familial alcoholism interacted with generational status in predicting alcohol dependence symptoms in US Hispanic drinkers. This relationship suggests that heritability for alcoholism is influenced by a higher-order environmental factor, likely characterized by a relaxing of social restrictions on drinking.
Andersson, Ulrika; Wibom, Carl; Cederquist, Kristina
-dependent probe amplification. These families all had at least 2 verified glioma cases and a third reported or verified glioma case in the same family or 2 glioma cases in the family with at least one family member affected with melanoma, colon, or breast cancer.The genomic areas covering TP53, CDKN2A, MLH1...
Marilyn C. Welsh
Full Text Available College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF. Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively “cool” EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional or motivational valence and “hot” EF tasks that emphasize performance under more emotionally arousing conditions. Sixty-one male and female college undergraduates self-reported childhood maltreatment history (emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and were given two EF measures: (1 Go-No-Go (GNG test that included a Color Condition (cool; Neutral Face Condition (warm; and Emotion Face condition (hot, and (2 Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, a measure of risky decision making that reflects hot EF. Academic outcomes were: (1 grade point average (GPA: first-semester, cumulative, and semester concurrent with testing, and (2 Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ. Correlational patterns suggested two EF scores as potential mediators: GNG reaction time (RT in the Neutral Face condition, and IGT Block 2 adaptive responding. Indirect effects analyses indicated that IGT Block 2 adaptive responding has an indirect effect on the relationship between CTQ Total score and 1st semester GPA, and between CTQ Emotional Abuse and concurrent GPA. Regarding college adaptation, we identified a consistent indirect effect of GNG Neutral Face RT on the relationship between CTQ Emotional Neglect and SACQ total, academic, social, and personal–emotional adaption scores. Our results demonstrate that higher scores on a child maltreatment history self-report negatively predict college academic
Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.
Background Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Methods Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2928, assessed at twins’ median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) versus broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. Results In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report; and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother’s education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Conclusions Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for European ancestry families, but suggest that family history assessment in African American families requires improved methods. PMID:22235921
Martínez-Ochoa, Eva; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Beunza, Juan-José; Rodríguez-Cundín, Paz; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Llorca, Javier
The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and both health behavior and screening procedures in a population cohort. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 15,169 participants belonging to a prospective cohort study (the SUN Project) based on two self-reported questionnaires: one of them related to lifestyle and the other a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We explored the influence of family history of colorectal cancer in lifestyles (consumption of alcohol, weight, and diet) and medical management behaviors (screening of chronic diseases). People with family history of colorectal cancer increased their number of colorectal cancer screening tests (adjusted odds ratio for fecal occult blood test: 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.48-2.65; and adjusted odds ratio for colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy: 3.42, 2.69-4.36); nevertheless, health behavior changes in diet of relatives of colorectal cancer patients were undetectable. We show that individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer increase their compliance with screening tests, although they exhibit no better health-related behaviors than people without family history of colorectal cancer. Further prospective studies are required to confirm these results and to identify tools to empower the subjects to change their risk profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young
To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients
Wood, M E; Flynn, B S; Stockdale, A
Risk stratification based on family history is a feature of screening guidelines for a number of cancers and referral guidelines for genetic counseling/testing for cancer risk. Our aim was to describe primary care physician perceptions of their role in managing cancer risk based on family history. Structured interviews were conducted by a medical anthropologist with primary care physicians in 3 settings in 2 north-eastern states. Transcripts were systematically analyzed by a research team to identify major themes expressed by participants. Forty interviews were conducted from May 2003 through May 2006. Physicians provided a diversity of views on roles in management of cancer risk based on family history, management practices and patient responses to risk information. They also provided a wide range of perspectives on criteria used for referral to specialists, types of specialists referred to and expected management roles for referred patients. Some primary care physicians appeared to make effective use of family history information for cancer risk management, but many in this sample did not. Increased focus on efficient assessment tools based on recognized guidelines, accessible guides to management options, and patient education and decision aids may be useful directions to facilitate broader use of family history information for cancer risk management. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Asemi, Zatollah; Lankarani, Kamran B; Tabrizi, Reza; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Ahmad; Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Sadeghi, Reza; Khatibi, Seyed Reza; Afshari, Mahdi; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Akbari, Maryam
Gestational diabetes is the most prevalent metabolic disorder being firstly diagnosed during pregnancy. The relationship between the family history of diabetes and the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been investigated in several primary studies with a number of contradictions in the results. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between the GDM and the family history of diabetes using the meta-analysis method. All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched with some specific keywords to find the related studies between 2000 and 2016. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in analysis for each study using a random-effect and Mantel-Haenzel method. We also determined heterogeneity among these 33 articles and their publication bias. We entered 33 relevant studies of 2516 articles into the meta-analysis process including 2697 women with family history of diabetes mellitus as well as 29134 women without. Of them, 954 and 4372 subjects developed GDM respectively. Combining the results of the primary studies using the meta-analysis method, the overall odds ratio of family history for developing GDM was estimated as of 3.46 (95% CI: 2.80-4.27). This meta-analysis study revealed that the family history of diabetes is an important risk factor for the gestational diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.
Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R; Sear, Rebecca
Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence) making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207) collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable), and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers) are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother-absent households
Full Text Available Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207 collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable, and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association of birth by caesarean section (C/S and allergies have produced conflicting findings. Furthermore, evidence on whether this association may differ in those at risk of atopy is limited. This study aims to investigate the association of mode of delivery with asthma and atopic sensitization and the extent to which any effect is modified by family history of allergies. Methods Asthma outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally in 2216 children at age 8 on the basis of parents’ responses to the ISAAC questionnaire whilst skin prick tests to eleven aeroallergens were also performed in a subgroup of 746 children. Adjusted odds ratios of asthma and atopy by mode of delivery were estimated in multivariable logistic models while evidence of effect modification was examined by introducing interaction terms in the models. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, children born by C/S appeared significantly more likely than those born vaginally to report ever wheezing (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71, asthma diagnosis (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83 and be atopic (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.60. There was modest evidence that family history of allergies may modify the effect of C/S delivery on atopy (p for effect modification=0.06 but this was not the case for the asthma outcomes. Specifically, while more than a two-fold increase in the odds of being a topic was observed in children with a family history of allergies if born by C/S (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.38-5.00, no association was observed in children without a family history of allergies (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64-2.11. Conclusions Birth by C/S is associated with asthma and atopic sensitization in childhood. The association of C/S and atopy appears more pronounced in children with family history of allergies.
Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F
Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity. Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, χ 2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2×2 factorial analyses of variance. Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity. The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset.
Bailey, A J; Cooke, T J
"This article uses event history data to specify a model of employment returns to initial migration, onward migration, and return migration among newly married persons in the U.S. Husbands are more likely to be full-time employed than wives, and being a parent reduces the employment odds among married women. Employment returns to repeated migration differ by gender, with more husbands full-time employed after onward migration and more wives full-time employed after return migration events. We interpret these empirical findings in the context of family migration theory, segmented labor market theory, and gender-based responsibilities." Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1979 to 1991. excerpt
Alsbeih, Ghazi; Story, Michael D.; Maor, Moshe H.; Geara, Fady B.; Brock, William A.
Beside a few known radiosensitive syndromes, a patient's reaction to radiotherapy is difficult to predict. In this report we describe the management of a pediatric cancer patient presented with a family history of radiosensitivity and cancer proneness. Laboratory investigations revealed a chromosomal fragility syndrome and an increased cellular radiosensitivity in vitro. AT gene sequencing revealed no mutations. The patient was treated with reduced radiation doses to avoid the presumed increased risks of toxicity to normal tissues. The patient tolerated well the treatment with no significant acute or late radiation sequelae. Five years later, the patient remains both disease and complications free. While an accurate laboratory test for radiosensitivity is still lacking, assessments of chromosomal fragility, cell survival and clinical medicine will continue to be useful for a small number of patients
Sthela Maria Murad-Regadas
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening. Methods: A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy, presence, location and histological type of polyps were evaluated, comparing the two groups. Results: 214 patients were evaluated: 162 in Group I and 52 in Group II. The distribution of patients with polyps was similar in relation to gender: polyps were evidenced in Group I in 33 (20% female patients vs. 10 (6% male patients (p = 1.00; in Group II, the presence of polyps was evidenced in 9 (17% female patients vs. 2 (4% male patients (p = 1.00. Polypoid lesions were found in 54 patients (25%, with 43 (26% in Group I and 11 (21% in Group II. The prevalence of adenomas was similar in both groups (Group I = 18/37% vs. Group II = 10/50% (p = 0.83. Conclusion: In this preliminary study, no correlation was found between prevalence of polyps and a family history of colorectal cancer. Resumo: Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência de pólipos em pacientes com história familiar de câncer colorretal comparando com indivíduos assintomáticos com indicação para rastreamento. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo realizado em um grupo de indivíduos submetidos à colonoscopia entre 2012 e 2014. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo I: sem história familiar de câncer colorretal e Grupo II: com história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau. Avaliaram-se características demográficas, achados na colonoscopia, presença, localização e tipo histológico dos pólipos, comparando os dois grupos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 214 pacientes, 162 incluídas no grupo I e 52
Wilson, B J; Carroll, J C; Allanson, J; Little, J; Etchegary, H; Avard, D; Potter, B K; Castle, D; Grimshaw, J M; Chakraborty, P
Family health history (FHH) has potential value in many health care settings. This review discusses the potential uses of FHH information in primary care and the need for tools to be designed accordingly. We developed a framework in which the attributes of FHH tools are mapped against these different purposes. It contains 7 attributes mapped against 5 purposes. In considering different FHH tool purposes, it is apparent that different attributes become more or less important, and that tools for different purposes require different implementation and evaluation strategies. The context in which a tool is used is also relevant to its effectiveness. For FHH tools, it is unlikely that 'one size fits all', although appreciation of different purposes, users and contexts should facilitate the development of different applications from single FHH platforms. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG among Omani adults with no family history (FH of diabetes and to investigate the factors behind the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D, while excluding a FH of diabetes. Methods: A total of 1,182 Omani adults, aged ≥40 years, visited the Family Medicine & Community Health Clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, on days other than the Diabetes Clinic days, from July 2010 to July 2011. The subjects were interviewed and asked if they had T2D or a FH of T2D. Results: Only 191 (16% reported no personal history of T2D or FH of the disease. Of these, anthropometric and biochemical data was complete in 159 subjects. Of these a total of 42 (26% had IFG according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Body mass index, fasting insulin, haemoglobin A1C and blood pressure (BP, were significantly higher among individuals with IFG (P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.01 and P <0.01, respectively. In addition, fasting insulin, BP and serum lipid profile were correlated with obesity indices (P <0.05. Obesity indices were strongly associated with the risk of IFG among Omanis, with waist circumference being the strongest predictor. Conclusion: Despite claiming no FH of diabetes, a large number of Omani adults in this study had a high risk of developing diabetes. This is possibly due to environmental factors and endogamy. The high prevalence of obesity combined with genetically susceptible individuals is a warning that diabetes could be a future epidemic in Oman.
Davis, Greggory R; Deville, Tiffany; Guillory, Joshua; Bellar, David; Nelson, Arnold G
Determining predictive markers for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), particularly in young individuals, offers immense potential benefits in preventative medicine. Previous research examining serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in humans has revealed equivocal relationships with clinical markers of metabolic dysfunction. However, it is unknown to what extent, if any, first-degree family history of T2D (mother or father of the participant diagnosed with T2D) level affects serum FGF21 levels. The aim of this study was to determine whether in healthy individuals with FH+ (n = 18) and without FH- (n = 17) a family history of T2D affects serum FGF21. Fasting serum and clinical, metabolic and anthropometric measures were determined using a cross-sectional design. Differences between groups for FGF21 were not significant (FH+ = 266 pg/mL ± 51·4, FH = 180 pg/mL ± 29; Z = 0·97, P = 0·33). Adiponectin values were lower in FH+ (8·81 μg/mL ± 2·14) compared to FH- (10·65 μg/mL ± 1·44; F = 8·83, P = 0·01). Resistin was negatively correlated with FGF21 for all participants (r = -0·38, P = 0·03), but no other clinical, metabolic, or serum markers were predictive for serum FGF21 in FH+ or FH-. Serum FGF21 is not significantly different between FH+ and FH- in young, healthy individuals. Based upon the data of this pilot study, it is unclear whether serum FGF21 can be used as a stand-alone predictive marker for T2D in healthy subjects. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
Cameron, F.J.; Skinner, T.C.; Beaufort, C.E. de
-parent disagreement on responsibility for diabetes care practices (F = 8.46; d.f. = 2; P gender or insulin treatment regimen......Aims To assess the importance of family factors in determining metabolic outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in 19 countries. Methods Adolescents with Type 1 diabetes aged 11-18 years, from 21 paediatric diabetes care centres, in 19 countries, and their parents were invited to participate...... a questionnaire. Family demographic factors that were associated with metabolic outcomes included: parents living together (t = 4.1; P 2; d.f. = 3; P diabetes care (r = 0.11; P
Alessandro Lo Presti
Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate some predictors and outcomes of family-to-work enrichment (FWE via a mixed-method approach. We sampled 447 married employees of an Italian factory. Survey results from Study 1 showed that emotional support from family positively predicted FWE, while this latter mediated the associations between the former on one side, and work engagement and life satisfaction on the other. Moreover, extra-household support directly associated positively with life satisfaction. Evidence from 20 anthropological in-depth interviews (Study 2 returned a more complex picture, highlighting the gendered role of partners inside couples, the importance of kinship support, the sense and the value of filiation and parenthood in their connection with job roles, the complex and continuous interplay between family and life domains. In combination, results from both studies stressed the importance of family support; additionally, evidences from Study 2 suggested that FWE could be better understood taking into account crossover dynamics and the compresence of work-to-family enrichment and conflict. In sum, these studies contributed to shed light on FWE dynamics, an under-researched topic in Italy, whose knowledge could be of great empirical and practical value.
Lo Presti, Alessandro; D'Aloisio, Fulvia; Pluviano, Sara
Our aim was to investigate some predictors and outcomes of family-to-work enrichment (FWE) via a mixed-method approach. We sampled 447 married employees of an Italian factory. Survey results from Study 1 showed that emotional support from family positively predicted FWE, while this latter mediated the associations between the former on one side, and work engagement and life satisfaction on the other. Moreover, extra-household support directly associated positively with life satisfaction. Evidence from 20 anthropological in-depth interviews (Study 2) returned a more complex picture, highlighting the gendered role of partners inside couples, the importance of kinship support, the sense and the value of filiation and parenthood in their connection with job roles, the complex and continuous interplay between family and life domains. In combination, results from both studies stressed the importance of family support; additionally, evidences from Study 2 suggested that FWE could be better understood taking into account crossover dynamics and the compresence of work-to-family enrichment and conflict. In sum, these studies contributed to shed light on FWE dynamics, an under-researched topic in Italy, whose knowledge could be of great empirical and practical value.
Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.
Objective This study sought to determine whether the family environment moderates psychosocial outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Method Participants were recruited prospectively from consecutive hospital admissions of 3-6 year old children, and included 19 with severe TBI, 56 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 99 with orthopedic injuries (OI). They completed four assessments across the first 18 months post-injury. The initial assessment included measures of parenting style, family functioning, and the quality of the home. Children’s behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning, and social competence were assessed at each occasion. Mixed model analyses examined the relationship of the family environment to psychosocial outcomes across time. Results The OI and TBI groups differed significantly in social competence, but the family environment did not moderate the group difference, which was of medium magnitude. In contrast, group differences in behavioral adjustment became more pronounced across time at high levels of authoritarian and permissive parenting; among children with severe TBI, however, even those with low levels of permissive parenting showed increases in behavioral problems. For adaptive functioning, better home environments provided some protection following TBI, but not over time for the severe TBI group. These three-way interactions of group, family environment, and time post injury were all of medium magnitude. Conclusions The findings indicate that the family environment moderates the psychosocial outcomes of TBI in young children, but the moderating influence may wane with time among children with severe TBI. PMID:20438212
Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin
Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.
Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Marinac, Catherine R; Marcus, Bess H; Rosen, Rochelle K; Gans, Kim M
Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. A total of 55 women with at least 1 first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Participants were on average 46.2 (SD = 11.4) years old with a body mass index of 27.3 (SD = 4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both ps Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available T Felekis1, I Asproudis1, K Katsanos2, EV Tsianos21University Eye Clinic of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: A 51-year-old male was referred to the University Eye Clinic of Ioannina with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION 12 hours after receiving sildenafil citrate (Viagra®. Examination for possible risk factors revealed mild hypercholesterolemia. Family history showed that his father had suffered from bilateral NAION. Although a cause-and-effect relationship is difficult to prove, there are reports indicating an association between the use of erectile dysfunction agents and the development of NAION. Physicians might need to investigate the presence of family history of NAION among systemic or vascular predisposing risk factors before prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs.Keywords: sildenafil, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, erectile dysfunction drugs, family history
Karatepe, Osman M.
There are calls for more empirical research about the antecedents and outcomes of work engagement in frontline service jobs in the hospitality management literature. With this realization, using the precepts of the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources model, the present study aims to develop and test a conceptual model that examines work engagement as a mediator of the effect of family support on organizationally relevant and valued job outcomes. Turnover intentions, job performa...
Klein, M.C. [Children' s and Women' s Health Centre, Dept. of Family Practice, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Family Practice, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Spence, A. [Children' s and Women' s Health Centre, Dept. of Family Practice, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kaczorowski, J. [McMaster Univ., Depts. of Family Medicine and of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Kelly, A. [Children' s and Women' s Health Centre, Dept. of Family Practice, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Health Care and Epidemiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Grzybowski, S. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Family Practice, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)
The number of births attended by individual family physicians who practice intrapartum care varies. We wanted to determine if the practice-volume relations that have been shown in other fields of medical practice also exist in maternity care practice by family doctors. For the period April 1997 to August 1998, we analyzed all singleton births at a major maternity teaching hospital for which the family physician was the responsible physician. Physicians were grouped into 3 categories on the basis of the number of births they attended each year: fewer than 12, 12 to 24, and 25 or more. Physicians with a low volume of deliveries (72 physicians, 549 births), those with a medium volume of deliveries (34 physicians, 871 births) and those with a high volume of deliveries (46 physicians, 3024 births) were compared in terms of maternal and newborn outcomes. The main outcome measures were maternal morbidity, 5-minute Apgar score and admission of the baby to the neonatal intensive care unit or special care unit. Secondary outcomes were obstetric procedures and consultation patterns. There was no difference among the 3 volume cohorts in terms of rates of maternal complications of delivery, 5-minute Apgar scores of less than 7 or admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit or the special care unit, either before or after adjustment for parity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, diabetes, ethnicity, lone parent status, maternal age, gestational age, newborn birth weight and newborn head circumference at birth. High-and medium-volume family physicians consulted with obstetricians less often than low-volume family physicians (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.586 [95% confidence interval, CI, 0.479-0.718] and 0.739 [95% Cl 0.583-0.935] respectively). High-and medium-volume family physicians transferred the delivery to an obstetrician less often than low-volume family physicians (adjusted OR 0.668 [95% CI 0.542-0.823] and 0.776 [95% Cl 0.607-0.992] respectively). Inductions were performed
Klein, M.C.; Spence, A.; Kaczorowski, J.; Kelly, A.; Grzybowski, S.
The number of births attended by individual family physicians who practice intrapartum care varies. We wanted to determine if the practice-volume relations that have been shown in other fields of medical practice also exist in maternity care practice by family doctors. For the period April 1997 to August 1998, we analyzed all singleton births at a major maternity teaching hospital for which the family physician was the responsible physician. Physicians were grouped into 3 categories on the basis of the number of births they attended each year: fewer than 12, 12 to 24, and 25 or more. Physicians with a low volume of deliveries (72 physicians, 549 births), those with a medium volume of deliveries (34 physicians, 871 births) and those with a high volume of deliveries (46 physicians, 3024 births) were compared in terms of maternal and newborn outcomes. The main outcome measures were maternal morbidity, 5-minute Apgar score and admission of the baby to the neonatal intensive care unit or special care unit. Secondary outcomes were obstetric procedures and consultation patterns. There was no difference among the 3 volume cohorts in terms of rates of maternal complications of delivery, 5-minute Apgar scores of less than 7 or admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit or the special care unit, either before or after adjustment for parity, pregnancy-induced hypertension, diabetes, ethnicity, lone parent status, maternal age, gestational age, newborn birth weight and newborn head circumference at birth. High-and medium-volume family physicians consulted with obstetricians less often than low-volume family physicians (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.586 [95% confidence interval, CI, 0.479-0.718] and 0.739 [95% Cl 0.583-0.935] respectively). High-and medium-volume family physicians transferred the delivery to an obstetrician less often than low-volume family physicians (adjusted OR 0.668 [95% CI 0.542-0.823] and 0.776 [95% Cl 0.607-0.992] respectively). Inductions were performed
Clarice R Weinberg
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies typically target inherited autosomal variants, but less studied genetic mechanisms can play a role in complex disease. Sex-linked variants aside, three genetic phenomena can induce differential risk in maternal versus paternal lineages of affected individuals: 1. maternal effects, reflecting the maternal genome's influence on prenatal development; 2. mitochondrial variants, which are inherited maternally; 3. autosomal genes, whose effects depend on parent of origin. We algebraically show that small asymmetries in family histories of affected individuals may reflect much larger genetic risks acting via those mechanisms. We apply these ideas to a study of sisters of women with breast cancer. Among 5,091 distinct families of women reporting that exactly one grandmother had breast cancer, risk was skewed toward maternal grandmothers (p<0.0001, especially if the granddaughter was diagnosed between age 45 and 54. Maternal genetic effects, mitochondrial variants, or variant genes with parent-of-origin effects may influence risk of perimenopausal breast cancer.
Schultz, Michael; Seo, Steven Bohwan; Holt, Alec; Regenbrecht, Holger
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high incidence, especially in New Zealand. The reasons for this are unknown. While most cancers develop sporadically, a positive family history, determined by the number and age at diagnosis of affected first and second degree relatives with CRC is one of the major factors, which may increase an individual's lifetime risk. Before a patient can be enrolled in a surveillance program a detailed assessment and documentation of the family history is important but time consuming and often inaccurate. The documentation is usually paper-based. Our aim was therefore to develop and validate the usability and efficacy of a web-based family history assessment tool for CRC suitable for the general population. The tool was also to calculate the risk and make a recommendation for surveillance. Two versions of an electronic assessment tool, diagram-based and questionnaire-based, were developed with the risk analysis and recommendations for surveillance based on the New Zealand Guidelines Group recommendations. Accuracy of our tool was tested prior to the study by comparing risk calculations based on family history by experienced gastroenterologists with the electronic assessment. The general public, visiting a local science fair were asked to use and comment on the usability of the two interfaces. Ninety people assessed and commented on the two interfaces. Both interfaces were effective in assessing the risk to develop CRC through their familial history for CRC. However, the questionnaire-based interface performed with significantly better satisfaction (p = 0.001) than the diagram-based interface. There was no difference in efficacy though. We conclude that a web-based questionnaire tool can assist in the accurate documentation and analysis of the family history relevant to determine the individual risk of CRC based on local guidelines. The calculator is now implemented and assessable through the web-page of a local charity for colorectal cancer
Although the exact aetiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development and expression of schizophrenia. The strongest risk factor to develop schizophrenia is the familial risk, thus having a family member with schizophrenia. The
Johnson, Anna D; Markowitz, Anna J
To investigate associations between household food insecurity and multiple family well-being variables in an effort to illuminate previously understudied, policy-amenable mechanisms through which food insecurity threatens healthy development. Data are drawn from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort contains longitudinal data on household food insecurity and several family well-being factors including maternal physical and mental health, positive parenting practices and disciplinary strategies, and frequency and severity of spousal conflict. We use regression models with lagged dependent variables to estimate associations between food insecurity and family well-being outcomes, on a subsample of low-income families (N ≈ 2100-4700). Household food insecurity was significantly associated with poorer maternal physical health; increased depressive symptoms and use of harsh discipline strategies; and greater frequency and negativity of conflict between parents. Associations were strongest and most consistent when children were preschool aged. Transitions into food insecurity between toddlerhood and preschool were also associated with significantly worse parental physical and mental health outcomes, and more family conflict, with similar though slightly weaker and less consistent associations for transitioning into food insecurity between infancy and toddlerhood. Food insecurity is associated with significant decreases in family health and well-being. Clinicians and other public health officials play a critical role in assessing risk for children and families, and linking families with supportive services. Screening families experiencing or at risk for food insecurity and connecting them with resources is an avenue through which public health practitioners can support family health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S
Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.
Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa
This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Razif, S Mohd; Sulaiman, S; Hanie, S Soraya; Aina, E Nor; Rohaizak, M; Fuad, I; Nurismah, M I; Sharifah, N A
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. This study aimed to determine the reproductive for premenopausal breast cancer risk in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A case-control study was conducted in 216 histopathologically confirmed cases of premenopausal breast cancer and 216 community-based controls that were matched by age within a 5-year period and ethnicity. The results of this study showed that premenopausal breast cancer risks were strongly related to parity, number of live births and family history of breast cancer. Premenopausal women with these known reproductive and family history risk factors should take extra measures to undergo appropriate screening method for early detection of breast cancer.
Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Shen; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yi-Quan; He, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Ri-Fang; Roberts, David L; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Yi-Qiang
Suicide in college students has become an important public health issue in China. The aim of this study was to identify the differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators based on a cross-sectional survey. Our results indicate that although female gender, positive screening for psychiatric illness, positive family history of suicide, elevated overall impulsivity, and elevated motor impulsivity were correlated with suicidal ideation, only positive family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity could differentiate suicide attempters from suicidal ideators. Future research with a longitudinal and prospective study design should be conducted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Szelei-Stevens, Kathleen A.; Kuske, Robert R.; Yantsos, Valerie A.; Cederbom, Gunnar J.; Bolton, John S.; Fineberg, Barbara B.
Background: Several recent studies have investigated the influence of family history on the progression of DCIS patients treated by tylectomy and radiation therapy. Since three treatment strategies have been used for DCIS at our institution, we evaluated the influence of family history and young age on outcome by treatment method. Methods: Between 1/1/82 and 12/31/92, 128 patients were treated for DCIS by mastectomy (n = 50, 39%), tylectomy alone (n = 43, 34%), and tylectomy with radiation therapy (n = 35, 27%). Median follow-up is 8.7 years. Thirty-nine patients had a positive family history of breast cancer; 26 in a mother, sister, or daughter (first-degree relative); and 26 in a grandmother, aunt, or cousin (second-degree relative). Thirteen patients had a positive family history in both first- and second-degree relatives. Results: Six women developed a recurrence in the treated breast; all of these were initially treated with tylectomy alone. There were no recurrences in the mastectomy group or the tylectomy patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy. Patients with a positive family history had a 10.3% local recurrence rate (LRR), vs. a 2.3% LRR in patients with a negative family history (p = 0.05). Four of 44 patients (9.1%) 50 years of age or younger recurred, compared to two of 84 patients (2.4%) over the age of 50 (p = 0.10). Fifteen patients had both a positive family history and were 50 years of age or younger. Among these women, the recurrence rate was 20%. Women in this group treated by lesionectomy alone had a LRR of 38% (3 of 8). Conclusion: The most important determinant of outcome was the selection of treatment modality, with all of the recurrences occurring in the tylectomy alone group. In addition to treatment method, a positive family history significantly influenced LRR in patients treated by tylectomy, especially in women 50 years of age or younger. These results suggest that DCIS patients, particularly premenopausal women with a
This article is an attempt to reconstruct the family history of the Fraris, the famous Šibenik medical family. Three generations of physicians from the Frari family played an important role not only at medical and social scene of Šibenik in the 18th and 19th century, but also in Croatian and Italian medical history. I will try to provide important details on the lives, medical and social work, and publications of 5 members of the family, Giuseppe (Josip), Angelo Antonio (Anđeo Antun), Sebastiano (Sebastijan), Michele Carlo (Mihovil), and Aloysius (Luigi) Frari. I would also like to pay a special attention to the works on rabies, written by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari, which are among the earliest and most accurate Croatian works on the subject. To reconstruct the history of the family, I studied the relevant editions about the medical and social history of Šibenik, Dalmatia, Venice, and Croatia, together with the Fraris’ publications and reflections. This was the first time Italian and Latin language works by Giuseppe and Luigi Frari on rabies were analyzed. The story on Fraris also documents that medical publishing was a common practice in Dalmatia in the 18th and the 19th century. PMID:17589982
Bischof, Faith; Rothberg, Alan; Ratcliffe, Ingrid
We aimed to study functional mobility and visual performance in spastic diplegic children and adolescents attending specialised schools. Spastic diplegia (SD) was confirmed by clinical examination. Birth and related history were added to explore relationships between SD, birth weight (BW) and duration of pregnancy. Place of birth, BW, gestational age (GA) and length of hospital stay were obtained by means of parental recall. Outcome measures included the functional mobility scale (FMS) and Beery tests of visuomotor integration (VMI) and visual perception (VIS). Forty participants were included (age 7 years 5 months - 19 years 6 months). Term and preterm births were almost equally represented. Functional mobility assessments showed that 20 were walking independently in school and community settings and the remainder used walking aids or wheelchairs. There were no significant correlations between BW or GA and outcomes (FMS, VIS-Z scores or VMI-Z scores) and Z scores were low. VIS scores correlated significantly with chronological age (p=0.024). There were also significant correlations between VIS and VMI scores and school grade appropriateness (p=0.004;p=0.027 respectively). Both term and preterm births were represented, and outcomes were similar regardless of GA. VIS and VMI were affected in both groups. Half of the group used assistive mobility devices and three-fifths were delayed in terms of their educational level. These problems require specialised teaching strategies, appropriate resources and a school environment that caters for mobility limitations.
Lock, James; Couturier, Jennifer; Agras, W. Stewart
Objective: To describe the relative effectiveness of a short versus long course of family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa at long-term follow-up. Method: This study used clinical and structured interviews to assess psychological and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents (ages 12-18 years at baseline) who were previously treated…
Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited inc...
Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.
This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…
Mead, Sara; Mitchel, Ashley LiBetti
Head Start is a valuable federal program that improves the lives of our nation's most vulnerable children and their families. Research shows that Head Start programs improve children's learning at school entry and have a positive impact on long-term life outcomes. Research also suggests that Head Start could have a stronger impact on children's…
Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby
Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…
Stansfeld, J.; Stoner, C.R.; Wenborn, J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Moniz-Cook, E.; Orrell, M.
BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and
Cools, Sara; Markussen, Simen; Strøm, Marte
We estimate the effect of family size on various measures of labor market outcomes over the whole career until retirement, using instrumental variables estimation in data from Norwegian administrative registers. Parents' number of children is instrumented with the sex mix of their first two children. We find that having additional children causes sizable reductions in labor supply for women, which fade as children mature and even turn positive for women without a college degree. Among women with a college degree, there is evidence of persistent and even increasing career penalties of family size. Having additional children reduces these women's probability of being employed by higher-paying firms, their earnings rank within the employing firm, and their probability of being the top earner at the workplace. Some of the career effects persist long after labor supply is restored. We find no effect of family size on any of men's labor market outcomes in either the short or long run.
Rienecke, Renee D; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel
The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Valido Quintana, Mercedes; Oviedo Santos, Ángeles; Borkoski Barreiro, Silvia; Santana Rodríguez, Alfredo; Ramos Macías, Ángel
Sixty percent of prelingual hearing loss is of genetic origin. A family history of permanent childhood hearing loss is a risk factor. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between this risk factor and hearing loss. We have evaluated clinical and epidemiological characteristics and related nonsyndromic genetic variation. This was a retrospective, descriptive and observational study of newborns between January 2007 and December 2010 with family history as risk factor for hearing loss using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem response. A total of 26,717 children were born. Eight hundred and fifty-seven (3.2%) had family history. Fifty-seven(0.21%) failed to pass the second test. A percentage of 29.1 (n=16) had another risk factor, and 17.8% (n=9) had no classical risk factor. No risk factor was related to the hearing loss except heart disease. Seventy-six point four percent had normal hearing and 23.6% hearing loss. The mean of family members with hearing loss was 1.25. On genetic testing, 82.86% of homozygotes was normal, 11.43% heterozygosity in Connexin 26 gene (35delG), 2.86% R143W heterozygosity in the same gene and 2.86% mutant homozygotes (35delG). We found no relationship between hearing loss and mutated allele. The percentage of children with a family history and hearing loss is higher than expected in the general population. The genetic profile requires updating to clarify the relationship between hearing loss and heart disease, family history and the low prevalence in the mutations analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.
Moon, Joon Ho; Roh, Eun; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee
We assessed the impact of a family history of diabetes on type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and behavioral traits in young Korean adults. Subjects aged 25-44 years were included, and the presence of a family history of diabetes was obtained by a self-reported questionnaire (the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010). We compared the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and other metabolic parameters, including blood pressure and lipid profile. Of 2059 participants, those with a family history of diabetes involving first-degree relatives (n = 489, 23.7%) had a significantly higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (14.3 vs. 11.7%) and type 2 diabetes (6.7 vs. 1.8%), compared to those without a family history ( P metabolic syndrome (21.3 vs. 12.1%, P family history of diabetes. Among subjects exhibiting normal glucose tolerance (n = 1704), those with a family history of diabetes had higher fasting glucose (89.0 vs. 87.8 mg/dL, P family history of diabetes. Young adults with a family history of diabetes had an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, even though they currently exhibited a normal glycemic profile. Proactive lifestyle consultation is requested especially among healthy young population with a family history of diabetes.
Warren, Timothy A; Nagle, Christina M; Bowman, James; Panizza, Benedict J
Understanding the natural history of diseases enables the clinician to better diagnose and treat their patients. Perineural spread of head and neck cancers are poorly understood and often diagnosis is delayed resulting in poorer outcomes and more debilitating treatments. This article reviews a large personal series of head and neck malignancy presenting with perineural spread along almost exclusively the trigeminal and/or facial nerves. A detailed analysis of squamous cell carcinoma of cutaneous origin is presented including an analysis of likely primaries, which most often have occurred months to years prior. The importance of early detection is reinforced by the highly significant (p < 0.0001) differences in disease specific survival, which occur, depending on how far along a cranial nerve the disease has been allowed to spread.
Pinheiro, Maísa; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Tonhosolo, Renata
Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) has been described as a hereditary predisposition cancer syndrome associated with mutations in candidate genes including HABP2. Two of 20 probands from families with history of PTC and breast carcinoma (BC) were evaluated by whole exome sequencing (WES...... familial PTC cases. Genes potentially associated with deregulation of the extracellular matrix organization pathway (CTSB, TNXB, COL4A3, COL16A1, COL24A1, COL5A2, NID1, LOXL2, MMP11, TRIM24 and MUSK) and DNA repair function (NBN and MSH2) were detected by WES, suggesting that other cancer-associated genes...
Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M
While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi 2 analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms of
Full Text Available ObjectivesThe objectives were to evaluate (1 the metabolic profile and cardiometabolic risk in overweight/obese children at first assessment, stratifying patients according to severity of overweight and age; and (2 to investigate the relationship between family history (FH for obesity and cardiometabolic diseases and severity of childhood obesity.MethodsIn this cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study, 260 children (139 female, aged between 2.4 and 17.2 years, with overweight and obesity were recruited. Data regarding FH for obesity and cardiometabolic diseases were collected. Each patient underwent clinical and auxological examination and fasting blood sampling for metabolic profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and atherogenic index of plasma were calculated. To evaluate the severity of obesity, children were divided into two groups for BMI standard deviation (SD ≤2.5 and BMI SD >2.5. Moreover, study population was analyzed, dividing it into three groups based on the chronological age of patient (<8, 8–11, >11 years.ResultsBMI SD was negatively correlated with chronological age (p < 0.005 and significantly higher in the group of children <8 years. BMI SD was positively associated with FH for obesity. Patients with more severe obesity (BMI SD >2.5 were younger (p < 0.005, mostly prepubertal, presented a significantly higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.04, and had a significantly higher prevalence of FH for arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease than the other group.Conclusion(1 Family history of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases are important risk factors for precocious obesity onset in childhood and are related to the severity of obesity. (2 Metabolic profile, especially HOMA-IR, is altered even among the youngest obese children at first evaluation. (3 Stratification of obesity severity
Sara Anne Tompkins
Full Text Available Previous research has established that family enrichment programs work with a variety of populations (e.g., Hawkins, Stanley, Blanchard, & Albright, 2012. It is unclear if a multi-component program focusing on a variety of family outcomes can lead to lasting change. This study used growth modeling to examine effects of relationship (i.e., Within My Reach, parenting (i.e., Making Parenting a Pleasure, and financial enrichment (i.e., Spend Some, Save Some, Share Some classes over 12 months. Results revealed improvement in family functioning at one year post for all three programs. Program specific improvements included relationship functioning and parenting alliance. Program participants reported overall satisfaction and gaining of valuable skills. Findings suggest these family enrichment programs can have long-lasting effects; potential reasons for sample success and implications are discussed.
Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Crandall, Jill P; Milman, Sofiya; Verghese, Joe
Although many genetic and nongenetic factors interact to determine an individual's physical phenotype, there has been limited examination of the contribution of family history of exceptional parental longevity on decline in physical function in aging. The LonGenity study recruited a relatively genetically homogenous cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish adults age 65 and older, who were defined as either offspring of parents with exceptional longevity ([OPEL]: having at least one parent who lived to age 95 or older) or offspring of parents with usual survival ([OPUS]: neither parent survived to age 95). Decline in performance on objective measures of strength (grip strength), balance (unipedal stance), and mobility (gait speed) as well as a composite physical function measure, the Short physical performance battery (SPPB), were compared between the two groups over a median follow-up of 3.2 years, accounting for age, sex, education, and comorbidities. Of the 984 LonGenity participants (mean age 76, 55% women), 448 were OPEL and 536 were OPUS. Compared to OPUS, OPEL had slower decline on measures of unipedal stance (-0.03 log-units/year, p = .026), repeated chair rise (0.13 s/year, p = .020) and SPPB (-0.11 points/year, p = .002). OPEL women had slower decline on chair rise and SPPB scores compared to OPUS women, although OPEL men had slower decline on unipedal stance compared to OPUS men. Our findings provide evidence that variation in late-life decline in physical function is associated with familial longevity, and may vary for men and women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N
Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.
Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…
Syurina, Elena V.; Hens, Kristien; Feron, Frans J M
Introduction: Many childhood-onset diseases and developmental disorders have a strong genetic basis. However, up till now, the knowledge of this genetic component within multifactorial diseases is not frequently used in paediatric practice. A good family history collection can facilitate the link
Bohnert, Amy M.; Martin, Nina C.; Garber, Judy
Although the potential benefits of organized activity involvement during high school have been documented, little is known about what familial and individual characteristics are associated with higher levels of participation. Using structural equation modeling, this longitudinal study examined the extent to which maternal depression history (i.e.,…
Chikman, Bar; Davidson, Tima; Kais, Hasan; Jeroukhimov, Igor; Leshno, Ari; Sandbank, Judith; Halevy, Ariel; Lavy, Ron
CDH1 gene mutations have been found to be associated with diffuse type gastric cancer and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study relating a family history of gastric cancer to ILC of the breast. We conducted a retrospective study comparing the family history of malignancies in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and ILC treated in our Medical Center. The comparison was evaluated in both types of breast cancer groups, dividing the patients into two age groups, cancer was reported in 7.2 % in the ILC group as compared to 2.3 % in the IDC group, P cancer was more common in the ILC group as opposed to the IDC group, 18 versus 8.1 % respectively, P = 0.002 and persisted in both age groups. We conclude that a family history of malignancies in first degree relatives is more common in patients with ILC than IDC and that there is a significant association between a family history of gastric cancer and ILC.
Jobsen, Jan J.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Brinkhuis, Mariël; Ong, Francisca; Struikmans, Henk
Background. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of first degree relative (FDR) of young breast cancer patients. Methods. Data were used from our prospective population-based cohort study which started in 1983. The family history (FH) was registered with regard to FDR: the presence or
Disanto, Filippo; Rosenberg, Noah A
Coalescent histories provide lists of species tree branches on which gene tree coalescences can take place, and their enumerative properties assist in understanding the computational complexity of calculations central in the study of gene trees and species trees. Here, we solve an enumerative problem left open by Rosenberg (IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 10: 1253-1262, 2013) concerning the number of coalescent histories for gene trees and species trees with a matching labeled topology that belongs to a generic caterpillar-like family. By bringing a generating function approach to the study of coalescent histories, we prove that for any caterpillar-like family with seed tree t , the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 describing the number of matching coalescent histories of the n th tree of the family grows asymptotically as a constant multiple of the Catalan numbers. Thus, h n ∼ β t c n , where the asymptotic constant β t > 0 depends on the shape of the seed tree t. The result extends a claim demonstrated only for seed trees with at most eight taxa to arbitrary seed trees, expanding the set of cases for which detailed enumerative properties of coalescent histories can be determined. We introduce a procedure that computes from t the constant β t as well as the algebraic expression for the generating function of the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 .
Full Text Available Steffi Weidt,1 Annette Beatrix Bruehl,2,3 Aba Delsignore,1 Gwyneth Zai,2,4–6 Alexa Kuenburg,1 Richard Klaghofer,1 Michael Rufer1 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Department of Psychiatry, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 3Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, 5Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 6Department of Psychiatry, Frederick W. Thompson Anxiety Disorders Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Many patients suffering from trichotillomania (TTM have never undergone treatment. Without treatment, TTM often presents with a chronic course. Characteristics of TTM individuals who have never been treated (untreated remain largely unknown. Whether treatment history impacts Internet-based interventions has not yet been investigated. We aimed to answer whether Internet-based interventions can reach untreated individuals and whether treatment history is associated with certain characteristics and impacts on the outcome of an Internet-based intervention.Methods: We provided Internet-based interventions. Subjects were characterized at three time points using the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire.Results: Of 105 individuals, 34 were untreated. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL was markedly impaired in untreated and treated individuals. Symptom severity did not differ between untreated and treated individuals. Nontreatment was associated with fewer depressive symptoms (P=0.002. Treatment history demonstrated no impact on the outcome of Internet-based interventions.Conclusion: Results
Borrits Pagh Nissen, Susanne; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Høst, Arne
with high NPV and specificity, but low PPV and sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Although family history and elevated CB-IgE were significantly associated with primarily atopic disease until 26 yr, none of these were strong predictors for subsequent sensitization and allergic symptoms from childhood until early......BACKGROUND: Long-term studies of the predictive value of family history and cord blood IgE level until adulthood are few, and their conclusions have been contradictory. METHODS: Screening of total IgE in 1617 cord blood samples was performed in a Danish birth cohort. All infants with cord blood Ig...... used. RESULTS: A total of 455 infants were included, 188 with CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l and 267 with CB-IgE history and elevated CB-IgE were significantly associated to allergic disease until 26 yr. Concerning any allergic...
Full Text Available Family health history is a leading predictor of disease risk. Nonetheless, it is underutilized to guide care and, therefore, is ripe for health information technology intervention. To fill the family health history practice gap, Cleveland Clinic has developed a family health history collection and clinical decision support tool, MyFamily. This report describes the impact and process of implementing MyFamily into primary care, cancer survivorship and cancer genetics clinics. Ten providers participated in semi-structured interviews that were analyzed to identify opportunities for process improvement. Participants universally noted positive effects on patient care, including increases in quality, personalization of care and patient engagement. The impact on clinical workflow varied by practice setting, with differences observed in the ease of integration and the use of specific report elements. Tension between the length of the report and desired detail was appreciated. Barriers and facilitators to the process of implementation were noted, dominated by the theme of increased integration with the electronic medical record. These results fed real-time improvement cycles to reinforce clinician use. This model will be applied in future institutional efforts to integrate clinical genomic applications into practice and may be useful for other institutions considering the implementation of tools for personalizing medical management.
Nieuwenhuis, Marry H; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Bülow, Steffen
Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice.......Ability to identify patients with familial adenomatous polyposis who have a high risk of developing desmoid tumors may affect decisions in clinical practice....
Ticiana Costa Rodrigues
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the family history (FH of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a group of non-diabetic obese female subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 239 female patients with obesity, regularly attending the Internal Medicine Division’s outpatient clinic (Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients with body mass index ?30 kg/m2 and absence of type 2 diabetes. The FH was considered positive if a first degree relative had a diagnosis of diabetes. Seventy-four of 239 patients evaluated (30% had a positive FH for type 2 diabetes. Patients with positive FH had higher waist/hip ratio and MetS more often than patients with negative FH. FH of type 2 diabetes was associated with MetS in this sample of non-diabetic obese female patients. Waist/hip ratio and fasting plasma glucose, markers of insulin resistance, were also associated with FH of type 2 diabetes. The simple question: “Do you have a FH of type 2 diabetes?” may help to identify the obese patients that should be better evaluated and intensively treated with the objective of preventing type 2 diabetes.
Martz, Meghan E; Zucker, Robert A; Schulenberg, John E; Heitzeg, Mary M
Little is known regarding the combined influence of psychosocial and neural protective mechanisms against substance use. The present study examined the extent to which neuroimaging measures of disinhibition predicted resilience against binge drinking and marijuana use among youth with a family history of substance use disorder (SUD; FH+), accounting for psychosocial measures of behavioral control. Participants were 57 FH+ youth from the Michigan Longitudinal Study categorized into resilient and high-risk groups based on patterns of weekly binge drinking and monthly marijuana use during early adulthood. Psychosocial measures of behavioral control (reactive control and externalizing behavior during early and late adolescence) and neural measures of disinhibition (Go/No-Go task and Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT) measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were entered sequentially in hierarchical logistic regression models to predict resilient versus high-risk groups. Greater activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during correctly inhibited trials on the Go/No-Go task was a significant predictor of resilience (OR = 2.46, p accounting for psychosocial measures of behavioral control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro
to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. analisar os fatores associados ao conhecimento dos adultos jovens sobre histórico familiar de Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC). estudo transversal analítico, com 579 adultos jovens de escolas públicas, com coleta de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e de fatores de risco em formulário, analisados utilizando-se regressão logística (backward elimination). detectou-se associação estatística de idade, situação conjugal, classificação da pressão arterial e circunferência abdominal com conhecimento do histórico familiar de AVC. No modelo final de regressão logística, observou-se associação estatística do conhecimento sobre histórico familiar de AVC com situação conjugal com companheiro (ORa=1,61[1,07-2,42]; p=0,023), circunferência abdominal (ORa=0,98[0,96-0,99]; p=0,012) e pressão arterial normal (ORa=2,56[1,19-5,52]; p=0,016). foi constatada associação de fatores socioeconômicos e de
Fernandes, Francy B F; Rocca, Cristiana C; Gigante, Alexandre D; Dottori-Silva, Paola R; Gerchmann, Luciana; Rossini, Danielle; Sato, Rodrigo; Lafer, Beny; Nery, Fabiano G
To compare social skills and related executive functions among bipolar disorder (BD) patients with a family history of mood disorders (FHMD), BD patients with no FHMD and healthy control (HCs). We evaluated 20 euthymic patients with FHMD, 17 euthymic patients without FHMD, and 31 HCs using the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) and a neuropsychological battery evaluating executive function, inhibitory control, verbal fluency and estimated intelligence. Both BD groups had lower SSI scores than controls. Scores for one subfactor of the social skills questionnaire, conversational skills and social performance, were significantly lower among patients with FHMD than among patients without FHMD (p = 0.019). Both groups of BD patients exhibited significant deficits in initiation/inhibition, but only BD patients with FHMD had deficits in verbal fluency, both compared to HC. There were no associations between social skills questionnaire scores and measures of cognitive function. Euthymic BD patients have lower social skills and executive function performance than HC. The presence of FHMD among BD patients is specifically associated with deficits in conversational and social performance skills, in addition to deficits in verbal fluency. Both characteristics might be associated with a common genetically determined pathophysiological substrate.
Oh, Yeon Joung; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Rhie, Young Jun; Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Kee-Hyoung
The current worldwide increases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children coincide with increases in the prevalence of obesity. We investigated the insulin resistance and adiponectin levels of children and adolescents with a family history of T2DM (FHD). Our sample included 131 children and adolescents aged 8-15 years. Fasting plasma glucose, lipids, fasting insulin, adiponectin levels and HOMA-IR were analyzed according to FHD and obesity. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in all subjects except non-obese subjects without FHD. Adiponectin levels of subjects with FHD were significantly lower than those of subjects without FHD in both the obese and nonobese groups. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in obese subjects with FHD than in those without FHD. Adiponectin levels were found to be independently associated with FHD and Matsuda index. The frequency of impaired glucose tolerance in obese subjects with FHD was more than four times higher compared to obese subjects without FHD. Our results suggest that FHD could be a risk factor of T2DM in obese Korean children, especially with low serum levels of adiponectin.
Cook, B B; Treiber, F A; Mensah, G; Jindal, M; Davis, H C; Kapuku, G K
Whether positive family history (FH) of essential hypertension (EH) in normotensive youth is associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and hemodynamic, anthropometric, and demographic parameters previously associated with increased LVM in adults is unknown. To examine these issues, 323 healthy youth (mean age, 13.6 +/- 1.3 years), 194 with positive FH of EH (61% African Americans, 39% whites) and 129 with negative FH of EH (33% African Americans, 67% whites) were evaluated. Hemodynamics were measured at rest and during four stressors (ie, postural change, car driving simulation, video game, forehead cold). Echocardiographic-derived measures of LVM were indexed separately to body surface area and height(2.7). Controlling for age and race differences (ie, 74% of African Americans v 47% of whites had positive FH), the positive FH group exhibited greater LVM/height(2.7), LVM/body surface area, higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) and lower cardiac index at rest (P men), general adiposity, resting cardiac index and blood pressure (BP), and TPRI responsivity to video game and cold stimulation (P < .05 for all). Thus, greater LVM index in positive FH of EH youth appears in part related to their greater BP and TPRI at rest and during stress.
Huang, Xin-En; Hirose, Kaoru; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Xiang, Jin; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tajima, Kazuo
To assess the theoretical impact of lifestyle of a cancer family history in first-degree relatives (CFH) and clarify interactions between CFH and lifestyle factors, hospital-based comparison and case-reference studies were conducted in Nagoya, Japan. Totals of 1988 gastric, 2455 breast, 1398 lung and 1352 colorectal cancer patients, as well as 50,706 non-cancer outpatients collected from 1988 to 1998, were checked for lifestyle factors, which included dietary and physical exercise habits, as well as smoking/drinking status. General lifestyle factors with non-cancer outpatients did not differ by the CFH status. Case-reference analyses showed that frequent intake of fruits, raw vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, cabbage and lettuce, as well as frequent physical exercise, were associated with decreased risk for all four sites of cancer, while habitual smoking increasing the risk of gastric, and more particularly, lung cancer. Interestingly, the study revealed the magnitude of odds ratios for the above lifestyle factors obtained from CFH positives to be similar to those from CFH negatives for these four sites of cancer. There were no significant interactions between CFH and any particular lifestyle factor. In conclusion, our results suggest no appreciable influence of CFH on lifestyle related risk factors for gastric, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. Habitual smoking increased, while frequent physical exercise and raw vegetables intake decreased cancer risk, regardless of the CFH status.
Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan
Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.
Nierenberg, Andrew A; Alpert, Jonathan E; Gaynes, Bradley N; Warden, Diane; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Biggs, Melanie M; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Barkin, Jennifer L; Rush, A John
Clinicians routinely ask patients with non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD) about their family history of suicide. It is unknown, however, whether patients with a family member who committed suicide differ from those without such a history. Patients were recruited for the STAR*D multicenter trial. At baseline, patients were asked to report first-degree relatives who had died from suicide. Differences in demographic and clinical features for patients with and without a family history of suicide were assessed. Patients with a family history of suicide (n=142/4001; 3.5%) were more likely to have a family history of MDD, bipolar disorder, or any mood disorder, and familial substance abuse disorder, but not suicidal thoughts as compared to those without such a history. The group with familial suicide had a more pessimistic view of the future and an earlier age of onset of MDD. No other meaningful differences were found in depressive symptoms, severity, recurrence, depressive subtype, or daily function. A history of completed suicide in a family member was associated with minimal clinical differences in the cross-sectional presentation of outpatients with MDD. Limitations of the study include lack of information about family members who had attempted suicide and the age of the probands when their family member died. STAR*D assessments were limited to those needed to ascertain diagnosis and treatment response and did not include a broader range of psychological measures.
Kramer, Douglas A
From early twentieth century social reform movements emerged the ingredients for both child and family psychiatry. Both psychiatries that involve children, parents, and families began in child guidance clinics. Post-World War II intellectual creativity provided the epistemological framework for treating families. Eleven founders (1950-1969) led the development of family psychiatry. Child and family psychiatrists disagreed over the issues of individual and family group dynamics. Over the past 25 years the emerging sciences of interaction, in the context of the Primate Social Organ System (PSOS), have produced the evidence for the family being the entity of treatment in psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Hyun-Jung; Ki, Chang-Seok; Suh, Soon-Pal; Kim, Jong-Won
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers with high morbidity and mortality. Familial GC is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of familial GC cases arise owing to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). CDH1, which encodes the protein E-cadherin, is the only gene whose mutations are associated with HDGC. Screening for the familial GC-predisposing gene has been neglected in high-risk countries such as Korea, China, and Japan, where all the cases have been attributed to Helicobacter pylori or other carcinogens. Screening for the GC-causing CDH1 mutation may provide valuable information for genetic counseling, testing, and risk-reduction management for the as-yet unaffected family members. An asymptomatic 44-yr-old Korean male visited our genetic clinic for consultation owing to his family history of GC. Eventually, c.1018A>G in CDH1, a known disease-causing mutation, was found. As of the publication time, the individual is alive without the evidence of GC, and is on surveillance. To our knowledge, this is the first Korean case of presymptomatic detection of CDH1 mutation, and it highlights the importance of genetic screening for individuals with a family history of GC, especially in high-risk geographical areas.
Pinheiro, Maisa; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Tonhosolo, Renata; Andrade, Sonia C.S.; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Jurisica, Igor; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Achatz, Maria Isabel; Rogatto, Silvia Regina
Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) has been described as a hereditary predisposition cancer syndrome associated with mutations in candidate genes including HABP2. Two of 20 probands from families with history of PTC and breast carcinoma (BC) were evaluated by whole exome sequencing (WES) revealing HABP2 p.G534E. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the involvement of this variant in three families (F1: 7 relatives; F2: 3 and F3: 3). The proband and his sister (with no malignant tumor so far) from F1 were homozygous for the variant whereas one relative with PTC from F2 was negative for the variant. Although the proband of the F3 with PTC was HABP2 wild type, three relatives presented the variant. Five of 170 healthy Brazilian individuals with no family history of BC or PTC and three of 50 sporadic PTC presented the p.G534E. These findings suggested no association of this variant with our familial PTC cases. Genes potentially associated with deregulation of the extracellular matrix organization pathway (CTSB, TNXB, COL4A3, COL16A1, COL24A1, COL5A2, NID1, LOXL2, MMP11, TRIM24 and MUSK) and DNA repair function (NBN and MSH2) were detected by WES, suggesting that other cancer-associated genes have pathogenic effects in the risk of familial PTC development. PMID:28402931
Full Text Available The novels written by María Rosa Lojo strongly reflect a specific preoccupation with the rewriting of history from new perspectives that are related to so-called postmodernism. This is the case with Canción perdida en Buenos Aires al Oeste (1987. This work attempts to articulate a reading of the "private" at a crossroads with the history of the country and of other countries (Argentina/Spain. It is a novel of exiles, from the exile of the Neira family from the Franco dictatorship in the forties to the particular exiles of each family member during the seventies and eighties in Argentina. From the fabric woven of the protagonists' subjectivities, the history of horror of this decade emerges: the Malvinas/Falkland Island War, the disappeared, that which "cannot be spoken." To carry out this ambitious narrative, each character, each voice unfolds through a series of strategies linked to constructions of the "self": letters, diaries and recordings.
Arn, P H; Younie, L; Russo, S; Zackowski, J L; Mankinen, C; Estabrooks, L
We describe 3 families segregating for a translocation of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) onto chromosome 4. Review of previously reported cases of translocations involving NOR and chromosome 4 shows that these translocations may be associated with variable reproductive outcomes. We provide evidence that imprinting is not the mechanism responsible for the variable reproductive outcomes in the case of satellited 4p chromosomes; this may offer indirect support for a ribosomal gene position effect. Translocated ribosomal genes may influence the expression of neighboring genes and could explain the variable phenotypes in individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes. We recommend that prenatal counseling of individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes should be cautious.
Cheng, Huai Yong; Davis, Molly
Prior reviews of geriatrics curricula for internal medicine (IM) and family medicine (FM) residents have not evaluated study quality or assessed learning objectives or specific IM or FM competencies. This review of geriatrics curricula for IM and FM residents seeks to answer 3 questions: (1) What types of learning outcomes were measured? (2) How were learning outcomes measured? and (3) What was the quality of the studies? We evaluated geriatrics curricula that reported learning objectives or competencies, teaching methods, and learning outcomes, and those that used a comparative design. We searched PubMed and 4 other data sets from 2003-2015, and assessed learning outcomes, outcome measures, and the quality of studies using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) and Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) methods. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Most curricula were intended for IM residents in the inpatient setting; only 1 was solely dedicated to FM residents. Median duration was 1 month, and minimum geriatrics competencies covered were 4. Learning outcomes ranged from Kirkpatrick levels 1 to 3. Studies that reported effect size showed a considerable impact on attitudes and knowledge, mainly via pretests and posttests. The mean MERSQI score was 10.5 (range, 8.5-13) on a scale of 5 (lowest quality) to 18 (highest quality). Few geriatrics curricula for IM and FM residents that included learning outcome assessments were published recently. Overall, changes in attitudes and knowledge were sizeable, but reporting was limited to low to moderate Kirkpatrick levels. Study quality was moderate.
Sam-Soto, Selene; Sámano, Reyna; Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Rodríguez-Bosch, Mario; García-Salazar, Danae; Hernández-Mohar, Gabriela; García-Espinosa, Verónica
the purpose of the present study was to describe some perinatal outcomes in two groups of pregnant adolescents: one group with history of sexual abuse and one group without sexual abuse antecedent. we designed an observational, retrolective study. Participants were primigravid adolescents between 10 to 16 years, with a singleton pregnancy, and at least three prenatal medical evaluations. Participants were grouped according to sexual abuse antecedent: 55 adolescents had sexual abuse antecedent, and 110 participants had not sexual abuse antecedent. We obtained the clinical data from medical records: socio-demographic characteristics, sexually transmitted infections, illicit drugs use, pre-gestational body mass index, gestational weight gain, and newborn weight. The data were analyzed using association tests and mean comparisons. the adolescents with sexual abuse history had higher prevalence of human papilloma virus infection. The newborns weight of mothers without sexual abuse antecedent was about 200 grams higher than the newborns of mothers with sexual abuse antecedent (p = 0.002); while the length of the first group was 2 centimeters longer than the length of the newborns on the second group (p = 0.001). Gestational weight increase was 5 kilograms lower in adolescents with sexual abuse antecedent compared to adolescent without the antecedent (p = 0.005). Illicit drug use was similar in the two groups and it was associated to low newborn weight. the sexual abuse antecedent in pregnant adolescents was associated to higher frequency of human papilloma virus infections, lower newborn weight, and lower gestational weight increase on pregnant adolescents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.
Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and
Full Text Available Korbinian Weigl,1,2 Jenny Chang-Claude,3,4 Phillip Knebel,5 Li Hsu,6 Michael Hoffmeister,1 Hermann Brenner1,2,7 1Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 2German Cancer Consortium (DKTK, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 3Unit of Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, 4University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 5Department for General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 7Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT, Heidelberg, Germany Background and aim: Family history (FH and genetic risk scores (GRSs are increasingly used for risk stratification for colorectal cancer (CRC screening. However, they were mostly considered alternatively rather than jointly. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of individual and joint risk stratification for CRC by FH and GRS.Patients and methods: A GRS was built based on the number of risk alleles in 53 previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms among 2,363 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and 2,198 controls in DACHS [colorectal cancer: chances for prevention through screening], a population-based case-control study in Germany. Associations between GRS and FH with CRC risk were quantified by multiple logistic regression.Results: A total of 316 cases (13.4% and 214 controls (9.7% had a first-degree relative (FDR with CRC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.86, 95% CI 1.52–2.29. A GRS in the highest decile was associated with a 3.0-fold increased risk of CRC (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 2.24–4.02 compared with the lowest decile. This association was tentatively more pronounced in older age groups. FH and GRS were essentially unrelated, and their
Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.
This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on early and later phases of treatment (192 CBT ...
Temby, Owen F; Smith, Ken R
Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual's history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene-environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity.
Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau
The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.
Cai Lian eTam
Full Text Available The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011, estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.
Berutti, Mariangeles; Nery, Fabiano G; Sato, Rodrigo; Scippa, Angela; Kapczinski, Flavio; Lafer, Beny
To compare clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder (BD) in patients with and without a family history of mood disorders (FHMD) in a large sample from the Brazilian Research Network of Bipolar Disorders. Four-hundred eighty-eight DSM-IV BD patients participating in the Brazilian Research Network of Bipolar Disorders were included. Participants were divided between those with FHMD (n=230) and without FHMD (n=258). We compared these two groups on demographic and clinical variables and performed a logistic regression to identify which variables were most strongly associated with positive family history of mood disorders. BD patients with FHMD presented with significantly higher lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, substance abuse, and were more likely to present history of suicide attempts, family history of suicide attempts and suicide, and more psychiatric hospitalizations than BD patients without FHMD. Logistic regression showed that the variables most strongly associated with a positive FHMD were any comorbid anxiety disorder, comorbid substance abuse, and family history of suicide. Cross-sectional study and verification of FHMD by indirect information. BD patients with FHMD differ from BD patients without FHMD in rates of comorbid anxiety disorder and substance abuse, number of hospitalizations and suicide attempts. As FHMD is routinely assessed in clinical practice, these findings may help to identify patients at risk for particular manifestations of BD and may point to a common, genetically determined neurobiological substrate that increases the risk of conditions such as comorbidities and suicidality in BD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maskarinec, Gertraud; Dartois, Laureen; Delaloge, Suzette; Hopper, John; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura
Mammographic density is a known heritable risk factor for breast cancer, but reports how tumor characteristics and family history may modify this association are inconsistent. Dense and total breast areas were assessed using Cumulus™ from pre-diagnostic mammograms for 820 invasive breast cancer cases and 820 matched controls nested within the French E3N cohort study. To allow comparisons across models, percent mammographic density (PMD) was standardized to the distribution of the controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer risk for mammographic density were estimated by conditional logistic regression while adjusting for age and body mass index. Heterogeneity according to tumor characteristic and family history was assessed using stratified analyses. Overall, the OR per 1 SD for PMD was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.33-1.69). No evidence for significant heterogeneity by tumor size, lymph node status, grade, and hormone receptor status (estrogen, progesterone, and HER2) was detected. However, the association of PMD was stronger for women reporting a family history of breast cancer (OR 1SD =2.25; 95% CI, 1.67-3.04) than in women reporting none (OR 1SD =1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60; p heterogeneity =0.002). Similarly, effect modification by FHBC was observed using categories of PMD (p heterogeneity =0.02) with respective ORs of 15.16 (95% CI, 4.23-54.28) vs. 3.14 (95% CI, 1.89-5.22) for ≥50% vs. breast cancer risk with a family history supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors responsible for familial aggregation of breast cancer and the heritable component of mammographic density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gelin, Zoé; Fuso, Silvana; Hendrick, Stephan; Cook-Darzens, Solange; Simon, Yves
Multiple Family Therapy (MFT) has gained increasing popularity in the treatment of eating disorders and many programs have been developed over the past decade. Still, there is little evidence in the literature on the effectiveness on MFT for treating eating disorders. The present study examines the effects of a particular model of Multiple Family Therapy on eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, and percentage of Expected Body Weight (%EBW) in adolescents with eating disorders (ED). Eighty-two adolescents with ED, aged between 11 and 19 years, were assessed before and after treatment using the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45) and %EBW. Results showed a significant increase in %EBW between the beginning and end of treatment, with a large effect size. 52.4% of patients achieved an EBW above 85%. Symptoms relative to all EDI dimensions (except for bulimia) significantly decreased during treatment. The three dimensions related to quality of life assessment also improved over the course of MFT. At the end of treatment, 70.7% of patients had a total OQ-45 score below clinical significance. This study suggests that Multiple Family Therapy may benefit adolescents with eating disorders, with improvement on several outcome measures (%EBW, ED symptoms, and quality of life). However, the lack of a comparison group entails caution when drawing conclusions. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Phan, Thao-Ly T; Chen, Fang Fang; Pinto, Alison Taggi; Cox, Courtney; Robbins, Jennifer; Kazak, Anne E
To test the hypothesis that children with elevated psychosocial risk would have increased attrition and worse weight outcomes in weight management treatment. This was a prospective cohort study of 100 new patients, aged 4-12 years, in a weight management clinic. Parents completed the Psychosocial Assessment Tool. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the odds of attrition from the clinic and a nonmeaningful change in body mass index (BMI) z-score (ie, psychosocial risk category, adjusting for child demographics and baseline weight category. The majority of patients were male (59%), black (36%) or white (43%), and had severe obesity (55%), and 59% of families were categorized as having moderate or high psychosocial risk. Over the 6-month period, 53% of families were lost to follow-up, and 67% did not have a clinically meaningful decrease in BMI z-score. Compared with children of families with low psychosocial risk, children of families with moderate or high psychosocial risk were 3.1 times (95% CI, 1.3-7.2 times) more likely to be lost to follow-up and 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.1-7.9 times) more likely to have a non-clinically meaningful change in BMI z-score. Children presenting with increased psychosocial risk have higher attrition and poorer weight outcomes, supporting the need for psychosocial screening as a standard component of pediatric weight management treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maskarinec, Gertraud; Nakamura, Kaylae L; Woolcott, Christy G; Conroy, Shannon M; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Vachon, Celine M
Mammographic density, i.e., the radiographic appearance of the breast, is a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. To determine whether the association of breast density with breast cancer is modified by a first-degree family history of breast cancer (FHBC) in women of white and Asian ancestry, we analyzed data from four case-control studies conducted in the USA and Japan. The study population included 1,699 breast cancer cases and 2,422 controls, of whom 45% reported white (N = 1,849) and 40% Asian (N = 1,633) ancestry. To standardize mammographic density assessment, a single observer re-read all mammograms using one type of interactive thresholding software. Logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios (OR) while adjusting for confounders. Overall, 496 (12%) of participants reported a FHBC, which was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in the adjusted model (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.23-1.84). There was a statistically significant interaction on a multiplicative scale between FHBC and continuous percent density (per 10 % density: p = 0.03). The OR per 10% increase in percent density was higher among women with a FHBC (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13-1.49) than among those without a FHBC (OR 1.14; 1.09-1.20). This pattern was apparent in whites and Asians. The respective ORs were 1.45 (95% CI 1.17-1.80) versus 1.22 (95% CI 1.14-1.32) in whites, whereas the values in Asians were only 1.24 (95% CI 0.97-1.58) versus 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.19). These findings support the hypothesis that women with a FHBC appear to have a higher risk of breast cancer associated with percent mammographic density than women without a FHBC.
Vyssoulis, Gregory P; Liakos, Charalampos I; Karpanou, Eva A; Triantafyllou, Athanasios I; Michaelides, Andreas P; Tzamou, Vanessa E; Markou, Maria I; Stefanadis, Christodoulos I
Arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are established cardiovascular risk factors. Impaired glucose homeostasis (IGH; impaired fasting glucose or/and impaired glucose tolerance) or pre-diabetes, obesity, and DM family history identify individuals at risk for type 2 DM in whom preventive interventions are necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the glycemic profile in non-diabetic Greek adult hypertensive men and women according to DM family history and the obesity status. Diabetes family history, obesity markers (waist-to-hip ratio, WHR; body mass index, BMI), glycemic parameters (fasting and 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, if necessary; glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c; fasting insulin), insulin resistance indices (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA; quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, QUICKI; Bennett; McAuley), and IGH prevalence were determined in a large cohort of 11,540 Greek hypertensives referred to our institutions. Positive DM family history was associated with elevated fasting glucose (98.6 ± 13.1 vs 96.5 ± 12.3 mg/dL), HbA1c (5.58% ± 0.49% vs 5.50% ± 0.46%), fasting insulin (9.74 ± 4.20 vs 9.21 ± 3.63 μU/mL) and HOMA (2.43 ± 1.19 vs 2.24 ± 1.01) values, lower QUICKI (0.342 ± 0.025 vs 0.345 ± 0.023), Bennett (0.285 ± 0.081 vs 0.292 ± 0.078) and McAuley (6.73 ± 3.43 vs 6.95 ± 3.44) values, and higher IGH prevalence (45.3% vs 38.7%); P history was significant (P history present with higher IGH prevalence and worse glycemic indices levels compared with those with negative family history, especially in the higher WHR/BMI subgroups. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rao, Meena P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Granger, Christopher B
We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban vs warfarin are consistent in this population. Of the 18,201 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study, 16,491 had information about history of falling-753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. When compared with patients without a history of falling, patients with a history of falling were older, more likely to be female and to have dementia, cerebrovascular disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, fractures, and higher CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke or TIA or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category female) and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal and liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs or alcohol) scores. Patients with a history of falling had higher rates of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.84; P = .020), including intracranial bleeding (adjusted HR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .044) and death (adjusted HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.14; P < .0001), but similar rates of stroke or systemic embolism and hemorrhagic stroke. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban compared with warfarin on any outcome, regardless of history of falling. Among those with a history of falling, subdural bleeding occurred in 5 of 367 patients treated with warfarin and 0 of 386 treated with apixaban. Patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling receiving anticoagulation have a higher risk of major bleeding, including intracranial, and death. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared
Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M
Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.
Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran
Retinopathy of prematurity is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. Proper understanding of the classification and treatment methods is a must in tackling this disease. Literature search with PubMed was conducted covering the period 1940-2015 with regards to retinopathy of prematurity, retrolental fibroplasia, its natural history, classification and treatment. The clinical features, screening and staging of retinopathy of prematurity according to International classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP) has been included with illustrations. The standard current treatment indications, modalities and outcomes from landmark randomized controlled trials on retinopathy of prematurity have been mentioned. This review would help pediatricians to update their current knowledge on classification and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity, in India, should be performed in all preterm neonates who are born <34 weeks gestation and/or <1750 grams birthweight; as well as in babies 34-36 weeks gestation or 1750-2000 grams birthweight if they have risk factors for ROP. Screening should start by one month after birth.
Fulkerson, Jayne A; Larson, Nicole; Horning, Melissa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
To summarize the research literature on associations between family meal frequency and dietary outcomes as well as weight status across the lifespan. Reviewed literature of family or shared meals with dietary and weight outcomes in youth, adults, and older adults. Across the lifespan, eating with others, particularly family, is associated with healthier dietary outcomes. Among children and adolescents, these findings appear to be consistent for both boys and girls, whereas mixed findings are seen by gender for adult men and women. The findings of associations between family or shared meals and weight outcomes across the lifespan are less consistent and more complicated than those of dietary outcomes. Now is the time for the field to improve understanding of the mechanisms involved in the positive associations seen with family meal frequency, and to move forward with implementing interventions aimed at increasing the frequency of, and improving the quality of, food served at family meals, and evaluating their impact. Given the more limited findings of associations between family or shared meals and weight outcomes, capitalizing on the positive benefits of family and shared meals while addressing the types of foods served, portion sizes, and other potential mechanisms may have a significant impact on obesity prevention and reduction. Future research recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…
Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Passarelli, Vincent; Siever, Larry J.
Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...
Yun, Katherine; Mohamad, Zeinab; Kiss, Ligia; Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Zimmerman, Cathy
Our goal was to describe the forms of persecution reported by adult refugees in the U.S. and the relationships between persecution and health status among this population. Data were derived from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a representative sample of new U.S. lawful permanent residents. Major depression, impairment in daily activities due to pain, poor self-reported health, and declining health were described for refugees who had and had not reported persecution prior to arrival in the U.S. Health status was also examined for refugees who reported different forms of persecution. Half of refugees (46.7 %) in this sample reported that they or an immediate family member had been persecuted. One in three persecuted refugees (31.8 %) reported both incarceration and physical punishment. Major depression, pain-related impairment, poor health, and declining health were twice as common among persecuted refugees than among non persecuted refugees. Notably, despite these adverse experiences, the majority of persecuted refugees did not report poor health outcomes.
Hanning, Kirstie A; Steel, Michael; Goudie, David; McLeish, Lorna; Dunlop, Jackie; Myring, Jessica; Sullivan, Frank; Berg, Jonathan; Humphris, Gerry; Ozakinci, Gozde
Personal and family data forms, completed by women referred to breast cancer genetics clinics, are valuable tools for verification and extension of family history, crucial steps in accurate risk evaluation. A significant minority of women do not complete and return these forms, despite reminders, even when completion is a pre-requisite for a clinic appointment. To facilitate access of women at increased familial risk of breast cancer to screening and counselling services by investigating reasons for non-return of the forms. Based on a single regional 'breast cancer family' service in the UK, Analysis of quantitative data comparing women who did not return forms (n = 55) with those who had done so (n = 59), together with qualitative evaluation of potential barriers to form-completion through semi-structured telephone interviews with a random subset of 'non-returners' (n = 23). Non-returners have higher proportions of the very young (below the age at which surveillance could be offered) and of women from lower social deprivation categories. Interviews revealed that the majority of non-returners are anxious, rather than unconcerned about their breast cancer risk and circumstances and attitudes contributed to non-compliance. Twenty-one participants confirmed that they would welcome an appointment at a 'breast cancer family' clinic, but nine did not attend for the appointment. They were significantly younger than those who attend, but were not at lower familial risk. Many women who fail to complete and return a family history form would benefit from risk assessment and genetic counselling. Several steps are suggested that might help them access the relevant services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ivković, Maja; Pantović-Stefanović, Maja; Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Jurišić, Vladimir; Lačković, Maja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Damjanović, Aleksandar
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been independently related to bipolar disorder (BD) and factors associated with suicidal risk. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between NLR and suicide risk in euthymic BD patients. We also sought to propose a model of interaction between NLR and stress-diathesis factors, leading to suicidal risk in BD. The study group consisted of 83 patients diagnosed with BD (36 suicide attempters; 47 suicide non-attempters), compared to the healthy control group (n=73) and matched according to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). NLR was measured according to the complete blood count. Mood symptoms have been assessed by Young Mania Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Early trauma and acute stress were evaluated by Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form and List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire, respectively. Suicide risk has been assessed by Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Significant correlation was found between NLR and SBQ-R score. The main effects of suicide attempts on NLR, after covarying for confounders, were observed, indicating increased NLR in BD suicide attempters compared to healthy controls. We found significant moderatory effects of family history on NLR relationship to suicidal risk, with NLR being significant positive predictor of suicidal risk only in the patients with positive family history of suicide attempts. The results suggest an enhancing effect of positive family history of suicide attempts on predictive effect of NLR on suicide risk. Our data support the idea that immune markers can predict suicide attempt risk in BD, but only in the subpopulation of BD patients with family history of suicide attempts. This could lead to prevention in suicide behavior in the patient population at particular risk of suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cai Lian eTam; Gregory eBonn; Gregory eBonn; Si Han eYeoh; Chee Piau eWong
The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was do...
Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau
The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done...
Ghaffari, Majid; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Fatehizade, Maryam; Baghban, Iran
Objective: Impulsivity appears to play an important role in suicidal behavior. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the impulsivity, substance abuse, and family/friends history of suicide attempt between suicide-ideated and non suicide-ideated university students. Methods: The research population consisted of all the students of the University of Isfahan in the academic year of 2009-2010. Three hundred and forty students (136 boys and 204 girls) were selected randomly through ...
TEMBY, OWEN F.; SMITH, KEN R.
Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from...
Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.
Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Jakubowska, Anna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Masojć, Bartłomiej; Deebniak, Tadeusz; Górski, Bohdan; Blecharz, Paweł; Narod, Steven A; Lubiński, Jan
To estimate the risk of breast cancer in a woman who has a CHEK2 mutation depending on her family history of breast cancer. Seven thousand four hundred ninety-four BRCA1 mutation-negative patients with breast cancer and 4,346 control women were genotyped for four founder mutations in CHEK2 (del5395, IVS2+1G>A, 1100delC, and I157T). A truncating mutation (IVS2+1G>A, 1100delC, or del5395) was present in 227 patients (3.0%) and in 37 female controls (0.8%; odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% CI, 2.6 to 5.1). The OR was higher for women with a first- or second-degree relative with breast cancer (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 3.3 to 7.6) than for women with no family history (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.3 to 4.7). If both a first- and second-degree relative were affected with breast cancer, the OR was 7.3 (95% CI, 3.2 to 16.8). Assuming a baseline risk of 6%, we estimate the lifetime risks for carriers of CHEK2 truncating mutations to be 20% for a woman with no affected relative, 28% for a woman with one second-degree relative affected, 34% for a woman with one first-degree relative affected, and 44% for a woman with both a first- and second-degree relative affected. CHEK2 mutation screening detects a clinically meaningful risk of breast cancer and should be considered in all women with a family history of breast cancer. Women with a truncating mutation in CHEK2 and a positive family history of breast cancer have a lifetime risk of breast cancer of greater than 25% and are candidates for magnetic resonance imaging screening and for tamoxifen chemoprevention.
Zaidi, A.; Rashif, A.; Waheed, P.; Ishaq, M.
Objective: To study the association of inflammatory markers with physical activity, family history and other complications among patients of diabetic retinopathy. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) and Military Hospital Laboratories, Rawalpindi from Jan 2016 to Jun 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 90 diagnosed patients of diabetic retinopathy of ages 40-70 years were enrolled from Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi. Their inflammatory markers (ESR and CRP) were assessed and their levels were compared with their physical activity, family history and other complications of diabetes already developed in them. These were then compared with those of 90 normal healthy controls enrolled from general population using independent student's t test and one way Anova test for scale variables and Chi square test for nominal variables. Results: Both patients and controls were age and gender matched with mean age of 60 +- 8.9 years in patients and 59 +- 13.02 years in controls. Among 90 patients enrolled 51(56.7 percent) were males and 39 (43.3) were females. And among 90 controls 49 (54.4 percent) were males and 41(45.6 percent) were females. An inverse association was observed between inflammatory markers and physical activity with ap-value of 0.001. On the contrary a strong positive association was observed between inflammatory markers and family history and complications of diabetes with a p-value 0.001. Conclusion: There is an inverse association of inflammatory markers with physical activity and a direct association of these with family history and complications of diabetes among patients of diabetic retinopathy. (author)
Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; Aan Het Rot, Marije
Individuals with a family history of depression show subtle abnormalities in the processing of social stimuli. This could negatively affect their interpersonal functioning and contribute to their depression risk. Repeated administration of the serotonin precursor tryptophan has previously been shown to increase agreeable behavior and reduce quarrelsome behavior in irritable people, who are also considered at risk for depression. To examine the effects of tryptophan on social functioning in individuals with a family history of depression, 40 men and women with at least one first-degree relative with depression received tryptophan (1g three times a day) and placebo for 14 days each in a double-blind crossover design and recorded their social behavior and mood during everyday interpersonal encounters. Participants also provided daily ratings of their positive and negative cognitions concerning their social functioning. Tryptophan improved mood. Unexpectedly, tryptophan increased quarrelsome behavior and reduced agreeable behavior, specifically during interactions at home. The behavioral effects of tryptophan were not moderated by mood or by the interaction partner. Negative social cognitions were lower when tryptophan was given second and lower during placebo when placebo was given second. Overall, tryptophan may not alter social behavior in individuals with a family history of depression as it does in irritable people. However, the behavioral effects of tryptophan at home might be seen as a way for individuals with a family history of depression to achieve more control. Over time, this may positively influence the way they feel and think about themselves in a social context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Reid, Natasha; Dawe, Sharon; Harnett, Paul; Shelton, Doug; Hutton, Lauren; O'Callaghan, Frances
Growing evidence shows that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) can benefit from interventions, and specifically interventions focused on improving self-regulation. However, novel ways of improving outcomes for children with FASD need further investigation so that programs target not only the individual child but also the family context, which includes the parent-child relationship. The current study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an adapted version of the Parents under Pressure (PuP) program that addresses self-regulatory processes, through improving the parent-child relationship and the use of mindfulness-based strategies for both children and parents. This was a mixed methods study. Feasibility was examined by evaluating recruitment, data collection/outcome measures, and intervention procedures. The study used a phenomenological approach to obtain qualitative information from caregivers and a single-case experimental design to evaluate the preliminary participant responses to the intervention. Two out of three families completed treatment. The recruitment and intervention procedures were found to be suitable for and acceptable to the families involved. Some concerns were identified regarding the outcome measures that would need to be addressed in future research. Quantitative and qualitative outcomes were positive. The results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of an adapted version of the PuP program. Thus, offering a potential multi-component option, that aims to improve self-regulatory skills for children with FASD, through focusing on improving the parent-child relationship and incorporating mindfulness-based techniques for both parents and children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zanarini, Mary C; Barison, Leah K; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Hudson, James I
The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revised Family History Questionnaire-a semistructured interview of demonstrated reliability. Of these 445 subjects, 341 met both DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD and 104 met DSM-III-R criteria for another type of personality disorder (and neither criteria set for BPD). The psychopathology of 1,580 first-degree relatives of borderline probands and 472 relatives of axis II comparison subjects was assessed. Using structural models for familial coaggregation, it was found that BPD coaggregates with major depression, dysthymic disorder, bipolar I disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, panic disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and all four axis II disorders studied. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that common familial factors, particularly in the areas of affective disturbance and impulsivity, contribute to borderline personality disorder.
Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Sakurada, Yoichi; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Yamagata, Zentaro; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Tsukahara, Shigeo
To investigate the associations between the non-intraocular pressure (IOP)-related genetic variants (genetic variants associated with vulnerability of the optic nerve independent of IOP) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), including normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and high-tension glaucoma (HTG), and between the non-IOP-related genetic variants and a family history of glaucoma. Case-control study. Japanese patients with NTG (n = 213) and HTG (n = 212) and 191 control subjects were genotyped for 5 non-IOP-related genetic variants predisposing to POAG near the SRBD1, ELOVL5, CDKN2B/CDKN2B-AS1, SIX1/SIX6, and ATOH7 genes. The load of these genetic variants was compared between the control subjects and patients with NTG or HTG and between the POAG patients with and without a family history of glaucoma. The total number of POAG risk alleles and the product of the odds ratios (POAG risk) of these genetic variants were significantly larger (P product of the odds ratios increased (P = .012 and P = .047, respectively). Non-IOP-related genetic variants contribute to the pathogenesis of HTG as well as NTG. A positive family history of glaucoma in cases of POAG is thought to reflect the influence of genetic variants predisposing to POAG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nayak, B Shivananda; Sobrian, Arianne; Latiff, Khalif; Pope, Danielle; Rampersad, Akash; Lourenço, Kodi; Samuel, Nichole
To assess the impact of risk factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, family history, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hypertension, on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Trinidadian population. A cross-sectional case control study comprised 146 non-diabetics and 147 type 2 diabetics ≥18 years of age, from North Central, South West and Eastern regions of Trinidad. Cross-tabulations revealed a significant difference between type 2-diabetes and age at pdiabetes and family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension at pdiabetics and type 2 diabetics being, 130.62 (±2.124) and 141.35 (±2.312), respectively. No significant difference was observed between type 2 diabetes and gender and BMI. Age was the most significant risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Therefore it can be concluded that family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension are more significant risk factors of this disease than BMI and gender in the Trinidadian population. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maradiegue, Ann H; Khan, Fakiha
This study explored the adequacy of depression screening in a community health center. The medical charts of individuals (N = 90) enrolled at a community health center were randomly selected, reviewed, and compared to current standard-of-care guidelines for four elements: family history, screening for depression, control of chronic illnesses, and missed opportunities for preventive care. Family history documentation collected by the providers was limited and 44.4% had no family history. There was no routine depression screening process, although 48.9% of the clients had red flags (warning signals) for depression. Laboratory values used for screening control of chronic disease in the medical records were: fasting glucose levels ⩽100 mg/dL (46%), total cholesterol levels ⩽200 mg/dL (38%), and blood pressure ⩽120/80 mmHg (23%). The results highlight the need to focus on depression screening as part of preventive care and the management of chronic disease in the primary care setting. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Kartal, Mehtap; Ozcakar, Nilgun; Hatipoglu, Sehnaz; Tan, Makbule Neslisah; Guldal, Azize Dilek
Screening recommendations of physicians are important for women to raise awareness about their risk factors and to promote appropriate screening behaviors. However, it seems challenging for primary care physicians (PCPs) to balance disease prevention and diagnosis, treatment. The objective of this study was to describe physicians' breast cancer consultancy practice including family history, cancer prevention issues for the women they care. This cross-sectional study included 577 women aged above 45 years, free of breast cancer, during their visits to their PCPs. Nearly half of the women reported their visit to PCPs for an annual examination during the year. Among them, 36.1% had first-degree relatives with cancer and 7.3% with breast cancer. But they reported to be asked about family history of cancer and informed about cancer prevention issues 35.1 and 26.4%, respectively. Cancer still seems to be a hard issue to be discussed, even with women visiting PCPs for annual examination. Asking first-degree relative with breast cancer can give PCPs the chance of determining women with increased risk and support women's appropriate understanding of their own risk in relation to their family history. This routine can make shared-decision making for developing person-centered approach for breast cancer screening possible. Further studies are needed for better understanding of loss of consultancy leadership of physicians for breast cancer.
Madigan, Sheri; Goldberg, Susan; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R
Previous research has succeeded in distinguishing among drawings made by children with histories of organized attachment relationships (secure, avoidant, and resistant); however, drawings of children with histories of disorganized attachment have yet to be systematically investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether naïve observers would respond differentially to family drawings of 7-year-olds who were classified in infancy as disorganized vs. organized. Seventy-three undergraduate students from one university and 78 from a second viewed 50 family drawings of 7-year-olds (25 by children with organized infant attachment and 25 by children with disorganized infant attachment). Participants were asked to (1) circle the emotion that best described their reaction to the drawings and (2) rate the drawings on 6 bipolar scales. Drawings from children classified as disorganized in infancy evoked positive emotion labels less often and negative emotion labels more often than those children classified as organized. Furthermore, drawings from children classified as disorganized in infancy received higher ratings on scales for disorganization, carelessness, family chaos, bizarreness, uneasiness, and dysfunction. These data indicate that naive observers are relatively successful in distinguishing selected features of drawings by children with histories of disorganized vs. organized attachment.
Boyd, Heather A; Tahir, Hassaan; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads
Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.
Joseph, Meera; Rab, Faiza; Panabaker, Karen; Nisker, Jeff
Family physicians in Canada as reported in several studies do not recognize the importance of family history in relation to breast/ovarian cancer and thus Canadian women with strong family histories continue to develop early-onset breast cancer without the knowledge of or ability to make choices regarding increased surveillance or preventative strategies. This study explored the feelings of women who learned about their hereditary risk only after their diagnosis younger than 52 years and who eventually tested positive for a BRCA gene mutation. Thirty-four such women were mailed an invitation to participate in this research including a letter of information, consent form, and discussion prompts for their written narrative response. Rigorous mixed method analyses were performed using Charmaz-based qualitative analyses as well as quantitative analyses. Thirteen women (38.2%) responded with narratives for qualitative analysis from which 4 themes were coconstructed as follows: I, types of emotions; II, emotional response; III, coping with emotions; and IV, advice to women at similar risk. Women felt they should have learned about their hereditary risk from their family physician and through public education before their diagnosis. Although not experienced at the time of diagnosis, anger, frustration, and regret were experienced after receiving their BRCA results. These emotions arose from our research participants' lack of opportunity for prior genetic counseling and testing opportunity for genetic counseling and testing. With increased public and physician education, it is hoped that women with significant family histories of breast/ovarian cancer will be identified before diagnosis and given options regarding cancer surveillance and risk reduction strategies.
Watson, M; Lloyd, S; Davidson, J; Meyer, L; Eeles, R; Ebbs, S; Murday, V
The present study investigated: (1) perception of genetic risk and, (2) the psychological effects of genetic counselling in women with a family history of breast cancer. Using a prospective design, with assessment pre- and post-genetic counselling at clinics and by postal follow-up at 1, 6 and 12 months, attenders at four South London genetic clinics were assessed. Participants included 282 women with a family history of breast cancer. Outcome was measured in terms of mental health, cancer-specific distress and risk perception. High levels of cancer-specific distress were found pre-genetic counselling, with 28% of participants reporting that they worried about breast cancer 'frequently or constantly' and 18% that worry about breast cancer was 'a severe or definite problem'. Following genetic counselling, levels of cancer-specific distress were unchanged. General mental health remained unchanged over time (33% psychiatric cases detected pre-genetic counselling, 27% at 12 months after genetic counselling). Prior to their genetics consultation, participants showed poor knowledge of their lifetime risk of breast cancer since there was no association between their perceived lifetime risk (when they were asked to express this as a 1 in x odds ratio) and their actual risk, when the latter was calculated by the geneticist at the clinic using the CASH model. In contrast, women were more accurate about their risk of breast cancer pre-genetic counselling when this was assessed in broad categorical terms (i.e. very much lower/very much higher than the average woman) with a significant association between this rating and the subsequently calculated CASH risk figure (P = 0.001). Genetic counselling produced a modest shift in the accuracy of perceived lifetime risk, expressed as an odds ratio, which was maintained at 12 months' follow-up. A significant minority failed to benefit from genetic counselling; 77 women continued to over-estimate their risk and maintain high levels of
Full Text Available Background: Seronegative spondyloarthritis is characterized by the presence of subcutaneous nodules, asymmetrical peripheral arthritis, sacroileitis with or without spondylitis, and rheumatoid-factor negativity. Other common clinical manifestations include oral ulcers, conjunctivitis, and cutaneous lesions such as psoriasis. Familial aggregation has also been described. According to the 1986 classification, corresponding clinical entities include ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. The disease is also frequently associated with the HLA B27 antigen. From the clinical point of view, there are often incomplete forms of spondyloarthritis, such as reactive arthritis triggered by asymptomatic infections, psoriatic arthritis without psoriasis itself, initial phases of specific forms of spondyloarthritis or the phase of ankylosing spondylitis characterized by sacroiliac lesions, and all forms that remain undifferentiated for long periods of time. Moreover, there are close relations between arthropathy and IBDs, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and Whipple’s syndrome. Recently, microscopic inflammatory bowel lesions and psoriatic arthritis have been described. Case report: A 30-year-old man (HLA B27-negative who had been vaccinated against TBC and HBV presented with a 6-year history of recurrent episodes of predominantly left-sided sciatica. The pain was worse at night and during rest. He was suffering from bilateral sacroileitis without spondylitis. Three to five times a day, usually after eating, he passed watery feces containing mucous and small amounts of bright red blood. Colonoscopy revealed pancolitis with histological evidence of chronic inflammation interspersed with areas of acute inflammation, edema, hyperemia, and glandular distortion. One year later, the clinical manifestations and histological
Kral, B G; Becker, D M; Yanek, L R; Vaidya, D; Mathias, R A; Becker, L C; Kalyani, R R
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a first-degree relative is a risk factor for incident diabetes. Americans of African ancestry (AA) have higher rates of T2DM than Americans of European ancestry (EA). Thus, we aimed to determine whether the presence, number and kinship of affected relatives are associated with race-specific T2DM incidence in a prospective study of participants from the Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk (GeneSTAR), who underwent baseline screening including a detailed family history. Nondiabetic healthy siblings (n=1405) of patients with early-onset coronary artery disease (18-59 years) were enrolled (861 EA and 544 AA) and followed for incident T2DM (mean 14±6 years). Baseline age was 46.2±7.3 years and 56% were female. T2DM occurred in 12.3% of EA and 19.1% of AA. Among EA, 32.6% had ≥1 affected first-degree relatives versus 53.1% in AA, Phistory was related to incident T2DM in EA (HR=2.53, 95% CI: 1.58-4.06) but not in AA (HR=1.01, 0.67-1.53). The number of affected relatives conferred incremental risk of T2DM in EA with HR=1.82 (1.08-3.06), 4.83 (2.15-10.85) and 8.46 (3.09-23.91) for 1, 2, and ≥3 affected, respectively. In AA only ≥3 affected increased risk (HR=2.45, 1.44-4.19). Specific kinship patterns were associated with incident T2DM in EA but not in AA. The presence of any first-degree relative with T2DM does not discriminate risk in AA given the high race-specific prevalence of diabetes. Accounting for the number of affected relatives may more appropriately estimate risk for incident diabetes in both races. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Josária Ferraz Amaral
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Individuals with a family history of systemic arterial hypertension (FHSAH and / or prehypertension have a higher risk of developing this pathology. Objective: To evaluate the autonomic and vascular functions of prehypertensive patients with FHSAH. Methods: Twenty-five young volunteers with FHSAH, 14 normotensive and 11 prehypertensive subjects were submitted to vascular function evaluation by forearm vascular conductance(VC during resting and reactive hyperemia (Hokanson® and cardiac and peripheral autonomic modulation, quantified, respectively, by spectral analysis of heart rate (ECG and systolic blood pressure (SBP (FinometerPRO®. The transfer function analysis was used to measure the gain and response time of baroreflex. The statistical significance adopted was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Pre-hypertensive individuals, in relation to normotensive individuals, have higher VC both at rest (3.48 ± 1.26 vs. 2.67 ± 0.72 units, p = 0.05 and peak reactive hyperemia (25, 02 ± 8.18 vs. 18.66 ± 6.07 units, p = 0.04. The indices of cardiac autonomic modulation were similar between the groups. However, in the peripheral autonomic modulation, greater variability was observed in prehypertensive patients compared to normotensive individuals (9.4 [4.9-12.7] vs. 18.3 [14.8-26.7] mmHg2; p < 0.01 and higher spectral components of very low (6.9 [2.0-11.1] vs. 13.5 [10.7-22.4] mmHg2, p = 0.01 and low frequencies (1.7 [1.0-3.0] vs. 3.0 [2.0-4.0] mmHg2, p = 0.04 of SBP. Additionally, we observed a lower gain of baroreflex control in prehypertensive patients compared to normotensive patients (12.16 ± 4.18 vs. 18.23 ± 7.11 ms/mmHg, p = 0.03, but similar delay time (-1.55 ± 0.66 vs. -1.58 ± 0.72 s, p = 0.90. Conclusion: Prehypertensive patients with FHSAH have autonomic dysfunction and increased vascular conductance when compared to normotensive patients with the same risk factor.
Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L
We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.
Orff, Henry J; Hays, Chelsea C; Twamley, Elizabeth W
Approximately 20% of current-era Veterans have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can result in persistent postconcussive symptoms. These symptoms may disrupt family and social functioning. We explored psychiatric, postconcussive, and cognitive factors as correlates of objective functioning and subjective satisfaction in family and social relationships. At entry into a supported employment study, 50 unemployed Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI and current cognitive impairment were administered baseline assessments. Multivariate stepwise regressions determined that higher levels of depressive symptomatology were strongly associated with less frequent social contact, as well as lower subjective satisfaction with family and social relationships. Worse verbal fluency predicted less frequent social contact, whereas worse processing speed and switching predicted higher levels of subjective satisfaction with family relationships. The pattern of results remained similar when examining those Veterans with only mild TBI. Depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning may impact Veterans' social contact and satisfaction with family and social relationships. Evidence-based interventions addressing depression and cognition may therefore aid in improving community reintegration and satisfaction with social and family relationships.
Aragno, Vittoria; Zeboulon, Pierre; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine
To report a case of severe pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in a 13-year-old boy of a family affected by pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS). A 13-year-old child was referred to our hospital for severe bilateral glaucoma. A complete ophthalmologic evaluation including refraction, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, fundus examination, and ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed. Family members were also examined and a family pedigree was obtained. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a severe bilateral PG with Krukenberg spindle and a widely open heavily pigmented iridocorneal angle. Ultrasound biomicroscopy showed a deep anterior chamber with pronounced iris concavity in both eyes. Within his family, his 15-year-old sister and 7-year-old brother were both affected by PDS diagnosed on gonioscopy findings. We report for the first time a severe case of pediatric PG with a family history of PDS. This case demonstrates that accurate screening is necessary in cases of familial PDS and PG, even in the pediatric population.
Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA
This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects.
Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Stockdale, Laura; Day, Randal D
Video game use has been associated with several behavioral and health outcomes for adolescents. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between parental co-play of video games and behavioral and family outcomes. Participants consisted of 287 adolescents and their parents who completed a number of video game-, behavioral-, and family-related questionnaires as part of a wider study. Most constructs included child, mother, and father reports. At the bivariate level, time spent playing video games was associated with several negative outcomes, including heightened internalizing and aggressive behavior and lowered prosocial behavior. However, co-playing video games with parents was associated with decreased levels of internalizing and aggressive behaviors, and heightened prosocial behavior for girls only. Co-playing video games was also marginally related to parent-child connectedness for girls, even after controlling for age-inappropriate games played with parents. This is the first study to show positive associations for co-playing video games between girls and their parents. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Syurina, Elena V; Gerritsen, Anne-Marie Jm; Hens, Kristien; Feron, Frans Jm
Family history (FH) in Preventive Primary Pediatric Care is to identify children at risk for complex diseases and provide personal preventive strategies. This study was to assess parents' opinion on FH collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Among issues addressed were: former experiences with FH, knowledge about FH, family definition and sharing information about FH. The importance of FH for participants depended on their knowledge, perceived family health status and former experiences. After insight into FH, parents shift to believing it to be important, but certain barriers exist in reporting FH. Parents suggest that the importance of FH should be more emphasized and more trusting relationship with Preventive Primary Pediatric Care should be invested in.