WorldWideScience

Sample records for outcomes 7-day verified

  1. The South African Surgical Outcomes Study: A 7-day prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the perioperative mortality and need for critical care admission in patients undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery in SA. Methods. A 7-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of all patients ≥16 years of age undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery between 19 and 26 May 2014 at ...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori to the outcome of 10-days vs. 7-days Moxifloxacin based therapy for the eradication: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Antibiotic resistance decreases success of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication. Recently published results show low rate of resistance and better compliance with moxifloxacin based regiments. Aims&methods Whether 7 days moxifloxacin with lansoprasole and amoxycillin can be compared with 10 days moxifloxacin with lansoprasole and amoxycillin according to moxifloxacin resistance. Patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia who had culture and histology positive Hp infection (n = 150) were randomly assigned into two groups. The first group (n = 75) received moxifloxacin 400 mg/d during 7 days and the other (n = 75) received moxifloxacin 400 mg/d during 10 days. All patients received amoxycillin 1 g twice daily, lansoprasole 30 mg twice daily. All Hp cultures were tested for sensitivity to moxifloxacin. Results 138 patients (92%) completed the study, 68 in the first group and 70 in the second. Eradication rates were 84% (57/68) and 76% (57/75) in the 7 days moxifloxacin group and 90% and 84% in the second group (63/70, 63/75) according to the PP and ITT analysis; p = n.s. Among 129 patients (86% of study group), 6% of strains were primary resistant to moxifloxacin. Eradication of moxifloxacin sensitive/resistant strains was 98%/66%, p < 0.05 Conclusion According to our results we recommend 7 days moxiflixacin based triple therapy. PMID:20398300

  3. Comparison of 7-day recall and daily diary reports of COPD symptoms and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Antonia V; Amtmann, Dagmar; Diehr, Paula; Patrick, Donald L

    2012-05-01

    Patient reporting of symptoms in a questionnaire with a 7-day recall period was expected to differ from symptom reporting in a 7-day symptom diary on the basis of cognitive theory of memory processes and several studies of symptoms and health behaviors. A total of 101 adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) completed a daily diary of items measuring symptoms and impacts of COPD for 7 days, and on the seventh day they completed a questionnaire of the same items with a 7-day recall period. The analysis examined concordance of 7-day recall with summary descriptors of the daily responses, examined the magnitude and covariates (patient characteristics and response patterns) of the difference between 7-day recall and mean of daily responses, and compared the discriminant ability and ability to detect change of 7-day recall and mean of daily responses. A 7-day recall was moderately concordant with the mean and maximum of daily responses and was 0.34 to 0.50 SDs higher than the mean of daily responses. Only the weekly report itself was a covariate of the difference. The discriminant ability and ability to detect change were equivalent. In measuring the weeklong experience of COPD symptoms and impacts on groups of patients, the 7-day recall scores were higher than the daily diary scores, but equivalent in detecting change over time. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The South African Surgical Outcomes Study: A 7-day prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurosurgery. 133 (3.4). 122 (3.2). 11 (8.9). 1.84 (0.88 - 3.85). 0.11. Thoracic. 65 (1.7). 64 (1.7). 1 (0.8). 0.32 (0.04 - 2.39). 0.32. Other. 513 (13.1). 489 (12.9) ...... Appendix 1. Full author list. B M Biccard, PhD, Perioperative Research Group, Discipline of. Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, School of Clinical Medicine,.

  5. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  6. Mortality after surgery in Europe: a 7 day cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearse, Rupert M.; Moreno, Rui P.; Bauer, Peter; Pelosi, Paolo; Metnitz, Philipp; Spies, Claudia; Vallet, Benoit; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Hoeft, Andreas; Rhodes, Andrew; Moreno, Rui; Pearse, Rupert; Damster, Sandrine; Golder, Kim; Hewson, Russell; Januszewska, Marta; Leva, Brigitte; Ramos, Vasco; Hoste, Eric; Huyghens, Luc; Jacobs, Rita; van Mossevelde, Veerle; Opdenacker, Godelieve; Poelaert, Jan; Spapen, Herbert; Leleu, Kris; Rijckaert, Dirk; de Decker, Koen; Foubert, Luc; de Neve, Nikolaas; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael; Collin, Vincent; Blauwen, Nadia den; Clauwaert, Charlotte; de Crop, Luc; Verbeke, An; Roeselare, Heilige Hartziekenhuis; Derumeaux, Pieter; Gardin, Christophe; Kindt, Sebastiaan; Louage, Sofie; Verhamme, Bruno; Druwé, Patrick; Lahaye, Ingrid; Rosseel, Francis; Rutsaert, Robert; Vanlinthout, Luc; de Kock, Marc; Forget, Patrice; Georges, Pascal; Grosu, Irina; Kahn, David; Lois, Fernande; Momeni, Mona; Pospiech, Audrey; Yemnga, Bernadette; Jadoul, Jean-Luc; Malbrain, Manu; Bosinceanu, Dana; Collard, Edith; Jorens, Philippe; Reyntiens, Dirk; Smitz, Carine; Vercauteren, Marcel; Fagnoul, David; van Obbergh, Luc; Goranović, Tatjana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Toplice, Krapinske; Oremuš, Krešimir; Bešlić, Gabrijela; Duzel, Viktor; Hauptman, Ada; Peremin, Sanja; Šribar, Andrej; Župčić, Miroslav; Brod, Slavonski; Mirković, Ivan; Bauer, Zlata Šarić; Belavić, Matija; Blažanin, Božidar; Katušin, Mirjana Lončarić; Krijan, Antonija Brozović; Mišković, Petar; Šimić-Korać, Nataša; Topić, Jasna; Žilić, Antonio; Žuni, Josip; Acan, Ivana; Adanić, Mirta; Ivanov, Nikola; Šarić, Jadranka Pavičić; Tomulić, Katarina; Visković, Nataša; Bošnjak, Silvana; Drenjančevic, Ivana Haršanji; Kristek, Gordana; Kvolik, Slavica; Markić, Stela; Rakipovic, Andreja Stojanovic; Tot, Ozana Katarina; Venzera- Azenic, Darija; Fabris, Lada Kalagac; Bačak-Kocman, Iva; Balenović, Igor; Bandić, Daniela; Deutsch, Patricia Adrianne Judith; Divjak, Loredana; Filipović, Ina Grčić; Gužvinec, Zvonka; Krznarić, Zrinka; Lončarić, Yvonne; Magaš, Jelena Vadlja; Mitrović, Marek; Okić, Marija; Pavlek, Mario; Ramov, Elza; Rezek, Karolina; Sekulić, Ante; Tomasevic, Boris; Mirić, Mirjana; Tomašević, Anita; Mahečić, Tina Tomić; Vrbanović, Vilena; Bobinac, Mirna; Božić, Alfred; Debelic, Danijela; Frkovic, Vedran; Batinica, Inga Mladić; Baranović, Senka; Gavranović, Željka; Kikec, Mirna; Maldini, Branka; Marić, Stela; Agnić, Ivan; Delić, Nikola; Dropulić, Nataša; Gašpić, Toni Kljaković; Ilić, Darko; Ivančev, Božena; Karanović, Nenad; Kuščević, Dorjan; Marović, Zlatko; Milić, Matija; Nevešćanin, Ana; Petković, Tatjana; Smoje, Mario; Brozović, Gordana; Jelisavac, Milana; Matolić, Martina; Oberhofer, Dagmar; Pavičić, Ana Marija; Šakić, Kata; Bozovic, Margarita Delija; Krecek, Zvjezdana Kotorac; Krobot, Renata; Andabaka, Tatjana; Bratanić, Mislav; Dzepina, Orjana; Kraljev, Martina; Šeric, Julija; Šimurina, Tatjana; Grujić, Rosa; Nacevski-Bulaja, Biljana; Barižon, Mirna; Danira, Vrančić; Dražen, Bulaja; Dušanka, Kimer; Halužan, Marijana Bašić; Joško, Žaja; Katica, Roca; Labor, Magda; Marinković, Tea Grgurević; Mihovilčević, Danči; Marija, Bego; Srečko, Marinković; Vranković, Srđan; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Neophytou, Kyriakos; Cerny, Vladimir; Cvachovec, Karel; Belikova, Barbora; Drab, Michal; Hudacek, Kamil; Krikava, Ivo; Stourac, Petr; Zadrazilova, Katarina; Bicek, Vladimír; Brabcová, Milena; Klozová, Radka; Vajter, Jaromír; Vymazal, Tomáš; Toft, Palle; Blichfeldt, Louise; Hansen, Bo Dilling; Moller, Kirsten; Nielsen, Jeppe Sylvest; Frederiksen, Joachim; Andersen, Johnny Dohn; Kühne, Jan Peter; Leivdal, Siv; Stendell, Line; Simonsen, Martin; Zoltowski, Marcin Konrad; Ali, Zahida Salman; Freundlich, Morten; Pilypaite, Jurgita; Clausen, Nicola Groes; Thorup, Line; Hansen, Frank; Bestle, Morten; Hansen, Christian Steen; Afshari, Arash; Bille, Anders Bastholm; Lefort, Michele; Secher, Erik L.; Liboriussen, Lisbeth; Herodes, Veiko; Härma, Eve; Marvet, Kadri; Pool, Kristiina; Kallas, Pille; Mägi, Triinu-Kreete; Sütt, Jaan; Vijar, Kerli; Visk, Evelin; Vinnal, Mare; Ellermaa, Jaanus; Liibusk, Liia; Tikkerberi, Artur; Falk, Ilme; Mällo, Esta; Talving, Jaak; Pettilä, Ville; Hovilehto, Seppo; Kirsi, Anne; Mustola, Seppo; Tiainen, Pekka; Toivonen, Juhani; Dabnell, Sandra; Kaminski, Tadeusz; Sysimetsa, Anu; Kaukonen, Maija; Silvasti, Päivi; Vainio, Kaisa; Lund, Vesa; Sjövall, Sari; Saarinen, Kari; Viitanen, Matti; Ahonen, Tommi; Alaspää, Ari; Zittling, Ritva; Saarinen, Aarne; Moisander, Annette; Wagner, Bodo; Laru-Sompa, Raili; Elomaa, Esa; Lavonen, Leena; Nevantaus, Juha; Geier, Klaus; Kavasmaa, Tomi; Koorits, Ursula; Kubjas, Mare; Lauritsalo, Seppo; Ottelin, Lauri; Palve, Markki; Pynnönen, Jari; Rääbis, Inga; Saarelainen, Minna; Heikkilä, Tapani; Kontula, Timo; Lehtimäki, Markku; Liimatainen, Jari; Moilanen-Oikarinen, Mari; Pakarinen, Marika; Palanne, Riku; Seppänen, Hanna; Pulkkinen, Anni; Vääräniemi, Heikki; Paananen, Sami; Koskenkari, Juha; Sälkiö, Sinikka; Vakkala, Merja; Koskue, Talvikki; Loisa, Pekka; Laitio, Ruut; Hautamäki, Raku; Koivisto, Simo-Pekka; Futier, Emmanuel; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Leon, Alain; Bonnet, Francis; Marret, Emmanuel; Spielvogel, Catherine; Papageorgiou, Chryssa; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Tounou-Akue, Felix; Aubrun, Frederic; Bonnet, Aurélie; Gazon, Mathieu; Guiraud, Michel; Laurent, Virginie; Béclère, Antoine; Tachon, Guillaume; Demars, Nadège; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Mercier, Frederic; Landais, Alain; Mentec, Herve; Bazin, Marie; Gonnu, Sophie; Petit, Antoine; Albaladejo, Pierre; Almeras, Luc; Bataillard, Amélie; Rossi-Blancher, Marine; Lefrant, Jean Yves; Barthel, Florian; Hallel, Dan; Sbai, Hicham; Khalifeh, Pamela; Lidzborski, Lionel; Jully, Marion; Platon, Ecaterina; Pottecher, Julien; Baumgarten, Romain; Schultz, Christel; ElMiloudi, Fayçal; Lefebvre, Julie; Waton, Karen; Sprunck, Adrien; Steib, Annick; Thibaud, Adrien; Thuet, Vincent; Kieffer, Vianney; Dubois-Vallaud, Delphine; Jacob, Laurent; Becanne, Xavier; Cherfaoui, Salim; Gauzit, Remy; Godier, Anne; Lakhdari, Mourad; Samma, Charles; Bigeon, Jean-Yves; Burtin, Philippe; Halchini, Constantin; Lacroix, Magali; Pinna, Frederic; Barbes, Aurélie; Just, Bernard; Mateu, Philippe; Benayoun, Laurent; Berger, Philippe; Granier, Nathalie; Perrigault, Pierre Francois; Libert, Nicolas; de Rudnicki, Stephan; Merat, Stéphane; Bourdet, Benoit; Ferré, Fabrice; Minville, Vincent; Piriou, Vincent; Rague, Philippe; Wallet, Florent; Lebuffe, Gilles; Desbordes, Jacques; Robin, Emmanuel; Ichai, Carole; Orban, Jean-Christophe; Marx, Gernot; Sander, Michael; Gottschalk, André; Piontek, André; Unterberg, Matthias; Hilpert, Justus; Kees, Martin; Triltsch, Andreas; Wiegand-Löhnert, Carola; Glöckner, Christiane; Hohn, Andreas; Rose, Elmar; Schröder, Stefan; Wiese, Oliver; Awlakpui, Eli; Scheidemann, Mona; Wittmann, Maria; Ramminger, Axel; Dresden, Carus; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Heller, Axel; Marx, Christine; Neidel, Julia; Goldmann, Anton; von Heymann, Christian; Laetsch, Beatrix; Maahs, Esther; Scholz, Lars; Frenzel, Dirk; Massarat, Kyros; Lenhart, Franz-Peter; Reichle, Florian; Rudlof, Kristina; Borchers, Friedrich; Buettner, Christoph; Schmutzler, Martin; Burgard, Gerald; Lucht, Alexander; Wagner, Jan; Pilge, Stefanie; Schneider, Gerhard; Untergehrer, Gisela; Bis, Beata; Krassler, Jens; Dittmann, Jan; Haberkorn, Jörg; Eberitsch, Jürgen; Eberitsch, Karola; Nippraschk, Thomas; Wepler, Ulrich; Engelen, Wolf-Christian; Nau, Carla; Scholler, Axel; Schüttler, Jürgen; Wintzheimer, Simone; Bloos, Frank; Braune, Anke; Fergen, Daniela; Ludewig, Katrin; Paxian, Markus; Reinhart, Konrad; Graf, Nikolaus; Schwarzkopf, Konrad; Berger, Katharina; Habicher, Marit; Kasperiunaite, Ruta; Savelsberg, Sabine; Krep, Henning; Reindl, Michael; Weber, Matthias; Bauer, Wolfgang; Bingold, Florian; Christ, Saskia; Friederich, Patrick; Kaviani, Reza; Auer, Patrick; Bonnländer, Georg; Drescher, Jürgen; Braun, Roland; Eichenauer, Tim; Kerner, John; Bierbaum, Kathrin; Brünner, Horst; Grond, Stefan; Perez-Platz, Ursula; Andresen, Bent; Linstedt, Ulf; Stegmann, Nils; Erkens, Uwe; Kopcke, Jens; Meyer, Andreas; Brestrich, Hartmut; Ernst, Sandra; Merkel, Stella; Krieger, Lena; Luers, Frank; Weyland, Andreas; Noeldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Menckie, Thomas; Wasmund, Christina; Bredtmann, Ralph-Dieter; Erler, Ines; Raufhake, Carsten; Haumann, Christine; Möllemann, Angela; Oehmichen, Uwe; Sergejewa, Olga; Lehning, Brigitte; Czeslick, Elke; Geyer, Michaela; Malcharek, Michael; Sablotzki, Armin; Stier, Marina; Feld, Florian; Rossaint, Rolf; Simon, Verena; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Koulenti, Despoina; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Nanas, Serafim; Papastylianou, Androula; Psevdi, Aikaterini; Stathopoulos, Anastasios; Voulas, Asklepieion; Kanna, Efthymia; Koutsikou, Anastasia; Moustaka, Alexandra; Chovas, Achilleas; Komnos, Apostolos; Zafiridis, Tilemachos; Franses, Josef; Lavrentieva, Athena; Koraki, Eleni; Katsenos, Chrysostomos; Kasianidou, Maria Flora; Nasopoulou, Pantelia; Spyropoulou, Eleni; Gousia, Chrysoula; Katsanoulas, Constantine; Lathyris, Dimitrios; Kyriazopoulos, George; Sfyras, Dimitrios; Tsirogianni, Athanasia; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Lignos, Mihail; Matsota, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Christos; Mouratidou, Alexandra; Vrettou, Efstratia; Boufidis, Spyros; Moka, Eleni; Arnaoutoglou, Eleni; Koulouras, Vasileios; Nakos, George; Papathanakos, Georgios; Anthopoulos, Georgios; Choutas, Georgios; Karapanos, Dimitrios; Tzani, Vaso; Gkiokas, Georgios; Nastos, Konstantinos; Nikolakopoulos, Fotios; Dragoumanis, Christos; Nikitidis, Nikos; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Theodorou, Vassiliki; Zacharouli, Danai; Kandi, Stella; Tasopoulos, Konstantinos; Arvaniti, Kostoula; Matamis, Dimitrios; Mplougoura, Eva; Petropoulou, Polixeni; Soumpasis, Ioannis; Amaniti, Ekaterini; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, Maria; Gkeka, Eleni; Soultati, Ioanna; Kokinou, Maria; Papatheodorou, Lambrini; Stafylaraki, Maria; Giasnetsova, Tatiana; Gritsi-Gerogianni, Nikoleta; Kydona, Christina; Kiskira, Olga; Koulentis, Ioannis; Apsokardos, Alexandros; Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos; Soldatou, Ourania; Nathanail, Christodoulos; Papazotos, Alexios; Tsakas, Pirros; Clouva-Molyvdas, Phyllis-Maria; Kolotoura, Athina; Sartzi, Monika; Papanikolaou, Spiros; Polakis, Pavlos; Karatzas, Stylianos; Kyparissi, Aikaterini; Papavasilopoulou, Theonymfi; Koukoubani, Triantafillia; Mastora, Evangelia; Spyropoulou-Pagdatoglou, Kyriaki; Nyktari, Vasileia; Malliotakis, Polychronis; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Bekos, Vasileios; Maragkou, Elisavet; Spring, Anna; Evagelatos, Stavros; Ioakeimidou, Aikaterini; Noulas, Nikos; Molnár, Zsolt; Csüllög, Emese; Elekes, Enikő; Molnár, Tamás; Katona, Zsuzsana; Kremer, Ildiko; Miko, Angela; Csomos, Akos; Galambos, Zsuzsanna; Szucs, Akos; Nyikos, Gyorgy; Szekeres, Gabor; Szabo, Ervin; Kranitz, Katalin; Simon, Melinda; Szigeti, Janos; Gaál, Emánuel; Havas, Attila; Ille, Alexandru; Bráz, Krisztina; Nagy, Geza; Sigurdsson, Gisli; Sigurbjörnsson, Fridrik T.; Sigurdsson, Gisli H.; Kárason, Sigurbergur; Sigurdardottir, Elin Edda; Blöndal, Ásbjörn; Gunnarsson, Björn; Westbrook, Andrew; Broderick, Alan; Hafeez, Parvaiz; Hanumanthaiah, Deepak; Brohan, Janette; O'Chroinin, Donal; Bailey, Kevin; Ramamoorthy, Karthik; Doyle, Yvonne; Freir, Noelle; O'Rourke, James; Jonson, Philip; Saeed, Sabir; Hayes, Ivan; Loughrey, John; Frohlich, Stephen; McCauley, Nuala; Ryan, Donal; Fitzpatrick, Gerry; Kevin, Leo; Thomas, Jubil; Warde, Barry; Woolhead, Alan; Duggan, Michelle; Egan, Cara; Crowley, Seamus; Lebese, Soloman; Bergin, Anne; Page, Rory; Collins, Daniel; McKenny, Michael; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Grasso, Salvatore; Bresciani, Anna; Carmino, Livio; Ghelfi, Silvia; Lorenzelli, Laura; Novelli, Maria Teresa; Pescarmona, Chiara; Roasio, Agostino; Gatta, Alessandro; Nastasi, Mauro; Sanseverino, Manlio; Tinti, Carla; Bianchin, Andrea; Tormena, Maria; Franco, Antonio; Marini, Federica; Di Mauro, Piero; Rapido, Francesca; Tommasino, Concezione; Bellotti, Ferdinando; Boninsegna, Daniele; Castellani, Gianluca; Sances, Daniele; Spano, Gianluca; Tredici, Stefano; Vezzoli, Dario; Fucecchio, Igneo; Bacci, Alessandro; Coppini, Roberta; Dell'unto, Sandro; Mori, Emanuele; Stanzani, Maria Rosa; Tosi, Monica; Collareta, Michele; Forfori, Francesco; Franchi, Matteo; Mancino, Giuseppe; Battistella, Massimo; Baricocchi, Elisa; Bona, Francesco; Debernardi, Felicino; Giacoletto, Gianmarco; Iacobellis, Antonio; Massucco, Paolo; Moselli, Nora; Muratore, Andrea; Palomba, Graziella; Sardo, Elena; de Simone, Michele; Suita, Luisa; Zocca, Edoardo; Bucci, Barbara; Della Corte, Francesco; Piciucco, Tiziana; Viarengo, Valeria; Bettelli, Gabriella; Cantarini, Eugenia; Giampieri, Marina; Tanfani, Alessandra; Recchia, Eugenio; Milano, S. Raffaele; Bignami, Elena; Bruno, Giovanna; Costagliola, Roberto; Gandolfi, Azzurra; Greco, Massimiliano; Lembo, Rosalba; Monti, Giacomo; Nicelli, Elisa; Pasculli, Nicola; Turi, Stefano; Baroselli, Antonio; Brazzoni, Marcella; Buttazzoni, Mattia; Buttera, Stefania; Centonze, Carlo; Serena, Giovanni; Spagnesi, Lorenzo; Toretti, Ilaria; Vilardi, Anna; Zearo, Ester; Arpino, Ines; Baraldi, Sara; Guarnerio, Chiara; Molene, Vincenzo; Monea, Maria Concetta; Vaccarisi, Enrico; Vicari, Luigi; Albante, Alida; Aversano, Marco; Loiacono, Cinzia; Marandola, Maurizio; Fusari, Maurizio; Petrucci, Nicola; Galla, Amerigo; Mascia, Antonio; Primieri, Paolo; Di Noto, Anna; Gratarola, Angelo; Molin, Alessandro; Spagnolo, Luigi; Spena, Claudio; Calligaro, Plinio; Marchiotto, Simonetta; Merlini, Alberto; Pedrazzoli, Eleonora; Perina, Giulia; Visentin, Renea; Fumagalli, Roberto; Garbagnati, Andrea; Manetti, Bruna; Snaier, Chiara; Somaini, Marta; Farnia, Antonio; Nani, Roberto; Pierantonio, Novello; de Michele, Michele; Gazzanelli, Sergio; Pugliese, Francesco; Ruberto, Franco; Anna, Universitaria S.; Bergamini, Elena; Tassinati, Tania; Capuzzo, Maurizia; Cirillo, Vera; Tufano, Rosalba; Oggioni, Roberto; Parrini, Vieri; Brunori, Emanuela; Capone, Micaela; Carbone, Luigi; Corradetti, Francesco; Elisei, Daniele; Fiorentino, Stefano; Francesconi, Maurizio; Gattari, Diego; Gorgoglione, Maria; Lacobone, Emanuele; Minnucci, Francesco; Montironi, Claudio; Riccioni, Gianrenato; Tappata, Giuseppe; Zompanti, Valeria; Verdenelli, Paola; Cerutti, Elisabetta; Ranieri, Vito Marco; Golubovska, Iveta; Grigorjevs, Sergejs; Rikmane, Maija; Rozkalne, Daina; Stepanovs, Jevgenijs; Suba, Olegs; Kazune, Sigita; Miscuk, Aleksej; Nemme, Janis; Oss, Peteris; Sipylaite, Jurate; Macas, Andrius; Ragaisis, Vytautas; Kontrimaviciute, Egle; Tomkute, Gabija; Boerma, Christiaan; Kramer, Irene Fleur; Poeze, Martijn; Ziekenhuis, Antonius; Maria, John; Pelzer, Gerardus; Winsser, Lex; Nijsten, Maarten; Schoorl, Michiel; Spanjersberg, Rob; Buhre, Wolfgang; Dieleman, Stefan; van Klei, Wilton; Bouw, Martijn; Pickkers, Peter; van der A, Marieke; Schreiner, Frodo; Zandvliet, Ria; van den Berg, Roy; de Wit, Esther; Keijzer, Christaan; Hollmann, Markus; Preckel, Benedikt; van Acker, Gijs; Dennesen, Paul; Veld, Bas; Kuijpers-Visser, Agnes; Inan, T.; Koopman-van Gemert, A.; Ponssen, Huibert; Brouwer, Tammo; Koopmans, Matty; van Bommel, Jasper; van Duijn, Ditty; van der Hoven, Ben; Ormskerk, Patricia; Beck, Oliver; Schiere, Sjouke; Reidinga, Auke; Venema, Allart; Hoogendoorn, Marga; Olthof, Kees; Flaatten, Hans; Jammer, Ib; Dokka, Vegard; Monsen, Svein Arne; Ytrebo, Lars Marius; Noursadeghi, Mostafa; Shahzad, Ahmed; Boksasp, Ola Dagfinn; Roiss, Christoph; Strietzel, Hans Frank; Gina, Anne; Berntsen, Schie; Haugland, Helge; Vingsnes, Svein Ove; Axelsson, Patric; Olsen, Thomas; Katre, Sanjay; Aakeroey, Kristin; Mikstacki, Adam; Tamowicz, Barbara; Bożiłow, Dominika; Goch, Robert; Grabowski, Piotr; Kupisiak, Jacek; Małłek, Małgorzata; Szyca, Robert; Kostyrka, Włodzimierz; Choma, Robert; Jankowski, Grzegorz; Kościelniak, Władysław; Pietraszek, Paweł; Szarowar, Bartosz; Matos, Ricardo; França, Carlos; Lacerda, António Pais; Ormonde, Lucindo; Rosa, Rosário; Pereira, Inês; Vitor, Paula; Bento, Henrique Completo; Lopes, Maria Raquel; Carvalho, Marques; Faria, Manuela; de Sousa, Ana Cláudia; de Freitas, Pereira; Almeida, Eduardo; Mealha, Rui; Vicente, Rachel; Monte, Raquel; Rua, Fernando; Barros, Nelson; Esteves, Francisco; Gouveia Pinheiro, Célia Maria; Real, Vila; Oliveira, Vítor Miguel; Oliveira, Maria Fátima; Martins, Isabel; Saraiva, José Pedro; Assunção, José Pedro; Bártolo, Anabela; Carvalho, Anabela; Correia, Carlos; Martins, Salomé; Milheiro, Ruth; Diaz, Alejandro; Gonçalves, Maria Imelda; Ribeiro, Rosa; Estilita, Joana; Glória, Carlos; de Almeida, José; Barros, Filipa; Ramos, Armindo; Camara, Margarida; Maul, Edward Richard; Nobrega, Julio; Langner, Anuscka; Maia, Dionísio; Afonso, Ofélia; Faria, Filomena; Serra, Sofia; Botelho, Maria Manuela; Ferreira, Pedro; Mourão, Luís; Oliveira, Ana Vintém; Resende, Margarida; Aleman, Miguel; Fonseca, Jorge; Isidoro, Marta; de Meneses, Helena; Pêgas, António; Pereira, José; Pereira, Luis; Ramos, Bárbara; Matos, Francisco; Castro, Maria de Lurdes Gonçalves; Martins, Ana; Ramos, Cristina; de Sousa, Manuel; Bento, Luís; Botas, Conceição; Lopes, Vitor; Mendes, Rosa; Grigoras, Ioana; Blaj, Mihaela; Damian, Mihaela; Lupusoru, Andreea; Ristescu, Irina; Codreanu, Monica; Diaconescu, Ciresica; Nistor, Alina; Stelian, Dorin Stanescu; Streanga, Livia; Berneanu, Maria; Bordeianu, Cristina; Florenta, Calarasu; Iacob, Alina; Lupu, Mary Nicoleta; Mocanu, Iulian; Moraru, Coca; Meran, Carleta; Nicolae, Bacalbasa; Sandu, Madalina; Turcanu, Roxana; Epure, Florina; Grigore, Monica; Hotaranu, Cristina; Popescu, Nicoleta; Baban, Oleg; Baciu, Manuela; Ciobanu, Aurica; Denciu, Catalin Ioan; Gurau, Vitalie; Maftei, Ion; Moldovan, Ion; Ungureanu, Liviu; Bogdan, Prodan; Corneci, Dan; Dinu, Melania; Madalina, Dutu; Rely, Manolescu; Silvius, Negoita; Tomescu, Dana; Gabriela, Droc; Dinescu, Stelian Adrian; Calin, Mitre; Ionescu, Daniela; Margarit, Simona; Vasian, Horatiu; Albu, Corina; Balasa, Carmen; Cadrigati, Alina; Dragulescu, Dorian; Gavra, Loredana; Hentia, Ciprian; Macarie, Claudiu; Manescu, Mihaela; Nediglea, Ioan; Ocica, Dana; Ovidiu, Bedreag; Papurica, Marius; Plavat, Cosmin; Popa, Claudia; Ramneantu, Mihaela; Sandesc, Dorel; Sandici, Zoran; Sarandan, Mihaela; Belciu, Ioana; Tincu, Eugen; Ursu, Irina; Aignatoaie, Mariana; Huzuneanu, Mariana; Cocu, Simona; Hagau, Natalia; Ciubotaru, Roxana; Copotoiu, Sanda-Maria; Copotoiu, Ruxandra; Ioana, Ghitescu; Kovacs, Judit; Leonard, Azamfirei; Szederjesi, Ianos; Genoveva, Vanvu; Mosnegutu, Simona; Surbatovic, Maja; Djordjevic, Dragan; Djordjevic, Biljana; Grujic, Krasimirka; Jovanovic, Dusko; Krstic-Lecic, Ivana; Obradovic, Jovana; Zeba, Snjezana; Jevdjic, Jasna; Miletic, Milos; Zunic, Filip; Bulasevic, Aleksandra; Brko, Radoslava; Gazibegovic, Narcisa; Kendrisic, Mirjana; Vojinovic, Radisa; Firment, Jozef; Zahorec, Roman; Capková, Judita; Grochova, Monika; Trenkler, Stefan; Griger, Martin; Bakosova, Erika; Kvasnica, Martin; Saniova, Beata; Sulaj, Miroslav; Zacharovska, Andrea; Simkova, Alexandra; Číková, Andrea; Gebhardtova, Andrea; Hanuljaková, Slávka; Koutun, Juraj; Martonová, Andrea; Žilinčárová, Veronika; Galkova, Katarína; Krbila, Stefan; Sobona, Viliam; Ocenasova, Marieta; Novak-Jankovic, Vesna; Stecher, Adela; Stivan, Feri; Grynyuk, Andriy; Damjanovska, Marija; Kostadinov, Ivan; Knezevic, Mile; Malivojevic, Marko; Borovsak, Zvonko; Kamenik, Mirt; Mekiš, Dušan; Osojnik, Irena; Kosec, Lučka; Kapš, Silva Ostojič; Aleksic, Dragoslav; Gerjevič, Božena; Kalan, Katja; Ursic, Tomaz; Aldecoa, Cesar; González, Juan Montejo; Artigas, Anna; Garcia, Andres; Lisi, Alberto; Perez, Isabel; Perez, Gisela; Poch, Nuria; Vaquer, Sergi; Balciscueta, Goiatz; Barrasa, Helena; Cabanes, Sara; Maynar, Javier; Poveda, Yolanda; Rodero, Amaia Quintano; Vallejo, Ana; Duque, Patricia; Garcia-Bunger, Beatriz; Elvira, Maria Adoracion; Lajara, Ana María; Palencia, María; Ramos, Rafael; Fernandez, Ana Saez; León, Juan Tirapu; López, Jaione Iza; Murillo, Francisco Yoldi; Ramirez, Eva Turumbay; Rico, Patricia Unzué; Patricia, Marta; Vizcaíno, Martín; Bernat Álvarez, Maria José; Real, Kenneth Planas; Serra, Arantxa Mas; Aracil, Norma; Bodega, Begoña Menendez; García, Raquel Fernández; García, Marivi Álvarez; Gordon, Borja de la Quintana; Jodrá, Alicia Gutiérrez; López, Angela De Santos; Ros, Juan José Llavador; Soto, Rocío Ayala; Sepúlveda, Isabel; Díez, Esperanza Pascual; Fernández, Luisa Fernández; Gulina, Carlos Soria; Arviza, Laura Pérez; Fernandez, Lorena Mouriz; Gómez, Antía Río; Martínez, Concepción Alonso; Rodríguez, Ana Belén Rodríguez; Soto, Carmen Lopez; Garcia, Clara; Lorenzo, Mario; Pinilla, Elena; Rico, Jesus; Ruperez, Irene; Alonso, Eduardo; Leira, Fernando; Maseda, David Pestaña Emilio; Royo, Concepcion; Villagran, Jose; Candi, Giralt Murillo; Esteva, Garcia Eduardo; Folgado, Raquel Mansilla; Fornaguera, Nadal Joan; Montse, Pijoan Calonge; Prat, Anna Sape; Sintes, Dolores; Arteta, Donaldo Arteta; Delgado, Horacio García; López-Cuervo, Juan Fajardo; López, Mikel Celaya; Ramírez, Alejandro; Saldaña, Francisco José; Aliste, Pilar; Anchuelo, Ana Hermira; Campos, Ascensión García; Catalán, Mercedes; Gómez, Mónica García; Gonzalaez, Olga Gonzalez; López, Eloísa López; Navacerrada, Isabel Real; de Quevedo, Sara Arlanzón; Serrano, Matilde Gonzalez; Silvestre, Francisco Perez-Cerdá; Torrente, Francisco Martinez; Arocas, Blanca; Martinez, Ernesto Pastor; Soro, Marina; Maroto, Fernando; Algarra, Ruth Robledo; Aleixandre, Inés Silla; Argente, Gemma Rodriguez; Lleó, Ana Broseta; Rubio, Antonio Vela; Sánchez, José Luis Vicente; Valcárcel, Irene Enríquez; Balust, Clara; Balust, Jaume; Borrat, Xavier; Carretero, Maria Jose; Gracia, Isabel; Matute, Purificacion; Mercadal, Jordi; Pujol, Roger; Tena, Beatriz; Ubre, Marta; Albalad, Dolores Dorda; Alcaide, Concepción Muñoz; Caballero, Jesus; Cervantes, Angels Camps; Clanchet, Miriam de Nadal; Estruch, Nuria Montferrer; Ferrer, Mercè Ballvé; Fornells, Albert Lacasta; Galera, Eduard Terrer; Martinez, Irene Garcia; Muñoz, Susana Manrique; Pelavski, Andres; Perez, Pilar Tormos; Posada, Miguel Angel Gonzalez; de Prat, Ivette Chocron; Rello, Jordi; Serrano, Llum García; Sieiro, José Manuel Naya; Silva, Lorena; Sole, Maria Jose Colomina; Suñé, Alfons Biarnes; Villach, Isabel Rochera; Herreras, José Ignacio Gómez; Poves, Rodrigo; Rafael, Beatriz Martinez; Almeida, Icier Martinez; Collates, Angel Fernandez; Bartolomé, Maria Jose; Cimadevilla, Bonifacio; González, Antonio Manuel González; Llevot, Jose Manuel Rabanal; Mira, Juan Carlos Diaz de Terán; Molina, Begoña González; Pardo, Sara; Sánchez, Carlos López; Williams, Monica; Zaldibar, Estibaliz; Corsini, Lourdes Muñoz; Fraile, José Ramón Rodríguez; de la Lastra, Maria; Sacramento, Monir Kabiri; Saña, Francisco Javier López; Ålvarez, Josep Trenado; Bulnes, Maria Luisa Cantón; Carrasco, Violeta Gándara; Crespo, María del Rocío Míguez; Cubillos, Diana Narváez; Laza, Enrique Laza; Pérez, María del Pino Heredia; Seisdedos, Ángel Arenzana; Torres, Bartolomé Fernández; Ampuero, Marian Santos; Llano, Marta Chicot; Mata, Esperanza; Munoz, Manuel; Orts, Mar; Planas, Antonio; Ramasco, Fernando; Roman, Carlos; Durán, Marina Varela; Fernandez, Sabela del Río; Otero, Yolanda Sanduende; Pineiro, Susana Lopez; Pardal, Cristina Barreiro; Alcantud, Jesús Fernández; Antolinos, Mercedes Ayuso; Barrios, Francisco; Casanova, Ana Collantes; Castro, Manuel Ruiz; Crespo, Beatriz Infantes; Felipe, Uzuri Lancha; Fuster, Marta Liceras; García, Máximo Sanz; Garrote, Begoña Herrero; Gonzalez, Ricardo Moreno; Granero, Maria José Montes; de la Guía, Carlos Lloreda; López, Raquel Chaves; López, Santiago de Frutos; Martinez, Jose Javier Marco; Mostaza, Angel Garcia; Moreno, Antonio Jiménez; Osado, Irene Riquelme; Pastor, Ana Bardina; Peña, Rosa; Pérez, Mónica Rustarazo; Piña, María Aliaño; Romero, Carlos Aranda; Rodríguez, Elena Rodríguez; Sáez, Vicente Pedroviejo; Safatle, Fernando; Salvan, Javier Hernández; Sampedro, Mar Galán; de la Torre, Patricia Alfaro; Toro, Jonatan Pérez; Unzúe, Crsitina Lasa; Vargas, Maria José; Bernal, David Garcia; Echevarria, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alejandro Ubeda; Loza, Ana; Morillo, Araceli Rodriguez; Serrano, Pedro Diaz; Sevilla, Fernando Caba Barrientos; Cacho, Elena; Calderón, Ricardo; Dufur, Mercedes; Marginet, Carolina; Monedero, Pablo; Yepes, Maria José; Alvarez, Luzdivina Rellán; Carballal, Francisca Fernández; Castiñeiras, Alberto Pensado; García, Paula Dieguez; López, Lorena Ramos; Maceiras, Pablo Rama; Puente, María Socorro Martínez; Rilo, Maria Teresa Rey; Alonso, Ana Esther Trujillo; Fernández, Sonia Rodríguez; García, Rafael Omaña; García, Aníbal Pérez; Puentes, Rafael Bello; Aguado, Domingo Nunez; Carballo, Carlos Lopez; Fernandez, Ricardo Fernandez; Presedo, Amadeo Toledo; de Rabago, Ricardo Bermejo Diaz; Velasco, Ana Rodriguez; Capel, Yolanda Jiménez; Cortés, Ana Fernández; García, Esther Martínez; Gimeno, Laura Martinez; Klamburg, Jordi; Omedas, Rosa Castillo; Núñez, Miriam González; Maristany, Clara Llubià; Ruiz, Enrique Moret; Artigas, Xavier; Castrillón, Sebastian; Espinosa, Nieves; Gomez-Caro, Ana María; Illa, Susana; India, Inmaculada; Martín-Huerta, Beatriz; Moral, Victoria; Moreno, Marisa; Fernández, Cristina Iglesias; García, Violeta Fernández; Hernández, Pedro Picatto; Checa, Angel Alberto Honrubia; Diaz, David Salvatierra; Noguera, Manuel Linero; Varela, Ignacio Pujol; Gallego, Miguel González; García, Oscar Martínez; Irujo, José Javier Ariño; Perrino, Carlos González; Picazo, Julio Rey; Timoneda, Francisco López; Arroyo, María Manzanero; Blanco, Isabel Albalá; Borja, Marcos Martínez; Burcio, Sara Martín; Castro, Nilda Martinez; Cerdeiriña, Aránzazu Puente; Concostrina, Marta de la Torre; Cristina, Medrano Viñas; Díaz, Trinidad Dorado; Esteruelas, Juan Avellanosa; Ingelmo, Ildefonso Ingelmo; Insuga, Paco Duran; Llamas, Elisabeth Claros; Lopez, Jose Juan Martín; Martín, María Beltran; Martín, Elena Elías; Mesa, Eva Ureta; Monterde, Manuela Loren; Montoiro, Paloma Alonso; Móstoles, Maria Luisa Gonzalez; Olarte, Eva Velasco; Pérez, Adolfo Martínez; Perez, Fernando Domínguez; Romero, Ana Serrano; Rous, Diego Parise; Ruiz, Nuria Mané; Ruiz, Jose Angel Palomo; Saiz, Alvaro Ruigomez; Terol, Alvaro de la Vega; Toha, Angel Candela; Utrera, Fernando Alvarez; Alberdi, Fermín; Elósegui, Itxaso; García, Javier; Garde, Pilar Marco; Mintegui, Escudero Itziar; Sáez, Iker García; Salas, Estibaliz; Zabarte, Mercedes; Diaz-Boladeras, Rosa-Maria; Mora-Guevara, Emilio; Zamora, Julia Ferreras; Bonet, Alfons; Salo, Lidia; Salinas, Unai; Zaballos, Juan; Alvarez, Ana Abella; Garrido, Carlos Jimenez; Roa, Juan Ramón Hita; Vidal, Federico Gordo; Garcia-Egea, Jorge; Elson, Monica Zamora; Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Asensio, Miguel Angel Mendiola; Simeón, Rosa Gastaldo; Alameda, Luis Enrique Muñoz; Angulo, Guillermo Oeding; Aranzubia, Monserrat; Arcas, Jose Juan; Arevalo, Julian; Belvert, Belén Quesada; Calvo, César Pérez; Cremades, Marta; Crespo, Pascual; Cuarental, Ana; del Olmo, Mercedes; Fernández, Pablo Turrión; Vega, José Luis Franqueza García Isabel Garcia; Herrera, Elena II; Llorente, Miguel Angel Alcala; Rabes, Cecilia Martin; de Maeyer, Ana Gamo; Marquez, Manuel Pérez; Mendoza, Diego López; Muñoz, José María Milicua; Martínez, Natividad Arias; Oviedo, Arnoldo Santos; Garrigues, Pau Benavent; Íñigo, José Alonso; Ferrandiz, Sergi Tormo; Sanchez-Morcillo, Silvia; Sánchez, Matilde Lafuente; Parra, Asunción Marqués; Vidal, Sonia Gomar; Allué, Raquel Montoiro; Etayo, Begoña Zalba; Rodriguez, Raquel Bustamante; Villen, Luis Martin; Jimenez, Cristina Molla; de Zayas, Ricardo Salas; Moreno, Cristina Dolera; Pacheco, Fernando SanJose; Pascual, Jose Luis Anton; Gude, Fernando Tejera; Riestra, Eva Manteiga; Delgado, Francisco Cota; Prados, Maria Victoria de la Torre; Barrios, Javier; Cervera-Montes, Manuel; García-Sanz, Mercedes; García, Vicente; Sanmiguel, Guillermo; Álvaro, Julian López; Barrachima, Beatriz Bornay; Bermejo, Francisco Jose Romero; Pilar, Alberto Garcia Fernandez; Garcia, Martinez; Ramírez, Carolina Navarro; Ramos, Jorge Gómez; Samaniego, Luis Angel; Belenguer-Muncharaz, Alberto; Ferrándiz-Selles, Amparo; Mateu-Campos, Maria-Lidon; Domínguez, David; Espinosa, Elena; León, Teresa; Betancor, Nazario Ojeda; Cortes, Javier Garcia; Díaz, Juan José Díaz; Canalechevarria, Ana Manzano; Novales, Beatriz Fores; Peña, Jose Manuel Garcia; Delgado, Tomas Rodriguez; Roquerio, Beatriz Santamaria; Sainz, Juan Jose Gomez; Soto, Teresa Tebar; Chew, Michelle; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne; Dahm, Peter; Hergès, Helena Odenstedt; Lundborg, Christoffer; Söndergaard, Sören; Rylander, Christian; Sari, Ferenc; Tibblin, Anna Oscarsson; Adolfsson, Anne; Klarin, Bengt; Schrey, Susann; Merisson, Edyta; Rydén, Jörgen; Divander, Mona Britt; Hedin, Annika; Hedlund, Daniel; Lindkvist, Mikael Axelsson; Jawad, Monir; Layous, Lona; Wernerman, Jan; Björne, Håkan; Brattström, Olof; Olheden, Staffan; Oldner, Anders; Sellden, Eva; Walder, Bernhard; Wickboldt, Nadine; Rossi, Ariane; Steiner, Luzius; Djurdjevic, Mirjana; Lussmann, Roger; Geisen, Martin; Hofer, Christoph; Turina, Matthias; Grocott, Mike; Goldhill, David; Everett, Lynn; Harris, Katy; Wright, Maggie; Adams, David; Alderson, Lorraine; Baker, Julie; Christie, Iain; Ferguson, Colin; Hill, Matthew; Holmes, Kate; Hutton, Andrew; Minto, Gary; Moor, Paul; Porter, Andrew; Struthers, Richard; Akotia, Niven; Belhaj, Alaa; Chang, Serene; Collantes, Enrique; Eigener, Katrin; Husband, Michael; Khan, Ahsun; Kong, Ming-Li; McAlees, Eleanor Jane; MacDonald, Neil; Niebrzegowska, Edyta; Parnell, Wendy; Smith, Amanda; Chhatwal, Ally; Jhingan, Smriti; Muswell, Richard; Poon, Yoyo; Singh, Nidhita; Stephens, Robert; Vasan, Robin; Waife, Nicola; Weda, Tahmina; Clarke, Adrian; Szakmany, Tamas; Fletcher, Simon; Rosbergen, Melissa; Blunt, Mark; Prince, Liz; Wong, Kate; Kumar, Ram; Stilwell, Sarah; Couper, Keith; Crooks, Neil; Gao-Smith, Fang; Melody, Teresa; Snaith, Catherine; Patel, Jaimin; Parekh, Dhruv; Yeung, Joyce; Loughnan, Bernadette; Moosajee, Vas; Rope, Tamsin; Edger, Lliam; Dawson, Julie; Hadfield, Daniel; Hopkins, Phil; McDonald, Lisa; Willars, Chris; Campbell, Gillian; Craig, Jayne; Smith, Andrew; Ladipo, Karleen; Lockwood, Geoff; Moreno, Juan; Ballington, Ruth; Hamandishe, Sibongilele; Rogerson, David; Cowman, Sarah; Hayden, Paul; Pinto, Nuno; Sandhar, Taj; Arawwawala, Dilshan; Brotherston, Lauren; Mitchell-Inwang, Christine; Walsh, Helena; Alagarsamy, Famila; Goon, Serena; Karcheva, Sylvia; Krepska, Amy; McKinney, Brian; Patil, Vishal; Batchelor, Nicholas; Day, Christopher; Finch, Louise; Gibson, Charlie; Grayling, Matthew; Hubble, Sheena; Key, William; Knight, Thomas; Loosley, Alexander; Margetts, Paul; Stewart, Hannah; Bewley, Jeremy; Hurley, Katrina; Murphy, Ruth; Philpott, Catherine; Pollock, Kathryn; Sweet, Katie; Thomas, Matthew; Tucker, Katy; Windsor, David; Conway, Daniel; Gold, Steve; Quraishi, Tanviha; Cupitt, Jason; Baddeley, Sally; Brown, John David; Foo, Irwin; Mantle, Damien; Carvalho, Peter; Huddart, Sam; Kirk-Bayley, Justin; Smith, Rebecca; Milligan, Lisa; Poulose, Sonia; Sarkar, Som; Nolan, Jerry; Pedley, Emma; Padkin, Andrew; Pesian, Siamak; Rajamanickam, Satish; Ramkumar, Konnur; Thomas, Jerry; Crayford, Alison; Turner, Angus; Bottrill, Fiona; Webb, Stephen; Jhanji, Shaman; MacCallum, Niall; Wessels, Kate; Wigmore, Tim; Meikle, Alistair; Wilson, Stephen; White, Stuart; Bonnett, Andrew; Rushton, Andrew; Williams, Colin; Zuzan, Oliver; Hall, Andrew; Montgomery, Jane; Piggot, Ailie; Read, Richard; Stocker, Mary; Tamm, Tiina; Agarwal, Banwari; Ward, Stephen; Brown, Lucy; Joy, Manju; Venkatesh, Suresh; Hughes, Thomas; Zsisku, Lajos; Roy, Alistair; Hooper, Victoria; Mouland, Johanna; Nightingale, Jeremy; Rose, Steve; Chiam, Patrick; Chohan, Harnita; Dickson, Chris; Gibb, Sarah; Higham, Charley; Harvey, Caroline; Janarthanan, Chandra; Jones, Laura; Kapoor, Avinash; Moll, Mark; Roberts, Louise; Saunders, David; Arnold, Glenn; Gibbs, Claire; Jhurgursing, Mhairi; Pierro, Dena; Pritchard, Frances; Doyle, Patrick; Templeton, Maie; Wilson, Robert; Zantua, Kim; Collyer, Thomas; Featherstone, James; Worton, Rachael; Bruce, Jane; McGuigan, Kate; Price, Grant; Moreton, Sarah; Pulletz, Mark; Anderson, Helen; Baxter, Ian; Beckingsale, Alex; Callaghan, Mark; Datta, Ansu; Dawson, Jo; Gollogly, Jackit; Izod, Chris; Lobaz, Steve; MacFie, Caroline; Patel, Manju; Payne, Heather; Singh, Raj; Timms, Gemma; McLeod, Shaun; O'Brian, Peter; Horner, Elspeth; Joshi, Vivekananda; Stuart-Smith, Karen; Seale, Tania; Bolger, Clare; Collins, Hannah; Ekins, Emma; Hawkins, Lesley; Jonas, Max; Linford, Karen; Wadams, Beverley; Beach, Madeleine; Vizcaychipi, Marcela; Jewsbury, William; Davies, Simon; Balaji, Packianathaswamy; Kangaraj, Muthuraj; Pissay, Nagesh; Smith, Neil; Gopalakrishnan, Senthilkumar; MacKinnon, John; Strandvik, Gustav; Francis, Ruth; Jennings, Adrian; Keating, Matthew; Kumar, Sajith; Leese, Sarah; Magee, Cliona; Pilsbury, Jane; Ralph, James; Riddington, David; Sachdeva, Rajneesh; Snelson, Catherine; Vasanth, Suresh; Wilde, Judith; Lavender, Beth; Lyons, Rachel; Watters, Malcolm; Adams, Tim; Dyer, Simon; Tindall, Lucy; Claxton, Andrew; Netke, Meenu; Akouds, Esam; Bates, Debrah; Gallagher, Heather; Hatton, Jonathan; Holroyd, William; Mitra, Atideb; Nurse, Trudy; Reed, Deborah; Desikan, Somi; Barber, Russell; Childs, Sophie; O'Carroll-Kuehn, Britta; Wyldbore, Mark; Al-Abdaly, Ayad; Amatya, Suman; Bhaskaran, Sherly; Chandan, Garud; Chaudhry, Suman; Chikungwa, Moses; Earnshaw, Greg; Grewal, Moni; Haque, Shamimul; Hawkins, John; Javaid, Ahmed; Jackson, Clare; Kamel, Miriam; Marla, Ruchira; Mculloch, Dori-Ann; Parker, Tom; Salib, Yussof; Saravanmuthu, Ramesh; Secker, Chris; Sockalingam, Siva; Taylor, Anne; Austine, Pauline; Kanade, Vrushali; Paal, Dora; Mok, May Un Sam; Burtenshaw, Andrew; Davis, Laura; Ellahee, Parvez; Freeman, David; Pierson, Richard; Wollaston, Julie; Karmarkar, Amara; Ball, Clare; Calton, Emily; Maxwell, Louise; Walker, Rachel; Bland, Martin; Bullock, Lynne; Harrison-Briggs, Donna; Hodge, Paul; Krige, Anton; Dempsey, Ged; Hammell, Claire; Loveridge, Robert; Parker, Robert; Snell, Jane; Wright, Carl; Baker, Andy; Barr, Katharine; Belcher, Alex; Bonnington, Sam; Bougeard, Anne-Marie; Fitzgerald, Emma; Ford, Rachael; Gillard, Chantal; Griffiths, Liz; Greenberg, Lizzie; Huber, Jonathan; Mathieu, Steve; Richardson, Neil; Tompsett, Laura; White, Nigel; Patel, Santosh; Corner, Victoria; Thomas, Richard; Trodd, Dawn; Wilson, Jennifer; Copley, Ed; Flutter, Laura; Hulme, Jonathan; Susarla, Jay; Thwaites, Alison; Jayasundera, Suraj; McAfee, Sean; Chantler, Jonathan; McKechnie, Stuart; Neely, Julia; Mouton, Ronelle; Scarth, Edward; Soar, Jasmeet; Buss, Joanne; Currie, Vicki; Sange, Mansoor; Kuttler, Anja; Power, Fiona; Alexander, David; Dunne, Kevin; Shinner, Guy; Black, Euan; Haldane, Grant; Kerr, Jennie; Saran, Taj; Ward, Geraldine; Jefferies, Fiona; Alexander, Peter; Royle, Alison; Nahla, Farid; Bowles, Tim; Gregory, Maggie; Ahern, Rebecca; Cartlidge, David; Craker, Lloyd; Thompson, Christopher; Bidd, Heena; Giles, Julian; Manser, Amanda; Parry, Gareth; Chan, Peter; Das, Dinesh; Fahmy, Nisreen; Higgins, David; Khader, Ahmed; Stone, Alex; Leonardi, Silvia; Rose, Oliver; Bright, Elizabeth; Ercole, Ari; Rafi, Muhammed Amir; Ramasamy, Radhika; Sheshgiri, Bengeri; Merrill, Colin; Page, Valerie; Walker, Elaine; Harris, Stephen; Hughes, Sarah; Morrison, Alan; Razouk, Khaled; Ayman, Mustafa; al-Subaie, Nawaf; Arif, Fuhazia; Cashman, Jeremy; Cecconi, Maurizio; Edsell, Mark; Fossati, Nicoletta; Hammond, Sarah Jane; Hamilton, Mark; Lonsdale, Dagan; Moran, Carl; Siegmueller, Claas; Velzeboer, Freya; Wong, Patrick; Jakeman, Alicia; Mowatt, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an international

  7. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  8. Verifier Theory and Unverifiability

    OpenAIRE

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant developments in Proof Theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifier. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verificati...

  9. One-day compared with 7-day nitrofurantoin for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Villar, Jose; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Widmer, Mariana; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Carroli, Guillermo; Duc Vy, Nguyen; Mignini, Luciano; Festin, Mario; Prasertcharoensuk, Witoon; Limpongsanurak, Sompop; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Sirivatanapa, Pannee

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate whether a 1-day nitrofurantoin regimen is as effective as a 7-day regimen in eradicating asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled noninferiority trial was conducted in antenatal clinics in Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Argentina. Pregnant women seeking antenatal care between March 2004 and March 2007 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study. Those who consented were randomly allocated to receive either a 1-day or a 7-day course of 100 mg capsules of nitrofurantoin, which was taken twice daily. The primary outcome was bacteriologic cure on day 14 of treatment. : A total of 1,248 of 24,430 eligible women had asymptomatic bacteriuria, making the overall prevalence of 5.1%. Of these 1,248 women, 778 women were successfully recruited, and 386 and 392 women were randomly allocated to 1-day and 7-day regimens, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most common potentially pathogenic bacteria detected, its prevalence approaching 50%. Bacteriologic cure rates at treatment day 14 were 75.7% and 86.2% for 1-day and 7-day regimens, respectively. The cure rate difference was -10.5% (95% confidence interval -16.1% to -4.9%). Mean birth weight and mean gestational age at delivery were significantly lower in the 1-day regimen group. There were fewer adverse effects in the 1-day regimen group, but the differences were not statistically significant. A 1-day regimen of nitrofurantoin is significantly less effective than a 7-day regimen. Women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy should receive the standard 7-day regimen. ISRCTN, isrctn.org, ISRCTN11966080 I.

  10. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    the computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money...

  11. Do postoperative radiographically verified technical success, improved cosmesis, and trunk shift corroborate with patient-reported outcomes in Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shallu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Andersen, Thomas; Sun, Haolin; Wu, Chunsen; Hansen, Ebbe Stender

    2015-07-01

    To examine correlation between postoperative radiographic and cosmetic improvements in Lenke 1C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with patients' self-rated outcomes of health and disability at follow-up as determined by the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-30), Oswestry Disability Index score (ODI) and measure of overall health quality Euroqol-5d (EQ-5D). 24 Lenke 1C scoliosis patients, mean age 16.5 (12.8-38.1) years, treated with posterior pedicle screw-only construct, were included. The coronal profile indices (radiographic and cosmetic) regarding magnitude of spinal deformity and truncal balance were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. A comprehensive index of overall back symmetry was also measured by means of the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). Pearson's correlation analysis determined the association between the radiographic-cosmetic indices and patient-rated outcomes. Mean follow-up for the cohort was 4.4 (±1.86) years. The thoracic apical vertebra-first thoracic vertebra horizontal distance (AV-TI) correction had significant correlation with function, self-image, and mental health SRS-30 scores (0.55, 0.54, 0.66). Similarly, thoracic apical vertebra horizontal translation from central sacral vertical line (AV-CSVL) correction at follow-up had significant correlation with self-image and management domains (0.57, 0.50). Follow-up POTSI correlated well with SRS-30 and EQ-5D scores (r = -0.64, -0.54). Postoperative leftward trunk shift/spinal imbalance did not influence overall cosmesis and outcomes; significant spinal realignment was evident in follow-up resulting in physiological balance and acceptable cosmesis and outcomes. Significant, but less than "perfect" correlations were observed between the radiographic, cosmetic measures and patient-rated outcomes. Thoracic AV-CSVL, AV-T1 correction and POTSI associated significantly with SRS-30 scores. Whereas, thoracic Cobb angle, Cobb correction, and

  12. Verifying versus falsifying banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Renesse, Rudolf L.

    1998-04-01

    A series of counterfeit Dutch, German, English, and U.S. banknotes was examined with respect to the various modi operandi to imitate paper based, printed and post-printed security features. These features provide positive evidence (verifiability) as well as negative evidence (falsifiability). It appears that the positive evidence provided in most cases is insufficiently convincing: banknote inspection mainly rests on negative evidence. The act of falsifying (to prove to be false), however, is an inefficacious procedure. Ergonomic verificatory security features are demanded. This demand is increasingly met by security features based on nano- technology. The potential of nano-security has a twofold base: (1) the unique optical effects displayed allow simple, fast and unambiguous inspection, and (2) the nano-technology they are based on, makes successful counterfeit or simulation extremely improbable.

  13. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinger, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.) [de

  14. Two-day thionamide withdrawal prior to radioiodine uptake sufficiently increases uptake and does not exacerbate hyperthyroidism compared to 7-day withdrawal in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Sumihisa; Ohye, Hidemi; Yano, Genichiro; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2006-01-01

    The appropriate period of antithyroid drug (ATD) discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is the most critical problem in Graves' disease patients under going treatment with ATD. To determine the optimal period that does not alter the outcome of radioiodine therapy or exacerbate hyperthyroidism, we compared serum FT4 levels at radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and therapy outcomes between a 2-day withdrawal group and 7-day withdrawal group. We prospectively recruited 43 patients for the 2-day withdrawal protocol and retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with radioiodine following the protocol of 7-day withdrawal. There was no significant difference in RAIU between the 2 groups. The mean serum FT4 level measured on the first day of 24-h RAIU of the 7-day group was significantly higher than that in the 2-day group. There were no significant differences in the outcomes at each point (6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after therapy) between the 2 groups. Our results indicated that withdrawal of ATD for 2 days is superior to 7 days in that 2 days discontinuation did not exacerbate hyperthyroidism. In order to prevent serum thyroid hormone increase after ATD withdrawal and radioiodine therapy, a 2-day ATD withdrawal period before radioiodine therapy may be useful for high-risk patients such as the elderly and patients with cardiac complications. We believe that the 2-day ATD withdrawal method may be useful for patients undergoing treatment with ATD who are to undergo radioiodine therapy. (author)

  15. 7-Day Biodefense: Engineered Nanoparticle for Virus Elimination by Opsonization (ENVELOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    spectrum for LSTc, specifically the identity of the four distinct monosaccharides and the presence of 2→6 sialic acid at stoichimetric levels. 7-Day...A. Previous studies definitively demonstrated that cell surface heparan sulfate, a complex highly charged polysaccharide , plays an important role in

  16. 29 CFR 2530.200b-7 - Day of service for employees in the maritime industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. 2530... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200b-7 Day of service for employees in the maritime industry. (a) General rule. A day of service in the maritime industry which must, as a minimum, be counted...

  17. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...

  18. Clinical efficacy of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Ichihara, Kohji; Hashimoto, Jiro; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Iwasawa, Akihiko; Hayashi, Kenji; Sunaoshi, Kenichi; Takeda, Koichi; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Satoh, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-06-01

    To confirm the efficacy of the treatment regimen with oral levofloxacin (LVFX) 500 mg once daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), we evaluated the microbiological and clinical outcomes of the regimen in those patients. We finally evaluated 53 patients with symptomatic NGU and 5 patients with asymptomatic NGU. As a result of microbiological examinations, 19 of the symptomatic patients were diagnosed as having non-gonococcal chlamydial urethritis (NGCU); 13 had non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis (NGNCU), and 21 had urethritis without any microbial detection. Five of the asymptomatic patients were diagnosed as having NGCU. Microbiological cure was achieved in 91% of the 32 patients with symptomatic NGU and in 80% of the 5 patients with asymptomatic NGCU. Clinical cure was obtained in 92% of the 53 patients with symptomatic NGU. The microbiological eradication rate for Chlamydia trachomatis was 92% in 24 patients. As for other organisms, the microbiological eradication rate for Mycoplasma genitalium was 60% in 5 patients and that for Ureaplasma urealyticum was 100% in 10. The microbiological and clinical efficacy of oral LVFX 500 mg once daily for 7 days for the patients with NGU was the same for the azithromycin (AZM) 1,000 mg single dose that we previously reported. The eradication rates of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum in the treatment regimen with LVFX 500 mg were high enough in the clinical setting; however, for M. genitalium, the rate was relatively inferior to that with AZM.

  19. A comparison of 5 or 7 days of rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari F. Syam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim A combination of PPI and 1000 mg amoxicillin/500 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 2 weeks has been proven effective in the eradication of H. pylori. Most studies suggested that treatment for 7 and 10 days may be equally effective. Few data are available on the efficacy of 5-day triple therapy. Aim of this study was to compare 5-day and 7-day rabeprazole triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection.Methods We prospectively studied 60 consecutive H. pylori-infected patients who came to hospitals in six centres in Indonesia and who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. H. pylori infection was confirmed if two rapid urease tests (Pronto Dry and histology or urea breath test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labelled 5-day or 7-day course of oral amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d. (RAC. Four weeks after therapy, all patients had a repeated UBT for evaluation of the presence of H. pylori.Results Of the 60 patients (42 males and 18 females with mean age (± SD 47.63 ± 13.93 years, range 21–74 years, 25 patients (41.7% had 5-day treatment and 35 patients (58.3% had 7-day treatment. With 5-day treatment, 18 patients (72% and with 7-day treatment 32 patients (91.4% became negative for H. pylori infection. The eradication failure was found on 7 patients (28.0% in 5-day treatment and 3 patients (8.6% in 7-day treatment.Conclusions The study showed that the eradication of H. pylori infection by triple rabeprazole-based treatment in 7-day is still better than in 5-day. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:113-7Keywords: H. pylori, rabeprazole, triple therapy

  20. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  1. [Non-incarcerated inguinal hernia in children: operation within 7 days not necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, L; Hamming, J F; Oostvogel, H J M

    2005-01-29

    To assess the necessity to operate on non-incarcerated inguinal hernia in children within 7 days of diagnosis. Retrospective. Data on 360 children, 0-10 years old (104 girls and 256 boys) who were operated on for inguinal hernia between 1 January 1993-31 December 2001 at the St. Elisabeth Hospital in Tilburg, the Netherlands, were collected from the medical records. These data included sex, age, interval between diagnosis and repair, recurrence, incarceration, length of hospitalisation and complications. In the group of 113 children 0-1 years old, 137 inguinal hernias were repaired, ofwhich 16 were incarcerated on presentation. The interval between diagnosis and repair was known in 93 of 121 cases: 37 hernias were repaired within 7 days and 56 at a later stage. In the latter group, there was one case of secondary incarceration (1.8%; 95% CI: 0-5.4). The number needed to treat was 56. In the group of 247 children 1-10 years old, 269 inguinal hernias were repaired, of which 8 were primarily incarcerated. The interval between diagnosis and repair was known in 208 of 261 cases: 34 hernias were repaired within 7 days and 174 at a later stage. In the latter group, 3 hernias incarcerated secondarily (1.7%; 95% CI: 0-3.7). The number needed to treat was 58. In the group of non-incarcerated hernias 1 complication occurred, in the group of incarcerated hernias none. The mean length of hospitalisation of children with non-incarcerated hernia was 0.85 days, and of children with incarcerated hernia 2.4 days. In children with a non-incarcerated inguinal hernia who are waiting for an operation, the risk of secondary incarceration and complications is 2% which we do not think is enough reason to carry out an elective hernia-repair procedure within 7 days.

  2. Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    results into the larger proof framework of the seL4 microkernel to be directly usable in practice. Beyond the stated project goals, the solution...CakeML, can now also be used in the Isabelle/HOL system that was used for the verified seL4 microkernel. This combination increases proof productivity...were used for the verified ML compiler CakeML, can now also be used in the Isabelle/HOL system that was used for the verified seL4 microkernel. This

  3. Status of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported

  4. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  5. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollef, Marin H; Chastre, Jean; Clavel, Marc; Restrepo, Marcos I; Michiels, Bart; Kaniga, Koné; Cirillo, Iolanda; Kimko, Holly; Redman, Rebecca

    2012-11-13

    The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day course of doripenem to a 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Gram-negative bacteria. This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial comparing a fixed 7-day course of doripenem one gram as a four-hour infusion every eight hours with a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin one gram as a one-hour infusion every eight hours (April 2008 through June 2011). The study was stopped prematurely at the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee that was blinded to treatment arm assignment and performed a scheduled review of data which showed signals that were close to the pre-specified stopping limits. The final analyses included 274 randomized patients. The clinical cure rate at the end of therapy (EOT) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population was numerically lower for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (45.6% versus 56.8%; 95% CI, -26.3% to 3.8%). Similarly, the clinical cure rate at EOT was numerically lower for patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP, the most common Gram-negative pathogen, in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (41.2% versus 60.0%; 95% CI, -57.2 to 19.5). All cause 28-day mortality in the MITT group was numerically greater for patients in the doripenem arm compared to the imipenem-cilastatin arm (21.5% versus 14.8%; 95% CI, -5.0 to 18.5) and for patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (35.3% versus 0.0%; 95% CI, 12.6 to 58.0). Among patients with microbiologically confirmed late-onset VAP, a fixed 7-day course of doripenem was found to have non-significant higher rates of clinical failure and mortality compared to a fixed 10-day course of imipenem-cilastatin. Consideration should be given to treating patients with VAP for more than seven days to optimize clinical outcome. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00589693.

  6. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. This study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, C S M Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by the platelet-rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7 with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution while platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that the platelet viability and aggregation were the best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  7. Detection of β-lactoglobulin in human breast-milk 7 days after cow milk ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matangkasombut, Ponpan; Padungpak, Savitree; Thaloengsok, Sasikanya; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Jotikasthira, Wanlapa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Manuyakorn, Wiparat

    2017-08-01

    β-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major allergen in cow milk (CM) can be detected in human breast-milk (BM) and is associated with exacerbation of symptoms in breastfed infants with cow milk protein allergy (CMPA). Currently, it is not known how long lactating mothers who consume dairy products need to withhold breastfeeding. To elucidate the kinetics of BLG in BM after maternal ingestion of a single dose of CM. Nineteen lactating mothers, four of whom had infants with CMPA, were instructed to avoid CM for 7 days before ingesting a single dose of CM and to continue to withhold CM thereafter throughout the study period. BLG was measured by ELISA in BM from 15 mothers of healthy infants before and at 3, 6 and 24 h, and 3 and 7 days after CM ingestion. Four pairs of mothers and CMPA infants were enrolled for BM challenge after the mothers had ingested CM. After CM ingestion, the level of BLG in BM increased significantly from 0.58 ng/ml (0.58 g/L) (IQR 0.38-0.88) to a peak level of 1.23 ng/ml (IQR 1.03-2.29), p < 0.001. The BLG level on day 3 (1.15 ng/ml, IQR 0.89-1.45) and day 7 (1.08 ng/ml (IQR 0.86-1.25) after CM ingestion was significantly higher than baseline (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). BLG was detected in all BM samples from the four mothers of CMPA infants after CM ingestion, and the level was not different from that in the mothers of the 15 healthy infants. Three of the four CMPA infants developed symptoms such as maculopapular rash and hypersecretion in the airways after BM challenge. BLG can be detected in BM up to 7 days after CM ingestion. Lactating mothers should suspend breastfeeding to CMPA infants more than 7 days after CM ingestion.

  8. Optimised resource construction for verifiable quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashefi, Elham; Wallden, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments have brought the possibility of achieving scalable quantum networks and quantum devices closer. From the computational point of view these emerging technologies become relevant when they are no longer classically simulatable. Hence a pressing challenge is the construction of practical methods to verify the correctness of the outcome produced by universal or non-universal quantum devices. A promising approach that has been extensively explored is the scheme of verification via encryption through blind quantum computation. We present here a new construction that simplifies the required resources for any such verifiable protocol. We obtain an overhead that is linear in the size of the input (computation), while the security parameter remains independent of the size of the computation and can be made exponentially small (with a small extra cost). Furthermore our construction is generic and could be applied to any universal or non-universal scheme with a given underlying graph. (paper)

  9. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning decimals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Decimals. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning decimals super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their chag

  10. Amazing 7-day, super-simple, scripted guide to teaching or learning percents

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to The Amazing 7-Day, Super-Simple, Scripted Guide to Teaching or Learning Percents. I have attempted to do just what the title says: make learning percents super simple. I have also attempted to make it fun and even ear-catching. The reason for this is not that I am a frustrated stand-up comic, but because in my fourteen years of teaching the subject, I have come to realize that my jokes, even the bad ones, have a crazy way of sticking in my students' heads. And should I use a joke (even a bad one) repetitively, the associations become embedded in their brains, many times to their cha

  11. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  12. Unconditionally verifiable blind quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Blind quantum computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output, and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. We previously proposed [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Atlanta, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, 2009), p. 517] a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with additional functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct another verifiable BQC protocol based on a different class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. This resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest-neighbor form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

  13. Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuki Mari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown the oxidizing properties and microbiological efficacies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2. Its clinical efficacies on oral malodor have been evaluated and reported only in short duration trials, moreover, no clinical studies have investigated its microbiological efficacies on periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects of a mouthwash containing ClO2 used for 7 days on morning oral malodor and on salivary periodontal and malodorous bacteria. Methods/Design A randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 15 healthy male volunteers, who were divided into 2 groups. Subjects were instructed to rinse with the experimental mouthwash containing ClO2 or the placebo mouthwash, without ClO2, twice per day for 7 days. After a one week washout period, each group then used the opposite mouthwash for 7 days. At baseline and after 7 days, oral malodor was evaluated with Organoleptic measurement (OM, and analyzed the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, methyl mercaptan (CH3SH and dimethyl sulfide ((CH32S, the main VSCs of human oral malodor, were assessed by gas chromatography (GC. Clinical outcome variables included plaque and gingival indices, and tongue coating index. The samples of saliva were microbiologically investigated. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the polymerase chain reaction-Invader method. Results and Discussion The baseline oral condition in healthy subjects in the 2 groups did not differ significantly. After rinsing with the mouthwash containing ClO2 for 7 days, morning bad breath decreased as measured by the OM and reduced the concentrations of H2S, CH3SH and (CH32S measured by GC, were found. Moreover ClO2 mouthwash used over a 7-day period appeared effective in reducing plaque, tongue coating accumulation and the counts of Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva. Future research is

  14. Autonomous Motivation Predicts 7-Day Physical Activity in Hong Kong Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2015-07-01

    Autonomous motivation predicts positive health behaviors such as physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relation between motivational regulations and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Thus, we investigated whether different motivational regulations (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) predicted 7-day physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of students. A total of 115 students (mean age = 11.6 years, 55.7% female) self-reported their motivational regulations and health-related quality of life. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured using accelerometers for seven days. Using multilevel modeling, we found that autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, less sedentary behaviors, and better HRQoL. Controlled motivation and amotivation each only negatively predicted one facet of HRQoL. Results suggested that autonomous motivation could be an important predictor of physical activity behaviors in Hong Kong students. Promotion of this form of motivational regulation may also increase HRQoL. © 2015 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  15. Near 7-day response of ocean bottom pressure to atmospheric surface pressure and winds in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Ruixiang

    2018-02-01

    Ocean bottom pressures, observed by five pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs) from October 2012 to July 2014, exhibit strong near 7-day variability in the northern South China Sea (SCS) where long-term in situ bottom pressure observations are quite sparse. This variability was strongest in October 2013 during the near two years observation period. By joint analysis with European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data, it is shown that the near 7-day ocean bottom pressure variability is closely related to the local atmospheric surface pressure and winds. Within a period band near 7 days, there are high coherences, exceeding 95% significance level, of observed ocean bottom pressure with local atmospheric surface pressure and with both zonal and meridional components of the wind. Ekman pumping/suction caused by the meridional component of the wind in particular, is suggested as one driving mechanism. A Kelvin wave response to the near 7-day oscillation would propagate down along the continental slope, observed at the Qui Nhon in the Vietnam. By multiple and partial coherence analyses, we find that local atmospheric surface pressure and Ekman pumping/suction show nearly equal influence on ocean bottom pressure variability at near 7-day periods. A schematic diagram representing an idealized model gives us a possible mechanism to explain the relationship between ocean bottom pressure and local atmospheric forcing at near 7-day periods in the northern SCS.

  16. Flight hours within 7 days and risk of fatigue on the civilian pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    febi arya hidayat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In aviation world, fatigue may cause incapacitation among pilot which can lead to aircraft accidents. Flight hours is believed to be one of the factors related to the risk of fatigue. The purpose of this study is to identify relationship between flight hours in seven day and other factors to the risk of fatigue among civilian pilot in Indonesia.Methods: A cross sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted among civilian pilots who attended medical check-up at Aviation Medical Center in Jakarta on June 2016. Demographic characteristics, employment related factors, habits and flight hours were obtained through questionnaire and interviews. Fatigue data were obtained through fatigue self-questionnaire form and measured with Fatigue Severity Scale which had been validated. Fatigue was categorized into non-fatigue (FSS score <36 and fatigue (FSS score ≥36. Relative risk was computed using Cox regression with a constant time.Results: This study included 542 pilots among which 50.2% had fatigue. The subjects who have flight hours >30 hours/week compared to ≤30 hours/week, had 1.37-fold higher risk of fatigue [adjusted relative risk [RRa=1.37; CI=1.14-1.65; p=0.001]. The subject with ATPL license compared to CPL license had 1.28-fold higher risk of fatigue [RRa=1.31; CI=1.11-1.54; p=0.001. Furthermore, subjects who have appropriate exercise had 32% lower risk of fatigue (RRa=0.68; CI= 0.39-1.19; p=0.094.Conclusions: Civilian pilots in Indonesia who had more than 30 hours flight time in 7 days and ATPL type pilots have an increased risk of fatigue. Appropriate exercise decreased the risk of fatigue.Keywords: fatigue, flight hours. civilian pilots. Indonesia

  17. Blood glucose levels within 7 days after birth in preterm infants according to gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study investigated blood glucose levels in preterm babies according to gestational age (GA.MethodsSubjects were 141 preterm infants with a GA180 mg/dL.ResultsDuring the 7 days after birth, hypo- and hyperglycemia occurred in 29 (29 of 141, 20.6% and 42 (42 of 141, 29.8% neonates, respectively. During the first 2 hours, 18 neonates (12.8% exhibited hypoglycemia, and only 2 (2 of 141, 1.4% developed hyperglycemia. From 6 to 24 hours, hypo- and hyperglycemia were observed in 0 and 9 (9 of 141, 6.4% neonates, respectively. Infants small for their GA (SGA were at risk for hypoglycemia both within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 2.718; P=0.045 and during days 2 to 7 (OR, 4.454; P=0.006, and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 3.200; P=0.005. Low 1-minite Apgar score was risk factor for both hypo- and hyperglycemia during days 2 to 7 (OR, 0.756; P=0.035 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.789; P=0.016 for hyperglycemia. Both hypo- and hyperglycemia within 24 hours were less common in those who started feeding (OR, 0.294; P=0.013 for hypoglycemia and OR, 0.162; P=0.011 for hyperglycemia.ConclusionCareful blood glucose level monitoring is required in preterm infants, especially SGA infants or those with low Apgar score. Early feeding could be beneficial for maintaining euglycemia.

  18. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P body condition score (P cows in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group had greater AI pregnancy rate compared with cows in the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group (58.1% vs. 55.1%; P = 0.04). More cows that exhibited estrus at or before AI became pregnant compared with cows that did not [65.7% (681/1037) vs. 44.5% (347/780); P cows with body condition ≤4 [≤4 - 49.3% (101/219), 5-6 - 57.9%; >6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of 7-Day Intensive and Standard Weekly Cognitive Therapy for PTSD and Emotion-Focused Supportive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Anke; Hackmann, Ann; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Liness, Sheena; Albert, Idit; Deale, Alicia; Stott, Richard; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are usually delivered once or twice weekly over several months. It is unclear whether they can be successfully delivered over a shorter period of time. This clinical trial had two goals, (1) to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of a 7-day intensive version of cognitive therapy for PTSD, and (2) to investigate whether cognitive therapy has specific treatment effects by comparing intensive and standard weekly cognitive therapy with an equally credible alternative treatment. Method Patients with chronic PTSD (N=121) were randomly allocated to 7-day intensive or standard 3-month weekly cognitive therapy for PTSD, 3-month weekly emotion-focused supportive therapy, or a 14-week waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms and diagnosis as assessed by independent assessors and self-report. Secondary outcomes were disability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Measures were taken at initial assessment, 6 weeks and 14 weeks (post-treatment/wait). For groups receiving treatment, measures were also taken at 3 weeks, and follow-ups at 27 and 40 weeks after randomization. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Results At post-treatment/wait assessment, 73%, 77%, 43%, 7% of the intensive cognitive therapy, standard cognitive therapy, supportive therapy, and waitlist groups, respectively, had recovered from PTSD. All treatments were well tolerated and were superior to waitlist on all outcome measures, with the exception of no difference between supportive therapy and waitlist on quality of life. For primary outcomes, disability and general anxiety, intensive and standard cognitive therapy were superior to supportive therapy. Intensive cognitive therapy achieved faster symptom reduction and comparable overall outcomes to standard cognitive therapy. Conclusions Cognitive therapy for PTSD delivered intensively over little more than a week is as effective as cognitive therapy delivered

  20. Regional gray matter volume increases following 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise: a longitudinal VBM study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Hiroi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    The effects of physical exercise on brain morphology in rodents have been well documented in histological studies. However, to further understand when and where morphological changes occur in the whole brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the effects of 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in rats. Eighteen pairs of adult male naïve Wistar rats were randomized to the exercise or control condition (one rat for each condition from each pair). Each rat was scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at three time points: before exercise, after 7days of exercise, and after 7days of follow-up. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that were recently published by our laboratory, and the intra- and inter-subject template creation steps were followed. Longitudinal VBM analysis revealed significant increases in rGMV in the motor, somatosensory, association, and visual cortices in the exercise group. Among these brain regions, rGMV changes in the motor cortex were positively correlated with the total distance that was run during the 7days of exercise. In addition, the effects of 7days of exercise on rGMV persisted after 7days of follow-up. These results support the utility of a longitudinal VBM study in rats and provide new insights into experience-dependent structural brain plasticity in naïve adult animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Verifying design patterns in Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Buisse, Alexandre; Birkedal, Lars

    In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory.......In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory....

  2. USCIS E-Verify Program Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The report builds on the last comprehensive evaluation of the E-Verify Program and demonstrates that E-Verify produces accurate results and that accuracy rates have...

  3. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile...... a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark......). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants provided a semen sample after 4-7 days of abstinence followed by another sample after only 2 h. For both ejaculates, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility groups and detailed kinematic parameters were assessed and compared by using the Sperm...

  4. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin......The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...... infusion, second stage 1,000 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin infusion, together with a [3-(3)H]glucose infusion, before and after 7 days of exercise. The training consisted of 30 min of cycling and 30 min of treadmill walking at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity daily for 7 days. The exercise program...

  5. Effects of a paraspinal-lumbar tape application during 7 days on the perceived area of tape contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Stefan; Finke, Roy; Zeh, Stefan; Siebert, Tobias; Puta, Christian

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate the changes of the perceived area of tape contact during a lumbar tape application that lasted 7 days. Single group, repeated measures study. University research laboratory. Twenty-three healthy collegiate students in sports science. Perceived area of tape contact was collected by preparing a drawing of their individual perceived tape outline into a printed body image. Measurements were obtained immediately after fixation of the tape (day 0), at day 3 and day 7 during application and 5 min after the release of the application (day 7). There was no significant change of the perceived area of tape contact after 3 days of tape application. A significant decrease in the perceived area of tape contact was detected 7 days after application (p area of tape contact of healthy sport students is decreased at 7 days. This effect could not be observed at 3 days. These results provide relevant information for the use of elastic tapes concerning the duration of application in medical therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Verifying FreeRTOS; a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study on modeling and verifying the kernel of Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS). The study will show advances in formally verifying such an RTOS both by refinement and by model checking approaches. This work fits in the context of Hoare’s verification challenge. Several

  7. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    Thimma, J.; Kumuthaa, M.; Sekarana, S.; Vadivelua, J. In 13th International Congress on Infectious Diseases; Elsevier Ltd.: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia , 2008...S. A.; Ventura, V. V.; Qazi, O.; Harding, S. V.; Kitto, G. B.; Estes, D. M.; Dell , A.; Titball, R. W.; Atkins, T. P.; Brown, K. A.; Hitchen, P. G

  8. The status of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported

  9. USCIS E-Verify Self-Check

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — E-Verify is an internet based system that contains datasets to compare information from an employee's Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification, to data from the...

  10. Growth Recovery of Lemna gibba and Lemna minor Following a 7-Day Exposure to the Herbicide Diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mitchell; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    In agricultural catchments, aquatic ecosystems can experience a pulse exposure to pesticides. Following such exposure, non-target organisms that are not extirpated may recover. This paper investigates the potential of two duckweed species (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) to recover from a 7-day exposure to different concentrations (0.4-208 µg L(-1)) of the herbicide diuron. There was significant inhibition in the growth and biomass after the initial 7-day exposure (e.g. frond number EC50=59.2 and 52.2 µg L(-1) for L. minor and L. gibba, respectively). Following transfer to clean media, recovery (the highest concentration yielding no significant difference in the effect endpoint from the control) was observed for all effects endpoints at concentrations ranging 60-111 µg L(-1) for L. minor and 60-208 µg L(-1) for L. gibba. These results suggest that recovery is possible for primary producers at environmentally relevant concentrations considered significant in ecological risk assessment.

  11. Auto-identification fiberoptical seal verifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Mukaiyama, Takehiro

    1998-08-01

    An auto COBRA seal verifier was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to provide more efficient and simpler inspection measures for IAEA safeguards. The verifier is designed to provide means of a simple, quantitative and objective judgment on in-situ verification for the COBRA seal. The equipment is a portable unit with hand-held weight and size. It can be operated by battery or AC power. The verifier reads a COBRA seal signature by using a built-in CCD camera and carries out the signature comparison procedure automatically on digital basis. The result of signature comparison is given as a YES/NO answer. The production model of the verifier was completed in July 1996. The development was carried out in collaboration with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. This report describes the design and functions of the COBRA seal verifier and the results of environmental and functional tests. The development of the COBRA seal verifier was carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JD-4 since 1981. (author)

  12. A 7-day high protein hypocaloric diet promotes cellular metabolic adaptations and attenuates lean mass loss in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Furber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial quantity and density are associated with increased oxidative metabolism. It has been demonstrated that a hypocaloric high fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC diet can up-regulate transcriptional markers of mitochondrial biogenesis; this was yet to be explored in vivo subsequent to a high protein/low carbohydrate (HP/LC diet. Thus the aims of the study were to explore such diets on transcriptional markers or mitochondrial biogenesis, body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Forty-five healthy male participants were randomly assigned one of four intervention diets: eucaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-EM, hypocaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-ER, eucaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-EM or hypocaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-ER. The macronutrient ratio of the high protein diet and high carbohydrate diets was 40:30:30% and 10:60:30% (PRO:CHO:FAT respectively. Energy intake for the hypocaloric diets were calculated to match resting metabolic rate. Participants visited the laboratory on 3 occasions each separated by 7 days. On each visit body composition, resting metabolic rate and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis was collected. Prior to visit 1 and 2 habitual diet was consumed which was used as a control, between visit 2 and 3 the intervention diet was consumed continuously for 7-days. No group × time effect was observed, however in the PRO-ER group a significant increase in AMPK, PGC-1α, SIRT1 and SIRT3 mRNA expression was observed post diet intervention groups (p < 0.05. No change was observed in any of the transcriptional markers in the other 3 groups. Despite ∼30% reduction in calorie intake no difference in lean mass (LM loss was observed between the PRO-ER and CHO-EM groups. The results from this study suggest that a 7-day a high protein low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet increased AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC-1 α mRNA expression at rest, and also suggest that increased dietary protein may attenuate LM mass

  13. Impact of a 7-Day Field Training on Oral Health Condition in Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Koji; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Nagata, Emi; Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-07-01

    In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions. In this study, we investigated the impact of a 7-day field training on the oral health status of JGSDF personnel by comparing their oral condition before and just after training. The participants were 59 male and 3 female JGSDF personnel undergoing a 7-day field training. All personnel provided informed written consent to participate, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences. Oral health behaviors before and during the training period were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed before training in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), and periodontal condition was examined before and immediately after training using the community periodontal index (CPI). The presence of eight species of bacteria in dental plaque, including commensal streptococci that are early colonizers on the tooth surface, cariogenic bacteria, and periodontopathic bacteria, was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed antibacterial factors and a stress marker in saliva samples. Sample collection was performed before and just after training. In addition to difference analysis between groups, logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each health behavior and periodontal deterioration. The frequency of toothbrushing decreased, and snacking increased during the training period. Thirty-five personnel (56.5%) showed an increase in

  14. Predicting 7-day, 30-day and 60-day all-cause unplanned readmission: a case study of a Sydney hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maali, Yashar; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Coiera, Enrico; Roffe, David; Day, Richard O; Gallego, Blanca

    2018-01-04

    The identification of patients at high risk of unplanned readmission is an important component of discharge planning strategies aimed at preventing unwanted returns to hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with unplanned readmission in a Sydney hospital. We developed and compared validated readmission risk scores using routinely collected hospital data to predict 7-day, 30-day and 60-day all-cause unplanned readmission. A combination of gradient boosted tree algorithms for variable selection and logistic regression models was used to build and validate readmission risk scores using medical records from 62,235 live discharges from a metropolitan hospital in Sydney, Australia. The scores had good calibration and fair discriminative performance with c-statistic of 0.71 for 7-day and for 30-day readmission, and 0.74 for 60-day. Previous history of healthcare utilization, urgency of the index admission, old age, comorbidities related to cancer, psychosis, and drug-abuse, abnormal pathology results at discharge, and being unmarried and a public patient were found to be important predictors in all models. Unplanned readmissions beyond 7 days were more strongly associated with longer hospital stays and older patients with higher number of comorbidities and higher use of acute care in the past year. This study demonstrates similar predictors and performance to previous risk scores of 30-day unplanned readmission. Shorter-term readmissions may have different causal pathways than 30-day readmission, and may, therefore, require different screening tools and interventions. This study also re-iterates the need to include more informative data elements to ensure the appropriateness of these risk scores in clinical practice.

  15. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  16. Classroom Experiment to Verify the Lorentz Force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. Classroom Experiment to Verify the Lorentz Force. Somnath Basu Anindita Bose Sumit Kumar Sinha Pankaj Vishe S Chatterjee. Classroom Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 81-86 ...

  17. On alternative approach for verifiable secret sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Kamil; Kotulski, Zbigniew; Pieprzyk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Secret sharing allows split/distributed control over the secret (e.g. master key). Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is the secret sharing extended by verification capacity. Usually verification comes at the price. We propose "free lunch", the approach that allows to overcome this inconvenience.

  18. Verified compilation of Concurrent Managed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Communications Division Information Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and its...271, 2007. [85] Viktor Vafeiadis. Modular fine-grained concurrency verification. Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR- 726, University of Cambridge, Computer...VERIFIED COMPILATION OF CONCURRENT MANAGED LANGUAGES PURDUE UNIVERSITY NOVEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE

  19. A Verifiable Secret Shuffle of Homomorphic Encryptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Jens

    2003-01-01

    We show how to prove in honest verifier zero-knowledge the correctness of a shuffle of homomorphic encryptions (or homomorphic commitments.) A shuffle consists in a rearrangement of the input ciphertexts and a reencryption of them so that the permutation is not revealed....

  20. Validation of the MARS (Medical Admission Risk System): A combined physiological and laboratory risk prediction tool for 5- to 7-day in-hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Malin Charlotta; Atkins, Tara E Holm; Cooksley, Tim; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2018-03-10

    The MARS (Medical Admission Risk System) uses 11 physiological and laboratory data and had promising results in its derivation study for predicting 5 and 7 day mortality. To perform an external independent validation of the MARS score. An unplanned secondary cohort study. Patients admitted to the medical admission unit (MAU) at The Hospital of South West Jutland were included from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009 and 23 February 2010 until 26 May 2010 were analysed. Validation of the MARS score using 5 and 7 day mortality was the primary endpoint. 5858 patients were included in the study. 2923 (49.9%) patients were women with a median age of 65 years (15-107). The MARS score had an AUROC of 0.858 (95% CI: 0.831-0.884) for 5-day mortality and 0.844 (0.818-0.870) for 7 day mortality with poor calibration for both outcomes. The MARS score had excellent discriminatory power but poor calibration in predicting both 5 and 7-day mortality. The development of accurate combination physiological/laboratory data risk scores has the potential to improve the recognition of at risk patients.

  1. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B; Dardmeh, F; Jørgensen, N; Nielsen, H I; Hnida, C

    2017-07-01

    Does a short abstinence period of only 2 h yield spermatozoa with better motility characteristics than samples collected after 4-7 days? Despite lower semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts and total motile counts, higher percentages of motile spermatozoa with higher velocity and progressiveness were detected in samples obtained after 2 h. Most studies that have assessed the effect of abstinence periods on sperm motility parameters in men with a sperm concentration below 15 million/ml have detected a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa in samples obtained after short abstinence periods. Studies of men with sperm concentrations above 15 million/ml have reported significantly decreased motile sperm counts after 24 h of abstinence compared with longer abstinence periods. This study had a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark). Participants provided a semen sample after 4-7 days of abstinence followed by another sample after only 2 h. For both ejaculates, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility groups and detailed kinematic parameters were assessed and compared by using the Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA) computer-aided sperm analysis system before and after density gradient selection. The laboratory's local manual method (Makler chamber) was used for comparison. The second raw ejaculate demonstrated lower semen volume (P sperm concentration (P = 0.003) and sperm counts in all motility sub-groups (P sperm concentration and total sperm counts in all motility sub-groups, the significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa with better motility characteristics (velocity, progressiveness and hyperactivation) in the second ejaculate, may provide and allow for a simpler and more effective

  2. Beneficial effects on fasting insulin and postprandial responses through 7-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood glucose and insulin are elevated after intake of carbohydrate, with levels returning to normal in about 2-3 hours after ingestion. We examined the effects of daily New Zealand blackcurrant intake over 7 days on fasting glucose and insulin levels and the responses of glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test (i.e. OGTT. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants (9 males, 8 females, age: 24±8 years, body mass: 75.4±16.4 kg, height 172±11 cm, body mass index: 25.3±3.3 consumed 6 g·day-1 New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC powder for 7 days. Every 6 g of the serving contained 138.6 mg anthocyanins, 49 mg vitamin C, and 5.2 g of carbohydrates with total phenolic content 271.6 mg. A cross-over design was used. Participants completed one OGTT before starting the supplementation (day 0 and another OGTT after 7 days of the supplementation (day 7. For the OGTT, participants were seated and consumed 75 g of glucose dissolved in 250 mL water. Finger prick capillary samples were taken before and every 30 minutes for a total of 120 minutes after consuming the glucose drink. Following duplicate glucose analysis, blood samples were centrifuged and then plasma was separated and frozen (-20°C for triplicate insulin analysis using a human 96-well insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IBL international, Hamburg, Germany. Results: NZBC had no effect on fasting glucose (control: 4.46±0.45; NZBC: 4.41±0.44 mmol·L1, P=0.657, although there was a trend for fasting insulin to be 14.3% lower (control: 66.5±28.2; NZBC: 57.0±29.5 pmol·L-1 (P=0.091. HOMA-IR was not different between the control and NZBC (1.81±0.73 vs 1.58±0.83 (P=0.126. With NZBC during the OGTT, plasma glucose at 60 min was 8.1% lower (control: 6.68±1.13; NZBC: 6.14±1.41 mmol·L-1; P=0.016, insulin at 30 min was 18.4% lower (control: 337.1±228.3; NZBC: 275.0±136.4 pmol·L-1; P= 0.021, and insulin at 60 min was 39.2% lower (control: 297.8±154.3; NZBC: 181.2

  3. Analysis of Prolonged Hospitalizations (Longer than 7 days: 115 Lung Cancer 
Patients after Video Assistant Thoracic Surgery (VATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang DAI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Thoracoscopic surgery has gradually become the major procedure for lung cancer surgery in our department. Its characteristics are minimal trauma and quick recovery, which make approximately 90% of patients discharge from the hospital after surgery. However, the postoperative complications still happen now and then. We analyzed the patients who had been hospitalized for longer than 7 days after thoracoscopic lung cancer surgery, aiming to summarize the types and risk factors of complications, and improve postoperative safety of patients. Methods The data were come from the prospective database of Thoracic Surgery Unit One in Peking Cancer Hospital, and patients that underwent thoracoscopic pulmonary surgery between Jan. 2010 and Dec. 2014 with length of stay more than 7 days were included in the study. The classifications of the complications were investigated and graded as mild or severe complications according to modified Claviengrading, the relationship between clinical factors and degrees of complications was also analyzed. Results The hospitalization of 115 cases were longer than 7 days after surgery, accounting for 10.3% (115/1,112 of the whole patients that underwent surgery during the same period. Eighty-one cases had mild complications, accounting for 7.3% (81/1,112 of the whole cases that underwent surgery during the same period and 70.4% (81/115 of the cases with prolonged length of stay; the proportions of severe complications in both groups were 3.1% (34/1,112 and 29.6% (34/115, respectively; and the proportions of complications that caused perioperative deaths were 0.18% (2/1112 and 1.7% (2/115, respectively. Among all the postoperative complications, the most common was air leakage for more than 5 days after surgery, with a total of 20 cases (1.8% and 17.4%. The other common complications were: atelectasis (19 cases, 1.7% and 16.5%, pulmonary infection (18 cases, 1.6% and 15.7%, etc. The less common

  4. Electrocortical Activity at 7 Days of Life is Affected in Extremely Premature Infants with Patent Ductus Arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, N; Metze, B; Bührer, C; Felderhoff-Müser, U; Hüseman, D

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the aEEG at 7 days of life is influenced by the presence of a PDA in non-sedated extremely low gestational age preterm infants. We prospectively recruited infants born at less than 28 weeks of gestation between 11/2007 and 12/2009. aEEGs were recorded at seven days of life and assessed by using the Burdjalov score and the electronically assessed lower border (eLBA). Kruskal-Wallis-Test and linear regression analysis were performed to determine how GA and a PDA affect the aEEG score and the eLBA. Using linear regression analysis we tested which components of the score are affected by a PDA. We recruited 44 infants with a GA of 26.5/7 (23.4/7-27.6/7) weeks and a birth weight of 837 (461-1230) g. The total sum of score points increased from 4 (1-6) to 8 (5-9) points in infants born at 23/24 weeks and 27 weeks of gestation, respectively. In infants with relevant PDA the aEEG scored lower with 8 (3-10) points compared to those with PDA: 5 (1-8) points. Linear regression analysis showed a positive influence of GA and a negative influence of a PDA on the total score. GA had a positive influence on SWC and the visually assessed LBA. A PDA had a negative influence on continuity. The eLBA increased from 4.61 (3.18-5.53) µV to 5.27 (3.38-6.51) µV in infants of 23/24 vs. 27 gestational weeks, but was not significantly influenced by a PDA. A PDA has a negative influence on the total Burdjalov score and continuity at 7 days of age in infants born at less than 28 weeks of gestation. The electrocortical disturbances may be the consequence of a diminished cerebral perfusion in the presence of a PDA. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  6. A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Personnel identity verification devices, which are based on the examination and assessment of a body feature or a unique repeatable personal action, are steadily improving. These biometric devices are becoming more practical with respect to accuracy, speed, user compatibility, reliability and cost, but more development is necessary to satisfy the varied and sometimes ill-defined future requirements of the security industry. In an attempt to maintain an awareness of the availability and the capabilities of identity verifiers for the DOE security community, Sandia Laboratories continues to comparatively evaluate the capabilities and improvements of developing devices. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is discussed in this paper. Operating environments and procedures more typical of physical access control use can reveal performance substantially different from the basic laboratory tests

  7. Combining hypobaric hypoxia or hyperbaric oxygen postconditioning with memantine reduces neuroprotection in 7-day-old rat hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamdzyk, Marcin; Ziembowicz, Apolonia; Bratek, Ewelina; Salinska, Elzbieta

    2016-10-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia causes brain injury in neonates, but a fully successful treatment to prevent changes in the brain has yet to be developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining memantine treatment with HBO (2.5 ATA) or HH (0.47 ATA) on neonatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury. 7-day old rats were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) and treated with combination of memantine and HBO or HH. The brain damage was evaluated by examination of infarct area and the number of apoptotic cells in CA1 region of hippocampus. Additionally, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured. Memantine, HBO or HH postconditioning applied at short time (1-6h) after H-I, and repeated for two subsequent days, resulted in significant neuroprotection. The reduction in ipsilateral hemisphere weight deficit and in the size of infarct area was observed 14days after H-I. A reduction in apoptosis and ROS level was also observed. Combining memantine with HBO or HH resulted in a loss of neuroprotection. Our results show that, combining HBO or HH postconditioning with memantine produce no additive increase in the neuroprotective effect. On the contrary, combining the treatments resulted in lower neuroprotection in comparison to the effects of memantine, HBO or HH alone. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of 7 days of exercise on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation and insulin resistance in children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa; Morrison, Katherine M; Riddell, Michael C; Raha, Sandeep; Timmons, Brian W

    2018-07-01

    The capacity to match carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation with CHO availability (deemed metabolic flexibility (MetFlex)) may be important for type 2 diabetes prevention. In adults, impaired MetFlex is associated with insulin resistance (IR), which can be improved with as little as 7 days of exercise. Whether this occurs similarly in children is unknown. We hypothesized that 7 consecutive days of exercise would improve MetFlex and IR in children with obesity. Twelve children (8 boys, 4 girls) completed 2 study visits before (PRE) and 2 study visits after (POST) exercise training. At visit 1, fasting blood was collected, and anthropometry and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed. At visit 2, a 13 C-enriched CHO drink was ingested before exercise (3 × 20 min) at ∼59% maximal oxygen uptake. Exogenous CHO oxidative efficiency, used as a surrogate measurement of MetFlex, was calculated from breath samples. During training, participants alternated between continuous and high-intensity interval cycling sessions at home under supervision. In spite of good training adherence, there was no improvement in MetFlex (PRE: 20.7% ± 1.8%, POST: 18.9% ± 4.9%, p = 0.22) or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (PRE: 8.7 ± 4.6, POST: 8.1 ± 6.0, p = 0.51). Future research should investigate exercise volume, sex, and pubertal effects on the early responsiveness of MetFlex to exercise therapy.

  9. A Practical Voter-Verifiable Election Scheme.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaum, D; Ryan, PYA; Schneider, SA

    2005-01-01

    We present an election scheme designed to allow voters to verify that their vote is accurately included in the count. The scheme provides a high degree of transparency whilst ensuring the secrecy of votes. Assurance is derived from close auditing of all the steps of the vote recording and counting process with minimal dependence on the system components. Thus, assurance arises from verification of the election rather than having to place trust in the correct behaviour of components of the vot...

  10. A pilot randomised controlled trial in intensive care patients comparing 7 days' treatment with empirical antibiotics with 2 days' treatment for hospital-acquired infection of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scawn, N; Saul, D; Pathak, D; Matata, B; Kemp, I; Stables, R; Lane, S; Haycox, A; Houten, R

    2012-09-01

    Management of cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) sepsis is complicated by the high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which mimics sepsis but without an infective cause. This pilot randomised trial investigated whether or not, in the ICU, 48 hours of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment was adequate to safely treat suspected sepsis of unknown and unproven origin and also the predictive power of newer biomarkers of sepsis. The main objective of this pilot study was to provide preliminary data on the likely safety and efficacy of a reduced course of antibiotics for the treatment of ICU infections of unknown origin. A pilot, single-centre, open-label randomised trial. This study was carried out in the ICU of a tertiary heart and chest hospital. Patients being treated within the ICU were recruited into the trial if the intensivist was planning to commence antibiotics because of evidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and a strong suspicion of infection but there was no actual known source for that infection. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment administered for 48 hours (experimental) compared with treatment for 7 days (control). The primary outcome was a composite outcome of the rate of death or initiation of antibiotic therapy after the completion of the treatment schedule allocated at randomisation. Secondary outcomes included the duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU and hospital stay; the incidence of infection with Clostridium difficile (B. S. Weeks & E. Alcamo) Jones & Bartlett International Publishers, 2008, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (B. S. Weeks & E. Alcamo) Jones & Bartlett International Publishers, 2008; resource utilisation and costs associated with each of the two pilot arms; the ratio of patients screened to patients eligible to patients randomised; the incidence of crossover between groups; and the significance of newer biomarkers for sepsis for predicting patients' need for further antibiotics

  11. Acute response to 7-day therapy with CPAP in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and cardiac arrhytmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Campos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the selected treatment for moderate to severe OSA and could improve arrhythmias in the long term. However, the acute effect of CPAP has not been studied in detail. Methods: We conducted a prospective study with 25 patients with moderate to severe OSA diagnosed by home respiratory polygraphy (RP and arrhythmia and/or pauses in 24-hour Holter ECG. We analyzed inflammatory parameters and the rate of arrhythmias/pauses after 7 days of auto-adjusting CPAP. Results: 92.5% of the patients were men with a mean age of 61.7±1.9 years. Body mass index (BMI was 59.5±2.2 kg/m2, with a mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI of 37.7±3.8 events/hour (ev/h, and a residual AHI (AHIr of 5.3±0.53 ev/h. After short treatment with CPAP we observed a tendency to improvement in both the severity and number of ventricular extrasystoles (VE (1595.0±850.3 vs. 926.4±434.5 respectively, pauses and the inflammatory parameters (CRP 3.9±3.1 vs. 1.7±1.2, glycemia 131.4±11.6 vs. 121.9±9.8, HOMA 24.4±3.1 vs. 21.7±2.8, insulin 7.6±1.4 vs. 7.2±1.2 (p>0.5. Conclusion: We didn't find significant changes in pauses, VE and inflammatory parameters with CPAP short therapy in CPAP naive patients recently diagnosed with OSA.

  12. Diet-related greenhouse gas emissions assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and validated using 7-day weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Raposo, Sara E; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-02-09

    The current food system generates about 25 % of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), including deforestation, and thereby substantially contributes to the warming of the earth's surface. To understand the association between food and nutrient intake and GHGE, we therefore need valid methods to assess diet-related GHGE in observational studies. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies assess the environmental impact of different food items. We linked LCA data expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per kg food product to data on food intake assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) Meal-Q and validated it against a 7-day weighed food record (WFR). 166 male and female volunteers aged 20-63 years completed Meal-Q and the WFR, and their food intake was linked to LCA data. The mean GHGE assessed with Meal-Q was 3.76 kg CO2e per day and person, whereas it was 5.04 kg CO2e using the WFR. The energy-adjusted and deattenuated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively. Moreover, compared to the WFR, Meal-Q provided a good ranking ability, with 90 % of the participants classified into the same or adjacent quartile according to their daily average CO2e. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable level of agreement between the two methods and the reproducibility of Meal-Q was high. This is the first study validating the assessment of diet-related GHGE by a questionnaire. The results suggest that Meal-Q is a useful tool for studying the link between food habits and CO2e in future epidemiological studies.

  13. NT-ProBNP levels, water and sodium homeostasis in healthy men: effects of 7 days of dry immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasiolava, Nastassia M; Pajot, Aurelie; Gallois, Yves; Pastushkova, Ludmila Kh; Kulchitsky, Vladimir A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Kozlovskaya, Inesa B; Heer, Martina; Hand, Olga; Larina, Irina M; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2011-09-01

    Immersion is a useful tool for studying fluid-volume homeostasis. Natriuretic peptides play a vital role in renal, humoral, and cardiovascular regulation under changing environmental conditions. We hypothesized that dry immersion would rapidly induce a new steady state for water and sodium metabolism, and that serum NT-proBNP levels, a proxy measure for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), would decrease during long-term dry immersion and increase during recovery. Eight healthy young men were studied before, during, and after 7 days of dry immersion. Body weight, water balance, and plasma volume changes were evaluated. Plasma and serum samples were analyzed for active renin, NT-proBNP, aldosterone, electrolytes, osmolality, total protein, and creatinine. Urine samples were analyzed to determine levels of electrolytes, osmolality, creatinine, and free cortisol. A stand test was performed before and after dry immersion to evaluate cardiovascular deconditioning. Long-term dry immersion induced acute changes in water and sodium homeostasis on day 1, followed by a new steady state. Plasma volume decreased significantly during dry immersion. The serum levels of NT-proBNP increased significantly in recovery (10 ± 3 ng/L before dry immersion vs. 26 ± 5 ng/L on the fourth recovery day). Heart rate in the standing position was significantly greater after immersion. Results suggest that chronic dry immersion rapidly induced a new level of water-electrolyte homeostasis. The increase in NT-proBNP levels during the recovery period may be related to greater cardiac work and might reflect the degree of cardiovascular deconditioning.

  14. Extended shelf life of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in platelet additive solution at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Chandra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelets are routinely stored in plasma for 5 days at an average temperature of 22°C. In the present study, the shelf life of random donor platelets was extended by storing for 7 days with and without additive solution at temperatures of 22°C, 18°C, and 16°C. Methods: Random donor platelets were stored in 100% plasma and 20%/80% platelet additive solution. The data were compared using paired "t"- test. The confidence limit was kept at 95%, hence a "p" < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Out of total 150 samples, 148 samples were analyzed and 2 were discarded due to the bacterial contamination on day 7 at 22°C without platelet additive solution. A significant difference in platelet count, platelet factor 3 (PF 3, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and platelet aggregation was observed on day 7 (p < 0.001 at 16°C in without platelet additive solution. In platelet additive solution, the mean values of platelet count, platelet distribution width (PDW, LDH, and pH showed no significant difference on day 7 at 22°C, 18°C, and 16°C. Only significant differences were observed in the levels of mean platelet volume (MPV, PF 3, glucose, and platelet aggregation on day 7 (p < 0.001 at 16°C of the storage period. Conclusion: Random donor platelets functions are better maintained in platelet additive solution as compared to plasma at a lower temperature of 18°C but not at 16°C, on the 7 th day.

  15. Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-Day Training Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Morgans, Ryland; Abayomi, Julie; Davies, Ian G; Morton, James P; Mahon, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    While traditional approaches to dietary analysis in athletes have focused on total daily energy and macronutrient intake, it is now thought that daily distribution of these parameters can also influence training adaptations. Using 7-day food diaries, we quantified the total daily macronutrient intake and distribution in elite youth soccer players from the English Premier League in U18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25) and U13/14 squads (n = 21). Total energy (43.1 ± 10.3, 32.6 ± 7.9, 28.1 ± 6.8 kcal·kg -1 ·day -1 ), CHO (6 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 1.4, 3.2 ± 1.3 g·kg - 1 ·day -1 ) and fat (1.3 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.3 g·kg- 1 ·day -1 ) intake exhibited hierarchical differences (p U15/16 > U18. In addition, CHO intake in U18s was lower (p lunch (~0.5 g·kg -1 ) > breakfast (~0.3 g·kg -1 ). We conclude elite youth soccer players do not meet current CHO guidelines. Although daily protein targets are achieved, we report a skewed daily distribution in all ages such that dinner > lunch > breakfast. Our data suggest that dietary advice for elite youth players should focus on both total daily macronutrient intake and optimal daily distribution patterns.

  16. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankhaya Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mixins used in the Scala standard library do indeed conform to subtyping between the traits that are used to build them.

  17. Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Laurette

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 796 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 18th... International Workshop on Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems, 5 - 8 July 2016, Bucharest, Romania Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata Laurette Marais1,2 and Lynette van Zijl1(B) 1 Department of Computer Science, Stellenbosch...

  18. Activation of K+ channels and Na+/K+ ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorim, Jonaina; Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Azevedo, Bruna Fernades; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, Maria Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2012-01-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K + channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K + channels and Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O 2 − production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K + -induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K + -induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K + channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na + /K + ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K + channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative stress. ► Low concentrations constitute environmental

  19. Kazakh therapy on differential protein expression of Achilles tendon healing in a 7-day postoperative rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuerai, Shawutali; Ainuer, Jialili; Jiasharete, Jielile; Darebai, Redati; Kayrat, Aldyarhan; Tang, Bin; Jiangannur, Zheyiken; Bai, Jingping; Makabel, Bolat

    2011-12-01

    To compare the effect of cast immobilization with that of early Kiymil arkili emdew (Kazakh exercise therapy) on the post-operative healing of Achilles tendon rupture in rabbits, and to observe the influence of early Kiymil arkili emdew on the differentially expressed proteins in the healing tendon. Forty-five New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (Arm A: control group; Arm B: postoperative immobilization group; and Arm C: postoperative early Kiymil arkili emdew group). After tenotomy, the rabbits of the two experimental groups received microsurgery to repair the ruptured tendons, and then received either cast immobilization or early Kiymil arkili emdew treatment. Achilles tendon tissue samples were collected 7 days after the surgery, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS technique were used to analyze differentially expressed proteins in the tendon tissue of the three Arms. A total of 462.67 +/- 11.59, 532.33 +/- 27.79, and 515.33 +/- 6.56 protein spots were detected by the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels in the Achilles tendon samples of the rabbits in Arms A, B, and C, respectively. Nineteen differentially expressed protein spots were randomly selected from Arm C. Among them, 7 were unique, and 15 had five times higher abundance than those in Arm B. These included annexin A2, gelsolin isoforms and alpha-1 Type III collagen. It was confirmed by western blot that gelsolin isoform b, annexin A2, etc. had specific and incremental expression in Arm C. The self-protective instincts of humans were overlooked in the classical postoperative treatment for Achilles tendon rupture with cast immobilization. Kiymil arkili emdew induced the specific and incremental expression of proteins in the repaired Achilles tendon in the early healing stage in a rabbit model, compared with those treated with postoperative cast immobilization. These differentially expressed proteins may contribute to the healing of the Achilles tendon via

  20. Enhanced Local Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity and Microvascular Blood Flow Following 7-Day Ischemic Preconditioning in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Jeffries

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic preconditioning (IPC, which involves intermittent periods of ischemia followed by reperfusion, is an effective clinical intervention that reduces the risk of myocardial injury and confers ischemic tolerance to skeletal muscle. Repeated bouts of IPC have been shown to stimulate long-term changes vascular function, however, it is unclear what metabolic adaptations may occur locally in the muscle. Therefore, we investigated 7 days of bilateral lower limb IPC (4 × 5 min above limb occlusion pressure (220 mmHg; n = 10, or sham (20 mmHg; n = 10, on local muscle oxidative capacity and microvascular blood flow. Oxidative capacity was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS during repeated short duration arterial occlusions (300 mmHg. Microvascular blood flow was assessed during the recovery from submaximal isometric plantar flexion exercises at 40 and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. Following the intervention period, beyond the late phase of protection (72 h, muscle oxidative recovery kinetics were speeded by 13% (rate constant pre 2.89 ± 0.47 min-1 vs. post 3.32 ± 0.69 min-1; P < 0.05 and resting muscle oxygen consumption (mO2 was reduced by 16.4% (pre 0.39 ± 0.16%.s-1 vs. post 0.33 ± 0.14%.s-1; P < 0.05. During exercise, changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb from rest to steady state were reduced at 40 and 60% MVC (16 and 12%, respectively, P < 0.05 despite similar measures of total hemoglobin (tHb. At the cessation of exercise, the time constant for recovery in oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb was accelerated at 40 and 60% MVC (by 33 and 43%, respectively suggesting enhanced reoxygenation in the muscle. No changes were reported for systemic measures of resting heart rate or blood pressure. In conclusion, repeated bouts of IPC over 7 consecutive days increased skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and microvascular muscle blood flow. These findings are consistent with enhanced mitochondrial and vascular function following

  1. Verifiable process monitoring through enhanced data authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Joao G.M.; Schwalbach, Peter; Schoeneman, Barry Dale; Ross, Troy D.; Baldwin, George Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the peaceful intent for production and processing of nuclear fuel, verifiable process monitoring of the fuel production cycle is required. As part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-EURATOM collaboration in the field of international nuclear safeguards, the DOE Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Directorate General-Energy (DG-ENER) developed and demonstrated a new concept in process monitoring, enabling the use of operator process information by branching a second, authenticated data stream to the Safeguards inspectorate. This information would be complementary to independent safeguards data, improving the understanding of the plant's operation. The concept is called the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS). EDAS transparently captures, authenticates, and encrypts communication data that is transmitted between operator control computers and connected analytical equipment utilized in nuclear processes controls. The intent is to capture information as close to the sensor point as possible to assure the highest possible confidence in the branched data. Data must be collected transparently by the EDAS: Operator processes should not be altered or disrupted by the insertion of the EDAS as a monitoring system for safeguards. EDAS employs public key authentication providing 'jointly verifiable' data and private key encryption for confidentiality. Timestamps and data source are also added to the collected data for analysis. The core of the system hardware is in a security enclosure with both active and passive tamper indication. Further, the system has the ability to monitor seals or other security devices in close proximity. This paper will discuss the EDAS concept, recent technical developments, intended application philosophy and the planned future progression of this system.

  2. Analyser Framework to Verify Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important for software companies to build software systems in a short time-interval, to reduce costs and to have a good market position. Therefore well organized and systematic development approaches are required. Reusing software components, which are well tested, can be a good solution to develop software applications in effective manner. The reuse of software components is less expensive and less time consuming than a development from scratch. But it is dangerous to think that software components can be match together without any problems. Software components itself are well tested, of course, but even if they composed together problems occur. Most problems are based on interaction respectively communication. Avoiding such errors a framework has to be developed for analysing software components. That framework determines the compatibility of corresponding software components. The promising approach discussed here, presents a novel technique for analysing software components by applying an Abstract Syntax Language Tree (ASLT. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components. This article is concerned to the question how can be coupled software components verified by using an analyzer framework and determines the usage of the ASLT. Black-box Software Components and Abstract Syntax Language Tree are the basis for developing the proposed framework and are discussed here to provide the background knowledge. The practical implementation of this framework is discussed and shows the result by using a test environment.

  3. Towards Verifying National CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, I. Y.; Wuerth, S. M.; Anderson, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    With the Paris Agreement, nations around the world have pledged their voluntary reductions in future CO2 emissions. Satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 have the potential to verify self-reported emission statistics around the globe. We present a carbon-weather data assimilation system, wherein raw weather observations together with satellite observations of the mixing ratio of column CO2 from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 are assimilated every 6 hours into the NCAR carbon-climate model CAM5 coupled to the Ensemble Kalman Filter of DART. In an OSSE, we reduced the fossil fuel emissions from a country, and estimated the emissions innovations demanded by the atmospheric CO2 observations. The uncertainties in the innovation are analyzed with respect to the uncertainties in the meteorology to determine the significance of the result. The work follows from "On the use of incomplete historical data to infer the present state of the atmosphere" (Charney et al. 1969), which maps the path for continuous data assimilation for weather forecasting and the five decades of progress since.

  4. Predicting wildfire ignitions, escapes, and large fire activity using Predictive Service’s 7-Day Fire Potential Outlook in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin L. Riley; Crystal Stonesifer; Haiganoush Preisler; Dave Calkin

    2014-01-01

    Can fire potential forecasts assist with pre-positioning of fire suppression resources, which could result in a cost savings to the United States government? Here, we present a preliminary assessment of the 7-Day Fire Potential Outlook forecasts made by the Predictive Services program. We utilized historical fire occurrence data and archived forecasts to assess how...

  5. [The development and evaluation of software to verify diagnostic accuracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rodrigo; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena; Silveira, Paulo Sérgio Panse; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of software that verifies the accuracy of diagnoses made by nursing students. The software was based on a model that uses fuzzy logic concepts, including PERL, the MySQL database for Internet accessibility, and the NANDA-I 2007-2008 classification system. The software was evaluated in terms of its technical quality and usability through specific instruments. The activity proposed in the software involves four stages in which students establish the relationship values between nursing diagnoses, defining characteristics/risk factors and clinical cases. The relationship values determined by students are compared to those of specialists, generating performance scores for the students. In the evaluation, the software demonstrated satisfactory outcomes regarding the technical quality and, according to the students, helped in their learning and may become an educational tool to teach the process of nursing diagnosis.

  6. A control system verifier using automated reasoning software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-08-01

    An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logical axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions of the combined system

  7. Effects of 7-day continuous D-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine treatment on choice between methamphetamine and food in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Methamphetamine addiction is a significant public health problem for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies exist. Preclinical drug vs. food choice procedures have been predictive of clinical medication efficacy in the treatment of opioid and cocaine addiction. Whether preclinical choice procedures are predictive of candidate medication effects for other abused drugs, such as methamphetamine, remains unclear. The present study aim was to determine continuous 7-day treatment effects with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine and the monoamine uptake inhibitor methylphenidate on methamphetamine vs. food choice. In addition, 7-day cocaine treatment effects were also examined. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and methamphetamine injections (0-0.32mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=4). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day periods of continuous intravenous treatment with d-amphetamine (0.01-0.1mg/kg/h), methylphenidate (0.032-0.32mg/kg/h), or cocaine (0.1-0.32mg/kg/h). During saline treatment, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Continuous 7-day treatments with d-amphetamine, methylphenidate or cocaine did not significantly attenuate methamphetamine vs. food choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant responding. However, 0.1mg/kg/h d-amphetamine did eliminate methamphetamine choice in two monkeys. The present subchronic treatment results support the utility of preclinical methamphetamine choice to evaluate candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, these results confirm and extend previous results demonstrating differential pharmacological mechanisms between cocaine choice and methamphetamine choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. USCIS E-Verify Customer Satisfaction Survey, January 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report focuses on the customer satisfaction of companies currently enrolled in the E-Verify program. Satisfaction with E-Verify remains high and follows up a...

  9. New concepts in nuclear arms control: verified cutoff and verified disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Limiting the numbers of nuclear warheads by reducing military production and stockpiles of fissionable materials has been a constant item on the nuclear arms control agenda for the last 45 years. It has become more salient recently, however, because of two events: the enforced closure for safety reasons of the current United States military plutonium production facilities; and the possibility that the US and USSR may soon conclude an agreement providing for the verified destruction of significant numbers of nuclear warheads and the recovery of the fissionable material they contain with the option of transferring these materials to peaceful uses. A study has been made of the practical problems of verifying the cut off of fissionable material production for military purposes in the nuclear weapon states, as well as providing assurance that material recovered from warheads is not re-used for proscribed military purposes and facilitating its transfer to civil uses. Implementation of such measures would have important implications for non-proliferation. The resultant paper was presented to a meeting of the PPNN Core Group held in Baden, close to Vienna, over the weekend of 18/19th November 1989 and is reprinted in this booklet. (author)

  10. A randomized treatment trial: single versus 7-day dose of metronidazole for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A; Gatski, Megan; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan L; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H

    2010-12-15

    To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2-gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7-day 500 mg twice a day dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2-gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg twice a day 7-day dose. All women were given 2-gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were recultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again recultured at a 3-month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Two hundred seventy HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ±9.4; 92.2% African American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, antiretroviral therapy status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7-day arm had lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11 of 130) versus 16.8% (21 of 125) (relative risk: 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.25, 1.00; P TV among HIV+ women.

  11. Verified Interval Orbit Propagation in Satellite Collision Avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römgens, B.A.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verified interval integration methods enclose a solution set corresponding to interval initial values and parameters, and bound integration and rounding errors. Verified methods suffer from overestimation of the solution, i.e., non-solutions are also included in the solution enclosure. Two verified

  12. 20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verifying your identity. 401.45 Section 401... INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 401.45 Verifying your identity. (a) When required. Unless you are making a... representative, you must verify your identity in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section if: (1) You make a...

  13. 28 CFR 802.13 - Verifying your identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verifying your identity. 802.13 Section... COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.13 Verifying your identity. (a) Requests for your own records. When you make a request for access to records about yourself, you must verify your identity. You...

  14. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet...... (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study), against a 7-day food-record (7-dFR) method among Danish schoolchildren.Subjects/Methods:A total of 74 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children...

  15. Single dose (400 mg) versus 7 day (200 mg) daily dose itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M A; Ali, M E; Rahman, M H; Chowdhury, S A; Monamie, N S; Sultana, N; Khondoker, L

    2010-01-01

    Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor is a superficial fungal infection and one of the most commonly found pigmentary disorders of skin caused by the yeast Malassezia. Multiple topical as well as systemic therapies are available for treatment. Systemic therapies are used for extensive disease, frequent relapse or where topical agents have failed. The aim that translates the rationale of the study was to compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability and cost effectiveness of single dose 400mg versus 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor. A clinical study was done to compare the efficacy of single dose (400 mg) of itraconazole and 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of extensive tinea versicolor. Total 60 patients (aged 18-50 years) were selected for the study during the period of June 2007 to May 2008 in the department of Dermatology of three different hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases having with extensive involvement, diagnosed clinically and confirmed by wood's lamp and KOH microscopy were taken. Patients were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A was given single dose 400 mg itraconazole and Group B was given 7 day 200 mg daily itraconazole. Fifty three (88%) male and 7(12%) female were included in the study. The mean age of group A was 32.37+/-9 years and in group B 33.23+/-8 years. The mean duration of the disease in group A was 2.63+/-2 months and 2.76+/-2 months in group B. In group A clinical responders was found cure 22(73.33%) and improvement 5(16.33%) and in group B it was found cure 24(79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). The measure at the End point (EP1) equals to 90% response and in-group B it was found cure 24 (79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). (Here the End point EP2) equals to 93.33%. The EP clinical analysis however shows 91.66% response. Both single dose and 7 day daily dose of itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of tinea versicolor with extensive involvement but single dose appears

  16. Application of automated reasoning software: procedure generation system verifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

    1984-09-01

    An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logic axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions gathered by the combined system

  17. A Finite Equivalence of Verifiable Multi-secret Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give an abstraction of verifiable multi-secret sharing schemes that is accessible to a fully mechanized analysis. This abstraction is formalized within the applied pi-calculus by using an equational theory which characterizes the cryptographic semantics of secret share. We also present an encoding from the equational theory into a convergent rewriting system, which is suitable for the automated protocol verifier ProVerif. Based on that, we verify the threshold certificate protocol in ProVerif.

  18. Physiotherapists' attitudes toward circuit class therapy and 7 day per week therapy is influenced by normative beliefs, past experience, and perceived control: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kessel, Gisela; Hillier, Susan; English, Coralie

    2017-11-01

    Attitudes are recognized as influencing research implementation. However, little is known about the process by which physiotherapists' attitudes and beliefs shape their use of 7-day per week therapy and circuit class therapy research findings. Understanding beliefs may assist in addressing barriers to research uptake. Fifteen physiotherapists from six rehabilitation centers who ranged in seniority, experience, and education levels consented to be interviewed. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants felt that they had autonomy in adopting new approaches when the evidence was supported by social norms. Participants believed that 7-day per week therapy delivers a seamless service that increases physiotherapy time, which helps maintain patient improvement, but needs to accommodate patient choice and expectations. Circuit class therapy was viewed positively as it provides more physiotherapy time, increases patient social interaction, and motivation. However, this was qualified by a belief that patients would not receive individualized, quality of movement focused therapy, particularly for patients with limited capacities. Implementation of a new approach depends on the past experience, coherence with individual beliefs regarding important elements of therapy content, and opportunities to control barriers to implementation.

  19. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined.

  20. A replication of the 5-7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Henley-Einion, Josie; Barnett, Amanda; Edwards, Darren; Heidi Seage, C

    2011-06-01

    The dream-lag effect refers to there being, after the frequent incorporation of memory elements from the previous day into dreams (the day-residue), a lower incorporation of memory elements from 2 to 4 days before the dream, but then an increased incorporation of memory elements from 5 to 7 days before the dream. Participants (n=8, all female) kept a daily diary and a dream diary for 14 days and then rated the level of matching between every dream report and every daily diary record. Baseline matching was assessed by comparing all dream reports to all diary records for days that occurred after the dream. A significant dream-lag effect for the 5-7 day period, compared to baseline and compared to the 2-4 day period, was found. This may indicate a memory processing function for sleep, which the dream content may reflect. Participants' and three independent judges' mean ratings also confirmed a significant day-residue effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Follicular development in a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval with an oral contraceptive containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rible, Radhika D; Taylor, DeShawn; Wilson, Melissa L; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mishell, Daniel R

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations with 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) have a greater incidence of ovarian hormone production and follicular development, which can be managed by shortening the number of hormone-free days per COC cycle. This study evaluates differences in follicular development during a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval in a COC regimen with 20 mcg EE and 1 mg norethindrone acetate. Forty-one healthy women were randomized in an open-label fashion to this formulation in either a 24/4 or a 21/7 day regimen for three cycles. Estradiol, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and inhibin B were measured daily from Cycle 2, Day 21 to Cycle 3, Day 3 and on Day 7 of Cycle 3. Follicular diameter and Hoogland score were calculated on Cycle 2, Days 21, 24 and 28 and Cycle 3, Days 3 and 7. Sixty-six percent of subjects in the 21/7 group and 70% of the subjects in the 24/4 group developed a follicle greater than 10 mm diameter. Ovarian steroid hormone levels, Hoogland scores and bleeding patterns were not statistically significant between the groups. In contrast to prior studies, this analysis suggests no difference in follicle development or bleeding patterns among women receiving a 21/7 or 24/4 regimen of a 20-mcg EE/1-mg norethindrone acetate COC.

  2. strong>A novel oral preparation of human growth hormone (hGH) is absorbed and increases serum IGF-I levels after 7 days administration to GH-deficient adultsstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda; Haemmerle, Sibylle

    2007-01-01

    ) as carrier has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to determine if this oral formulation of hGH could be absorbed and be bioactive. Eight GHD men (mean age 50 years) receiving sc hGH therapy were withdrawn from therapy for 7 days and then treated for 7 days orally with tablets of HGH191...

  3. Appraising the value of independent EIA follow-up verifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessels, Jan-Albert, E-mail: janalbert.wessels@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Environmental Assessment, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Australia. (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up verifiers such as monitoring agencies, checkers, supervisors and control officers are active on various construction sites across the world. There are, however, differing views on the value that these verifiers add and very limited learning in EIA has been drawn from independent verifiers. This paper aims to appraise how and to what extent independent EIA follow-up verifiers add value in major construction projects in the developing country context of South Africa. A framework for appraising the role of independent verifiers was established and four South African case studies were examined through a mixture of site visits, project document analysis, and interviews. Appraisal results were documented in the performance areas of: planning, doing, checking, acting, public participating and integration with other programs. The results indicate that independent verifiers add most value to major construction projects when involved with screening EIA requirements of new projects, allocation of financial and human resources, checking legal compliance, influencing implementation, reporting conformance results, community and stakeholder engagement, integration with self-responsibility programs such as environmental management systems (EMS), and controlling records. It was apparent that verifiers could be more creatively utilized in pre-construction preparation, providing feedback of knowledge into assessment of new projects, giving input to the planning and design phase of projects, and performance evaluation. The study confirms the benefits of proponent and regulator follow-up, specifically in having independent verifiers that disclose information, facilitate discussion among stakeholders, are adaptable and proactive, aid in the integration of EIA with other programs, and instill trust in EIA enforcement by conformance evaluation. Overall, the study provides insight on how to harness the learning opportunities

  4. Appraising the value of independent EIA follow-up verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, Jan-Albert; Retief, Francois; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up verifiers such as monitoring agencies, checkers, supervisors and control officers are active on various construction sites across the world. There are, however, differing views on the value that these verifiers add and very limited learning in EIA has been drawn from independent verifiers. This paper aims to appraise how and to what extent independent EIA follow-up verifiers add value in major construction projects in the developing country context of South Africa. A framework for appraising the role of independent verifiers was established and four South African case studies were examined through a mixture of site visits, project document analysis, and interviews. Appraisal results were documented in the performance areas of: planning, doing, checking, acting, public participating and integration with other programs. The results indicate that independent verifiers add most value to major construction projects when involved with screening EIA requirements of new projects, allocation of financial and human resources, checking legal compliance, influencing implementation, reporting conformance results, community and stakeholder engagement, integration with self-responsibility programs such as environmental management systems (EMS), and controlling records. It was apparent that verifiers could be more creatively utilized in pre-construction preparation, providing feedback of knowledge into assessment of new projects, giving input to the planning and design phase of projects, and performance evaluation. The study confirms the benefits of proponent and regulator follow-up, specifically in having independent verifiers that disclose information, facilitate discussion among stakeholders, are adaptable and proactive, aid in the integration of EIA with other programs, and instill trust in EIA enforcement by conformance evaluation. Overall, the study provides insight on how to harness the learning opportunities

  5. The effect of additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Kim, Jisu; Park, Miyoung; Chung, Nana; Lim, Kiwon

    2018-03-30

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of carbohydrate loading by additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes. Twenty male team-sports athletes (14 soccer and 6 rugby players) volunteered to participate in the study and were equally divided into the experimental group (EXP, n=10) performing additional carbohydrate supplementation for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise until blood glucose level reaches 50 mg/dL or less and the control group (CON, n=10). Then, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose level, and blood lactate level were measured in all team-sports players during submaximal exercise corresponding to 70% VO2max before and after intervention. There was no significant interaction in all parameters, but team-sports players in the EXP presented more improved VO2max (CON vs EXP = vs 5.3% vs 6.3%), VE (CON vs EXP = vs 3.8% vs 6.6%), VO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 8.5% vs 9.9%), VCO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 2.8% vs 4.0%), blood glucose level (CON vs EXP = vs -12.9% vs -7.6%), and blood lactate level (CON vs EXP = -18.2% vs -25%) compared to those in the CON. These findings showed that additional carbohydrate supplementation conducted in our study is not effective in exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise. ©2018 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition.

  6. Effects of 7-day repeated treatment with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical drug vs. food choice is an emerging group of drug self-administration procedures that have shown predictive validity to clinical drug addiction. Emerging data suggest that serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors modulate mesolimbic dopamine function, such that 5-HT2A antagonists blunt the abuse-related neurochemical effects of monoamine transporter substrates, such as amphetamine or methamphetamine. Whether subchronic 5-HT2A antagonist treatment attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement in any preclinical drug self-administration procedure is unknown. The study aim was therefore to determine 7-day treatment effects with the 5-HT2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin on methamphetamine vs. food choice in monkeys. Behavior was maintained under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, fixed-ratio 10 schedule) in male rhesus monkeys (n=3). Methamphetamine choice dose-effect functions were determined daily before and during 7-day repeated pimavanserin (1.0-10mg/kg/day, intramuscular) treatment periods. Under control conditions, increasing methamphetamine doses resulted in a corresponding increase in methamphetamine vs. food choice. Repeated pimavanserin administration failed to attenuate methamphetamine choice and produce a reciprocal increase in food choice in any monkey up to doses (3.2-10mg/kg) that suppressed rates of operant responding primarily during components where behavior was maintained by food pellets. Repeated 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist treatment did not attenuate methamphetamine reinforcement under a concurrent schedule of intravenous methamphetamine and food presentation in nonhuman primates. Overall, these results do not support the therapeutic potential of 5-HT2A inverse agonists/antagonists as candidate medications for methamphetamine addiction. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights

  7. Circuit class therapy and 7-day-week therapy increase physiotherapy time, but not patient activity: early results from the CIRCIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Coralie; Bernhardt, Julie; Hillier, Susan

    2014-10-01

    The optimum model of physiotherapy service delivery for maximizing active task practice during rehabilitation after stroke is unknown. The purpose of the study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 alternative models of physiotherapy service delivery against a usual care control with regard to increasing patient activity. Substudy within a large 3-armed randomized controlled trial, which compared 3 different models of physiotherapy service delivery, was provided for 4 weeks during subacute, inpatient rehabilitation (n=283). The duration of all physiotherapy sessions was recorded. In addition, 32 participants were observed at 10-minute intervals for 1 weekday and 1 weekend day between 8:00 am and 4:30 pm. At each observation, we recorded physical activity, location, and people present. Participants receiving 7-day-week and circuit class therapy received an additional 3 hours and 22 hours of physiotherapy time, respectively, when compared with usual care. Participants were standing or walking for a median of 8.2% of observations. On weekdays, circuit class therapy participants spent more time in therapy-related activity (10.2% of observations) when compared with usual care participants (6.1% of observations). On weekends, 7-day therapy participants spent more time in therapy-related activity (4.2% of observations) when compared with both usual care and circuit class therapy participants (0% of observations for both groups). Activity levels outside of therapy sessions did not differ between groups. A greater dosage of physiotherapy time did not translate into meaningful increases in physical activity across the day. http://www.anzctr.org.au/. Unique identifier: ACTRN12610000096055. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The effect of additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Kim, Jisu; Park, Miyoung; Chung, Nana; Lim, Kiwon

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of carbohydrate loading by additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes. [Methods] Twenty male team-sports athletes (14 soccer and 6 rugby players) volunteered to participate in the study and were equally divided into the experimental group (EXP, n=10) performing additional carbohydrate supplementation for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise until blood glucose level reaches 50 mg/dL or less and the control group (CON, n=10). Then, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose level, and blood lactate level were measured in all team-sports players during submaximal exercise corresponding to 70% VO2max before and after intervention. [Results] There was no significant interaction in all parameters, but team-sports players in the EXP presented more improved VO2max (CON vs EXP = vs 5.3% vs 6.3%), VE (CON vs EXP = vs 3.8% vs 6.6%), VO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 8.5% vs 9.9%), VCO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 2.8% vs 4.0%), blood glucose level (CON vs EXP = vs -12.9% vs -7.6%), and blood lactate level (CON vs EXP = -18.2% vs -25%) compared to those in the CON. [Conclusion] These findings showed that additional carbohydrate supplementation conducted in our study is not effective in exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise. PMID:29673243

  9. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  11. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  12. Verifying Correct Usage of Atomic Blocks and Typestate: Technical Companion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckman, Nels E; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    In this technical report, we present a static and dynamic semantics as well as a proof of soundness for a programming language presented in the paper entitled, 'Verifying Correct Usage of Atomic Blocks and Typestate...

  13. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  14. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, E; Amiano, P; Ege, M; Bower, E; Lioret, S; Brants, H; Kaic-Rak, A; de Boer, E J; Andersen, L F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study), against a 7-day food-record (7-dFR) method among Danish schoolchildren. A total of 74 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through the Civil Registration System in Denmark. Each child and one of their parents completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a FRB, followed by a 7-day-estimated FR. Energy intake was significantly higher with the 24-HDR method than with the 7-dFR method for both age groups. Mean energy intake was 6% higher for the youngest (P = 0.02) and 11% for the oldest children (P = 0.01); underreporting of energy occurs among the oldest children, being less present with the 24-HDR method. The intakes of carbohydrate and dietary fiber (absolute and related to energy) were significantly higher with the 24-HDR than with the 7-dFR for both age groups (P < 0.001). No significant differences between the two methods were observed for absolute intake of fat and added sugar between both age groups, and for intake of protein among the 7- to 8-year olds. The percentage of energy intake from fat from the 24-HDR, however, was significantly lower for both age groups and for energy intake from added sugar for the 12- to 13-year olds. The 2 × 24-HDR method compared with the 7-dFR yields relatively good values on the group level for many macronutrients and foods. However, some differences in estimated intakes of macronutrients suggest the need to carefully adapt the tools to be age and country specific. There is a tendency for parents and schoolchildren to report a healthier diet

  15. Reasoning about knowledge: Children's evaluations of generality and verifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa A; Cole, Caitlin A; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-12-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children's (N=223) and adults' (N=32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker's knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a "Generic speaker" who made a series of 4 general claims about "pangolins" (a novel animal kind), and a "Specific speaker" who made a series of 4 specific claims about "this pangolin" as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., "has a pointy nose") or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., "sleeps in a hollow tree"). Three main findings emerged: (1) young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) children's attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) children often generalized speakers' knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person's knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Tools for Verifying Command and Control Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.; Bonanne, Kevin H.; Favretto, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Maddalena M.; Jones, Stephanie L.; Mackey, Ryan M.; Sarrel, Marc A.; Simpson, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Standing Review Board (SRB) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) conduct an independent review of the plan developed by Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) for identifying models and emulators to create a tool(s) to verify their command and control software. The NESC was requested to identify any issues or weaknesses in the GSDO plan. This document contains the outcome of the NESC review.

  17. Incentivizing Verifiable Privacy-Protection Mechanisms for Offline Crowdsensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiajun; Liu, Ningzhong

    2017-09-04

    Incentive mechanisms of crowdsensing have recently been intensively explored. Most of these mechanisms mainly focus on the standard economical goals like truthfulness and utility maximization. However, enormous privacy and security challenges need to be faced directly in real-life environments, such as cost privacies. In this paper, we investigate offline verifiable privacy-protection crowdsensing issues. We firstly present a general verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline homogeneous and heterogeneous sensing job model. In addition, we also propose a more complex verifiable privacy-protection incentive mechanism for the offline submodular sensing job model. The two mechanisms not only explore the private protection issues of users and platform, but also ensure the verifiable correctness of payments between platform and users. Finally, we demonstrate that the two mechanisms satisfy privacy-protection, verifiable correctness of payments and the same revenue as the generic one without privacy protection. Our experiments also validate that the two mechanisms are both scalable and efficient, and applicable for mobile devices in crowdsensing applications based on auctions, where the main incentive for the user is the remuneration.

  18. Fosfomycin in a single dose versus a 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebanez, A; Pascual, R; Gil, V; Ortiz, F; Santibáñez, M; Pérez Barba, C

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the efficacy of a single dose of 3 g of fosfomycin to that of a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A randomised, prospective, interventional, analytical, longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens (one short and the other long) in the treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria is compared. One hundred and nine patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 56 were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 53 with fosfomycin. The two groups were similar in terms of co-morbidity, treatments received during pregnancy, obstetric, gynaecological and surgical history and laboratory data. The efficacy of the two regimens was similar and the eradication rate was over 80% in both groups (P = 0.720) (relative risk [RR] 1.195, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.451-3.165). The number of reinfections was greater in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group (P = 0.045). The secondary effects were lower in the fosfomycin group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the number of persistences (P = 0.39), development of symptomatic urinary infections (P = 0.319) or recurrences (P = 0.96). Treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin is as effective as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and may be preferable due to its simpler administration and the smaller number of reinfections.

  19. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, P I; Svendsen, M S; Salado, J; Bochsen, L; Kristensen, A T

    2008-02-01

    Transfusion based on the Thrombelastograph (TEG) results reduces transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and in liver transplantation. Taking the pivotal role of thrombin generation in the coagulation process into consideration, the clinical utility of the TEG may, in part, depend on its reflection of the dynamics of thrombin generation. The kinetics of thrombin generation of platelets stored for 2 and 7 days, respectively, was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) and the lag time (min), time to peak (ttPeak; min), peak (nm thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P < 0.0001) as did the CAT peak thrombin generation and the TEG MTG (P = 0.0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies, secondary to impaired thrombin generation.

  20. Verifiable Distribution of Material Goods Based on Cryptology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomír Palovský

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeiting of material goods is a general problem. In this paper an architecture for verifiable distribution of material goods is presented. This distribution is based on printing such a QR code on goods, which would contain digitally signed serial number of the product, and validity of this digital signature could be verifiable by a customer. Extension consisting of adding digital signatures to revenue stamps used for state-controlled goods is also presented. Discussion on possibilities in making copies leads to conclusion that cryptographic security needs to be completed by technical difficulties of copying.

  1. Primaquine double dose for 7 days is inferior to single-dose treatment for 14 days in preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrent episodes in Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M Sigrid; Adhin, Malti R; Jitan, Jeetendra Kumar; Bretas, Gustavo; Vreden, Stephen GS

    2018-01-01

    Background Recurrent episodes of Plasmodium vivax are caused by dormant liver stages of the parasite, which are not eradicated by choloroquine. Therefore, effective treatment also includes the use of primaquine (PQ). However, this secondary preventive therapy is often not effective, mostly due to poor adherence to the relatively long treatment course, justifying a comparative study of the efficacy of different durations of PQ treatment. Materials and methods We included patients presenting with an acute and documented P. vivax infection from January 2006 to February 2008. All patients received chloroquine 25 mg/kg over a 3-day period. Subsequently, patients in group 7D received PQ 30 mg/day for 7 days, and patients in group 14D received standard PQ 15 mg/day for 14 days. All doses were given under supervision and patients were followed up for at least 6 months. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate cumulative probability of recurrence up to 12 months after treatment initiation stratified by treatment group. Cox regression was used to assess possible determinants for recurrent parasitemia. Results Forty-seven of the 79 included patients (59.5%) were allocated to group 7D and 32 patients (40.5%) were allocated to group 14D. Recurrent parasitemia was detected in 31.9% of the cases in group 7D compared to 12.5% of the cases in group 14D (hazard ratio [HR] =3.36, 95% CI 1.11–10.16). Cumulative probability for recurrent parasitemia at 3, 6, and 12 months was 0.201 (95% CI 0.106–0.362), 0.312 (95% CI 0.190–0.485), and 0.424 (95% CI 0.274–0.615) for group 7D and 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279), 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279), and 0.138 (95% CI 0.054–0.327) for group 14D, respectively. When adjusted for possible confounders, differences in recurrent parasitemia remained significant between the two regimens in Cox regression analysis. Conclusion More than 30% of the patients receiving shorter treatment course had recurrent parasitemia, suggesting that the

  2. Primaquine double dose for 7 days is inferior to single-dose treatment for 14 days in preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrent episodes in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger MS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available M Sigrid Mac Donald-Ottevanger,1 Malti R Adhin,2 Jeetendra Kumar Jitan,3 Gustavo Bretas,4 Stephen GS Vreden1 1Foundation for Scientific Research Suriname (SWOS, 2Department of Biochemistry, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, 3Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Paramaribo, Suriname; 4Independent consultant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Recurrent episodes of Plasmodium vivax are caused by dormant liver stages of the parasite, which are not eradicated by choloroquine. Therefore, effective treatment also includes the use of primaquine (PQ. However, this secondary preventive therapy is often not effective, mostly due to poor adherence to the relatively long treatment course, justifying a comparative study of the efficacy of different durations of PQ treatment. Materials and methods: We included patients presenting with an acute and documented P. vivax infection from January 2006 to February 2008. All patients received chloroquine 25 mg/kg over a 3-day period. Subsequently, patients in group 7D received PQ 30 mg/day for 7 days, and patients in group 14D received standard PQ 15 mg/day for 14 days. All doses were given under supervision and patients were followed up for at least 6 months. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate cumulative probability of recurrence up to 12 months after treatment initiation stratified by treatment group. Cox regression was used to assess possible determinants for recurrent parasitemia. Results: Forty-seven of the 79 included patients (59.5% were allocated to group 7D and 32 patients (40.5% were allocated to group 14D. Recurrent parasitemia was detected in 31.9% of the cases in group 7D compared to 12.5% of the cases in group 14D (hazard ratio [HR] =3.36, 95% CI 1.11–10.16. Cumulative probability for recurrent parasitemia at 3, 6, and 12 months was 0.201 (95% CI 0.106–0.362, 0.312 (95% CI 0.190–0.485, and 0.424 (95% CI 0.274– 0.615 for group 7D and 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279, 0

  3. Verifying different-modality properties for concepts produces switching costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-03-01

    According to perceptual symbol systems, sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. It follows that sensorimotor phenomena should arise in conceptual processing. Previous studies have shown that switching from one modality to another during perceptual processing incurs a processing cost. If perceptual simulation underlies conceptual processing, then verifying the properties of concepts should exhibit a switching cost as well. For example, verifying a property in the auditory modality (e.g., BLENDER-loud) should be slower after verifying a property in a different modality (e.g., CRANBERRIES-tart) than after verifying a property in the same modality (e.g., LEAVES-rustling). Only words were presented to subjects, and there were no instructions to use imagery. Nevertheless, switching modalities incurred a cost, analogous to the cost of switching modalities in perception. A second experiment showed that this effect was not due to associative priming between properties in the same modality. These results support the hypothesis that perceptual simulation underlies conceptual processing.

  4. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  5. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, Maurice

    1960-01-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [fr

  6. Building Program Verifiers from Compilers and Theorem Provers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Checking with SMT UFO • LLVM-based front-end (partially reused in SeaHorn) • Combines Abstract Interpretation with Interpolation-Based Model Checking • (no...assertions Counter-examples are long Hard to determine (from main) what is relevant Assertion Main 35 Building Verifiers from Comp and SMT Gurfinkel, 2015

  7. Verifying a smart design of TCAP : a synergetic experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Arts; I.A. van Langevelde

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAn optimisation of the SS No. 7 Transport Capabilities Procedures is verified by specifying both the original and the optimised {scriptsize sf TCAP in {scriptsize sf $mu$CRL, generating transition systems for both using the {scriptsize sf $mu$CRL tool set, and checking weak bisimulation

  8. A Trustworthy Internet Auction Model with Verifiable Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gen-Yih; Hwang, Jing-Jang

    2001-01-01

    Describes an Internet auction model achieving verifiable fairness, a requirement aimed at enhancing the trust of bidders in auctioneers. Analysis results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies various requirements regarding fairness and privacy. Moreover, in the proposed model, the losing bids remain sealed. (Author/AEF)

  9. The Guided System Development Framework: Modeling and Verifying Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    the verified specification. The refinement process carries thus security properties from the model to the implementation. Our approach also supports verification of systems previously developed and deployed. Internally, the reasoning in our framework is based on the Beliefs and Knowledge tool, a verification...... tool based on belief logics and explicit attacker knowledge....

  10. Making Digital Artifacts on the Web Verifiable and Reliable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.; Dumontier, M.

    2015-01-01

    The current Web has no general mechanisms to make digital artifacts - such as datasets, code, texts, and images - verifiable and permanent. For digital artifacts that are supposed to be immutable, there is moreover no commonly accepted method to enforce this immutability. These shortcomings have a

  11. Analyzing Interaction Patterns to Verify a Simulation/Game Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rodney Dean

    2012-01-01

    In order for simulations and games to be effective for learning, instructional designers must verify that the underlying computational models being used have an appropriate degree of fidelity to the conceptual models of their real-world counterparts. A simulation/game that provides incorrect feedback is likely to promote misunderstanding and…

  12. Effect of chlorine treatment on inhibition of E. coli serogroup O2 incorporation into 7-day-old biofilm on polyvinylchloride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Dey, S; Huff, G; Zhang, W; Phillips, G K; Watkins, S

    2017-08-01

    Poultry waterlines are constructed using polyvinylchloride (PVC) material on which bacterial biofilm can easily form. Biofilm can harbor pathogens including avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains. An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine if E. coli sero group O2 (avian pathogenic) could attach on a PVC surface that had pre-formed biofilm and if this phenomenon could be affected when water was treated with chlorine. Initially, biofilm growth was induced in PVC test coupons (15.16 cm2) for a 7-day period mimicking the waterline scenario in the first wk of poultry brooding; and then this biofilm was challenged with E. coli O2 seeded water in presence/absence of chlorine treatment. After rinsing, test coupons were sampled for bacterial (APC) and E. coli O2 enumeration at various occasions post seeding the pathogen and chlorine treatment. Day 7 APC recovered from coupons was 4.35 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and 3.66 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2. E. coli O2 was not recovered from chlorine treated test coupons (P  3 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and > 2 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2). This study suggests that E. coli O2 can incorporate into pre-formed biofilm on a PVC surface within 24 h if water sanitation is not present, and the attachment time of the pathogen can prolong in the absence of already formed biofilm. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Concentrations of dapivirine in the rhesus macaque and rabbit following once daily intravaginal administration of a gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine for 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Jeremy P; Thake, Daryl C; Lewis, Mark G; Ferkany, John W; Romano, Joseph W; Mitchnick, Mark A

    2008-03-01

    Dapivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed as a topical microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The distribution of radioactivity and drug in plasma and in vaginal, cervical, and draining lymph node tissues was investigated after daily application of a vaginal gel formulation of [14C]dapivirine to rhesus macaques. This was preceded by a preliminary study with rabbits. Following the intravaginal administration of [14C]dapivirine ( approximately 0.1 mg/ml [15 microCi/ml]) to rabbits (0.5 ml/day) and macaques (1 ml/day) for 7 days, the dapivirine levels associated with vaginal and cervical tissue samples 1 h after the final dose were high (quantities of microg/g of tissue) and remained detectable at 24 h (mean, >or=2.5 ng/g in rabbits) and 48 h (mean, >80 ng/g in macaques). Radioactivity levels were low in the plasma and very low or unquantifiable in the draining lymph nodes of the macaques. Microautoradiography identified drug-related material (DRM) on the surfaces of the vaginal and cervical tissues of the rabbits and macaques. Although DRM was primarily associated with the outermost layer of shedding cells in rabbits, two animals showed some evidence of small quantities in the mucosal epithelium of the cervix. In macaques, DRM was seen within the keratinized layer of the vaginal epithelium and and was found to extend into the superficial cellular layers, and in at least one animal it appeared to be present in the deepest (germinal) layer of the epithelium and in submucosal tissues. The persistence of biologically significant concentrations of dapivirine in vaginal and cervical tissues for >24 h supports the development of dapivirine as a microbicide for once daily application.

  14. Cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 mouse and WI-38 human fibroblasts following 72 hour and 7 day exposures to commercial silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stępnik, Maciej; Arkusz, Joanna; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Salvati, Anna; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; De Jong, Wim H.; Rydzyński, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The potential toxic effects in murine (3T3-L1) and human (WI-38) fibroblast cell lines of commercially available silica nanoparticles (NPs), Ludox CL (nominal size 21 nm) and CL-X (nominal size of 30 nm) were investigated with particular attention to the effect over long exposure times (the tests were run after 72 h exposure up to 7 days). These two formulations differed in physico-chemical properties and showed different stabilities in the cell culture medium used for the experiments. Ludox CL silica NPs were found to be cytotoxic only at the higher concentrations to the WI-38 cells (WST-1 and LDH assays) but not to the 3T3-L1 cells, whereas the Ludox CL-X silica NPs, which were less stable over the 72 h exposure, were cytotoxic to both cell lines in both assays. In the clonogenic assay both silica NPs induced a concentration dependent decrease in the surviving fraction of 3T3-L1 cells, with the Ludox CL-X silica NPs being more cytotoxic. Cell cycle analysis showed a trend indicating alterations in both cell lines at different phases with both silica NPs tested. Buthionine sulfoximine (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor) combined with Ludox CL-X was found to induce a strong decrease in 3T3-L1 cell viability which was not observed for the WI-38 cell line. This study clearly indicates that longer exposure studies may give important insights on the impact of nanomaterials on cells. However, and especially when investigating nanoparticle effects after such long exposure, it is fundamental to include a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles and their dispersions over the time scale of the experiment, in order to be able to interpret eventual impacts on cells. -- Highlights: ► Ludox CL silica NPs are cytotoxic to WI-38 fibroblasts but not to 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. ► Ludox CL-X silica NPs are cytotoxic to both cell lines. ► In clonogenic assay both silica NPs induce cytotoxicity, higher for CL-X silica. ► Cell cycle analysis shows

  15. Activation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase prevents aortic endothelial dysfunction in 7-day lead-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorim, Jonaina, E-mail: nanafiorim@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino, E-mail: faustino43@oi.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Azevedo, Bruna Fernades, E-mail: brunafernandes.azevedo@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Padilha, Alessandra Simão, E-mail: ale_spadilha@yahoo.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Stefanon, Ivanita, E-mail: ivanita@pq.cnpq.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Alonso, Maria Jesus, E-mail: mariajesus.alonso@urjc.es [Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud III, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPaz) (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim, E-mail: daltonv2@terra.com.br [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Seven day exposure to a low concentration of lead acetate increases nitric oxide bioavailability suggesting a putative role of K{sup +} channels affecting vascular reactivity. This could be an adaptive mechanism at the initial stages of toxicity from lead exposure due to oxidative stress. We evaluated whether lead alters the participation of K{sup +} channels and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA) on vascular function. Wistar rats were treated with lead (1st dose 4 μg/100 g, subsequent doses 0.05 μg/100 g, im, 7 days) or vehicle. Lead treatment reduced the contractile response of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE) without changing the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, this treatment increased basal O{sub 2}{sup −} production, and apocynin (0.3 μM), superoxide dismutase (150 U/mL) and catalase (1000 U/mL) reduced the response to PHE only in the treated group. Lead also increased aortic functional NKA activity evaluated by K{sup +}-induced relaxation curves. Ouabain (100 μM) plus L-NAME (100 μM), aminoguanidine (50 μM) or tetraethylammonium (TEA, 2 mM) reduced the K{sup +}-induced relaxation only in lead-treated rats. When aortic rings were precontracted with KCl (60 mM/L) or preincubated with TEA (2 mM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 30 nM), apamin (0.5 μM) or charybdotoxin (0.1 μM), the ACh-induced relaxation was more reduced in the lead-treated rats. Additionally, 4-AP and IbTX reduced the relaxation elicited by SNP more in the lead-treated rats. Results suggest that lead treatment promoted NKA and K{sup +} channels activation and these effects might contribute to the preservation of aortic endothelial function against oxidative stress. -- Highlights: ► Increased free radicals production ► Increased Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity ► Promotes activation of the K{sup +} channels and reduced vascular reactivity ► These effects preserve endothelial function against oxidative

  16. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a ''living document'' that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work

  17. Verifiable Measurement-Only Blind Quantum Computing with Stabilizer Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2015-11-27

    We introduce a simple protocol for verifiable measurement-only blind quantum computing. Alice, a client, can perform only single-qubit measurements, whereas Bob, a server, can generate and store entangled many-qubit states. Bob generates copies of a graph state, which is a universal resource state for measurement-based quantum computing, and sends Alice each qubit of them one by one. Alice adaptively measures each qubit according to her program. If Bob is honest, he generates the correct graph state, and, therefore, Alice can obtain the correct computation result. Regarding the security, whatever Bob does, Bob cannot get any information about Alice's computation because of the no-signaling principle. Furthermore, malicious Bob does not necessarily send the copies of the correct graph state, but Alice can check the correctness of Bob's state by directly verifying the stabilizers of some copies.

  18. Verifying the gravitational shift due to the earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briatore, L.; Leschiutta, S.

    1976-01-01

    Data on various independent time scales kept in different laboratories are elaborated in order to verify the gravitational shift due to the earth's rotation. It is shown that the state of the art in the measurement of time is just now resulting in the possibility to make measurement of Δ t/t approximately 10 -13 . Moreover it is shown an experimental evidence of the earth's rotation relativistic effects

  19. Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the gardener to remember those plants (and whether they need to be removed), and so will not commit resources to remember that information . The overall...camera), the storyteller needed help much less often. This result suggests that when there is no one to help them remember the last thing they said...INV ITED P A P E R Building and Verifying a Predictive Model of Interruption Resumption Help from a robot, to allow a human storyteller to continue

  20. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  1. TrustGuard: A Containment Architecture with Verified Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    that the TrustGuard system has minimal performance decline, despite restrictions such as high communication latency and limited available bandwidth...design are the availability of high bandwidth and low delays between the host and the monitoring chip. 3-D integration provides an alternate way of...TRUSTGUARD: A CONTAINMENT ARCHITECTURE WITH VERIFIED OUTPUT SOUMYADEEP GHOSH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY IN

  2. Large test rigs verify Clinch River control rod reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.D.; Smith, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the Clinch River control test programme was to use multiple full-scale prototypic control rod systems for verifying the system's ability to perform reliably during simulated reactor power control and emergency shutdown operations. Two major facilities, the Shutdown Control Rod and Maintenance (Scram) facility and the Dynamic and Seismic Test (Dast) facility, were constructed. The test programme of each facility is described. (UK)

  3. Verifying Temporal Properties of Reactive Systems by Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    We show how program transformation techniques can be used for the verification of both safety and liveness properties of reactive systems. In particular, we show how the program transformation technique distillation can be used to transform reactive systems specified in a functional language into a simplified form that can subsequently be analysed to verify temporal properties of the systems. Example systems which are intended to model mutual exclusion are analysed using these techniques with...

  4. Robustness and device independence of verifiable blind quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Kashefi, Elham; Wallden, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in theoretical and experimental quantum computing bring us closer to scalable quantum computing devices. This makes the need for protocols that verify the correct functionality of quantum operations timely and has led to the field of quantum verification. In this paper we address key challenges to make quantum verification protocols applicable to experimental implementations. We prove the robustness of the single server verifiable universal blind quantum computing protocol of Fitzsimons and Kashefi (2012 arXiv:1203.5217) in the most general scenario. This includes the case where the purification of the deviated input state is in the hands of an adversarial server. The proved robustness property allows the composition of this protocol with a device-independent state tomography protocol that we give, which is based on the rigidity of CHSH games as proposed by Reichardt et al (2013 Nature 496 456–60). The resulting composite protocol has lower round complexity for the verification of entangled quantum servers with a classical verifier and, as we show, can be made fault tolerant. (paper)

  5. Does cannabis use moderate smoking cessation outcomes in treatment-seeking tobacco smokers? Analysis from a large multi-center trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Rachel A; Ashare, Rebecca L; Schnoll, Robert A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; George, Tony P

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and cannabis are frequently used in combination and cannabis co-use may lead to poor tobacco cessation outcomes. Therefore, it is important to explore if cannabis co-use is associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving successful tobacco abstinence among treatment-seeking tobacco smokers. The present study examined whether current cannabis use moderated tobacco cessation outcomes after 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment (varenicline vs. nicotine patch vs. placebo) with adjunctive behavioral counseling. Treatment-seeking tobacco smokers (N = 1,246) were enrolled in an intent-to-treat study, of which 220 were current cannabis users. Individuals were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of placebo (placebo pill plus placebo patch), nicotine patch (active patch plus placebo pill), or varenicline (active pill plus placebo patch), plus behavioral counseling. The primary endpoint was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment. Controlling for rate of nicotine metabolism, treatment arm, age, sex, alcohol, and level of nicotine dependence, cannabis users were as successful at achieving biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence compared to tobacco-only smokers. Findings suggest that cannabis use does not hinder the ability to quit tobacco smoking. Future tobacco cessation studies should employ prospective, longitudinal designs investigating cannabis co-use over time and at different severity levels. (Am J Addict 2016;25:291-296). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. An alternative test for verifying electronic balance linearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.R.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative method for verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy. This method is being developed for safeguards weighings (weighings for the control and accountability of nuclear material) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). With regard to balance linearity and accuracy, DOE Order 5633.3B, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, Paragraph 2, 4, e, (1), (a) Scales and Balances Program, states: ''All scales and balances used for accountability purposes shall be maintained in good working condition, recalibrated according to an established schedule, and checked for accuracy and linearity on each day that the scale or balance is used for accountability purposes.'' Various tests have been proposed for testing accuracy and linearity. In the 1991 Measurement Science Conference, Dr. Walter E. Kupper presented a paper entitled: ''Validation of High Accuracy Weighing Equipment.'' Dr. Kupper emphasized that tolerance checks for calibrated, state-of-the-art electronic equipment need not be complicated, and he presented four easy steps for verifying that a calibrated balance is operating correctly. These tests evaluate the standard deviation of successive weighings (of the same load), the off-center error, the calibration error, and the error due to nonlinearity. This method of balance validation is undoubtedly an authoritative means of ensuring balance operability, yet it could have two drawbacks: one, the test for linearity is not intuitively obvious, especially from a statistical viewpoint; and two, there is an absence of definitively defined testing limits. Hence, this paper describes an alternative means of verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy that is being developed for safeguards measurements at the INEEL

  7. Verifying the integrity of hardcopy document using OCR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthethwa, Sthembile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mthethwa_20042_2018.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7349 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mthethwa_20042_2018.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Verifying the Integrity...) of the document to be defined. Each text in the meta-template is labelled with a unique identifier, which makes it easier for the process of validation. The meta-template consist of two types of text; normal text and validation text (important text that must...

  8. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  9. From Operating-System Correctness to Pervasively Verified Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Matthias; Schirmer, Norbert W.; Schmidt, Mareike

    Though program verification is known and has been used for decades, the verification of a complete computer system still remains a grand challenge. Part of this challenge is the interaction of application programs with the operating system, which is usually entrusted with retrieving input data from and transferring output data to peripheral devices. In this scenario, the correct operation of the applications inherently relies on operating-system correctness. Based on the formal correctness of our real-time operating system Olos, this paper describes an approach to pervasively verify applications running on top of the operating system.

  10. Psychological and social aspects verified after the Goiania's radioactive accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Suzana

    1995-01-01

    Psychological and social aspects verified after the radioactive accident occurred in 1987 in Goiania - brazilian city - are discussed. With this goal was going presented a public opinion research in order to retract the Goiania's radioactive accident residual psychological effects. They were going consolidated data obtained in 1.126 interviews. Four involvement different levels groups with the accident are compared with regard to the event. The research allowed to conclude that the accident affected psychologically somehow all Goiania's population. Besides, the research allowed to analyze the professionals performance quality standard in terms of the accident

  11. Flux wire measurements in Cavalier for verifying computer code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, M.; Stubbs, J.; Hosticka, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Cavalier and UVAR research reactors are to be converted from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. As a first step, an extensive set of gold wire activation measurements has been taken on the Cavalier reactor. Axial traverses show internal consistency to the order of ±5%, while horizontal traverses show somewhat larger deviations. The activation measurements will be converted to flux measurements via the Thermos code and will then be used to verify the Leopard-2DB codes. The codes will ultimately be used to design an upgraded LEU core for the UVAR

  12. Verifying Galileo's discoveries: telescope-making at the Collegio Romano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Eileen; van Helden, Albert

    The Jesuits of the Collegio Romano in Rome, especially the mathematicians Clavius and Grienberger, were very interested in Galilei's discoveries. After they had failed to recognize with telescopes of own construction the celestial phenomena, they expressed serious doubts. But from November 1610 onward, after they had built a better telescope and had obtained from Venice another one in addition, and could verify Galilei's observations, they completely accepted them. Clavius, who stuck to the Ptolemaic system till his death in 1612, even pointed out these facts in his last edition of Sacrobosco's Sphaera. He as well as his conpatres, however, avoided any conclusions with respect to the planetary system.

  13. ASTUS system for verifying the transport seal TITUS 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaux; Monteil, D.; Destain, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    ASTUS, a system for acquisition and processing ultrasonic signatures of TITUS 1 seals has been developed. TITUS seals are used to verify the integrity of the fissile material's container sealing after transport. An autonomous portable reading case permit to take seals signatures at the starting point and to transmit these reference signatures to a central safeguards computer by phonic modem. Then, at the terminal point with a similar reading case, an authority takes again the signature of seals and immediately transmit these signatures to the central safeguards computer. The central computer processes the data in real time by autocorrelation and return its verdict to the terminal point

  14. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...... subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking...

  15. Spin temperature concept verified by optical magnetometry of nuclear spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, M.; Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kozlov, G. G.; Lemaître, A.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a method of nonperturbative optical control over adiabatic remagnetization of the nuclear spin system and apply it to verify the spin temperature concept in GaAs microcavities. The nuclear spin system is shown to exactly follow the predictions of the spin temperature theory, despite the quadrupole interaction that was earlier reported to disrupt nuclear spin thermalization. These findings open a way for the deep cooling of nuclear spins in semiconductor structures, with the prospect of realizing nuclear spin-ordered states for high-fidelity spin-photon interfaces.

  16. Features of 3–7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations in F-layer vertical drift and equatorial spread F observed over two low-latitude stations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the equatorial atmosphere–ionosphere coupling system have shown that planetary-wave-type oscillations, as an important seeding mechanism for equatorial spread F (ESF, play an important role in ESF irregularity development and its day-to-day variability in the equatorial latitudes. In this study, ionosonde virtual height and ESF measurements over Sanya (18.4° N, 109.6° E; 12.8° N dip latitude and meteor radar neutral-wind measurements over Fuke (19.5° N, 109.1° E; 14° N dip latitude during 2013 are used to investigate the features of planetary-wave-type oscillations in both the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere and their possible influences on ESF occurrence under the weak solar maximum year. The ∼ 3-day and ∼ 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations have been observed in the neutral zonal winds and the time rate of change in F-layer virtual heights. According to the propagation characteristics, the 3-day and 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations are basically recognized as ultrafast and fast Kelvin waves, respectively. With increasing heights, the 3-day wave oscillations are gradually amplified, while the 7-day wave oscillations are generally constant. By performing a cross-wavelet transform on the onsets of ESF and the vertical drifts of the F layer, we found that there are simultaneously occurring 7-day and 3-day common wave oscillations between them. The 7-day waves are mainly in the inversion phase, while the 3-day waves are mostly in an in-phase state, indicating that the 7-day waves may play a main role in ESF initiation. Approximate delays of 6 days for the 7-day waves and 5 days for the 3-day waves in their propagation upward from the lower atmosphere to the ionosphere are evaluated with wavelet power spectrum analysis. The estimated upward velocities from these time delays provide consistent evidence that the 7-day and 3-day waves propagate vertically upward with typical Kelvin wave

  17. Verifying competence of operations personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    To ensure that only competent people are authorized to fill positions in a nuclear power plant, both the initial competence of personnel and the continuous maintenance of competence have to be verified. Two main methods are normally used for verifying competence, namely evaluation of a person's performance over a period of time, and evaluation of his knowledge and skills at a particular time by means of an examination. Both methods have limitations, and in practice they are often used together to give different and to some extent complementary evaluations of a person's competence. Verification of competence itself is a problem area, because objective judging of human competence is extremely difficult. Formal verification methods, such as tests and examinations, are particularly or exclusively applied for the direct operating personnel in the control room (very rarely for management personnel). Out of the many elements contributing to a person's competence, the knowledge which is needed and the intellectual skills are the main subjects of the formal verification methods. Therefore the presentation will concentrate on the proof of the technical qualification of operators by means of examinations. The examination process in the Federal Republic of Germany for the proof of knowledge and skills will serve as an example to describe and analyze the important aspects. From that recommendations are derived regarding standardization of the procedure as well as validation. (orig./GL)

  18. People consider reliability and cost when verifying their autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kimberley A; Nash, Robert A; Garry, Maryanne

    2014-02-01

    Because memories are not always accurate, people rely on a variety of strategies to verify whether the events that they remember really did occur. Several studies have examined which strategies people tend to use, but none to date has asked why people opt for certain strategies over others. Here we examined the extent to which people's beliefs about the reliability and the cost of different strategies would determine their strategy selection. Subjects described a childhood memory and then suggested strategies they might use to verify the accuracy of that memory. Next, they rated the reliability and cost of each strategy, and the likelihood that they might use it. Reliability and cost each predicted strategy selection, but a combination of the two ratings provided even greater predictive value. Cost was significantly more influential than reliability, which suggests that a tendency to seek and to value "cheap" information more than reliable information could underlie many real-world memory errors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A record and verify system for radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koens, M.L.; Vroome, H. de

    1984-01-01

    The Record and Verify system developed for the radiotherapy department of the Leiden University Hospital is described. The system has been in use since 1980 and will now be installed in at least four of the Dutch University Hospitals. The system provides the radiographer with a powerful tool for checking the set-up of the linear accelerator preceeding the irradiation of a field. After the irradiation of a field the machine settings are registered in the computer system together with the newly calculated cumulative dose. These registrations are used by the system to produce a daily report which provides the management of the department with insight into the established differences between treatment and treatment planning. Buying a record and verify system from the manufacturer of the linear accelerator is not an optimal solution especially for a department with more than one accelerator from different manufacturers. Integration in a Hospital Information System (HIS) has important advantages over the development of a dedicated departmental system. (author)

  20. Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Alayna P; Lechner, William V; Meier, Ellen; Grant, DeMond M; Driskill, Leslie M; Tahirkheli, Noor N; Wagener, Theodore L

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate biochemically verified smoking status and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use behaviors and beliefs among a sample of customers from vapor stores (stores specializing in ENDS). A cross-sectional survey of 215 adult vapor store customers at four retail locations in the Midwestern United States; a subset of participants (n = 181) also completed exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) testing to verify smoking status. Outcomes evaluated included ENDS preferences, harm beliefs, use behaviors, smoking history and current biochemically verified smoking status. Most customers reported starting ENDS as a means of smoking cessation (86%), using newer-generation devices (89%), vaping non-tobacco/non-menthol flavors (72%) and using e-liquid with nicotine strengths of ≤20 mg/ml (72%). There was a high rate of switching (91.4%) to newer-generation ENDS among those who started with a first-generation product. Exhaled CO readings confirmed that 66% of the tested sample had quit smoking. Among those who continued to smoke, mean cigarettes per day decreased from 22.1 to 7.5 (P customers in the United States who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer-generation devices and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavored e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Characterizing Verified Head Impacts in High School Girls' Lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Shane V; Lincoln, Andrew E; Stone, Hannah; Kelshaw, Patricia; Putukian, Margot; Hepburn, Lisa; Higgins, Michael; Cortes, Nelson

    2017-12-01

    Girls' high school lacrosse players have higher rates of head and facial injuries than boys. Research indicates that these injuries are caused by stick, player, and ball contacts. Yet, no studies have characterized head impacts in girls' high school lacrosse. To characterize girls' high school lacrosse game-related impacts by frequency, magnitude, mechanism, player position, and game situation. Descriptive epidemiology study. Thirty-five female participants (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 1.66 ± 0.05 m; mean weight, 61.2 ± 6.4 kg) volunteered during 28 games in the 2014 and 2015 lacrosse seasons. Participants wore impact sensors affixed to the right mastoid process before each game. All game-related impacts recorded by the sensors were verified using game video. Data were summarized for all verified impacts in terms of frequency, peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational acceleration (PRA). Descriptive statistics and impact rates were calculated. Fifty-eight verified game-related impacts ≥20 g were recorded (median PLA, 33.8 g; median PRA, 6151.1 rad/s 2 ) during 467 player-games. The impact rate for all game-related verified impacts was 0.12 per athlete-exposure (AE) (95% CI, 0.09-0.16), equivalent to 2.1 impacts per team game, indicating that each athlete suffered fewer than 2 head impacts per season ≥20 g. Of these impacts, 28 (48.3%) were confirmed to directly strike the head, corresponding with an impact rate of 0.05 per AE (95% CI, 0.00-0.10). Overall, midfielders (n = 28, 48.3%) sustained the most impacts, followed by defenders (n = 12, 20.7%), attackers (n = 11, 19.0%), and goalies (n = 7, 12.1%). Goalies demonstrated the highest median PLA and PRA (38.8 g and 8535.0 rad/s 2 , respectively). The most common impact mechanisms were contact with a stick (n = 25, 43.1%) and a player (n = 17, 29.3%), followed by the ball (n = 7, 12.1%) and the ground (n = 7, 12.1%). One hundred percent of ball impacts occurred to goalies. Most impacts

  2. Calling Out Cheaters : Covert Security with Public VerifiabilitySecurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asharov, Gilad; Orlandi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of covert security with public verifiability, building on the covert security model introduced by Aumann and Lindell (TCC 2007). Protocols that satisfy covert security guarantee that the honest parties involved in the protocol will notice any cheating attempt with some...... constant probability ε. The idea behind the model is that the fear of being caught cheating will be enough of a deterrent to prevent any cheating attempt. However, in the basic covert security model, the honest parties are not able to persuade any third party (say, a judge) that a cheating occurred. We...... propose (and formally define) an extension of the model where, when an honest party detects cheating, it also receives a certificate that can be published and used to persuade other parties, without revealing any information about the honest party’s input. In addition, malicious parties cannot create fake...

  3. Developing a flexible and verifiable integrated dose assessment capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Rhea, T.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Bogard, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A flexible yet verifiable system of computing and recording personnel doses is needed. Recent directions in statutes establish the trend of combining internal and external doses. We are developing a Health Physics Information Management System (HPIMS) that will centralize dosimetry calculations and data storage; integrate health physics records with other health-related disciplines, such as industrial hygiene, medicine, and safety; provide a more auditable system with published algorithms and clearly defined flowcharts of system operation; readily facilitate future changes dictated by new regulations, new dosimetric models, and new systems of units; and address ad-hoc inquiries regarding worker/workplace interactions, including potential synergisms with non-radiation exposures. The system is modular and provides a high degree of isolation from low-level detail, allowing flexibility for changes without adversely affecting other parts of the system. 10 refs., 3 figs

  4. Design of a verifiable subset for HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J. C.; Good, D. I.; Tripathi, A. R.; Young, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt to evaluate the applicability of program verification techniques to the existing programming language, HAL/S is discussed. HAL/S is a general purpose high level language designed to accommodate the software needs of the NASA Space Shuttle project. A diversity of features for scientific computing, concurrent and real-time programming, and error handling are discussed. The criteria by which features were evaluated for inclusion into the verifiable subset are described. Individual features of HAL/S with respect to these criteria are examined and justification for the omission of various features from the subset is provided. Conclusions drawn from the research are presented along with recommendations made for the use of HAL/S with respect to the area of program verification.

  5. A Formally Verified Conflict Detection Algorithm for Polynomial Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    In air traffic management, conflict detection algorithms are used to determine whether or not aircraft are predicted to lose horizontal and vertical separation minima within a time interval assuming a trajectory model. In the case of linear trajectories, conflict detection algorithms have been proposed that are both sound, i.e., they detect all conflicts, and complete, i.e., they do not present false alarms. In general, for arbitrary nonlinear trajectory models, it is possible to define detection algorithms that are either sound or complete, but not both. This paper considers the case of nonlinear aircraft trajectory models based on polynomial functions. In particular, it proposes a conflict detection algorithm that precisely determines whether, given a lookahead time, two aircraft flying polynomial trajectories are in conflict. That is, it has been formally verified that, assuming that the aircraft trajectories are modeled as polynomial functions, the proposed algorithm is both sound and complete.

  6. Leveraging Parallel Data Processing Frameworks with Verified Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaz Bin Safeer Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many parallel data frameworks have been proposed in recent years that let sequential programs access parallel processing. To capitalize on the benefits of such frameworks, existing code must often be rewritten to the domain-specific languages that each framework supports. This rewriting–tedious and error-prone–also requires developers to choose the framework that best optimizes performance given a specific workload. This paper describes Casper, a novel compiler that automatically retargets sequential Java code for execution on Hadoop, a parallel data processing framework that implements the MapReduce paradigm. Given a sequential code fragment, Casper uses verified lifting to infer a high-level summary expressed in our program specification language that is then compiled for execution on Hadoop. We demonstrate that Casper automatically translates Java benchmarks into Hadoop. The translated results execute on average 3.3x faster than the sequential implementations and scale better, as well, to larger datasets.

  7. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  8. Verifying atom entanglement schemes by testing Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelakis, D.G.; Knight, P.L.; Tregenna, B.; Munro, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent experiments to test Bell's inequality using entangled photons and ions aimed at tests of basic quantum mechanical principles. Interesting results have been obtained and many loopholes could be closed. In this paper we want to point out that tests of Bell's inequality also play an important role in verifying atom entanglement schemes. We describe as an example a scheme to prepare arbitrary entangled states of N two-level atoms using a leaky optical cavity and a scheme to entangle atoms inside a photonic crystal. During the state preparation no photons are emitted, and observing a violation of Bell's inequality is the only way to test whether a scheme works with a high precision or not. (orig.)

  9. Noninteractive Verifiable Outsourcing Algorithm for Bilinear Pairing with Improved Checkability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the computation of bilinear pairing is the most expensive operation in pairing-based cryptography. In this paper, we propose a noninteractive verifiable outsourcing algorithm of bilinear pairing based on two servers in the one-malicious model. The outsourcer need not execute any expensive operation, such as scalar multiplication and modular exponentiation. Moreover, the outsourcer could detect any failure with a probability close to 1 if one of the servers misbehaves. Therefore, the proposed algorithm improves checkability and decreases communication cost compared with the previous ones. Finally, we utilize the proposed algorithm as a subroutine to achieve an anonymous identity-based encryption (AIBE scheme with outsourced decryption and an identity-based signature (IBS scheme with outsourced verification.

  10. Modelling and Verifying Communication Failure of Hybrid Systems in HCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid systems are dynamic systems with interacting discrete computation and continuous physical processes. They have become ubiquitous in our daily life, e.g. automotive, aerospace and medical systems, and in particular, many of them are safety-critical. For a safety-critical hybrid system......, in the presence of communication failure, the expected control from the controller will get lost and as a consequence the physical process cannot behave as expected. In this paper, we mainly consider the communication failure caused by the non-engagement of one party in communication action, i.......e. the communication itself fails to occur. To address this issue, this paper proposes a formal framework by extending HCSP, a formal modeling language for hybrid systems, for modeling and verifying hybrid systems in the absence of receiving messages due to communication failure. We present two inference systems...

  11. A detailed and verified wind resource atlas for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, N G; Landberg, L; Rathmann, O; Nielsen, M N [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Nielsen, P [Energy and Environmental Data, Aalberg (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    A detailed and reliable wind resource atlas covering the entire land area of Denmark has been established. Key words of the methodology are wind atlas analysis, interpolation of wind atlas data sets, automated generation of digital terrain descriptions and modelling of local wind climates. The atlas contains wind speed and direction distributions, as well as mean energy densities of the wind, for 12 sectors and four heights above ground level: 25, 45, 70 and 100 m. The spatial resolution is 200 meters in the horizontal. The atlas has been verified by comparison with actual wind turbine power productions from over 1200 turbines. More than 80% of these turbines were predicted to within 10%. The atlas will become available on CD-ROM and on the Internet. (au)

  12. Verifying reciprocal relations for experimental diffusion coefficients in multicomponent mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to verify the agreement of the available data on diffusion in ternary mixtures with the theoretical requirement of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics consisting in symmetry of the matrix of the phenomenological coefficients. A common set of measured diffusion...... coefficients for a three-component mixture consists of four Fickian diffusion coefficients, each being reported separately. However, the Onsager theory predicts the existence of only three independent coefficients, as one of them disappears due to the symmetry requirement. Re-calculation of the Fickian...... extended sets of experimental data and reliable thermodynamic models were available. The sensitivity of the symmetry property to different thermodynamic parameters of the models was also checked. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. How to Verify and Manage the Translational Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The use of Google translator as a tool for determining translational plagiarism is a big challenge. As noted, plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated into other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Attempts to screen the translational plagiarism should be supported. The use of Google Translate tool might be helpful. Special focus should be on any non-English reference that might be the source of plagiarised material and non-English article that might translate from an original English article, which cannot be detected by simple plagiarism screening tool. It is a hard job for any journal to detect the complex translational plagiarism but the harder job might be how to effectively manage the case. PMID:27703588

  14. Automated measurement and control of concrete properties in a ready mix truck with VERIFI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In this research, twenty batches of concrete with six different mixture proportions were tested with VERIFI to evaluate 1) accuracy : and repeatability of VERIFI measurements, 2) ability of VERIFI to adjust slump automatically with water and admixtur...

  15. A Hybrid Verifiable and Delegated Cryptographic Model in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Ibrahim Naser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Access control is very important in cloud data sharing. Especially in the domains like healthcare, it is essential to have access control mechanisms in place for confidentiality and secure data access. Attribute based encryption has been around for many years to secure data and provide controlled access. In this paper, we proposed a framework that supports circuit and attributes based encryption mechanism that involves multiple parties. They are data owner, data user, cloud server and attribute authority. An important feature of the proposed system is the verifiable delegation of the decryption process to cloud server. Data owner encrypts data and delegates decryption process to cloud. Cloud server performs partial decryption and then the final decrypted data are shared for users as per the privileges. Data owner  thus reduces computational complexity by delegating decryption process cloud server. We built a prototype application using the Microsoft.NET platform for proof of the concept. The empirical results revealed that there is controlled access with multiple user roles and access control rights for secure and confidential data access in cloud computing.

  16. Verifying the Simulation Hypothesis via Infinite Nested Universe Simulacrum Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikrant

    2017-01-01

    The simulation hypothesis proposes that local reality exists as a simulacrum within a hypothetical computer's dimension. More specifically, Bostrom's trilemma proposes that the number of simulations an advanced 'posthuman' civilization could produce makes the proposition very likely. In this paper a hypothetical method to verify the simulation hypothesis is discussed using infinite regression applied to a new type of infinite loop. Assign dimension n to any computer in our present reality, where dimension signifies the hierarchical level in nested simulations our reality exists in. A computer simulating known reality would be dimension (n-1), and likewise a computer simulating an artificial reality, such as a video game, would be dimension (n +1). In this method, among others, four key assumptions are made about the nature of the original computer dimension n. Summations show that regressing such a reality infinitely will create convergence, implying that the verification of whether local reality is a grand simulation is feasible to detect with adequate compute capability. The action of reaching said convergence point halts the simulation of local reality. Sensitivities to the four assumptions and implications are discussed.

  17. Verifying operator fitness - an imperative not an option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.B. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the early morning hours of April 26, 1986, whatever credence those who operate nuclear power plants around the world could then muster, suffered a jarring reversal. Through an incredible series of personal errors, the operators at what was later to be termed one of the best operated plants in the USSR systematically stripped away the physical and procedural safeguards inherent to their installation and precipitated the worst reactor accident the world has yet seen. This challenge to the adequacy of nuclear operators comes at a time when many companies throughout the world - not only those that involve nuclear power - are grappling with the problem of how to assure the fitness for duty of those in their employ, specifically those users of substances that have an impact on the ability to function safely and productively in the workplace. In actuality, operator fitness for duty is far more than the lack of impairment from substance abuse, which many today consider it. Full fitness for duty implies mental and moral fitness, as well, and physical fitness in a more general sense. If we are to earn the confidence of the public, credible ways to verify total fitness on an operator-by-operator basis must be considered

  18. A credit card verifier structure using diffraction and spectroscopy concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2008-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an angle-multiplexing based optical structure for verifying a credit card. Our key idea comes from the fact that the fine detail of the embossed hologram stamped on the credit card is hard to duplicate and therefore its key color features can be used for distinguishing between the real and counterfeit ones. As the embossed hologram is a diffractive optical element, we choose to shine one at a time a number of broadband lightsources, each at different incident angle, on the embossed hologram of the credit card in such a way that different color spectra per incident angle beam is diffracted and separated in space. In this way, the number of pixels of each color plane is investigated. Then we apply a feed forward back propagation neural network configuration to separate the counterfeit credit card from the real one. Our experimental demonstration using two off-the-shelf broadband white light emitting diodes, one digital camera, a 3-layer neural network, and a notebook computer can identify all 69 counterfeit credit cards from eight real credit cards.

  19. AUTOMATIC ESTIMATION OF SIZE PARAMETERS USING VERIFIED COMPUTERIZED STEREOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Mouton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art computerized stereology systems combine high-resolution video microscopy and hardwaresoftware integration with stereological methods to assist users in quantifying multidimensional parameters of importance to biomedical research, including volume, surface area, length, number, their variation and spatial distribution. The requirement for constant interactions between a trained, non-expert user and the targeted features of interest currently limits the throughput efficiency of these systems. To address this issue we developed a novel approach for automatic stereological analysis of 2-D images, Verified Computerized Stereoanalysis (VCS. The VCS approach minimizes the need for user interactions with high contrast [high signal-to-noise ratio (S:N] biological objects of interest. Performance testing of the VCS approach confirmed dramatic increases in the efficiency of total object volume (size estimation, without a loss of accuracy or precision compared to conventional computerized stereology. The broad application of high efficiency VCS to high-contrast biological objects on tissue sections could reduce labor costs, enhance hypothesis testing, and accelerate the progress of biomedical research focused on improvements in health and the management of disease.

  20. Verifying large modular systems using iterative abstraction refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, Jussi; Kuismin, Tuomas; Heljanko, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are increasingly used in the nuclear engineering domain. The exhaustive verification of these systems is challenging, and the usual verification methods such as testing and simulation are typically insufficient. Model checking is a formal method that is able to exhaustively analyse the behaviour of a model against a formally written specification. If the model checking tool detects a violation of the specification, it will give out a counter-example that demonstrates how the specification is violated in the system. Unfortunately, sometimes real life system designs are too big to be directly analysed by traditional model checking techniques. We have developed an iterative technique for model checking large modular systems. The technique uses abstraction based over-approximations of the model behaviour, combined with iterative refinement. The main contribution of the work is the concrete abstraction refinement technique based on the modular structure of the model, the dependency graph of the model, and a refinement sampling heuristic similar to delta debugging. The technique is geared towards proving properties, and outperforms BDD-based model checking, the k-induction technique, and the property directed reachability algorithm (PDR) in our experiments. - Highlights: • We have developed an iterative technique for model checking large modular systems. • The technique uses BDD-based model checking, k-induction, and PDR in parallel. • We have tested our algorithm by verifying two models with it. • The technique outperforms classical model checking methods in our experiments

  1. The use of equine chorionic gonadotropin in the treatment of anestrous dairy cows in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/progesterone protocols of 6 or 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M A; Bó, G; Mapletoft, R J; Emslie, F R

    2013-01-01

    In seasonally calving, pasture-based dairy farm systems, the interval from calving to first estrus is a critical factor affecting reproductive efficiency. This study evaluated the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on the reproductive response of lactating, seasonally calving dairy cows diagnosed with anovulatory anestrus by rectal palpation. Cows on 15 commercial dairy farms were selected for initial inclusion based on nonobserved estrus by 7 d before the planned start of mating. All cows were palpated rectally and evaluated for body condition score and ovary score, and were included for treatment according to the trial protocol if diagnosed with anovulatory anestrus. All cows received a standard anestrous treatment protocol consisting of insertion of a progesterone device, injection of 100 µg of GnRH at the time of device insertion, and injection of PGF(2α) at device removal (GPG/P4). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (6 d or 7 d) for duration of progesterone device insertion. Within each of these groups, cows were further randomly assigned to receive either 400 IU of eCG at device removal or to remain untreated as controls, resulting in a 2×2 arrangement of treatment groups: (1) 6-d device and no eCG (n=484); (2) 6-d device and eCG (n=462); (3) 7-d device and no eCG (n=546); and (4) 7-d device and eCG (n=499). Cows were detected for estrus from the time of progesterone device removal and were inseminated; those not detected in estrus within 60 h after progesterone device removal received 100 µg of GnRH and were inseminated at 72 h. The primary outcomes considered were proportion of cows conceiving within 7 d of the beginning of breeding (7-d conception rate; 7-d CR), proportion pregnant within 28 d (28-d in calf rate; 28-d ICR), and days to conception (DTC). We found no significant differences between the 6- and 7-d insertion periods and found no 6- or 7-d insertion period × eCG treatment interactions. Inclusion of eCG into either

  2. Scenarios for exercising technical approaches to verified nuclear reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, James

    2010-01-01

    Presidents Obama and Medvedev in April 2009 committed to a continuing process of step-by-step nuclear arms reductions beyond the new START treaty that was signed April 8, 2010 and to the eventual goal of a world free of nuclear weapons. In addition, the US Nuclear Posture review released April 6, 2010 commits the US to initiate a comprehensive national research and development program to support continued progress toward a world free of nuclear weapons, including expanded work on verification technologies and the development of transparency measures. It is impossible to predict the specific directions that US-RU nuclear arms reductions will take over the 5-10 years. Additional bilateral treaties could be reached requiring effective verification as indicated by statements made by the Obama administration. There could also be transparency agreements or other initiatives (unilateral, bilateral or multilateral) that require monitoring with a standard of verification lower than formal arms control, but still needing to establish confidence to domestic, bilateral and multilateral audiences that declared actions are implemented. The US Nuclear Posture Review and other statements give some indication of the kinds of actions and declarations that may need to be confirmed in a bilateral or multilateral setting. Several new elements of the nuclear arsenals could be directly limited. For example, it is likely that both strategic and nonstrategic nuclear warheads (deployed and in storage), warhead components, and aggregate stocks of such items could be accountable under a future treaty or transparency agreement. In addition, new initiatives or agreements may require the verified dismantlement of a certain number of nuclear warheads over a specified time period. Eventually procedures for confirming the elimination of nuclear warheads, components and fissile materials from military stocks will need to be established. This paper is intended to provide useful background information

  3. Some Proxy Signature and Designated verifier Signature Schemes over Braid Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Sunder; Verma, Vandani

    2009-01-01

    Braids groups provide an alternative to number theoretic public cryptography and can be implemented quite efficiently. The paper proposes five signature schemes: Proxy Signature, Designated Verifier, Bi-Designated Verifier, Designated Verifier Proxy Signature And Bi-Designated Verifier Proxy Signature scheme based on braid groups. We also discuss the security aspects of each of the proposed schemes.

  4. Verifying cell loss requirements in high-speed communication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry W. Fendick

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-speed communication networks it is common to have requirements of very small cell loss probabilities due to buffer overflow. Losses are measured to verify that the cell loss requirements are being met, but it is not clear how to interpret such measurements. We propose methods for determining whether or not cell loss requirements are being met. A key idea is to look at the stream of losses as successive clusters of losses. Often clusters of losses, rather than individual losses, should be regarded as the important “loss events”. Thus we propose modeling the cell loss process by a batch Poisson stochastic process. Successive clusters of losses are assumed to arrive according to a Poisson process. Within each cluster, cell losses do not occur at a single time, but the distance between losses within a cluster should be negligible compared to the distance between clusters. Thus, for the purpose of estimating the cell loss probability, we ignore the spaces between successive cell losses in a cluster of losses. Asymptotic theory suggests that the counting process of losses initiating clusters often should be approximately a Poisson process even though the cell arrival process is not nearly Poisson. The batch Poisson model is relatively easy to test statistically and fit; e.g., the batch-size distribution and the batch arrival rate can readily be estimated from cell loss data. Since batch (cluster sizes may be highly variable, it may be useful to focus on the number of batches instead of the number of cells in a measurement interval. We also propose a method for approximately determining the parameters of a special batch Poisson cell loss with geometric batch-size distribution from a queueing model of the buffer content. For this step, we use a reflected Brownian motion (RBM approximation of a G/D/1/C queueing model. We also use the RBM model to estimate the input burstiness given the cell loss rate. In addition, we use the RBM model to

  5. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Piet, Steven J.; Baker, Benjamin A.; Grimm, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R and D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft

  6. Pilot study to verify the calibration of electrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.; Meghzifene, A.

    2002-01-01

    National Laboratory for Electrical Measurements has not yet developed its capability for the standardization of small electrical charge produced by DC, the IRD is trying to verify its standardization procedures of the electrical charge through a comparison programme. This subject was discussed with a major electrometer manufacturer that has offered to provide free of charge, three of their electrometer calibration standards for a pilot run. The model to be provided consists of four calibrated resistors and two calibrated capacitors, covering the charge/current range of interest. For producing charge or current a standard DC voltage must be applied to these components. Since practically all-modern electrometers measure using virtual ground, this methodology is viable. The IRD, in collaboration with the IAEA, wishes to invite interested laboratories to participate in this pilot comparison programme. This exercise is expected to be useful for all participants and will hopefully open the way for the establishment of routine comparisons in this area. The results will be discussed and published in an appropriate journal. Interested institutions should contact directly Mr. Paulo H. B. Becker through e-mail (pbecker at ird.gov.br) or fax +55 21 24421950 informing him of the model and manufacturer of the electrometer to be used for the pilot study and discuss all practical details. (author)

  7. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2013-01-01

    Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D) CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS). From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC) was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84). CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (ppairs signed rank test). These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  8. Privacy-Preserving Verifiability: A Case for an Electronic Exam Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustolisi, Rosario; Iovino, Vincenzo; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the notion of privacy-preserving verifiability for security protocols. It holds when a protocol admits a verifiability test that does not reveal, to the verifier that runs it, more pieces of information about the protocol’s execution than those required to run the test. Our definition...... of privacy-preserving verifiability is general and applies to cryptographic protocols as well as to human security protocols. In this paper we exemplify it in the domain of e-exams. We prove that the notion is meaningful by studying an existing exam protocol that is verifiable but whose verifiability tests...... are not privacy-preserving. We prove that the notion is applicable: we review the protocol using functional encryption so that it admits a verifiability test that preserves privacy according to our definition. We analyse, in ProVerif, that the verifiability holds despite malicious parties and that the new...

  9. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... entitled ``Preoperational Testing of On- Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy...

  10. 31 CFR 363.14 - How will you verify my identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will you verify my identity? 363... you verify my identity? (a) Individual. When you establish an account, we may use a verification service to verify your identity using information you provide about yourself on the online application. At...

  11. Verified Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ---falls every year and any mention of mathematics in the classroom seems to frighten students away. So the question is: How do we attract new students in computing to the area of dependable software systems? Over the past several years at three universities we have experimented with the use of computer games......In recent years, several Grand Challenges (GCs) of computing have been identified and expounded upon by various professional organizations in the U.S. and England. These GCs are typically very difficult problems that will take many hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of man-years to solve. Researchers...

  12. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Man Kung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. RESULTS: CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84. CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (p<0.001, p = 0.064, p = 0.021 respectively, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CONCLUSIONS: CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  13. Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

  14. Robust Approach to Verifying the Weak Form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Střelec, Luboš

    2011-09-01

    normality. This study also discusses some results of simulation power studies of these tests for normality against selected alternatives. Based on outcome of the power simulation study, selected normality tests were consequently used to verify weak form of efficiency in Central Europe stock markets.

  15. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott. Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  16. Verifying Safety Messages Using Relative-Time and Zone Priority in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Sam; Thiemjarus, Surapa; Kittipiyakul, Somsak

    2018-01-01

    In high-density road networks, with each vehicle broadcasting multiple messages per second, the arrival rate of safety messages can easily exceed the rate at which digital signatures can be verified. Since not all messages can be verified, algorithms for selecting which messages to verify are required to ensure that each vehicle receives appropriate awareness about neighbouring vehicles. This paper presents a novel scheme to select important safety messages for verification in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). The proposed scheme uses location and direction of the sender, as well as proximity and relative-time between vehicles, to reduce the number of irrelevant messages verified (i.e., messages from vehicles that are unlikely to cause an accident). Compared with other existing schemes, the analysis results show that the proposed scheme can verify messages from nearby vehicles with lower inter-message delay and reduced packet loss and thus provides high level of awareness of the nearby vehicles. PMID:29652840

  17. Safety and efficacy of alternative antibiotic regimens compared with 7 day injectable procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin for outpatient treatment of neonates and young infants with clinical signs of severe infection when referral is not possible: a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqui, Abdullah H; Saha, Samir K; Ahmed, A S M Nawshad Uddin; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Quasem, Iftekhar; Roth, Daniel E; Samsuzzaman, A K M; Ahmed, Wazir; Tabib, S M Shahnawaz Bin; Mitra, Dipak K; Begum, Nazma; Islam, Maksuda; Mahmud, Arif; Rahman, Mohammad Hefzur; Moin, Mamun Ibne; Mullany, Luke C; Cousens, Simon; El Arifeen, Shams; Wall, Stephen; Brandes, Neal; Santosham, Mathuram; Black, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Severe infections remain one of the main causes of neonatal deaths worldwide. Possible severe infection is diagnosed in young infants (aged 0-59 days) according to the presence of one or more clinical signs. The recommended treatment is hospital admission with 7-10 days of injectable antibiotic therapy. In low-income and middle-income countries, barriers to hospital care lead to delayed, inadequate, or no treatment for many young infants. We aimed to identify effective alternative antibiotic regimens to expand treatment options for situations where hospital admission is not possible. We did this randomised, open-label, equivalence trial in four urban hospitals and one rural field site in Bangladesh to determine whether two alternative antibiotic regimens with reduced numbers of injectable antibiotics combined with oral antibiotics had similar efficacy and safety to the standard regimen, which was also used as outpatient treatment. We randomly assigned infants who showed at least one clinical sign of severe, but not critical, infection (except fast breathing alone), whose parents refused hospital admission, to one of the three treatment regimens. We stratified randomisation by study site and age (treatment was intramuscular procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin once per day for 7 days (group A). The alternative regimens were intramuscular gentamicin once per day and oral amoxicillin twice per day for 7 days (group B) or intramuscular procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin once per day for 2 days, then oral amoxicillin twice per day for 5 days (group C). The primary outcome was treatment failure within 7 days after enrolment. Assessors of treatment failure were masked to treatment allocation. Primary analysis was per protocol. We used a prespecified similarity margin of 5% to assess equivalence between regimens. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00844337. Between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2013, we recruited 2490 young infants into the

  18. An experiment designed to verify the general theory of relativity; Une experience destinee a verifier la theorie de la relativite generalisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdin, Maurice [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France)

    1960-07-01

    The project for an experiment which uses the effect of gravitation on Maser-type clocks placed on the ground at two different heights and which is designed to verify the general theory of relativity. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, sitting of 11 January 1960 [French] Projet d'une experience, utilisant l'effet de gravitation sur des horloges du type Maser placees sur la terre a deux altitudes differentes, et destinee a verifier la theorie de la relativite generalisee. Reproduction d'un article publie dans les Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 299-301, seance du 11 janvier 1960.

  19. Verifying the hypothesis of disconnection syndrome in patients with conduction aphasia using diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqin Guo; Jing Xu; Yindong Yang

    2007-01-01

    made between two sides.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis results of arcuate fasciculus DTI of healthy controls and patients with conduction aphasia.RESULTS: Five patients with conduction aphasia and 5 healthy controls participated in the final analysis.①All the subjects were right-handedness. ② The left FA value of anterior, middle and posterior segments of arcuate fasciculus was larger than the right one in most normal volunteers, i.e. arcuate fasciculus with normal function on the left side was more than that on the right side. Because the amount of healthy controls was small, so positive conclusion has not been obtained, and only above-mentioned tendency was demonstrated. Healthy controls had good bilateral arcuate fasciculus; Three patients with conduction aphasia presented left FA value of anterior segment of arcuate fasciculus smaller than the right one, and two patients presented the left FA value larger than the right one. Four patients presented the left FA value of middle segment of arcuate fasciculus smaller than the right one, and one patient presented the left FA value larger than the right one, i.e. middle segment of arcuate fasciculus of 5 patients with conduction aphasia was all involved in at different degrees. Four patients with conduction aphasia presented the left FA value of posterior segment of arcuate fasciculus smaller than the right one, and one patient presented the left FA value larger than the right one, i.e. posterior segment of arcuate fasciculus of 5 patients was all injured at different degrees.CONCLUSION: Arcuate fasciculus of patients with conduction aphasia all is involved in at different degrees, which verifies the theory of disconnection of repetition disorder in patients with conduction aphasia.

  20. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. FTY720-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) electrospun scaffold significantly increases microvessel density over 7 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57b16/J mice: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, D T; Chhabra, P; Langman, L; Botchwey, E A; Brayman, K L

    2011-11-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds could improve islet transplant success by physically mimicking the shape of extracellular matrix and by acting as a drug-delivery vehicle. Scaffolds implanted in alternate transplant sites must be prevascularized or very quickly vascularized following transplantation to prevent hypoxia-induced islet necrosis. The local release of the S1P prodrug FTY720 induces diameter enlargement and increases in length density. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate length and diameter differences between diabetic and nondiabetic animals implanted with FTY720-containing electrospun scaffolds using intravital imaging of dorsal skinfold window chambers. Electrospun mats of randomly oriented fibers we created from polymer solutions of PLAGA (50:50 LA:GA) with and without FTY720 loaded at a ratio of 1:200 (FTY720:PLAGA by wt). The implanted fiber mats were 4 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 mm thick. Increases in length density and vessel diameter were assessed by automated analysis of images over 7 days in RAVE, a Matlab program. Image analysis of repeated measures of microvessel metrics demonstrated a significant increase in the length density from day 0 to day 7 in the moderately diabetic animals of this preliminary study (P < .05). Furthermore, significant differences in length density at day 0 and day 3 were found between recently STZ-induced moderately diabetic and nondiabetic animals in response to FTY720 local release (P < .05, Student t test). Driving the islet revascularization process using local release of factors, such as FTY720, from biodegradable polymers makes an attractive system for the improvement of islet transplant success. Preliminary study results suggest that a recently induced moderately diabetic state may potentiate the mechanism by which local release of FTY720 from polymer fibers increases length density of microvessels. Therefore, local release of S1P receptor-targeted drugs is under further investigation for improvement of

  2. Repeated 7-Day Treatment with the 5-HT2C Agonist Lorcaserin or the 5-HT2A Antagonist Pimavanserin Alone or in Combination Fails to Reduce Cocaine vs Food Choice in Male Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Negus, S Stevens

    2017-04-01

    Cocaine use disorder is a global public health problem for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies. Emerging preclinical evidence has implicated both serotonin (5-HT) 2C and 2A receptors as potential mechanisms for mediating serotonergic attenuation of cocaine abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects. Therefore, the present study aim was to determine whether repeated 7-day treatment with the 5-HT 2C agonist lorcaserin (0.1-1.0 mg/kg per day, intramuscular; 0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, intravenous) or the 5-HT 2A inverse agonist/antagonist pimavanserin (0.32-10 mg/kg per day, intramuscular) attenuated cocaine reinforcement under a concurrent 'choice' schedule of cocaine and food availability in rhesus monkeys. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine vs food choice. Repeated pimavanserin (3.2 mg/kg per day) treatments significantly increased small unit cocaine dose choice. Larger lorcaserin (1.0 mg/kg per day and 0.1 mg/kg/h) and pimavanserin (10 mg/kg per day) doses primarily decreased rates of operant behavior. Coadministration of ineffective lorcaserin (0.1 mg/kg per day) and pimavanserin (0.32 mg/kg per day) doses also failed to significantly alter cocaine choice. These results suggest that neither 5-HT 2C receptor activation nor 5-HT 2A receptor blockade are sufficient to produce a therapeutic-like decrease in cocaine choice and a complementary increase in food choice. Overall, these results do not support the clinical utility of 5-HT 2C agonists and 5-HT 2A inverse agonists/antagonists alone or in combination as candidate anti-cocaine use disorder pharmacotherapies.

  3. Middle-aged patients with an MRI-verified medial meniscal tear report symptoms commonly associated with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristoffer B.; Stefan Lohmander, L.; Kise, Nina Jullum

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — No consensus exists on when to perform arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear. Since MRI and clinical tests are not accurate in detecting a symptomatic meniscal lesion, the patient’s symptoms often play a large role when deciding...... when to perform surgery. We determined the prevalence and severity of self-reported knee symptoms in patients eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy due to a degenerative meniscal tear. We investigated whether symptoms commonly considered to be related to meniscus injury were associated...... with early radiographic signs of knee osteoarthritis. Patients and methods — We included individual baseline items from the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score collected in 2 randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment for an MRI-verified degenerative medial meniscal tears in 199 patients aged...

  4. Reasoning about knowledge: Children’s evaluations of generality and verifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa A.; Cole, Caitlin A.; Meyer, Meredith; Ridge, Katherine E.; Kushnir, Tamar; Gelman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we examined 3- to 8-year-old children’s (N = 223) and adults’ (N = 32) use of two properties of testimony to estimate a speaker’s knowledge: generality and verifiability. Participants were presented with a “Generic speaker” who made a series of 4 general claims about “pangolins” (a novel animal kind), and a “Specific speaker” who made a series of 4 specific claims about “this pangolin” as an individual. To investigate the role of verifiability, we systematically varied whether the claim referred to a perceptually-obvious feature visible in a picture (e.g., “has a pointy nose”) or a non-evident feature that was not visible (e.g., “sleeps in a hollow tree”). Three main findings emerged: (1) Young children showed a pronounced reliance on verifiability that decreased with age. Three-year-old children were especially prone to credit knowledge to speakers who made verifiable claims, whereas 7- to 8-year-olds and adults credited knowledge to generic speakers regardless of whether the claims were verifiable; (2) Children’s attributions of knowledge to generic speakers was not detectable until age 5, and only when those claims were also verifiable; (3) Children often generalized speakers’ knowledge outside of the pangolin domain, indicating a belief that a person’s knowledge about pangolins likely extends to new facts. Findings indicate that young children may be inclined to doubt speakers who make claims they cannot verify themselves, as well as a developmentally increasing appreciation for speakers who make general claims. PMID:26451884

  5. Pharmacodynamic analysis and clinical trial of amoxicillin sprinkle administered once daily for 7 days compared to penicillin V potassium administered four times daily for 10 days in the treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, M E; Casey, J R; Block, S L; Guttendorf, R; Flanner, H; Markowitz, D; Clausen, S

    2008-07-01

    An a priori pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target of 40% daily time above the MIC (T >MIC; based on the MIC(90) of 0.06 microg/ml for Streptococcus pyogenes reported in the literature) was shown to be achievable in a phase 1 study of 23 children with a once-daily (QD) modified-release, multiparticulate formulation of amoxicillin (amoxicillin sprinkle). The daily T >MIC achieved with the QD amoxicillin sprinkle formulation was comparable to that achieved with a four-times-daily (QID) penicillin VK suspension. An investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter study involving 579 children 6 months to 12 years old with acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis was then undertaken. Children were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either the amoxicillin sprinkle (475 mg for ages 6 months to 4 years, 775 mg for ages 5 to 12 years) QD for 7 days or 10 mg/kg of body weight of penicillin VK QID for 10 days (up to the maximum dose of 250 mg QID). Unexpectedly, the rates of bacteriological eradication at the test of cure were 65.3% (132/202) for the amoxicillin sprinkle and 68.0% (132/194) for penicillin VK (95% confidence interval, -12.0% to 6.6%). Thus, neither antibiotic regimen met the minimum criterion of > or =85% eradication ordinarily required by the U.S. FDA for first-line treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to S. pyogenes. The results of subgroup analyses across demographic characteristics and current infection characteristics and by age/weight categories were consistent with the primary-efficacy result. The clinical cure rates for amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK were 86.1% (216/251) and 91.9% (204/222), respectively (95% confidence interval, -11.6% to -0.4%). The results of a post hoc PD analysis suggested that a requirement for 60% daily T >MIC(90) more accurately predicted the observed high failure rates for bacteriologic eradication with the amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK suspension studied. Based on the association between

  6. Pharmacodynamic Analysis and Clinical Trial of Amoxicillin Sprinkle Administered Once Daily for 7 Days Compared to Penicillin V Potassium Administered Four Times Daily for 10 Days in the Treatment of Tonsillopharyngitis Due to Streptococcus pyogenes in Children▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, M. E.; Casey, J. R.; Block, S. L.; Guttendorf, R.; Flanner, H.; Markowitz, D.; Clausen, S.

    2008-01-01

    An a priori pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target of 40% daily time above the MIC (T >MIC; based on the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/ml for Streptococcus pyogenes reported in the literature) was shown to be achievable in a phase 1 study of 23 children with a once-daily (QD) modified-release, multiparticulate formulation of amoxicillin (amoxicillin sprinkle). The daily T >MIC achieved with the QD amoxicillin sprinkle formulation was comparable to that achieved with a four-times-daily (QID) penicillin VK suspension. An investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter study involving 579 children 6 months to 12 years old with acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis was then undertaken. Children were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either the amoxicillin sprinkle (475 mg for ages 6 months to 4 years, 775 mg for ages 5 to 12 years) QD for 7 days or 10 mg/kg of body weight of penicillin VK QID for 10 days (up to the maximum dose of 250 mg QID). Unexpectedly, the rates of bacteriological eradication at the test of cure were 65.3% (132/202) for the amoxicillin sprinkle and 68.0% (132/194) for penicillin VK (95% confidence interval, −12.0% to 6.6%). Thus, neither antibiotic regimen met the minimum criterion of ≥85% eradication ordinarily required by the U.S. FDA for first-line treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to S. pyogenes. The results of subgroup analyses across demographic characteristics and current infection characteristics and by age/weight categories were consistent with the primary-efficacy result. The clinical cure rates for amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK were 86.1% (216/251) and 91.9% (204/222), respectively (95% confidence interval, −11.6% to −0.4%). The results of a post hoc PD analysis suggested that a requirement for 60% daily T >MIC90 more accurately predicted the observed high failure rates for bacteriologic eradication with the amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK suspension studied. Based on the association between longer

  7. The Method of a Standalone Functional Verifying Operability of Sonar Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sotnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method of standalone verifying sonar control system, which is based on functional checking of control system operability.The main features of realized method are a development of the valid mathematic model for simulation of sonar signals at the point of hydroacoustic antenna, a valid representation of the sonar control system modes as a discrete Markov model, providing functional object verification in real time mode.Some ways are proposed to control computational complexity in case of insufficient computing resources of the simulation equipment, namely the way of model functionality reduction and the way of adequacy reduction.Experiments were made using testing equipment, which was developed by department of Research Institute of Information Control System at Bauman Moscow State Technical University to verify technical validity of industrial sonar complexes.On-board software was artificially changed to create malfunctions in functionality of sonar control systems during the verifying process in order to estimate verifying system performances.The method efficiency was proved by the theory and experiment results in comparison with the basic methodology of verifying technical systems.This method could be also used in debugging of on-board software of sonar complexes and in development of new promising algorithms of sonar signal processing.

  8. Dynamic Symmetric Key Mobile Commerce Scheme Based on Self-Verified Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the security and efficiency of mobile e-commerce, the authors summarized the advantages and disadvantages of several related schemes, especially the self-verified mobile payment scheme based on the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC and then proposed a new type of dynamic symmetric key mobile commerce scheme based on self-verified mechanism. The authors analyzed the basic algorithm based on self-verified mechanisms and detailed the complete transaction process of the proposed scheme. The authors analyzed the payment scheme based on the security and high efficiency index. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme not only meets the high efficiency of mobile electronic payment premise, but also takes the security into account. The user confirmation mechanism at the end of the proposed scheme further strengthens the security of the proposed scheme. In brief, the proposed scheme is more efficient and practical than most of the existing schemes.

  9. Evolution of optically nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2010-04-01

    Since the deployment of the credit card, the number of credit card fraud cases has grown rapidly with a huge amount of loss in millions of US dollars. Instead of asking more information from the credit card's holder or taking risk through payment approval, a nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifier is highly desirable before transaction begins. In this paper, we review optical techniques that have been proposed and invented in order to make the genuine credit card more distinguishable than the counterfeit credit card. Several optical approaches for the implementation of credit card verifiers are also included. In particular, we highlight our invention on a hyperspectral-imaging based portable credit card verifier structure that offers a very low false error rate of 0.79%. Other key features include low cost, simplicity in design and implementation, no moving part, no need of an additional decoding key, and adaptive learning.

  10. What are the ultimate limits to computational techniques: verifier theory and unverifiability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant developments in proof theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifiers. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verification and self-reference issues. We propose an initial classification system for verifiers and provide some rudimentary analysis of solved and open problems in this important domain. Our main contribution is a formal introduction of the notion of unverifiability, for which the paper could serve as a general citation in domains of theorem proving, as well as software and AI verification. (invited comment)

  11. What are the ultimate limits to computational techniques: verifier theory and unverifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.

    2017-09-01

    Despite significant developments in proof theory, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the concept of proof verifiers. In particular, the mathematical community may be interested in studying different types of proof verifiers (people, programs, oracles, communities, superintelligences) as mathematical objects. Such an effort could reveal their properties, their powers and limitations (particularly in human mathematicians), minimum and maximum complexity, as well as self-verification and self-reference issues. We propose an initial classification system for verifiers and provide some rudimentary analysis of solved and open problems in this important domain. Our main contribution is a formal introduction of the notion of unverifiability, for which the paper could serve as a general citation in domains of theorem proving, as well as software and AI verification.

  12. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  13. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  14. Regressive transgressive cycle of Devonian sea in Uruguay verified by Palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the results and conclusions of the populations palinomorphs study, carried out in Devonian formations in the center of Uruguay. The existence of a regressive transgressive cycle is verified by analyzing the vertical distribution of palinomorphs as well as is mentioned the presence of chintziest for the section studied - hoesphaeridium Cyathochitina kinds

  15. Die verifiëring, verfyning en toepassing van leksikografiese liniale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leksikografiese liniale vir Afrikaans en die Afrikatale is 'n dekade oud en word algemeen gebruik in die samestelling van woordeboeke. Die samestellers het dit tot dusver nie nodig geag om hierdie liniale te verifieer of te verfyn nie. Kritiek is egter uitgespreek op die samestelling van die Afrikaanse Liniaal en dit word in ...

  16. Verifiable Outsourced Decryption of Attribute-Based Encryption with Constant Ciphertext Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourced decryption ABE system largely reduces the computation cost for users who intend to access the encrypted files stored in cloud. However, the correctness of the transformation ciphertext cannot be guaranteed because the user does not have the original ciphertext. Lai et al. provided an ABE scheme with verifiable outsourced decryption which helps the user to check whether the transformation done by the cloud is correct. In order to improve the computation performance and reduce communication overhead, we propose a new verifiable outsourcing scheme with constant ciphertext length. To be specific, our scheme achieves the following goals. (1 Our scheme is verifiable which ensures that the user efficiently checks whether the transformation is done correctly by the CSP. (2 The size of ciphertext and the number of expensive pairing operations are constant, which do not grow with the complexity of the access structure. (3 The access structure in our scheme is AND gates on multivalued attributes and we prove our scheme is verifiable and it is secure against selectively chosen-plaintext attack in the standard model. (4 We give some performance analysis which indicates that our scheme is adaptable for various limited bandwidth and computation-constrained devices, such as mobile phone.

  17. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  18. Descriptional complexity of non-unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Laurette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, self-verifying symmetric difference automata were defined and a tight bound of 2^n-1-1 was shown for state complexity in the unary case. We now consider the non-unary case and show that, for every n at least 2, there is a regular...

  19. 13 CFR 127.403 - What happens if SBA verifies the concern's eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if SBA verifies the concern's eligibility? 127.403 Section 127.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Eligibility Examinations § 127...

  20. 13 CFR 127.404 - What happens if SBA is unable to verify a concern's eligibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if SBA is unable to verify a concern's eligibility? 127.404 Section 127.404 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES Eligibility Examinations § 127...

  1. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators as...

  2. Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

    1999-01-01

    An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements

  3. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility's WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator's waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits

  4. Business rescue decision making through verifier determinants – ask the specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Business rescue has become a critical part of business strategy decision making, especially during economic downturns and recessions. Past legislation has generally supported creditor-friendly regimes, and its mind-set still applies which increases the difficulty of such turnarounds. There are many questions and critical issues faced by those involved in rescue. Despite extensive theory in the literature on failure, there is a void regarding practical verifiers of the signs and causes of venture decline, as specialists are not forthcoming about what they regard as their “competitive advantage”. Research purpose: This article introduces the concept and role of “verifier determinants” of early warning signs, as a tool to confirm the causes of decline in order to direct rescue strategies and, most importantly, reduce time between the first observation and the implementation of the rescue. Motivation for the study: Knowing how specialist practitioners confirm causes of business decline could assist in deciding on strategies for the rescue earlier than can be done using traditional due diligence which is time consuming. Reducing time is a crucial element of a successful rescue. Research design and approach: The researchers interviewed specialist practitioners with extensive experience in rescue and turnaround. An experimental design was used to ensure the specialists evaluated the same real cases to extract their experiences and base their decisions on. Main findings: The specialists confirmed the use of verifier determinants and identified such determinants as they personally used them to confirm causes of decline. These verifier determinants were classified into five categories; namely, management, finance, strategic, banking and operations and marketing of the ventures under investigation. The verifier determinants and their use often depend heavily on subconscious (non-factual information based on previous experiences

  5. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L; Richardson, Scott; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; Breidt, F Jay; West, Tristram O; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E; McCarty, Jessica L; Gurney, Kevin R; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO 2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO 2 emissions. The biogenic CO 2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of −408 ± 136 Tg CO 2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of −478 ± 146 Tg CO 2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO 2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO 2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC. (letter)

  6. Agreement between self-reported and physically verified male circumcision status in Nyanza region, Kenya: Evidence from the TASCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoyo-June, Elijah; Agot, Kawango; Mboya, Edward; Grund, Jonathan; Musingila, Paul; Emusu, Donath; Soo, Leonard; Otieno-Nyunya, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    Self-reported male circumcision (MC) status is widely used to estimate community prevalence of circumcision, although its accuracy varies in different settings depending on the extent of misreporting. Despite this challenge, self-reported MC status remains essential because it is the most feasible method of collecting MC status data in community surveys. Therefore, its accuracy is an important determinant of the reliability of MC prevalence estimates based on such surveys. We measured the concurrence between self-reported and physically verified MC status among men aged 25-39 years during a baseline household survey for a study to test strategies for enhancing MC uptake by older men in Nyanza region of Kenya. The objective was to determine the accuracy of self-reported MC status in communities where MC for HIV prevention is being rolled out. Agreement between self-reported and physically verified MC status was measured among 4,232 men. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC status followed by physical examination to verify the actual MC status whose outcome was recorded as fully circumcised (no foreskin), partially circumcised (foreskin is past corona sulcus but covers less than half of the glans) or uncircumcised (foreskin covers half or more of the glans). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported MC status were calculated using physically verified MC status as the gold standard. Out of 4,232 men, 2,197 (51.9%) reported being circumcised, of whom 99.0% were confirmed to be fully circumcised on physical examination. Among 2,035 men who reported being uncircumcised, 93.7% (1,907/2,035) were confirmed uncircumcised on physical examination. Agreement between self-reported and physically verified MC status was almost perfect, kappa (k) = 98.6% (95% CI, 98.1%-99.1%. The sensitivity of self-reporting being circumcised was 99.6% (95% CI, 99.2-99.8) while specificity of self-reporting uncircumcised was 99.0% (95% CI, 98.4-99.4) and did not differ

  7. Efficient Verifiable Range and Closest Point Queries in Zero-Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Esha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient method for answering one-dimensional range and closest-point queries in a verifiable and privacy-preserving manner. We consider a model where a data owner outsources a dataset of key-value pairs to a server, who answers range and closest-point queries issued by a client and provides proofs of the answers. The client verifies the correctness of the answers while learning nothing about the dataset besides the answers to the current and previous queries. Our work yields for the first time a zero-knowledge privacy assurance to authenticated range and closest-point queries. Previous work leaked the size of the dataset and used an inefficient proof protocol. Our construction is based on hierarchical identity-based encryption. We prove its security and analyze its efficiency both theoretically and with experiments on synthetic and real data (Enron email and Boston taxi datasets.

  8. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-07-24

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient.

  9. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient. PMID:28737733

  10. Election Verifiability: Cryptographic Definitions and an Analysis of Helios and JCJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Computer Society, 2014. To appear. [26] David Chaum . Untraceable electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms. Communications of the ACM...24(2):84–88, 1981. [27] David Chaum . Secret-ballot receipts: True voter-verifiable elections. IEEE Security and Privacy, 2(1):38–47, 2004. [28... David Chaum , Richard Carback, Jeremy Clark, Aleksander Essex, Stefan Popoveniuc, Ronald L. Rivest, Peter Y. A. Ryan, Emily Shen, and Alan T. Sherman

  11. Using Concept Space to Verify Hyponymy in Building a Hyponymy Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Sen; Diao, Lu Hong; Yan, Shu Ying; Cao, Cun Gen

    Verification of hyponymy relations is a basic problem in knowledge acquisition. We present a method of hyponymy verification based on concept space. Firstly, we give the definition of concept space about a group of candidate hyponymy relations. Secondly we analyze the concept space and define a set of hyponymy features based on the space structure. Then we use them to verify candidate hyponymy relations. Experimental results show that the method can provide adequate verification of hyponymy.

  12. An method of verify period signal based on data acquisition card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Shaoli

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces an method to verify index voltage of Period Signal Generator by using data acquisition card. which it's error is less 0.5%. A corresponding Win32's program, which use voluntarily developed VxD to control data acquisition card direct I/O and multi thread technique for gain the best time scale precision, has developed in Windows platform. The program will real time collect inda voltage data and auto measure period. (authors)

  13. A Benchmark for Comparing Different Approaches for Specifying and Verifying Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    To be considered correct or useful, real - time systems must deliver results within specified time intervals, either without exception or with high...probability. Recently, a large number of formal methods have been invented for specifying and verifying real - time systems . It has been suggested that...these formal methods need to be tested out on actual real - time systems . Such testing will allow the scalability of the methods to be assessed and also

  14. A Novel Simple Phantom for Verifying the Dose of Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard protocol of dosimetric measurements is used by the organizations responsible for verifying that the doses delivered in radiation-therapy institutions are within authorized limits. This study evaluated a self-designed simple auditing phantom for use in verifying the dose of radiation therapy; the phantom design, dose audit system, and clinical tests are described. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs were used as postal dosimeters, and mailable phantoms were produced for use in postal audits. Correction factors are important for converting TLD readout values from phantoms into the absorbed dose in water. The phantom scatter correction factor was used to quantify the difference in the scattered dose between a solid water phantom and homemade phantoms; its value ranged from 1.084 to 1.031. The energy-dependence correction factor was used to compare the TLD readout of the unit dose irradiated by audit beam energies with 60Co in the solid water phantom; its value was 0.99 to 1.01. The setup-condition factor was used to correct for differences in dose-output calibration conditions. Clinical tests of the device calibrating the dose output revealed that the dose deviation was within 3%. Therefore, our homemade phantoms and dosimetric system can be applied for accurately verifying the doses applied in radiation-therapy institutions.

  15. The AutoProof Verifier: Usability by Non-Experts and on Standard Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A. Furia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal verification tools are often developed by experts for experts; as a result, their usability by programmers with little formal methods experience may be severely limited. In this paper, we discuss this general phenomenon with reference to AutoProof: a tool that can verify the full functional correctness of object-oriented software. In particular, we present our experiences of using AutoProof in two contrasting contexts representative of non-expert usage. First, we discuss its usability by students in a graduate course on software verification, who were tasked with verifying implementations of various sorting algorithms. Second, we evaluate its usability in verifying code developed for programming assignments of an undergraduate course. The first scenario represents usability by serious non-experts; the second represents usability on "standard code", developed without full functional verification in mind. We report our experiences and lessons learnt, from which we derive some general suggestions for furthering the development of verification tools with respect to improving their usability.

  16. Global patient outcomes after elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As global initiatives increase patient access to surgical treatments, there remains a need to understand the adverse effects of surgery and define appropriate levels of perioperative care. METHODS: We designed a prospective international 7-day cohort study of outcomes following elective...... adult inpatient surgery in 27 countries. The primary outcome was in-hospital complications. Secondary outcomes were death following a complication (failure to rescue) and death in hospital. Process measures were admission to critical care immediately after surgery or to treat a complication and duration...... to a critical care unit as routine immediately after surgery, of whom 2198 (50.4%) developed a complication, with 105 (2.4%) deaths. A total of 1233 patients (16.4%) were admitted to a critical care unit to treat complications, with 119 (9.7%) deaths. Despite lower baseline risk, outcomes were similar in low...

  17. Multilingual Validation of the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo, Fred; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Akinyemi, Rufus; Owolabi, Lukman; Obiako, Reginald; Akpa, Onoja; Armstrong, Kevin; Akpalu, Albert; Adamu, Sheila; Obese, Vida; Boa-Antwi, Nana; Appiah, Lambert; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Mensah, Yaw; Adeoye, Abiodun; Tosin, Aridegbe; Adeleye, Osimhiarherhuo; Tabi-Ajayi, Eric; Phillip, Ibinaiye; Sani, Abubakar; Isah, Suleiman; Tabari, Nasir; Mande, Aliyu; Agunloye, Atinuke; Ogbole, Godwin; Akinyemi, Joshua; Laryea, Ruth; Melikam, Sylvia; Uvere, Ezinne; Adekunle, Gregory; Kehinde, Salaam; Azuh, Paschal; Dambatta, Abdul; Ishaq, Naser; Saulson, Raelle; Arnett, Donna; Tiwari, Hemnant; Jenkins, Carolyn; Lackland, Dan; Owolabi, Mayowa

    2016-01-01

    The Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS), a method for verifying stroke-free status in participants of clinical, epidemiological, and genetic studies, has not been validated in low-income settings where populations have limited knowledge of stroke symptoms. We aimed to validate QVSFS in 3 languages, Yoruba, Hausa and Akan, for ascertainment of stroke-free status of control subjects enrolled in an on-going stroke epidemiological study in West Africa. Data were collected using a cross-sectional study design where 384 participants were consecutively recruited from neurology and general medicine clinics of 5 tertiary referral hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana. Ascertainment of stroke status was by neurologists using structured neurological examination, review of case records, and neuroimaging (gold standard). Relative performance of QVSFS without and with pictures of stroke symptoms (pictograms) was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The overall median age of the study participants was 54 years and 48.4% were males. Of 165 stroke cases identified by gold standard, 98% were determined to have had stroke, whereas of 219 without stroke 87% were determined to be stroke-free by QVSFS. Negative predictive value of the QVSFS across the 3 languages was 0.97 (range, 0.93-1.00), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 0.98, 0.82, and 0.80, respectively. Agreement between the questionnaire with and without the pictogram was excellent/strong with Cohen k=0.92. QVSFS is a valid tool for verifying stroke-free status across culturally diverse populations in West Africa. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this

  19. Trends in the incidence rate, type and treatment of surgically verified endometriosis - a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Liisu; Tikka, Tuulia; But, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Haukka, Jari; Tiitinen, Aila; Härkki, Päivi; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2018-01-01

    To study the trends in incidence rate, type and surgical treatment, and patient characteristics of surgically verified endometriosis during 1987-2012. This is a register-based cohort study. We identified women receiving their first diagnosis of endometriosis in surgery from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR). Quality of the FHDR records was assessed bidirectionally. The age-standardized incidence rates of the first surgically verified endometriosis was assessed by calendar year. The cohort comprises 49 956 women. The quality assessment suggested the FHDR data to be of good quality. The most common diagnosis, ovarian endometriosis (46%), was associated with highest median age 38.5 years (interquartile range 31.0-44.8) and the second most common diagnosis, peritoneal endometriosis (40%), with median age 34.9 years (28.6-41.7). Between 1987 and 2012, a decrease was observed in the median age, from 38.8 (32.3-43.6) to 34.0 (28.9-41.0) years, and in the age-standardized incidence rate from 116 [95% confidence interval (CI) 112-121] to 45 (42-48) per 100 000 women. The proportion of hysterectomy as a first surgical treatment decreased from 38 to 19%, whereas that of laparoscopy increased from 42 to 73% when comparing 1987-1995 with 1996-2012. This nationwide cohort of surgically verified endometriosis showed a decrease in the incidence rate and in the patient age at the time of first diagnosis, even though the proportion of laparoscopy has increased. The number of hysterectomies has decreased. These changes are likely to reflect the evolving diagnostics, increasing awareness of endometriosis, and effective use of medical treatment before surgery. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Building a Laboratory-Scale Biogas Plant and Verifying its Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleman, Tomáš; Fiala, Jozef; Blinová, Lenka; Gerulová, Kristína

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the process of building a laboratory-scale biogas plant and verifying its functionality. The laboratory-scale prototype was constructed in the Department of Safety and Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, of the Slovak University of Technology. The Department has already built a solar laboratory to promote and utilise solar energy, and designed SETUR hydro engine. The laboratory is the next step in the Department's activities in the field of renewable energy sources and biomass. The Department is also involved in the European Union project, where the goal is to upgrade all existed renewable energy sources used in the Department.

  1. Verifying Quality of Service of ARCnet Based ATOMOS Communication System for Integrated Ship Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    point) layer. An important characteristic of the communication system is that the functionality and timing must be verifiable in order to satisfy requirements from classification companies like Lloyds and Norsk Veritas. By including Service Categories, Traffic Descriptors and Quality of Service concepts......As part of the ATOMOS project (Funded by EU, DG VII) a reliable communication system with predictable behaviour has been designed. The selected solution is a network based on redundant ARCnet segments extended with an EN50170 compliant fieldbus based layer on top of an ARCnet SAP (service access...

  2. Verifying Quality of Service of ARCnet Based ATOMOS Communication System for Integrated Ship Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Schiøler, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    point) layer. An important characteristic of the communication system is that the functionality and timing must be verifiable in order to satisfy requirements from classification companies like Lloyds and Norsk Veritas. By including Service Categories, Traffic Descriptors and Quality of Service concepts......As part of the ATOMOS project (Funded by EU, DG VII) a reliable communication system with predictable behaviour has been designed. The selected solution is a network based on redundant ARCnet segments extended with an EN50170 compliant fieldbus based layer on top of an ARCnet SAP (service access...

  3. National, Regional and Global Certification Bodies for Polio Eradication: A Framework for Verifying Measles Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblina Datta, S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Reef, Susan; William Schluter, W; Adams, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. RETRANS - A tool to verify the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the competent technical standards (e.g. IEC 880) it is necessary to verify each step in the development process of safety critical software. This holds also for the verification of automatically generated source code. To avoid human errors during this verification step and to limit the cost effort a tool should be used which is developed independently from the development of the code generator. For this purpose ISTec has developed the tool RETRANS which demonstrates the functional equivalence of automatically generated source code with its underlying specification. (author)

  5. On the safe use of verify-and-record systems in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelantag, W.W.; Davis, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Verify-and-record (V and R) systems are being used increasingly, not only for verification, but also for computer aided setup and chart printing. The close intercorrelation between V and R system and treatment routine requires new ideas for quality assurance (QA): pure ''machine checking'' as with treatment units is not sufficient anymore. The level of QA obviously depends on the tasks of the V and R system: the most advanced case of the system being used for computer aided setup and for chart printing is discussed -both are indispensable for an efficient use of V and R systems. Seven propositions are defined to make this not only efficient but safe. (author)

  6. Experimental observation of G banding verifying X-ray workers' chromosome translocation detected by FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuanming; Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: FISH is the most effective way of detecting chromosome aberration and many factors affect its accuracy. G-banding is used to verify the results of early X-ray workers' chromosome translocation examined by FISH. Methods: The chromosome translocations of early X-ray workers have been analysed by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and G-banding, yields of translocation treated with statistics. Results: The chromosome aberrations frequencies by tow methods are closely related. Conclusion: FISH is a feasible way to analyse chromosome aberrations of X-ray workers and reconstruct dose

  7. Construct a procedure to verify radiation protection for apparatus of industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiem Xuan Long; Trinh Dinh Truong; Dinh Chi Hung; Le Ngoc Hieu

    2013-01-01

    Apparatus for industrial gamma radiography include an exposure container, source guide tube, remote control hand crank assembly and other attached equipment. It is used a lot in inspection and evaluation of projects. In Vietnam, there are now more than 50 companies in radiography field and more than 100 apparatus are being used on the site. Therefore, the verification and evaluation is very necessary and important. This project constructs a procedure to verify a radiation protection for apparatus in the industrial gamma radiography for its application in Vietnam. (author)

  8. Verifying the competition between haloperidol and biperiden in serum albumin through a model based on spectrofluorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz da Silva Fragoso, Viviane; Patrícia de Morais e Coura, Carla; Paulino, Erica Tex; Valdez, Ethel Celene Narvaez; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to apply mathematical-computational modeling to study the interactions of haloperidol (HLP) and biperiden (BPD) with human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin in order to verify the competition of these drugs for binding sites in HSA, using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching data. The association constants estimated for HPD-HSA was 2.17(±0.05) × 107 M-1, BPD-HSA was 2.01(±0.03) × 108 M-1 at 37 °C. Results have shown that drugs do not compete for the same binding sites in albumin.

  9. A new (k,n verifiable secret image sharing scheme (VSISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Nag

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new (k,n verifiable secret image sharing scheme (VSISS is proposed in which third order LFSR (linear-feedback shift register-based public key cryptosystem is applied for the cheating prevention and preview before decryption. In the proposed scheme the secret image is first partitioned into several non-overlapping blocks of k pixels. Every k pixel is then used to form m=⌈k/4⌉+1 pixels of one encrypted share. The original secret image can be reconstructed by gathering any k or more encrypted shared images. The experimental results show that the proposed VSISS is an efficient and safe method.

  10. Force10 networks performance in world's first transcontinental 10 gigabit ethernet network verified by Ixia

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Force10 Networks, Inc., today announced that the performance of the Force10 E-Series switch/routers deployed in a transcontinental network has been verified as line-rate 10 GE throughput by Ixia, a leading provider of high-speed, network performance and conformance analysis systems. The network, the world's first transcontinental 10 GE wide area network, consists of a SURFnet OC-192 lambda between Geneva and the StarLight facility in Chicago via Amsterdam and another OC-192 lambda between this same facility in Chicago and Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada provided by CANARIE and ORANO (1/2 page).

  11. Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukwan Handali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs.

  12. Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution

  13. An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements in dry storage silos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Soares, Milton G.; Filho, Anizio M.; Martorelli, Daniel S.; Fonseca, Manoel

    2000-01-01

    An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements stored in dry storage silos was developed. It is constituted by a mechanical device which moves a semi-conductor detector along a vertical verification pipe incorporated to the silo, and a modified portable multi-channel analyzer. The mechanical device contains a winding drum accommodating a cable hanging the detector, in such a way that the drum rotates as the detector goes down due to its own weight. The detector is coupled to the multi-channel analyzer operating in the multi-scaler mode, generating therefore a spectrum of total counts against time. To assure a linear transformation of time into detector position, the mechanical device dictating the detector speed is controlled by the multi-channel analyzer. This control is performed via a clock type escapement device activated by a solenoid. Whenever the multi-channel analyzer shifts to the next channel, the associated pulse is amplified, powering the solenoid causing the drum to rotate a fixed angle. Spectra taken in laboratory, using radioactive sources, have shown a good reproducibility. This qualify the system to be used as an equipment to get a fingerprint of the overall distribution of the fuel elements along the silo axis, and hence, to verify possible diversion of the nuclear material by comparing spectra taken at consecutive safeguards inspections. All the system is battery operated, being thus capable to operate in the field where no power supply is available. (author)

  14. MUSE: An Efficient and Accurate Verifiable Privacy-Preserving Multikeyword Text Search over Encrypted Cloud Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of cloud computing, services outsourcing in clouds has become a popular business model. However, due to the fact that data storage and computing are completely outsourced to the cloud service provider, sensitive data of data owners is exposed, which could bring serious privacy disclosure. In addition, some unexpected events, such as software bugs and hardware failure, could cause incomplete or incorrect results returned from clouds. In this paper, we propose an efficient and accurate verifiable privacy-preserving multikeyword text search over encrypted cloud data based on hierarchical agglomerative clustering, which is named MUSE. In order to improve the efficiency of text searching, we proposed a novel index structure, HAC-tree, which is based on a hierarchical agglomerative clustering method and tends to gather the high-relevance documents in clusters. Based on the HAC-tree, a noncandidate pruning depth-first search algorithm is proposed, which can filter the unqualified subtrees and thus accelerate the search process. The secure inner product algorithm is used to encrypted the HAC-tree index and the query vector. Meanwhile, a completeness verification algorithm is given to verify search results. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing works, DMRS and MRSE-HCI, in efficiency and accuracy, respectively.

  15. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of parameters for the proper and safe flooring, doors, windows, fume hoods and others, in a radiochemical laboratory. The layout of each item follows guidelines and national standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), aiming to ensure the radiological protection of workers and environment. The adequate items arrangement in the radiochemical laboratory ensures quality and safety in the production of 57 Co 137 Cs and 133 Ba radioactive sealed sources, with activities 185, 9.3 and 5.4 MBq, respectively. These sources are used to verify meter activity equipment and should be available throughout the Nuclear Medicine Center, following the recommendations of CNEN-NN-3.05 standard R equirements for Radiation Protection and Safety Services for Nuclear Medicine , to verify the activity of radiopharmaceuticals that are administered in patients, for diagnosis and therapy. Verification of measuring activity equipment will be used to perform accuracy, reproducibility and linearity tests, which should show results within the limits specified in the standard CNEN-NN-3.05. (author)

  16. An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements in dry storage silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Soares, Milton G.; Filho, Anizio M.; Martorelli, Daniel S.; Fonseca, Manoel [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    An improved system to verify CANDU spent fuel elements stored in dry storage silos was developed. It is constituted by a mechanical device which moves a semi-conductor detector along a vertical verification pipe incorporated to the silo, and a modified portable multi-channel analyzer. The mechanical device contains a winding drum accommodating a cable hanging the detector, in such a way that the drum rotates as the detector goes down due to its own weight. The detector is coupled to the multi-channel analyzer operating in the multi-scaler mode, generating therefore a spectrum of total counts against time. To assure a linear transformation of time into detector position, the mechanical device dictating the detector speed is controlled by the multi-channel analyzer. This control is performed via a clock type escapement device activated by a solenoid. Whenever the multi-channel analyzer shifts to the next channel, the associated pulse is amplified, powering the solenoid causing the drum to rotate a fixed angle. Spectra taken in laboratory, using radioactive sources, have shown a good reproducibility. This qualify the system to be used as an equipment to get a fingerprint of the overall distribution of the fuel elements along the silo axis, and hence, to verify possible diversion of the nuclear material by comparing spectra taken at consecutive safeguards inspections. All the system is battery operated, being thus capable to operate in the field where no power supply is available. (author)

  17. Independent technique of verifying high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Cheng B.; Korb, Leroy J.; Darnell, Brenda; Krishna, K. V.; Ulewicz, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: An independent technique for verifying high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment plans has been formulated and validated clinically. Methods and Materials: In HDR brachytherapy, dwell times at respective dwell positions are computed, using an optimization algorithm in a HDR treatment-planning system to deliver a specified dose to many target points simultaneously. Because of the variability of dwell times, concerns have been expressed regarding the ability of the algorithm to compute the correct dose. To address this concern, a commercially available low-dose rate (LDR) algorithm was used to compute the doses at defined distances, based on the dwell times obtained from the HDR treatment plans. The percent deviation between doses computed using the HDR and LDR algorithms were reviewed for HDR procedures performed over the last year. Results: In this retrospective study, the difference between computed doses using the HDR and LDR algorithms was found to be within 5% for about 80% of the HDR procedures. All of the reviewed procedures have dose differences of less than 10%. Conclusion: An independent technique for verifying HDR brachytherapy treatment plans has been validated based on clinical data. Provided both systems are available, this technique is universal in its applications and not limited to either a particular implant applicator, implant site, or implant type

  18. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. Original article "Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects", written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal "SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES", Publisher "Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora". Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  19. An experimental method to verify soil conservation by check dams on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Z; Zhang, H W; Wang, G Q; Chen, S C; Dang, W Q

    2009-12-01

    A successful experiment with a physical model requires necessary conditions of similarity. This study presents an experimental method with a semi-scale physical model. The model is used to monitor and verify soil conservation by check dams in a small watershed on the Loess Plateau of China. During experiments, the model-prototype ratio of geomorphic variables was kept constant under each rainfall event. Consequently, experimental data are available for verification of soil erosion processes in the field and for predicting soil loss in a model watershed with check dams. Thus, it can predict the amount of soil loss in a catchment. This study also mentions four criteria: similarities of watershed geometry, grain size and bare land, Froude number (Fr) for rainfall event, and soil erosion in downscaled models. The efficacy of the proposed method was confirmed using these criteria in two different downscaled model experiments. The B-Model, a large scale model, simulates watershed prototype. The two small scale models, D(a) and D(b), have different erosion rates, but are the same size. These two models simulate hydraulic processes in the B-Model. Experiment results show that while soil loss in the small scale models was converted by multiplying the soil loss scale number, it was very close to that of the B-Model. Obviously, with a semi-scale physical model, experiments are available to verify and predict soil loss in a small watershed area with check dam system on the Loess Plateau, China.

  20. Alternate approaches to verifying the structural adequacy of the Defense High Level Waste Shipping Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.

    1991-12-01

    In the early 1980s, the US Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as one that fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. General Atomics (GA) designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This topical report presents the results of the two analytical approaches and the model testing results. The purpose of this work is to show that there are two viable analytical alternatives to verify the structural adequacy of a Type B package and to obtain an NRC license. It addition, this data will help to support the future acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing

  1. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  2. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  3. Verifying the agreed framework between the United States and North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Under the 1994 Agreed Framework (AF) between the United States and the Democratic People Republic of Korea (DPRK), the US and its allies will provide two nuclear-power reactors and other benefits to the DPRK in exchange for an agreement by the DPRK to declare how much nuclear-weapon material it has produced; to identify, freeze, and eventually dismantle specified facilities for producing this material; and to remain a party to the nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and allow the implementation of its safeguards agreement. This study assesses the verifiability of these provisions. The study concludes verification can be accomplished, given cooperation and openness from the DPRK. Special effort will be needed from the IAEA, as well as support from the US and the Republic of Korea. (author)

  4. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement.

  5. New verifiable stationarity concepts for a class of mathematical programs with disjunctive constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Matúš; Gfrerer, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a sufficiently broad class of non-linear mathematical programs with disjunctive constraints, which, e.g. include mathematical programs with complemetarity/vanishing constraints. We present an extension of the concept of [Formula: see text]-stationarity which can be easily combined with the well-known notion of M-stationarity to obtain the stronger property of so-called [Formula: see text]-stationarity. We show how the property of [Formula: see text]-stationarity (and thus also of M-stationarity) can be efficiently verified for the considered problem class by computing [Formula: see text]-stationary solutions of a certain quadratic program. We consider further the situation that the point which is to be tested for [Formula: see text]-stationarity, is not known exactly, but is approximated by some convergent sequence, as it is usually the case when applying some numerical method.

  6. The anterior choroidal artery syndrome. Pt. 2. CT and/or MR in angiographically verified cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.; Ishii, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Higano, S.; Ishibashi, T.; Suzuki, M.; Sakamoto, K.

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed 12 cases of infarcts in the territory of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) on CT and/or MRI. In each case vascular occlusion in the region was verified angiographically. Although the extent of the lesion on CT/MR images was variable, all were located on the axial images within an arcuate zone between the striatium anterolaterally and the thalamus posteromedially. The distribution of the lesions on mutiplanar MRI conformed well to the territory of the AChA demonstrated microangiographically. The variability of the extent of the infarcts may be explained by variations in the degree of occlusive changes in the AChA or the development of collateral circulation through anastomoses between the AChA and the posterior communicating and posterior cerebral arteries. The extent of the lesion appeared to be closely related to the degree of neurological deficit. (orig.)

  7. Model Checking Artificial Intelligence Based Planners: Even the Best Laid Plans Must Be Verified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret H.; Holzmann, Gerard J.; Cucullu, Gordon C., III; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2005-01-01

    Automated planning systems (APS) are gaining acceptance for use on NASA missions as evidenced by APS flown On missions such as Orbiter and Deep Space 1 both of which were commanded by onboard planning systems. The planning system takes high level goals and expands them onboard into a detailed of action fiat the spacecraft executes. The system must be verified to ensure that the automatically generated plans achieve the goals as expected and do not generate actions that would harm the spacecraft or mission. These systems are typically tested using empirical methods. Formal methods, such as model checking, offer exhaustive or measurable test coverage which leads to much greater confidence in correctness. This paper describes a formal method based on the SPIN model checker. This method guarantees that possible plans meet certain desirable properties. We express the input model in Promela, the language of SPIN and express the properties of desirable plans formally.

  8. Is it possible to verify directly a proton-treatment plan using positron emission tomography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vynckier, S.; Derreumaux, S.; Richard, F.; Wambersie, A.; Bol, A.; Michel, C.

    1993-01-01

    A PET camera is used to visualize the positron activity induced during protonbeam therapy in order to verify directly the proton-treatment plans. The positron emitters created are predominantly the 15 O and 11 C, whose total activity amounts to 12 MBq after an irradiation with 85 MeV protons, delivering 3 Gy in a volume of approximately 300 cm 3 . Although this method is a useful verification of patient setup, care must be taken when deriving dose distributions from activity distributions. Correlation between both quantities is difficult, moreover at the last millimeters of their range, protons will no longer activate tissue. Due to the short half-lives the PET camera must be located close to the treatment facility. (author) 17 refs

  9. Verifying detailed fluctuation relations for discrete feedback-controlled quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camati, Patrice A.; Serra, Roberto M.

    2018-04-01

    Discrete quantum feedback control consists of a managed dynamics according to the information acquired by a previous measurement. Energy fluctuations along such dynamics satisfy generalized fluctuation relations, which are useful tools to study the thermodynamics of systems far away from equilibrium. Due to the practical challenge to assess energy fluctuations in the quantum scenario, the experimental verification of detailed fluctuation relations in the presence of feedback control remains elusive. We present a feasible method to experimentally verify detailed fluctuation relations for discrete feedback control quantum dynamics. Two detailed fluctuation relations are developed and employed. The method is based on a quantum interferometric strategy that allows the verification of fluctuation relations in the presence of feedback control. An analytical example to illustrate the applicability of the method is discussed. The comprehensive technique introduced here can be experimentally implemented at a microscale with the current technology in a variety of experimental platforms.

  10. Getting What We Paid for: a Script to Verify Full Access to E-Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Spurgin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Libraries regularly pay for packages of e-resources containing hundreds to thousands of individual titles. Ideally, library patrons could access the full content of all titles in such packages. In reality, library staff and patrons inevitably stumble across inaccessible titles, but no library has the resources to manually verify full access to all titles, and basic URL checkers cannot check for access. This article describes the E-Resource Access Checker—a script that automates the verification of full access. With the Access Checker, library staff can identify all inaccessible titles in a package and bring these problems to content providers’ attention to ensure we get what we pay for.

  11. Error prevention in radiotherapy treatments using a record and verify system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete Campos, S.; Hernandez Vitoria, A.; Canellas Anoz, M.; Millan Cebrian, E.; Garcia Romero, A.

    2001-01-01

    Computerized record-and-verify systems (RVS) are being used increasingly to improve the precision of radiotherapy treatments. With the introduction of new treatment devices, such as multileaf or asymmetric collimators and virtual wedges, the responsibility to ensure correct treatment has increased. The purpose of this paper is to present the method that we are following to prevent some potential radiotherapy errors and to point out some errors that can be easily detected using a RVS, through a check of the daily recorded treatment information. We conclude that a RVS prevents the occurrence of many errors, when the settings of the treatment machine do not match the intended parameters within some maximal authorized deviation, and allows to detect easily other potential errors related with a incorrect selection of the treatment patient data. A quality assurance program, including a check of all beam data and a weekly control of the manual and electronic chart, has helped reduce errors. (author)

  12. Methods to verify absorbed dose of irradiated containers and evaluation of dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Wang Chuanyao; Tang Zhangxong; Li Shurong

    2001-01-01

    The research on dose distribution in irradiated food containers and evaluation of several methods to verify absorbed dose were carried out. The minimum absorbed dose of treated five orange containers was in the top of the highest or in the bottom of lowest container. D max /D min in this study was 1.45 irradiated in a commercial 60 Co facility. The density of orange containers was about 0.391g/cm 3 . The evaluation of dosimeters showed that the PMMA-YL and clear PMMA dosimeters have linear relationship with dose response, and the word NOT in STERIN-125 and STERIN-300 indicators were covered completely at the dosage of 125 and 300 Gy respectively. (author)

  13. Reference Material Properties and Standard Problems to Verify the Fuel Performance Models Ver 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Jae Yong; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2010-12-01

    All fuel performance models must be validated by in-pile and out-pile tests. However, the model validation requires much efforts and times to confirm its exactness. In many fields, new performance models and codes are confirmed by code-to-code benchmarking process under simplified standard problem analysis. At present, the DUOS, which is the steady state fuel performance analysis code for dual cooled annular fuel, development project is progressing and new FEM module is developed to analyze the fuel performance during transient period. In addition, the verification process is planning to examine the new models and module's rightness by comparing with commercial finite element analysis such as a ADINA, ABAQUS and ANSYS. This reports contains the result of unification of material properties and establishment of standard problem to verify the newly developed models with commercial FEM code

  14. How to verify lightning protection efficiency for electrical systems? Testing procedures and practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkl, Josef; Zahlmann, Peter [DEHN and SOEHNE, Neumarkt (Germany)], Emails: Josef.Birkl@technik.dehn.de, Peter.Zahlmann@technik.dehn.de

    2007-07-01

    There are increasing numbers of applications, installing Surge Protective Devices (SPDs), through which partial lightning currents flow, and highly sensitive, electronic devices to be protected closely next to each other due to the design of electric distribution systems and switchgear installations which is getting more and more compact. In these cases, the protective function of the SPDs has to be co-ordinated with the individual immunity of the equipment against energetic, conductive impulse voltages and impulse currents. In order to verify the immunity against partial lightning currents of the complete system laboratory tests on a system level are a suitable approach. The proposed test schemes for complete systems have been successfully performed on various applications. Examples will be presented. (author)

  15. Measuring reporting verifying. A primer on MRV for nationally appropriate mitigation actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, M. (ed.); Luetken, S.; Holm Olsen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aalders, E.; Pretlove, B.; Peters, N. (Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark))

    2012-03-15

    The requirements for measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are one of the crucial topics on the agenda of international negotiations to address climate change mitigation. According to agreements so far, the general guidelines for domestic MRV are to be developed by Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)1. Further, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) will be conducting international consultations and analysis (ICA) of biennial update reports (BUR) to improve transparency of mitigation actions, which should be measured, reported and verified. 2. What is clear from undergoing discussions both at SBSTA and at SBI is that MRV for NAMAs should not be a burden for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions connected to economic activities. Instead, the MRV process should facilitate mitigation actions; encourage the redirection of investments and address concerns regarding carbon content of emission intensive operations of private and public companies and enterprises worldwide. While MRV requirements are being shaped within the Convention, there are a number of initiatives supporting developing countries moving forward with NAMA development and demonstration activities. How these actions shall be measured, reported and verified, however, remain unanswered. MRV is not new. It is present in most existing policies and frameworks related to climate change mitigation. With an aim to contribute to international debate and capacity building on this crucial issue, the UNEP Risoe Centre in cooperation with UNDP, are pleased to present this publication that through the direct collaboration with Det Norske Veritas (DNV) builds on existing MRV practices in current carbon markets; provides insights on how MRV for NAMAs can be performed and identifies elements and drivers to be considered when designing adequate MRV systems for NAMAs in developing countries. This primer is the second

  16. Evaluating MC and A effectiveness to verify the presence of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, P.G.; Morzinski, J.A.; Ostenak, Carl A.; Longmire, V.L.; Jewell, D.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Traditional materials accounting is focused exclusively on the material balance area (MBA), and involves periodically closing a material balance based on accountability measurements conducted during a physical inventory. In contrast, the physical inventory for Los Alamos National Laboratory's near-real-time accounting system is established around processes and looks more like an item inventory. That is, the intent is not to measure material for accounting purposes, since materials have already been measured in the normal course of daily operations. A given unit process operates many times over the course of a material balance period. The product of a given unit process may move for processing within another unit process in the same MBA or may be transferred out of the MBA. Since few materials are unmeasured the physical inventory for a near-real-time process area looks more like an item inventory. Thus, the intent of the physical inventory is to locate the materials on the books and verify information about the materials contained in the books. Closing a materials balance for such an area is a matter of summing all the individual mass balances for the batches processed by all unit processes in the MBA. Additionally, performance parameters are established to measure the program's effectiveness. Program effectiveness for verifying the presence of nuclear material is required to be equal to or greater than a prescribed performance level, process measurements must be within established precision and accuracy values, physical inventory results meet or exceed performance requirements, and inventory differences are less than a target/goal quantity. This approach exceeds DOE established accounting and physical inventory program requirements. Hence, LANL is committed to this approach and to seeking opportunities for further improvement through integrated technologies. This paper will provide a detailed description of this evaluation process.

  17. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations – such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1 h – can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed “verified Lagrangian” sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2–4 h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we

  18. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C; Writer, Jeffrey H; Murphy, Sheila F

    2014-02-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations - such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1h - can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed "verified Lagrangian" sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2-4h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we show how data

  19. Effect of glucocorticosteroid injections in tennis elbow verified on colour Doppler ultrasonography: evidence of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, T.E.; Torp-Pedersen, S.T.; Qvistgaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    were evaluated at baseline before the injection and at 2 weeks of follow-up. Outcome measures were changes in pain score and US parameters (resistive index (RI) and the amount of colour within the CEO). Prognosticators for outcome were: use of computer mouse, symptom duration, elbow strain, RI, colour...... fraction, Likert pain score, pain at rest, pain during activity, age, height, weight, disease in dominant versus nondominant arm. RESULTS: All but one patient experienced improvement of general elbow pain perception at follow-up at 2 weeks. In parallel, Doppler US showed significant reduction in colour...

  20. An Inexpensive Infrared Detector to Verify the Delivery of Food Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Ratzlaff, Kenneth L.; Madden, Gregory J.; Fowler, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    The reproducibility of experimental outcomes depends on consistent control of independent variables. In food-maintained operant performance, it is of utmost importance that the quantity of food delivered is reliable. To that end, some commercial food pellet dispensers have add-on attachments to sense the delivery of pellets. Not all companies,…

  1. Defining and Verifying Research Grade Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    The first and primary goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), operated jointly by the University of Florida and the University of California, Berkeley, is to make "research grade" ALSM data widely available at affordable cost to the national scientific community. Cost aside, researchers need to know what NCALM considers research grade data and how the quality of the data is verified, to be able to determine the likelihood that the data they receive will meet their project specific requirements. Given the current state of the technology it is reasonable to expect a well planned and executed survey to produce surface elevations with uncertainties less than 10 centimeters and horizontal uncertainties of a few decimeters. Various components of the total error are generally associated with the aircraft trajectory, aircraft orientation, or laser vectors. Aircraft trajectory error is dependent largely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, aircraft orientation on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) observations, and laser vectors on the scanning and ranging instrumentation. In addition to the issue of the precision or accuracy of the coordinates of the surface points, consideration must also be given to the point-to-point spacing and voids in the coverage. The major sources of error produce distinct artifacts in the data set. For example, aircraft trajectory errors tend to change slowly as the satellite constellation geometry varies, producing slopes within swaths and offsets between swaths. Roll, pitch and yaw biases in the IMU observations tend to persist through whole flights, and created distinctive artifacts in the swath overlap areas. Errors in the zero-point and scale of the laser scanner cause the edges of swaths to turn up or down. Range walk errors cause offsets between bright and dark surfaces, causing paint stripes to float above the dark surfaces of roads. The three keys to producing

  2. Isotope correlation techniques for verifying input accountability measurements at a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope correlation techniques were studied to verify input accountability measurements at a reprocessing plant. On the basis of a historical data bank, correlation between plutonium-to-uranium ratio and isotopic variables was derived as a function of burnup. The burnup was determined from the isotopic ratios of uranium and plutonium, too. Data treatment was therefore made in an iterative manner. The isotopic variables were defined to cover a wide spectrum of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. The isotope correlation techniques evaluated important parameters such as the fuel burnup, the most probable ratio of plutonium to uranium, and the amounts of uranium and plutonium in reprocessing batches in connection with fresh fuel fabrication data. In addition, the most probable values of isotope abundance of plutonium and uranium could be estimated from the plutonium-to-uranium ratio determined, being compared with the reported data for verification. A pocket-computer-based system was developed to enable inspectors to collect and evaluate data in a timely fashion at the input accountability measurement point by the isotope correlation techniques. The device is supported by battery power and completely independent of the operator's system. The software of the system was written in BASIC. The data input can be stored in a cassette tape and transferred into a higher level computer. The correlations used for the analysis were given as a form of analytical function. Coefficients for the function were provided relevant to the type of reactor and the initial enrichment of fuel. (author)

  3. Method for verifying the pressure in a nuclear reactor fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of accurately verifying the pressure contained in a sealed pressurized fuel rod by utilizing a pressure balance measurement technique wherein an end of the fuel rod extends through and is sealed in a wall of a small chamber. The chamber is pressurized to the nominal (desired) fuel rod pressure and the fuel rod is then pierced to interconnect the chamber and fuel rod. The deviation of chamber pressure is noted. The final combined pressure of the fuel rod and drill chamber is substantially equal to the nominal rod pressure; departure of the combined pressure from nominal is in direct proportion to departure of rod pressure from nominal. The maximum error in computing the rod pressure from the deviation of the combined pressure from nominal is estimated at plus or minus 3.0 psig for rod pressures within the specified production limits. If the rod pressure is corrected for rod void volume using a digital printer data record, the accuracy improves to about plus or minus 2.0 psig

  4. Experimental evaluation of the exposure level onboard Czech Airlines aircraft - measurements verified the routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Kovar, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air-crew members are exposed to ionizing radiation due to their work on board of air-crafts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 recommends that exposure to cosmic radiation in the operation of jet aircraft should be recognised as occupational exposure. Czech air transport operators are therefore obliged to ensure: - Air-crew members to be well informed about the exposure level and health risks; - An analysis of complete exposure level of aircraft crew and its continuing monitoring in cases of exceeding the informative value 1 mSv; - A compliance of limit 1 mSv during pregnancy Since 1998, after receiving a proper accreditation, the Department of Radiation Dosimetry of Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Academy of Sciences (DRD) is the competent dosimetric service realized requirements of Notice No.307 of the State Office for Nuclear Safety concerning air-crew exposure (paragraphs 87-90). The DRD has developed routine method of personal dosimetry of aircraft crew in 1998 which has been applied after receiving a proper accreditation in the same year. DRD therefore helps Czech airlines a.s. (CSA) with their legislative obligations mentioned above, and in return, once per four years, in terms of business contract, CSA allows scientific measurements performed by DRD onboard its air-crafts with the aim to verify the method of routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure. (authors)

  5. POSSIBILITIES TO EVALUATE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION BY VERIFYING THE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru BOROIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the higher education, for the evaluation of education process it is of high interest to use some numeric indicators obtained from the database with the final results realized by the students on exams session. For this purpose could be used the following numeric indicators: proportion of students absent on final evaluation, proportion of non-promoted students, normality degree of passing marks distribution. In order to do this we realized an Excel calculation program that could be applied to each discipline. The inputs are concrete (students total, students present to final evaluation, marks absolute frequency and the outputs for the three indicators are binary (competent or noncompetent, in the last situation the verdict being: “Give explanations. Propose an action plan, with actions, responsible and terms”. To verify the imposed normality degree we elaborate a calculation program based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov concordance test. So, it was realized the increase of analyze objectivity and it was created the opportunity to apply corrective measures in order to improve the education process.

  6. Could hypomanic traits explain selective migration? Verifying the hypothesis by the surveys on sardinian migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni, Carta Mauro; Francesca, Moro Maria; Viviane, Kovess; Brasesco, Maria Veronica; Bhat, Krishna M; Matthias, Angermeyer C; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2012-01-01

    A recent survey put forward the hypothesis that the emigration that occurred from Sardinia from the 1960's to the 1980's, selected people with a hypomanic temperament. The paper aims to verify if the people who migrated from Sardinia in that period have shown a high risk of mood disorders in the surveys carried out in their host countries, and if the results are consistent with this hypothesis. This is systematic review. In the 1970's when examining the attitudes towards migration in Sardinian couples waiting to emigrate, Rudas found that the decision to emigrate was principally taken by males. Female showed lower self-esteem than male emigrants. A study on Sardinian immigrants in Argentina carried out in 2001-02, at the peak of the economic crisis, found a high risk of depressive disorders in women only. These results were opposite to the findings recorded ten years earlier in a survey on Sardinian immigrants in Paris, where the risk of Depressive Episode was higher in young men only. Data point to a bipolar disorder risk for young (probably hypomanic) male migrants in competitive, challenging conditions; and a different kind of depressive episodes for women in trying economic conditions. The results of the survey on Sardinian migrants are partially in agreement with the hypothesis of a selective migration of people with a hypomanic temperament. Early motivations and self-esteem seem related to the ways mood disorders are expressed, and to the vulnerability to specific triggering situations in the host country.

  7. Experimentally verified inductance extraction and parameter study for superconductive integrated circuit wires crossing ground plane holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, Coenrad J; Wetzstein, Olaf; Kunert, Juergen; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Toepfer, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    As the complexity of rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits increases, both current and power consumption of the circuits become important design criteria. Various new concepts such as inductive biasing for energy efficient RSFQ circuits and inductively coupled RSFQ cells for current recycling have been proposed to overcome increasingly severe design problems. Both of these techniques use ground plane holes to increase the inductance or coupling factor of superconducting integrated circuit wires. New design tools are consequently required to handle the new topographies. One important issue in such circuit design is the accurate calculation of networks of inductances even in the presence of finite holes in the ground plane. We show how a fast network extraction method using InductEx, which is a pre- and post-processor for the magnetoquasistatic field solver FastHenry, is used to calculate the inductances of a set of SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) with ground plane holes of different sizes. The results are compared to measurements of physical structures fabricated with the IPHT Jena 1 kA cm −2 RSFQ niobium process to verify accuracy. We then do a parameter study and derive empirical equations for fast and useful estimation of the inductance of wires surrounded by ground plane holes. We also investigate practical circuits and show excellent accuracy. (paper)

  8. Identifying the 'right patient': nurse and consumer perspectives on verifying patient identity during medication administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Teresa; Roper, Cath; Elsom, Stephen; Gaskin, Cadeyrn

    2011-10-01

    Accurate verification of patient identity during medication administration is an important component of medication administration practice. In medical and surgical inpatient settings, the use of identification aids, such as wristbands, is common. In many psychiatric inpatient units in Victoria, Australia, however, standardized identification aids are not used. The present paper outlines the findings of a qualitative research project that employed focus groups to examine mental health nurse and mental health consumer perspectives on the identification of patients during routine medication administration in psychiatric inpatient units. The study identified a range of different methods currently employed to verify patient identity, including technical methods, such as wristband and photographs, and interpersonal methods, such as patient recognition. There were marked similarities in the perspectives of mental health nurses and mental health consumers regarding their opinions and preferences. Technical aids were seen as important, but not as a replacement for the therapeutic nurse-patient encounter. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo Mansilla, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations

  10. Measurement of Deformations by MEMS Arrays, Verified at Sub-millimetre Level Using Robotic Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Beran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of sub-millimetre-level deformations of structures in the presence of ambienttemperature changes can be challenging. This paper describes the measurement of astructure moving due to temperature changes, using two ShapeAccelArray (SAAinstruments, and verified by a geodetic monitoring system. SAA is a geotechnicalinstrument often used for monitoring of displacements in soil. SAA uses micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure tilt in the gravity field. The geodeticmonitoring system, which uses ALERT software, senses the displacements of targetsrelative to control points, using a robotic total station (RTS. The test setup consists of acentral four-metre free-standing steel tube with other steel tubes welded to most of itslength. The central tube is anchored in a concrete foundation. This composite “pole” isequipped with two SAAs as well as three geodetic prisms mounted on the top, in the middle,and in the foundation. The geodetic system uses multiple control targets mounted inconcrete foundations of nearby buildings, and at the base of the pole. Long-termobservations using two SAAs indicate that the pole is subject to deformations due to cyclicalambient temperature variations causing the pole to move by a few millimetres each day. Ina multiple-day experiment, it was possible to track this movement using SAA as well as theRTS system. This paper presents data comparing the measurements of the two instrumentsand provides a good example of the detection of two-dimensional movements of seeminglyrigid objects due to temperature changes.

  11. Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Ni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tubes are commonly used for enteral feeding. Complications of feeding tube misplacement include malnutrition, pulmonary aspiration, and even death. We built a Bayesian network (BN to analyse the risks associated with available bedside tests to verify tube position. Evidence on test validity (sensitivity and specificity was retrieved from a systematic review. Likelihood ratios were used to select the best tests for detecting tubes misplaced in the lung or oesophagus. Five bedside tests were analysed including magnetic guidance, aspirate pH, auscultation, aspirate appearance, and capnography/colourimetry. Among these, auscultation and appearance are non-diagnostic towards lung or oesophagus placements. Capnography/ colourimetry can confirm but cannot rule out lung placement. Magnetic guidance can rule out both lung and oesophageal placement. However, as a relatively new technology, further validation studies are needed. The pH test with a cut-off at 5.5 or lower can rule out lung intubation. Lowering the cut-off to 4 not only minimises oesophageal intubation but also provides extra safety as the sensitivity of pH measurement is reduced by feeding, antacid medication, or the use of less accurate pH paper. BN is an effective tool for representing and analysing multi-layered uncertainties in test validity and reliability for the verification of NG tube position. Aspirate pH with a cut-off of 4 is the safest bedside method to minimise lung and oesophageal misplacement.

  12. Verifying the functional ability of microstructured surfaces by model-based testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Wito; Weckenmann, Albert

    2014-09-01

    Micro- and nanotechnology enables the use of new product features such as improved light absorption, self-cleaning or protection, which are based, on the one hand, on the size of functional nanostructures and the other hand, on material-specific properties. With the need to reliably measure progressively smaller geometric features, coordinate and surface-measuring instruments have been refined and now allow high-resolution topography and structure measurements down to the sub-nanometre range. Nevertheless, in many cases it is not possible to make a clear statement about the functional ability of the workpiece or its topography because conventional concepts of dimensioning and tolerancing are solely geometry oriented and standardized surface parameters are not sufficient to consider interaction with non-geometric parameters, which are dominant for functions such as sliding, wetting, sealing and optical reflection. To verify the functional ability of microstructured surfaces, a method was developed based on a parameterized mathematical-physical model of the function. From this model, function-related properties can be identified and geometric parameters can be derived, which may be different for the manufacturing and verification processes. With this method it is possible to optimize the definition of the shape of the workpiece regarding the intended function by applying theoretical and experimental knowledge, as well as modelling and simulation. Advantages of this approach will be discussed and demonstrated by the example of a microstructured inking roll.

  13. The Mitochondrial Protein Atlas: A Database of Experimentally Verified Information on the Human Mitochondrial Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Noa; Eichler, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Given its central role in various biological systems, as well as its involvement in numerous pathologies, the mitochondrion is one of the best-studied organelles. However, although the mitochondrial genome has been extensively investigated, protein-level information remains partial, and in many cases, hypothetical. The Mitochondrial Protein Atlas (MPA; URL: lifeserv.bgu.ac.il/wb/jeichler/MPA ) is a database that provides a complete, manually curated inventory of only experimentally validated human mitochondrial proteins. The MPA presently contains 911 unique protein entries, each of which is associated with at least one experimentally validated and referenced mitochondrial localization. The MPA also contains experimentally validated and referenced information defining function, structure, involvement in pathologies, interactions with other MPA proteins, as well as the method(s) of analysis used in each instance. Connections to relevant external data sources are offered for each entry, including links to NCBI Gene, PubMed, and Protein Data Bank. The MPA offers a prototype for other information sources that allow for a distinction between what has been confirmed and what remains to be verified experimentally.

  14. Dynamic simulation platform to verify the performance of the reactor regulating system for a research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    Digital instrumentation and controls system technique is being introduced in new constructed research reactor or life extension of older research reactor. Digital systems are easy to change and optimize but the validated process for them is required. Also, to reduce project risk or cost, we have to make it sure that configuration and control functions is right before the commissioning phase on research reactor. For this purpose, simulators have been widely used in developing control systems in automotive and aerospace industries. In these literatures, however, very few of these can be found regarding test on the control system of research reactor with simulator. Therefore, this paper proposes a simulation platform to verify the performance of RRS (Reactor Regulating System) for research reactor. This simulation platform consists of the reactor simulation model and the interface module. This simulation platform is applied to I and C upgrade project of TRIGA reactor, and many problems of RRS configuration were found and solved. And it proved that the dynamic performance testing based on simulator enables significant time saving and improves economics and quality for RRS in the system test phase. (authors)

  15. A Pilot Study Verifying How the Curve Information Impacts on the Driver Performance with Cognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers' misjudgment is a significant issue for the curve safety. It is considered as a more influential factor than other traffic environmental conditions for inducing risk. The research suggested that the cognition theory could explain the process of drivers’ behavior at curves. In this simulator experiment, a principle cognition model was built to examine the rationality of this explanation. The core of this pilot study was using one of the driving decision strategies for braking at curves to verify the accuracy of the cognition model fundamentally. Therefore, the experiment designed three treatments of information providing modes. The result of the experiment presented that the warning information about curves in advance can move the position of first braking away from curves. This phenomenon is consistent with the model’s inference. Thus, the conclusion of this study indicates that the process of the drivers' behavior at curves can be explained by the cognition theory and represented by cognition model. In addition, the model’s characteristics and working parameters can be acquired by doing other research. Then based on the model it can afford the advice for giving the appropriate warning information that may avoid the driver’s mistake.

  16. Verifying Real-Time Systems using Explicit-time Description Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Timed model checking has been extensively researched in recent years. Many new formalisms with time extensions and tools based on them have been presented. On the other hand, Explicit-Time Description Methods aim to verify real-time systems with general untimed model checkers. Lamport presented an explicit-time description method using a clock-ticking process (Tick to simulate the passage of time together with a group of global variables for time requirements. This paper proposes a new explicit-time description method with no reliance on global variables. Instead, it uses rendezvous synchronization steps between the Tick process and each system process to simulate time. This new method achieves better modularity and facilitates usage of more complex timing constraints. The two explicit-time description methods are implemented in DIVINE, a well-known distributed-memory model checker. Preliminary experiment results show that our new method, with better modularity, is comparable to Lamport's method with respect to time and memory efficiency.

  17. On verifying magnetic dipole moment of a magnetic torquer by experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyyakanont, Aekjira; Kuntanapreeda, Suwat; Fuengwarodsakul, Nisai H.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic torquers are used for the attitude control of small satellites, such as CubeSats with Low Earth Orbit (LEO). During the design of magnetic torquers, it is necessary to confirm if its magnetic dipole moment is enough to control the satellite attitude. The magnetic dipole moment can affect the detumbling time and the satellite rotation time. In addition, it is also necessary to understand how to design the magnetic torquer for operation in a CubeSat under the space environment at LEO. This paper reports an investigation of the magnetic dipole moment and the magnetic field generated by a circular air-coil magnetic torquer using experimental measurements. The experiment testbed was built on an air-bearing under a magnetic field generated by a Helmholtz coil. This paper also describes the procedure to determine and verify the magnetic dipole moment value of the designed circular air-core magnetic torquer. The experimental results are compared with the design calculations. According to the comparison results, the designed magnetic torquer reaches the required magnetic dipole moment. This designed magnetic torquer will be applied to the attitude control systems of a 1U CubeSat satellite in the project “KNACKSAT.”

  18. Verifying Identities of Plant-Based Multivitamins Using Phytochemical Fingerprinting in Combination with Multiple Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeni; Ahn, Yoon Hee; Yoo, Jae Keun; Park, Kyoung Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2017-09-01

    Sales of multivitamins have been growing rapidly and the concept of natural multivitamin, plant-based multivitamin, or both has been introduced in the market, leading consumers to anticipate additional health benefits from phytochemicals that accompany the vitamins. However, the lack of labeling requirements might lead to fraudulent claims. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a strategy to verify identity of plant-based multivitamins. Phytochemical fingerprinting was used to discriminate identities. In addition, multiple bioassays were performed to determine total antioxidant capacity. A statistical computation model was then used to measure contributions of phytochemicals and vitamins to antioxidant activities. Fifteen multivitamins were purchased from the local markets in Seoul, Korea and classified into three groups according to the number of plant ingredients. Pearson correlation analysis among antioxidant capacities, amount phenols, and number of plant ingredients revealed that ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay results had the highest correlation with total phenol content. This suggests that FRAP and DPPH assays are useful for characterizing plant-derived multivitamins. Furthermore, net effect linear regression analysis confirmed that the contribution of phytochemicals to total antioxidant capacities was always relatively higher than that of vitamins. Taken together, the results suggest that phytochemical fingerprinting in combination with multiple bioassays could be used as a strategy to determine whether plant-derived multivitamins could provide additional health benefits beyond their nutritional value.

  19. Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode: Or, How Not to Design Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    Banks worldwide are starting to authenticate online card transactions using the '3-D Secure' protocol, which is branded as Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode. This has been partly driven by the sharp increase in online fraud that followed the deployment of EMV smart cards for cardholder-present payments in Europe and elsewhere. 3-D Secure has so far escaped academic scrutiny; yet it might be a textbook example of how not to design an authentication protocol. It ignores good design principles and has significant vulnerabilities, some of which are already being exploited. Also, it provides a fascinating lesson in security economics. While other single sign-on schemes such as OpenID, InfoCard and Liberty came up with decent technology they got the economics wrong, and their schemes have not been adopted. 3-D Secure has lousy technology, but got the economics right (at least for banks and merchants); it now boasts hundreds of millions of accounts. We suggest a path towards more robust authentication that is technologically sound and where the economics would work for banks, merchants and customers - given a gentle regulatory nudge.

  20. Verifying the model of predicting entrepreneurial intention among students of business and non-business orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Sušanj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify whether certain entrepreneurial characteristics, like entrepreneurial potential and entrepreneurial propensity, affect the level of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship, and further have direct and indirect effect on entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, this study seeks to compare the strength of the relationship between these variables among groups of students who receive some entrepreneurship education and students outside the business sphere. Data was collected from a sample of undergraduate students of business and non-business orientation and analyzed with multi-group analysis within SEM. Results of the multi-group analysis indicate that indeed, the strength of the relationship among tested variables is more pronounced when it comes to business students. That is, mediating effect of perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship in the relationship between entrepreneurial characteristics and intent, is significantly stronger for the business-oriented groups, in comparison to non-business orientation group. The amount of explained variance of all constructs (except entrepreneurial propensity is also larger in business students in comparison to non-business students. Educational implications of obtained results are discussed.

  1. Verified spider bites in Oregon (USA) with the intent to assess hobo spider venom toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Nathanael; Vetter, Richard S; Hendrickson, Robert G

    2014-06-01

    This study compiled 33 verified spider bites from the state of Oregon (USA). The initial goal was to amass a series of bites by the hobo spider to assess whether it possesses toxic venom, a supposition which is currently in a contested state. None of the 33 bites from several spider species developed significant medical symptoms nor did dermonecrosis occur. The most common biters were the yellow sac spider, Cheiracanthium mildei (N = 10) and orb-weavers of the genus Araneus (N = 6). There were 10 bites from three genera of funnel web spiders of the family Agelenidae including one hobo spider bite and one from the congeneric giant house spider which is readily confused as a hobo spider. The hobo spider bite resulted in pain, redness, twitching in the calf muscle and resolved in 12 h. Also generated from this study were possibly the first records of bites from spiders of the genera Callobius (Amaurobiidae) and Antrodiaetus (Antrodiaetidae), both with minor manifestations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Pain progression, intensity and outcomes following tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, F F; Lander, J

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess outcomes of pediatric day surgery tonsillectomy. A total of 129 children, aged 5-16 years, and their parents were recruited from three urban hospitals which provided pediatric day surgery. Children reported pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) in day surgery and then daily at home for 7 days. Parents reported outcomes of surgery, including fluid intake, nausea, vomiting and sleep disturbances. They also recorded analgesic administration. Three main results related to extent and duration of pain, quality of management of pain, and effect of pain on utilization of health services. Tonsillectomy caused considerable pain which lasted more than 7 days. Pain followed a trajectory of intense or moderately intense pain for the first 3 days followed by a gradual decline over the next 4 days. In general, post-tonsillectomy pain was poorly managed by health professionals and parents. An unexpected observation was that children who had a bupivacaine infiltration of the tonsil fossa during surgery had significantly more pain in the evening of surgery than children who did not have an infiltration. The increase in postoperative pain experienced by those who had the infiltration was attributed to quality of pain management. Children with persistent pain (those who did not follow the typical trajectory) were likely to be taken to a medical practitioner. One-third of the sample made unscheduled visits to practitioners with most occurring from Day 4 to Day 7 of the follow-up.

  3. The relevance of 7-day patch test reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Eleanor; Collins, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Patch test readings are usually performed on day 2 (48 hours) and day 4 (96 hours). However, reports in the literature identify delayed allergy to metals, corticosteroids, antibiotics, some preservatives, acrylic and methacrylic monomers and p-phenylenediamine. The aim of our study was to identify the benefit of performing a day 7 (168 hours) reading to identify relevant late positive reactions. Two hundred three consecutive patients were patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard series with additional test series selected according to clinical history and applied at the same time. Twenty-six patients (12.8%) had new positive reactions on day 7 (168 hours), with 28 relevant positive reactions to 21 allergens. These included mercury 0.5% (2/26); cobalt chloride 1% (2/26); colophony 20% (2/26); disperse blue mix 106/124 1% (2/26); preservatives (4/26) that included Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, sodium metabisulfite, and diazolidinyl urea; fragrances (7/26); and gentamycin sulfate 20% (1/26). These results confirm findings in the literature and support the argument for performing a day 7 reading (168 hours) to identify relevant late positive reactions.

  4. A Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing 7-day and 14-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... and 14-day quadruple therapies as first-line treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection in ..... Furthermore, in a large-scale, multicenter, Japanese study ... Taylor DE, Ge Z, Purych D, Lo T, Hiratsuka K. Cloning and sequence ...

  5. A Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing 7-day and 14-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... the H. pylori eradication group showed a markedly lower rate of metachronous recurrence after 3 years when compared with the non-eradication group.[16] These findings show that H. pylori eradication can inhibit the development of gastric cancer. Thus, the consensus among international guidelines is ...

  6. Characteristics associated with non-participation in 7-day accelerometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Weymar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We found a self-selection bias in participation in accelerometry. Women declined study participation more likely than men. The number of cardiometabolic risk factors decreased compliance only in men. Future studies should consider strategies to reduce this bias.

  7. 78 FR 69871 - Agency Information Collection Activities: myE-Verify, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Collection (1) Type of Information Collection: Revision of a Currently Approved Collection. (2) Title of the... respond: E-Verify Self Check--Identity Authentication 2,900,000 responses at 0.0833 hours (5 minutes) per...

  8. Proposed procedure and analysis of results to verify the indicator of the product dose-area in radiology equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Marcos, R.; Gallego Franco, P.; Sierra Diaz, F.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Rodriguez Checa, M.; Brasa Estevez, M.; Gomez Calvar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish a procedure to verify the value of the product dose-area showing certain teams of Radiology, with an alternative to the use of external transmission cameras. (Author)

  9. Combining of both RPAS and GPR methods for documentation and verifying of archaeological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, Karel; Šedina, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    UAV (unmanned aircraft vehicle) or RPAS (remote piloted aircraft systems) are a modern technology for non - contact mapping and monitoring small areas. Nowadays, for control and piloting, RPAS are equipped with sophisticated micro-instruments such as IMU, gyroscopes, GNSS receivers, wireless image insights, wireless controls, automatic stabilization, flight planners, etc. RPAS can provide not only photographic data, but also other data types like multispectral (with NDVI capability), thermal data too (depending on sensors and type). Bigger RPAS can be equipped with more complex and expensive instruments like laser scanners or hyperspectral scanners. The RPAS method of acquisition combines the benefits of close range and aerial photogrammetry. As a result, a higher resolution and mapping precision can be obtained over compact and possibly less accessible areas (e.g. mountains, moors, swamps, dumps, small natural reserves, archaeological areas and dangerous or restricted areas). In our project, many small archaeological places are monitored. It is low cost, simple, and speedy. From these photos, a DSM (digital surface model) and orthophoto can be derived, which are useful for archaeologists (DSM is often used in shaded relief form). Based on the type of processing software, a textured virtual model can be obtained. Near infrared photos from height 100-200m give a new possibility in archaeology. We used both RPAS and GPR methods in three case projects in the Czech Republic in 2014. 1.Historical field fortification In the neighbourhood of town Litoměřice, there are still visible ramparts from the Prussian - Austrian war in the 19th Century. This was a field forward fortification, but has never been used in battle and later disappeared because of agricultural activities. Some parts are detectable by their terrain signatures, visible on shaded DSMs. By the documentation and research of these relics, we measured profiles with GPR for verifying of parts, which were

  10. Can EC and UK national methane emission inventories be verified using high precision stable isotope data?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.; Holmes, C.W.; Nisbet, E.G.; Rata, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The main anthropogenic sources of methane in industrialised countries (landfill/waste treatment, gas storage and distribution, coal) are far easier to reduce than CO 2 sources and the implementation of reduction strategies is potentially profitable. Statistical databases of methane emissions need independent external verification and carbon isotope data provide one way of estimating the expected source mix for each country if the main source types have been characterised isotopically. Using this method each country participating in the CORINAIR 94 database has been assigned an expected isotopic value for its emissions. The averaged δ 13 C of methane emitted from the CORINAIR region of Europe, based on total emissions of each country is -55.4 per mille for 1994. This European source mix can be verified using trajectory analysis for air samples collected at background stations. Methane emissions from the UK, and particularly the London region, have undergone more detailed analysis using data collected at the Royal Holloway site on the western fringe of London. If the latest emissions inventory figures are correct then the modelled isotopic change in the UK source mix is from -48.4 per mille in 1990 to -50.7 per mille in 1997. This represents a reduction in emissions of 25% over a 7-year period, important in meeting proposed UK greenhouse gas reduction targets. These changes can be tested by the isotopic analysis of air samples at carefully selected coastal background and interior sites. Regular sampling and isotopic analysis coupled with back trajectory analysis from a range of sites could provide an important tool for monitoring and verification of EC and UK methane emissions in the run-up to 2010. (author)

  11. Unmaking the bomb: Verifying limits on the stockpiles of nuclear weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Verifying limits on the stockpiles of nuclear weapons may require the ability for international in-spectors to account for individual warheads, even when non-deployed, and to confirm the authenticity of nuclear warheads prior to dismantlement. These are fundamentally new challenges for nuclear verification, and they have been known for some time; unfortunately, due to a lack of sense of urgency, research in this area has not made substantial progress over the past 20 years. This chapter explores the central outstanding issues and offers a number of possible paths forward. In the case of confirming numerical limits, these in-clude innovative tagging techniques and approaches solely based on declarations using modern crypto-graphic escrow schemes; with regard to warhead confirmation, there has recently been increasing interest in developing fundamentally new measurement approaches where, in one form or another, sensitive infor-mation is not acquired in the first place. Overall, new international R&D efforts could more usefully focus on non-intrusive technologies and approaches, which may show more promise for early demonstration and adoption. In the meantime, while warhead dismantlements remain unverified, nuclear weapon states ought to begin to document warhead assembly, refurbishment, and dismantlement activities and movements of warheads and warhead components through the weapons complex in ways that international inspectors will find credible at a later time. Again, such a process could be enabled by modern cryptographic techniques such as blockchaining. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it is important to recognize that the main reason for the complexity of technologies and approaches needed for nuclear disarmament verification is the requirement to protect information that nuclear weapon states consider sensitive. Ultimately, if information security concerns cannot be resolved to the satisfaction of all stakeholders, an alternative would be to "reveal the

  12. Trust, but verify – accuracy of clinical commercial radiation treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J; Kenny, J; Lye, J; Dunn, L; Williams, I

    2014-01-01

    Computer based Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) are used worldwide to design and calculate treatment plans for treating radiation therapy patients. TPS are generally well designed and thoroughly tested by their developers and local physicists prior to clinical use. However, the wide-reaching impact of their accuracy warrants ongoing vigilance. This work reviews the findings of the Australian national audit system and provides recommendations for checks of TPS. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has designed and implemented a national system of audits, currently in a three year test phase. The Level III audits verify the accuracy of a beam model of a facility's TPS through a comparison of measurements with calculation at selected points in an anthropomorphic phantom. The plans are prescribed by the ACDS and all measurement equipment is brought in for independent onsite measurements. In this first version of audits, plans are comparatively simple, involving asymmetric fields, wedges and inhomogeneities. The ACDS has performed 14 Level III audits to-date. Six audits returned at least one measurement at Action Level, indicating that the measured dose differed more than 3.3% (but less than 5%) from the planned dose. Two audits failed (difference >5%). One fail was caused by a data transmission error coupled with quality assurance (QA) not being performed. The second fail was investigated and reduced to Action Level with the onsite audit team finding phantom setup at treatment a contributing factor. The Action Level results are attributed to small dose calculation deviations within the TPS, which are investigated and corrected by the facilities. Small deviations exist in clinical TPS which can add up and can combine with output variations to result in unacceptable variations. Ongoing checks and independent audits are recommended.

  13. Applying the Water Vapor Radiometer to Verify the Precipitable Water Vapor Measured by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located at the land-sea interface in a subtropical region. Because the climate is warm and moist year round, there is a large and highly variable amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, we calculated the Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD of the troposphere using the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS. The ZWD measured by two Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs was then used to verify the ZWD that had been calculated using GPS. We also analyzed the correlation between the ZWD and the precipitation data of these two types of station. Moreover, we used the observational data from 14 GPS and rainfall stations to evaluate three cases. The offset between the GPS-ZWD and the WVR-ZWD ranged from 1.31 to 2.57 cm. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. The results calculated from GPS and those measured using the WVR were very similar. Moreover, when there was no rain, light rain, moderate rain, or heavy rain, the flatland station ZWD was 0.31, 0.36, 0.38, or 0.40 m, respectively. The mountain station ZWD exhibited the same trend. Therefore, these results have demonstrated that the potential and strength of precipitation in a region can be estimated according to its ZWD values. Now that the precision of GPS-ZWD has been confirmed, this method can eventually be expanded to the more than 400 GPS stations in Taiwan and its surrounding islands. The near real-time ZWD data with improved spatial and temporal resolution can be provided to the city and countryside weather-forecasting system that is currently under development. Such an exchange would fundamentally improve the resources used to generate weather forecasts.

  14. System for verifiable CT radiation dose optimization based on image quality. part II. process control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Malarik, Remo J; Hall, Seth M; Podberesky, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of an automated computed tomography (CT) radiation dose optimization and process control system on the consistency of estimated image noise and size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) of radiation in CT examinations of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. This quality improvement project was determined not to constitute human subject research. An automated system was developed to analyze each examination immediately after completion, and to report individual axial-image-level and study-level summary data for patient size, image noise, and SSDE. The system acquired data for 4 months beginning October 1, 2011. Protocol changes were made by using parameters recommended by the prediction application, and 3 months of additional data were acquired. Preimplementation and postimplementation mean image noise and SSDE were compared by using unpaired t tests and F tests. Common-cause variation was differentiated from special-cause variation by using a statistical process control individual chart. A total of 817 CT examinations, 490 acquired before and 327 acquired after the initial protocol changes, were included in the study. Mean patient age and water-equivalent diameter were 12.0 years and 23.0 cm, respectively. The difference between actual and target noise increased from -1.4 to 0.3 HU (P process control chart identified several special causes of variation. Implementation of an automated CT radiation dose optimization system led to verifiable simultaneous decrease in image noise variation and SSDE. The automated nature of the system provides the opportunity for consistent CT radiation dose optimization on a broad scale. © RSNA, 2013.

  15. Rigidity of quantum steering and one-sided device-independent verifiable quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Alexandru; Wallden, Petros; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between correlations and entanglement has played a major role in understanding quantum theory since the work of Einstein et al (1935 Phys. Rev. 47 777–80). Tsirelson proved that Bell states, shared among two parties, when measured suitably, achieve the maximum non-local correlations allowed by quantum mechanics (Cirel’son 1980 Lett. Math. Phys. 4 93–100). Conversely, Reichardt et al showed that observing the maximal correlation value over a sequence of repeated measurements, implies that the underlying quantum state is close to a tensor product of maximally entangled states and, moreover, that it is measured according to an ideal strategy (Reichardt et al 2013 Nature 496 456–60). However, this strong rigidity result comes at a high price, requiring a large number of entangled pairs to be tested. In this paper, we present a significant improvement in terms of the overhead by instead considering quantum steering where the device of the one side is trusted. We first demonstrate a robust one-sided device-independent version of self-testing, which characterises the shared state and measurement operators of two parties up to a certain bound. We show that this bound is optimal up to constant factors and we generalise the results for the most general attacks. This leads us to a rigidity theorem for maximal steering correlations. As a key application we give a one-sided device-independent protocol for verifiable delegated quantum computation, and compare it to other existing protocols, to highlight the cost of trust assumptions. Finally, we show that under reasonable assumptions, the states shared in order to run a certain type of verification protocol must be unitarily equivalent to perfect Bell states. (paper)

  16. Trust, but verify - Accuracy of clinical commercial radiation Treatment Planning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J.; Kenny, J.; Lye, J.; Dunn, L.; Williams, I.

    2014-03-01

    Computer based Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) are used worldwide to design and calculate treatment plans for treating radiation therapy patients. TPS are generally well designed and thoroughly tested by their developers and local physicists prior to clinical use. However, the wide-reaching impact of their accuracy warrants ongoing vigilance. This work reviews the findings of the Australian national audit system and provides recommendations for checks of TPS. The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has designed and implemented a national system of audits, currently in a three year test phase. The Level III audits verify the accuracy of a beam model of a facility's TPS through a comparison of measurements with calculation at selected points in an anthropomorphic phantom. The plans are prescribed by the ACDS and all measurement equipment is brought in for independent onsite measurements. In this first version of audits, plans are comparatively simple, involving asymmetric fields, wedges and inhomogeneities. The ACDS has performed 14 Level III audits to-date. Six audits returned at least one measurement at Action Level, indicating that the measured dose differed more than 3.3% (but less than 5%) from the planned dose. Two audits failed (difference >5%). One fail was caused by a data transmission error coupled with quality assurance (QA) not being performed. The second fail was investigated and reduced to Action Level with the onsite audit team finding phantom setup at treatment a contributing factor. The Action Level results are attributed to small dose calculation deviations within the TPS, which are investigated and corrected by the facilities. Small deviations exist in clinical TPS which can add up and can combine with output variations to result in unacceptable variations. Ongoing checks and independent audits are recommended.

  17. Use of models and mockups in verifying man-machine interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of Human Factors Engineering is to tailor the design of facilities and equipment systems to match the capabilities and limitations of the personnel who will operate and maintain the system. This optimization of the man-machine interface is undertaken to enhance the prospects for safe, reliable, timely, and error-free human performance in meeting system objectives. To ensure the eventual success of a complex man-machine system it is important to systematically and progressively test and verify the adequacy of man-machine interfaces from initial design concepts to system operation. Human factors specialists employ a variety of methods to evaluate the quality of the human-system interface. These methods include: (1) Reviews of two-dimensional drawings using appropriately scaled transparent overlays of personnel spanning the anthropometric range, considering clothing and protective gear encumbrances (2) Use of articulated, scaled, plastic templates or manikins that are overlayed on equipment or facility drawings (3) Development of computerized manikins in computer aided design approaches (4) Use of three-dimensional scale models to better conceptualize work stations, control rooms or maintenance facilities (5) Full or half-scale mockups of system components to evaluate operator/maintainer interfaces (6) Part of full-task dynamic simulation of operator or maintainer tasks and interactive system responses (7) Laboratory and field research to establish human performance capabilities with alternative system design concepts or configurations. Of the design verification methods listed above, this paper will only consider the use of models and mockups in the design process

  18. Outcomes of preterm premature rupture of membranes in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacoste, Stephanie V; Jean-Pierre, Claudel; Baergen, Rebecca; Chasen, Stephen T

    2008-08-01

    To describe outcomes in twin pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Dichorionic twin pregnancies complicated by PPROM at premature rupture of membranes (PROM), latency from PROM to delivery, and infection were examined. In 49 twin pregnancies, the median gestational age at PROM was 31 weeks with a median latency between PROM and delivery of 0 days (interquartile range 0-6). Latency intervals of >or=2 and >or=7 days were achieved by 40.8% and 22.4%, respectively. PPROM at or= 2 days (70.6% vs. 25.0%) and >or=7 days (47.1% vs. 9.4%). There was a significant relationship between latency and clinical and histologic signs of infection. After 30 weeks, most twin pregnancies with PPROM delivered within 2 days. Infection appears to be a consequence rather than a cause of PPROM in most cases.

  19. Verifying Digital Components of Physical Systems: Experimental Evaluation of Test Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laputenko, A. V.; López, J. E.; Yevtushenko, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper continues the study of high quality test derivation for verifying digital components which are used in various physical systems; those are sensors, data transfer components, etc. We have used logic circuits b01-b010 of the package of ITC'99 benchmarks (Second Release) for experimental evaluation which as stated before, describe digital components of physical systems designed for various applications. Test sequences are derived for detecting the most known faults of the reference logic circuit using three different approaches to test derivation. Three widely used fault types such as stuck-at-faults, bridges, and faults which slightly modify the behavior of one gate are considered as possible faults of the reference behavior. The most interesting test sequences are short test sequences that can provide appropriate guarantees after testing, and thus, we experimentally study various approaches to the derivation of the so-called complete test suites which detect all fault types. In the first series of experiments, we compare two approaches for deriving complete test suites. In the first approach, a shortest test sequence is derived for testing each fault. In the second approach, a test sequence is pseudo-randomly generated by the use of an appropriate software for logic synthesis and verification (ABC system in our study) and thus, can be longer. However, after deleting sequences detecting the same set of faults, a test suite returned by the second approach is shorter. The latter underlines the fact that in many cases it is useless to spend `time and efforts' for deriving a shortest distinguishing sequence; it is better to use the test minimization afterwards. The performed experiments also show that the use of only randomly generated test sequences is not very efficient since such sequences do not detect all the faults of any type. After reaching the fault coverage around 70%, saturation is observed, and the fault coverage cannot be increased anymore. For

  20. Governor stability simulations of Svartisen power plant verified by the installed monitoring system on site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, T K; Kjeldsen, M

    2010-01-01

    plant has performed during start ups, close downs and steady state operation. The data has for instance been used to verify the simulations of governor stability of the excising turbine.This will also secure the simulations done with an additional turbine installed.

  1. Governor stability simulations of Svartisen power plant verified by the installed monitoring system on site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T. K.; Kjeldsen, M.

    2010-08-01

    plant has performed during start ups, close downs and steady state operation. The data has for instance been used to verify the simulations of governor stability of the excising turbine.This will also secure the simulations done with an additional turbine installed.

  2. Procedures for measuring and verifying gastric tube placement in newborns: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Flávia de Souza Barbosa; Emidio, Suellen Cristina Dias; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda; Beck, Ana Raquel Medeiros; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2017-07-10

    to investigate evidence in the literature on procedures for measuring gastric tube insertion in newborns and verifying its placement, using alternative procedures to radiological examination. an integrative review of the literature carried out in the Cochrane, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Scopus databases using the descriptors "Intubation, gastrointestinal" and "newborns" in original articles. seventeen publications were included and categorized as "measuring method" or "technique for verifying placement". Regarding measuring methods, the measurements of two morphological distances and the application of two formulas, one based on weight and another based on height, were found. Regarding the techniques for assessing placement, the following were found: electromagnetic tracing, diaphragm electrical activity, CO2 detection, indigo carmine solution, epigastrium auscultation, gastric secretion aspiration, color inspection, and evaluation of pH, enzymes and bilirubin. the measuring method using nose to earlobe to a point midway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus measurement presents the best evidence. Equations based on weight and height need to be experimentally tested. The return of secretion into the tube aspiration, color assessment and secretion pH are reliable indicators to identify gastric tube placement, and are the currently indicated techniques. investigar, na literatura, evidências sobre procedimentos de mensuração da sonda gástrica em recém-nascidos e de verificação do seu posicionamento, procedimentos alternativos ao exame radiológico. revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases Biblioteca Cochrane, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE e Scopus, utilizando os descritores "intubação gastrointestinal" e "recém-nascido" em artigos originais. dezessete publicações foram incluídas e categorizadas em "método de mensuração" ou "técnica de verificação do posicionamento". Como métodos de mensuração, foram encontrados os de tomada

  3. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    commonly used, for instance, in shielding on radioactive sources used in hospitals. Other radioactive material, such as most radioactive sources and isotopes used in medicine, industry, agriculture, and water resource management, are not the subject of safeguards and need not be reported to the IAEA under safeguards agreements. Reporting depends on the level of nuclear activity in the country. Declarations pursuant to safeguards agreements and additional protocols for States that do not have nuclear facilities are expected to be short and simple. The IAEA has prepared a document, available upon request, which provides guidance on the reporting requirements for such States. More elaborate guidelines have been prepared for States that do have nuclear facilities subject to routine safeguards inspections. Through its activities in the field, the IAEA seeks to verify the correctness and completeness of States' reports and declarations regarding nuclear material. Each State with a comprehensive safeguards agreement is required to establish and maintain a State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC), which is the national authority formally designated to keep track of nuclear material and activities in the country. For all States with safeguards agreements in force, the IAEA draws an annual conclusion on the non-diversion of nuclear material and other items placed under safeguard. The IAEA's focal point for the negotiation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and the amendment of SQPs, is the Office of External Relations and Policy Coordination. Once a State has decided to conclude such an agreement and/or protocol, or amend its SQP, the IAEA can help the country with the implementation of related legal and technical requirements. The appendix of this publication informs how to conclude a comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and/or an Additional Protocol and provides 3 model notification letters for (a) conclusion of a safeguards agreement, a

  4. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    commonly used, for instance, in shielding on radioactive sources used in hospitals. Other radioactive material, such as most radioactive sources and isotopes used in medicine, industry, agriculture, and water resource management, are not the subject of safeguards and need not be reported to the IAEA under safeguards agreements. Reporting depends on the level of nuclear activity in the country. Declarations pursuant to safeguards agreements and additional protocols for States that do not have nuclear facilities are expected to be short and simple. The IAEA has prepared a document, available upon request, which provides guidance on the reporting requirements for such States. More elaborate guidelines have been prepared for States that do have nuclear facilities subject to routine safeguards inspections. Through its activities in the field, the IAEA seeks to verify the correctness and completeness of States' reports and declarations regarding nuclear material. Each State with a comprehensive safeguards agreement is required to establish and maintain a State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC), which is the national authority formally designated to keep track of nuclear material and activities in the country. For all States with safeguards agreements in force, the IAEA draws an annual conclusion on the non-diversion of nuclear material and other items placed under safeguard. The IAEA's focal point for the negotiation of safeguards agreements and additional protocols, and the amendment of SQPs, is the Office of External Relations and Policy Coordination. Once a State has decided to conclude such an agreement and/or protocol, or amend its SQP, the IAEA can help the country with the implementation of related legal and technical requirements. The appendix of this publication informs how to conclude a comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and/or an Additional Protocol and provides 3 model notification letters for (a) conclusion of a safeguards agreement, a

  5. A joint FED watermarking system using spatial fusion for verifying the security issues of teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, P; Krishna, P Venkata

    2014-05-01

    Teleradiology allows transmission of medical images for clinical data interpretation to provide improved e-health care access, delivery, and standards. The remote transmission raises various ethical and legal issues like image retention, fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc. A joint FED watermarking system means a joint fingerprint/encryption/dual watermarking system is proposed for addressing these issues. The system combines a region based substitution dual watermarking algorithm using spatial fusion, stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key, and fingerprint verification algorithm using invariants. This paper aims to give access to the outcomes of medical images with confidentiality, availability, integrity, and its origin. The watermarking, encryption, and fingerprint enrollment are conducted jointly in protection stage such that the extraction, decryption, and verification can be applied independently. The dual watermarking system, introducing two different embedding schemes, one used for patient data and other for fingerprint features, reduces the difficulty in maintenance of multiple documents like authentication data, personnel and diagnosis data, and medical images. The spatial fusion algorithm, which determines the region of embedding using threshold from the image to embed the encrypted patient data, follows the exact rules of fusion resulting in better quality than other fusion techniques. The four step stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key for encrypting the patient data with fingerprint verification system using algebraic invariants improves the robustness of the medical information. The experiment result of proposed scheme is evaluated for security and quality analysis in DICOM medical images resulted well in terms of attacks, quality index, and imperceptibility.

  6. Outcomes after environmental hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVecchio, Frank; Pizon, Anthony F; Berrett, Christopher; Balls, Adam

    2007-05-01

    This study was conducted to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with presumed environmental hyperthermia. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2 institutions with patients who were seen in the ED and had a discharge diagnosis of hyperthermia, heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Exclusion criteria were an alternative diagnosis potentially explaining the hyperthermia (pneumonia, etc). Research assistants, who were blinded to the purpose of the study, performed a systematic chart review after a structured training session. If necessary, a third reviewer acted as a tiebreaker. Data regarding patient demographics, comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory results, and short-term outcome were collected. Data were analyzed with Excel and STATA software. We enrolled 52 patients with a mean age of 42.6 years (range, 0.4-81 years) from August 1, 2003 to August 31, 2005. The mean high daily temperature was 103.6 degrees F (range, 88-118 degrees F). At presentation, the mean body temperature was 105.1 degrees F (range, 100.2-111.2 degrees F) and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was less than 14 in 36 (69.2%) patients. Laboratory results demonstrated that 21 (40.4%) patients had a creatinine level of more than 1.5 mg/dL, 35 (67.3%) patients had a creatine kinase (CK) of more than 200 U/L, 30 patients (57.7%) had a prothrombin time of more than 13 seconds, 29 (55.8%) patients had an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of more than 45 U/L, and only 3 patients (5.7%) had a glucose of less than 60 mg/dL. Ethanol or illicit drugs were involved in 18 (34.6%) cases. The mean hospital stay was 4.7 days (range, 1-30 days), and there were 15 deaths (28.8%). A kappa score for interreviewer reliability was 0.69. Major limitations were the retrospective nature and lack of homogeneity in patient evaluation and test ordering. Hyperthermic patients with higher initial temperatures, hypotension, or low Glasgow Coma Scale

  7. Extraction of data from margin calculations in prostate radiotherapy from a commercial record and verify system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, C.; Kron, T.; Fisher, R.; Tai, K.H.; Thompson, A.; Owen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiation therapy is a widely prescribed and effective modality for the treatment of prostate cancer.1 3 Radiation therapy relies on precise targeting of the treatment site to deliver the required dose to the tumour while sparing critical organs nearby. To achieve this, it is necessary to allow for the effects of organ and patient motion, both during and between treatment fractions. In the treatment planning process, a margin is added to the clinical target volume (CTV) to create the planning target volume (PTV) to allow for targeting uncertainties which Iare dominated by these movements.4 5 Deciding the appropriate margin size is important since an excessively large margin will result in increased damage to adjacent normal tissues while an undersized margin will leave parts of the target underdosed. With the marked improvement in technology available with new treatment machines, remote online setup correction using high quality kilovoltage images has become straightforward and widely available. Used together with implanted radio-opaque markers, remote online setup correction allows direct targeting of the prostate organ, and significant reduction in the effects of interfraction motion.6 1 1 The introduction of this technology into a therapy department makes a reduction of CTV to PTV margin size possible. There are many published works dealing with margin size calculation for prostate treatment planning. The best known and most widely cited work is that of van Herk which modelled the prostate using simple geometry to calculate a minimum dose coverage probability.13 The outcome of this modelling was a simple and easily understood formula with just the patient group random and systematic setup errors used to calculate margin size. To apply such margin recipes, the patient group's random and systematic error performance must be well known, which requires the collection of a substantial quantity of data. The aim of the project described here was to collect

  8. Interviews with low-income Pennsylvanians verify a need to enhance eating competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts Krall, Jodi; Lohse, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    Continuation of unhealthful dietary patterns and poor diet-related health outcomes among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations underscores the need to improve diet quality for this group. Enhancing eating competence, based on the Satter model of eating competence (ecSatter), may be one effective method to reach this goal, but requires substantiation in a low-income audience. This study utilized a qualitative approach to examine the congruence of the ecSatter model with the cognitive eating behaviors of a low-income audience. Structured interviews were conducted during summer of 2006 with 70 low-income adults in Pennsylvania. Themes about decisional factors that guide food selection, nutrition/health interests, and cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences were generated through content analysis. Thematic differences among eating competence levels and food security categories were examined. Nutrition information access preferences were also obtained. Eating competence, measured with the ecSatter Inventory, was low for this sample (mean 28.8+/-8.3). Convenience, mood, family, and availability of food at home, but not nutrition, were salient factors guiding meal and snack planning for both eating competent and noneating competent participants. Nearly equal proportions of persons with eating competence and without eating competence reported that they would make changes to their food purchases if they had more money to spend on food. Interestingly, for participants without eating competence, but not for those with eating competence, weight management played an important role in meal/snack planning, food purchases, and nutrition/health interests. ecSatter provided a tenable framework for rationalizing participants' cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences. Participants without eating competence were more likely to express negative thoughts and feelings associated with eating, regardless of food security status. The Internet, which was

  9. Development of a deformable dosimetric phantom to verify dose accumulation algorithms for adaptive radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Adams, Jeffrey; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Zhang, Hualin; Li, Haisen; Chetty, Indrin J

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy may improve treatment outcomes for lung cancer patients. Because of the lack of an effective tool for quality assurance, this therapeutic modality is not yet accepted in clinic. The purpose of this study is to develop a deformable physical phantom for validation of dose accumulation algorithms in regions with heterogeneous mass. A three-dimensional (3D) deformable phantom was developed containing a tissue-equivalent tumor and heterogeneous sponge inserts. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed at multiple locations in the phantom each time before dose measurement. Doses were measured with the phantom in both the static and deformed cases. The deformation of the phantom was actuated by a motor driven piston. 4D computed tomography images were acquired to calculate 3D doses at each phase using Pinnacle and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc. These images were registered using two registration software packages: VelocityAI and Elastix. With the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs), the calculated 3D doses were accumulated using a mass-and energy congruent mapping method and compared to those measured by the TLDs at four typical locations. In the static case, TLD measurements agreed with all the algorithms by 1.8% at the center of the tumor volume and by 4.0% in the penumbra. In the deformable case, the phantom's deformation was reproduced within 1.1 mm. For the 3D dose calculated by Pinnacle, the total dose accumulated with the Elastix DVF agreed well to the TLD measurements with their differences <2.5% at four measured locations. When the VelocityAI DVF was used, their difference increased up to 11.8%. For the 3D dose calculated by EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, the total doses accumulated with the two DVFs were within 5.7% of the TLD measurements which are slightly over the rate of 5% for clinical acceptance. The detector-embedded deformable phantom allows radiation dose to be measured in a dynamic environment, similar to deforming lung tissues, supporting

  10. Development of a deformable dosimetric phantom to verify dose accumulation algorithms for adaptive radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualiang Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiotherapy may improve treatment outcomes for lung cancer patients. Because of the lack of an effective tool for quality assurance, this therapeutic modality is not yet accepted in clinic. The purpose of this study is to develop a deformable physical phantom for validation of dose accumulation algorithms in regions with heterogeneous mass. A three-dimensional (3D deformable phantom was developed containing a tissue-equivalent tumor and heterogeneous sponge inserts. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs were placed at multiple locations in the phantom each time before dose measurement. Doses were measured with the phantom in both the static and deformed cases. The deformation of the phantom was actuated by a motor driven piston. 4D computed tomography images were acquired to calculate 3D doses at each phase using Pinnacle and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc. These images were registered using two registration software packages: VelocityAI and Elastix. With the resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs, the calculated 3D doses were accumulated using a mass-and energy congruent mapping method and compared to those measured by the TLDs at four typical locations. In the static case, TLD measurements agreed with all the algorithms by 1.8% at the center of the tumor volume and by 4.0% in the penumbra. In the deformable case, the phantom's deformation was reproduced within 1.1 mm. For the 3D dose calculated by Pinnacle, the total dose accumulated with the Elastix DVF agreed well to the TLD measurements with their differences <2.5% at four measured locations. When the VelocityAI DVF was used, their difference increased up to 11.8%. For the 3D dose calculated by EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc, the total doses accumulated with the two DVFs were within 5.7% of the TLD measurements which are slightly over the rate of 5% for clinical acceptance. The detector-embedded deformable phantom allows radiation dose to be measured in a dynamic environment, similar to deforming lung

  11. 30 CFR 253.24 - When I submit audited annual financial statements to verify my net worth, what standards must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statements to verify my net worth, what standards must they meet? (a) Your audited annual financial statements must be bound. (b) Your audited annual financial statements must include the unqualified opinion of an independent accountant that states: (1) The financial statements are free from material...

  12. 30 CFR 253.27 - When I submit audited annual financial statements to verify my unencumbered assets, what...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial statements to verify my unencumbered assets, what standards must they meet? Any audited annual financial statements that you submit must: (a) Meet the standards in § 253.24; and (b) Include a certification by the independent accountant who audited the financial statements that states: (1) The value of...

  13. 24 CFR 5.218 - Penalties for failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.218 Section 5.218 Housing and Urban... REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining Income Information Disclosure and Verification of Social Security...

  14. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents a...

  15. Verified Representations of Landau's "Grundlagen" in the lambda-delta Family and in the Calculus of Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Guidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landau's "Grundlagen der Analysis" formalized in the language Aut-QE, represents an early milestone in computer-checked mathematics and is the only non-trivial development finalized in the languages of the Automath family. Here we discuss an implemented procedure producing a faithful representation of the Grundlagen in the Calculus of Constructions, verified by the proof assistant Coq 8.4.3. The point at issue is distinguishing lambda-abstractions from pi-abstractions where the original text uses Automath unified binders, taking care of the cases in which a binder corresponds to both abstractions at one time. It is a fact that some binders can be disambiguated only by verifying the Grundlagen in a calculus accepting Aut-QE and the Calculus of Constructions. To this end, we rely on lambda-delta version 3, a system that the author is proposing here for the first time.

  16. Analytic solution to verify code predictions of two-phase flow in a boiling water reactor core channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.; Olson, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    One reliable method that can be used to verify the solution scheme of a computer code is to compare the code prediction to a simplified problem for which an analytic solution can be derived. An analytic solution for the axial pressure drop as a function of the flow was obtained for the simplified problem of homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow in a vertical, heated channel with a cosine axial heat flux shape. This analytic solution was then used to verify the predictions of the CONDOR computer code, which is used to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of boiling water reactors. The results show excellent agreement between the analytic solution and CONDOR prediction

  17. Predictive value of soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 serum levels for survival in verified tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T.B.; Gustafson, P.; Kronborg, G.

    2005-01-01

    Pre-treatment serum levels of sCD163 were measured in a cohort of 236 suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases from Guinea-Bissau, with a median follow-up period of 3.3 years (range 0-6.4 years). In 113 cases, the diagnosis of TB was verified by positive sputum microscopy and/or culture. Among the verif......Pre-treatment serum levels of sCD163 were measured in a cohort of 236 suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases from Guinea-Bissau, with a median follow-up period of 3.3 years (range 0-6.4 years). In 113 cases, the diagnosis of TB was verified by positive sputum microscopy and/or culture. Among...

  18. Endoscopic stenting for common bile duct stenoses in chronic pancreatitis: results and impact on long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, A; Jakobs, R; Leonhardt, A; Eickhoff, J C; Riemann, J F

    2001-10-01

    The overall incidence of common bile duct strictures due to chronic pancreatitis is reported to be approximately 10-30%. It remains a challenging problem for gastroenterologists and surgeons. The exact role of endoscopic stenting has not yet been clearly defined. Thirty-nine patients with chronic pancreatitis and symptomatic common bile duct stenoses underwent endoscopic stenting and were studied retrospectively. We were particularly interested in how many patients would achieve resolution of the stricture and tolerate removal of the stents in the long term. Indications for endoscopic stenting were symptomatic cholestasis, jaundice or cholangitis. The initial serum bilirubin was 8.3 mg/dl and the diameter of the common bile duct was 14.2 mm before stenting. Within 3-7 days of stenting, all patients presented improvement of jaundice and cholestasis. After a median stenting time of 9 months (range 1-144 months), 46% of the patients demonstrated regression of the stricture and clinical improvement, 26% required further stenting, and 28% were referred to surgery. Five patients received a self-expandable metal Wallstent. Thirty-one per cent demonstrated complete clinical recovery of the stricture as well as 10.2% a complete, radiologically verified stricture regression in a median follow-up of 58 months. There seems to be a therapeutic benefit for short-term endoscopic treatment but medium-term and long-term outcome remains questionable. Endoscopic stenting should be applied as an initial therapy before surgery, but it can be the definitive approach for older and morbid patients or cases with complete stricture regression after stent removal. Overall, it should not be considered as a routine procedure for symptomatic cases.

  19. Towards verified systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, J

    2013-01-01

    As the complexity of embedded computer-controlled systems increases, the present industrial practice for their development gives cause for concern, especially for safety-critical applications where human lives are at stake. The use of software in such systems has increased enormously in the last decade. Formal methods, based on firm mathematical foundations, provide one means to help with reducing the risk of introducing errors during specification and development. There is currently much interest in both academic and industrial circles concerning the issues involved, but the techniques still

  20. A verified LLL algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divasón, Jose; Joosten, Sebastiaan; Thiemann, René; Yamada, Akihisa

    2018-01-01

    The Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovász basis reduction algorithm, also known as LLL algorithm, is an algorithm to find a basis with short, nearly orthogonal vectors of an integer lattice. Thereby, it can also be seen as an approximation to solve the shortest vector problem (SVP), which is an NP-hard problem,

  1. A Novel Method to Verify Multilevel Computational Models of Biological Systems Using Multiscale Spatio-Temporal Meta Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvu, Ovidiu; Gilbert, David

    2016-01-01

    Insights gained from multilevel computational models of biological systems can be translated into real-life applications only if the model correctness has been verified first. One of the most frequently employed in silico techniques for computational model verification is model checking. Traditional model checking approaches only consider the evolution of numeric values, such as concentrations, over time and are appropriate for computational models of small scale systems (e.g. intracellular networks). However for gaining a systems level understanding of how biological organisms function it is essential to consider more complex large scale biological systems (e.g. organs). Verifying computational models of such systems requires capturing both how numeric values and properties of (emergent) spatial structures (e.g. area of multicellular population) change over time and across multiple levels of organization, which are not considered by existing model checking approaches. To address this limitation we have developed a novel approximate probabilistic multiscale spatio-temporal meta model checking methodology for verifying multilevel computational models relative to specifications describing the desired/expected system behaviour. The methodology is generic and supports computational models encoded using various high-level modelling formalisms because it is defined relative to time series data and not the models used to generate it. In addition, the methodology can be automatically adapted to case study specific types of spatial structures and properties using the spatio-temporal meta model checking concept. To automate the computational model verification process we have implemented the model checking approach in the software tool Mule (http://mule.modelchecking.org). Its applicability is illustrated against four systems biology computational models previously published in the literature encoding the rat cardiovascular system dynamics, the uterine contractions of labour

  2. A housing stock model of non-heating end-use energy in England verified by aggregate energy use data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorimer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a housing stock model of non-heating end-use energy for England that can be verified using aggregate energy use data available for small areas. These end-uses, commonly referred to as appliances and lighting, are a rapidly increasing part of residential energy demand. This paper proposes a model that can be verified using aggregated data of electricity meters in small areas and census data on housing. Secondly, any differences that open up between major collections of housing could potentially be resolved by using data from frequently updated expenditure surveys. For the year 2008, the model overestimated domestic non-heating energy use at the national scale by 1.5%. This model was then used on the residential sector with various area classifications, which found that rural and suburban areas were generally underestimated by up to 3.3% and urban areas overestimated by up to 5.2% with the notable exception of “professional city life” classifications. The model proposed in this paper has the potential to be a verifiable and adaptable model for non-heating end-use energy in households in England for the future. - Highlights: ► Housing stock energy model was developed for end-uses outside of heating for UK context. ► This entailed changes to the building energy model that serves as the bottom of the stock model. ► The model is adaptable to reflect rapid changes in consumption between major housing surveys. ► Verification was done against aggregated consumption data and for the first time uses a measured size of the housing stock. ► The verification process revealed spatial variations in consumption patterns for future research.

  3. Accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Mark; Sander, Angelle M; Maestas, Kacey Little; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Nick, Todd G; Li, Jingyun

    2015-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of self-reported length of coma and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) in persons with medically verified traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate factors that affect self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Prospective cohort study. Specialized rehabilitation center with inpatient and outpatient programs. Persons (N=242) with medically verified TBI who were identified from a registry of persons who had previously participated in TBI-related research. Not applicable. Self-reported length of coma and self-reported PTA duration. Review of medical records revealed that the mean medically documented length of coma and PTA duration was 6.9±12 and 19.2±22 days, respectively, and the mean self-reported length of coma and PTA duration was 16.7±22 and 106±194 days, respectively. The average discrepancy between self-report and medical record for length of coma and PTA duration was 8.2±21 and 64±176 days, respectively. Multivariable regression models revealed that time since injury, performance on cognitive tests, and medical record values were associated with self-reported values for both length of coma and PTA duration. In this investigation, persons with medically verified TBI showed poor accuracy in their self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Discrepancies were large enough to affect injury severity classification. Caution should be exercised when considering self-report of length of coma and PTA duration. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experience with in vivo diode dosimetry for verifying radiotherapy dose delivery: Practical implementation of cost-effective approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Blyth, C.; Carruthers, L.; Elliott, P.A.; Kidane, G.; Millwater, C.J.; MacLeod, A.S.; Paolucci, M.; Stacey, C.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic programme of in vivo dosimetry using diodes to verify radiotherapy delivered doses began in Edinburgh in 1992. The aims were to investigate the feasibility of routine systematic use of diodes as part of a comprehensive QA programme, to carry out clinical pilot studies to assess the accuracy of dose delivery on each machine and for each site and technique, to identify and rectify systematic deviations, to assess departmental dosimetric precision and to compare to clinical requirements. A further aim was to carry out a cost-benefit evaluation based on the results from the pilot studies to consider how best to use diodes routinely

  5. Design and development of spine phantom to verify dosimetric accuracy of stereotactic body radiation therapy using 3D prnter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seu Ran; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Min Joo; Park, So Hyun; Song Ji Hye; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jason W. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to verify dosimetric accuracy of delivered dose in spine SBRT as highly precise radiotherapy depending on cancer position using dedicated spine phantom based on 3D printer. Radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) 0631 suggest different planning method in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) according to location of cancer owing to its distinct shape. The developed phantom especially using DLP method can be utilized as spine SBRT dosimetry research. Our study was able to confirm that the phantom was indeed similar with HU value of human spine as well as its shape.

  6. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  7. Scoring of the radiological picture of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: a study to verify the reliability of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocova, Eva; Vanasek, Jiri; Koblizek, Vladimir; Novosad, Jakub; Elias, Pavel; Bartos, Vladimir; Sterclova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a clinical form of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Computed chest tomography (CT) has a fundamental role in the multidisciplinary diagnostics. However, it has not been verified if and how a subjective opinion of a radiologists or pneumologists can influence the assessment and overall diagnostic summary. To verify the reliability of the scoring system. Assessment of conformity of the radiological score of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of lungs in patients with IPF was performed by a group of radiologists and pneumologists. Personal data were blinded and the assessment was performed independently using the Dutka/Vasakova scoring system (modification of the Gay system). The final score of the single assessors was then evaluated by means of the paired Spearman’s correlation and analysis of the principal components. Two principal components explaining cumulatively a 62% or 73% variability of the assessment of the single assessors were extracted during the analysis. The groups did not differ both in terms of specialty and experience with the assessment of the HRCT findings. According to our study, scoring of a radiological image using the Dutka/Vasakova system is a reliable method in the hands of experienced radiologists. Significant differences occur during the assessment performed by pneumologists especially during the evaluation of the alveolar changes

  8. FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, John E.; Laughter, Mark D.; March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

  9. Preliminary results of an attempt to provide soil moisture datasets in order to verify numerical weather prediction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassardo, C.; Loglisci, N.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a significant growth in the recognition of the soil moisture importance in large-scale hydrology and climate modelling. Soil moisture is a lower boundary condition, which rules the partitioning of energy in terms of sensible and latent heat flux. Wrong estimations of soil moisture lead to wrong simulation of the surface layer evolution and hence precipitations and cloud cover forecasts could be consequently affected. This is true for large scale medium-range weather forecasts as well as for local-scale short range weather forecasts, particularly in those situations in which local convection is well developed. Unfortunately; despite the importance of this physical parameter there are only few soil moisture data sets sparse in time and in space around in the world. Due to this scarcity of soil moisture observations, we developed an alternative method to provide soil moisture datasets in order to verify numerical weather prediction models. In this paper are presented the preliminary results of an attempt to verify soil moisture fields predicted by a mesoscale model. The data for the comparison were provided by the simulations of the diagnostic land surface scheme LSPM (Land Surface Process Model), widely used at the Piedmont Regional Weather Service for agro-meteorological purposes. To this end, LSPM was initialized and driven by Synop observations, while the surface (vegetation and soil) parameter values were initialized by ECOCLIMAP global dataset at 1km 2 resolution

  10. Deep geological strucure of a volcano verified by seismic wave. Jishinha de mita kazan no shinbu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, A. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-09-01

    Three dimensional structure of seismic wave velocity for the crest and upper mantle under the North East Japan is determined by the seismic tomography which is prepared by the natural earthquakes confirmed by the observation network for micro earthquakes, indicating that the low velocity region exists just under the corresponding volcano to the upper mantle. Further, the following contents can be verified: Any micro earthquakes which are verified by the above observation network and occur at the depth of 25-40km show the lower generation rate less than 1% and the low dominant frequency compared with the conventional inland earthquake(lower limit of depth is 15km) in the same region and occur around volcanos. The existence of the remarkable reflection surface for S wave which is found at the depth of 10-20km seems to be caused by the melting mass. The above mentioned low velocity region is estimated to correspond to the lifting region of high temperature magma, micro earthquakes of low frequency to the magma activity around that magma and the reflection surface for S wave to the part of the magma. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Standard test method for verifying the alignment of X-Ray diffraction instrumentation for residual stress measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the preparation and use of a flat stress-free test specimen for the purpose of checking the systematic error caused by instrument misalignment or sample positioning in X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, or both. 1.2 This test method is applicable to apparatus intended for X-ray diffraction macroscopic residual stress measurement in polycrystalline samples employing measurement of a diffraction peak position in the high-back reflection region, and in which the θ, 2θ, and ψ rotation axes can be made to coincide (see Fig. 1). 1.3 This test method describes the use of iron powder which has been investigated in round-robin studies for the purpose of verifying the alignment of instrumentation intended for stress measurement in ferritic or martensitic steels. To verify instrument alignment prior to stress measurement in other metallic alloys and ceramics, powder having the same or lower diffraction angle as the material to be measured should be prepared in similar fashion...

  12. Verifier-based three-party authentication schemes using extended chaotic maps for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu

    2014-12-01

    Telecare medicine information systems provide a communicating platform for accessing remote medical resources through public networks, and help health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions and treatments. An authentication scheme for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems enables legal users in hospitals and medical institutes to establish a secure channel and exchange electronic medical records or electronic health records securely and efficiently. This investigation develops an efficient and secure verified-based three-party authentication scheme by using extended chaotic maps for data exchange in telecare medicine information systems. The proposed scheme does not require server's public keys and avoids time-consuming modular exponential computations and scalar multiplications on elliptic curve used in previous related approaches. Additionally, the proposed scheme is proven secure in the random oracle model, and realizes the lower bounds of messages and rounds in communications. Compared to related verified-based approaches, the proposed scheme not only possesses higher security, but also has lower computational cost and fewer transmissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A framework for verifying the dismantlement and abandonment of nuclear weapons. A policy implication for the denuclearization of Korea Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Sukeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Denuclearization of Korean Peninsula has been a serious security issue in the North East Asian region. Although the Six-Party Talks has been suspended since North Korea declared a boycott in 2008, aims of denuclearizing North Korea has still been discussed. For instance, the recent Japan and the U.S. '2+2' dialogue affirmed its importance to achieve complete and verifiable denuclearization of North Korea, including scrutinizing its uranium enrichment program, through irreversible steps under the Six Party process. In order to identify effective and efficient framework for denuclearization of North Korea, this paper examines 5 major denuclearization methods including (1) the Nunn-Luger Method, (2) the Iraqi Method, (3) the South African Method, (4) the Libyan Method and (5) the denuclearization method shown in the Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC), while referring to the recent developments of the verification studies for nuclear disarmament, such as a joint research conducted by the United Kingdom and Norway and any other arguments made by disarmament experts. Moreover, this paper argues what political and security conditions will be required to make North Korea to accept intrusive verification for its denuclearization. Conditions for successful denuclearization talks among the Six-Party member states and a realistic approach of verifiable denuclearization will be also examined. (author)

  14. Radiation-Free Weekend Rescued! Continuous Accelerated Irradiation of 7-Days per Week Is Equal to Accelerated Fractionation With Concomitant Boost of 7 Fractions in 5-Days per Week: Report on Phase 3 Clinical Trial in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladowski, Krzysztof, E-mail: skladowski@io.gliwice.pl [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland); Hutnik, Marcin; Wygoda, Andrzej; Golen, Maria; Pilecki, Boleslaw; Przeorek, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Tomasz; Lukaszczyk-Widel, Beata; Heyda, Alicja; Suwinski, Rafal; Tarnawski, Rafal; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and the Institute of Oncology, Branch in Gliwice (Poland)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term results of randomized trial comparing 2 accelerated fractionations of definitive radiation therapy assessing the need to irradiate during weekend in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 345 patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, and oro- or hypo-pharynx, stage T2-4N0-1M0, were randomized to receive continuous accelerated irradiation (CAIR: once per day, 7 days per week) or concomitant accelerated boost (CB: once per day, 3 days per week, and twice per day, 2 days per week). Total dose ranged from 66.6-72 Gy, dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy, number of fractions ranged from 37-40 fractions, and overall treatment time ranged from 37-40 days. Results: No differences for all trial end-points were noted. At 5 and 10 years, the actuarial rates of local-regional control were 63% and 60% for CAIR vs 65% and 60% for CB, and the corresponding overall survival were 40% and 25% vs 44% and 25%, respectively. Confluent mucositis was the main acute toxicity, with an incidence of 89% in CAIR and 86% in CB patients. The 5-year rate of grade 3-4 late radiation morbidity was 6% for both regimens. Conclusions: Results of this trial indicate that the effects of accelerated fractionation can be achieve by delivering twice-per-day irradiation on weekday(s). This trial has also confirmed that an accelerated, 6-weeks schedule is a reasonable option for patients with intermediate-stage head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma because of the associated high cure rate and minimal severe late toxicity.

  15. Validation of a noninvasive diagnostic tool to verify neuter status in dogs: The urinary FSH to creatinine ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers-Wolthers, C H J; de Gier, J; Oei, C H Y; Schaefers-Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S

    2016-09-15

    Determining the presence of functional gonadal tissue in dogs can be challenging, especially in bitches during anestrus or not known to have been ovariectomized, or in male dogs with nonscrotal testes. Furthermore, in male dogs treated with deslorelin, a slow-release GnRH agonist implant for reversible chemical castration, the verification of complete downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis can be difficult, especially if pretreatment parameters such as the size of the testes or prostate gland are not available. The aims of this study were to validate an immunoradiometric assay for measurement of FSH in canine urine, to determine if the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio can be used to verify the neuter status in bitches and male dogs, as an alternative to the plasma FSH concentration, and to determine if downregulation of the HPG axis is achieved in male dogs during deslorelin treatment. Recovery of added canine FSH and serial dilutions of urine reported that the immunoradiometric assay measures urinary FSH concentration accurately and with high precision. Plasma FSH concentrations (the mean of two samples, taken 40 minutes apart) and the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio were determined before gonadectomy and 140 days (median, range 121-225 days) and 206 days (median, range 158-294 days) after gonadectomy of 13 bitches and five male dogs, respectively, and in 13 male dogs before and 132 days (median, range 117-174 days) after administration of a deslorelin implant. In both bitches and male dogs, the plasma FSH concentration and the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio were significantly higher after gonadectomy, with no overlapping of their ranges. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio revealed a cut-off value of 2.9 in bitches and 6.5 in males to verify the presence or absence of functional gonadal tissue. In male dogs treated with deslorelin, the plasma FSH concentrations and urinary FSH to

  16. Prevalence of Ex Vivo High On-treatment Platelet Reactivity on Antiplatelet Therapy after Transient Ischemic Attack or Ischemic Stroke on the PFA-100(®) and VerifyNow(®).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Justin A

    2012-09-12

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of ex vivo high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) to commonly prescribed antiplatelet regimens after transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke is uncertain. METHODS: Platelet function inhibition was simultaneously assessed with modified light transmission aggregometry (VerifyNow; Accumetrics Inc, San Diego, CA) and with a moderately high shear stress platelet function analyzer (PFA-100; Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc, Malvern, PA) in a pilot, cross-sectional study of TIA or ischemic stroke patients. Patients were assessed on aspirin-dipyridamole combination therapy (n = 51) or clopidogrel monotherapy (n = 25). RESULTS: On the VerifyNow, HTPR on aspirin was identified in 4 of 51 patients (8%) on aspirin-dipyridamole combination therapy (≥550 aspirin reaction units on the aspirin cartridge). Eleven of 25 (44%) patients had HTPR on clopidogrel (≥194 P2Y12 reaction units on the P2Y12 cartridge). On the PFA-100, 21 of 51 patients (41%) on aspirin-dipyridamole combination therapy had HTPR on the collagen-epinephrine (C-EPI) cartridge. Twenty-three of 25 patients (92%) on clopidogrel had HTPR on the collagen-adenosine diphosphate (C-ADP) cartridge. The proportion of patients with antiplatelet HTPR was lower on the VerifyNow than PFA-100 in patients on both regimens (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ex vivo antiplatelet HTPR after TIA or ischemic stroke is markedly influenced by the method used to assess platelet reactivity. The PFA-100 C-ADP cartridge is not sensitive at detecting the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel ex vivo. Larger prospective studies with the VerifyNow and with the PFA-100 C-EPI and recently released Innovance PFA P2Y cartridges (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc) in addition to newer tests of platelet function are warranted to assess whether platelet function monitoring predicts clinical outcome in ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  17. Effects of gemfibrozil on outcome after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingmin; Wang, Guangming; Liu, Xiaowei; Namura, Shobu

    2009-07-07

    Fibrates are lipid lowering drugs and found as ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). A clinical study has shown that one type of fibrate gemfibrozil reduces stroke incidence in men. However, it remains unknown whether gemfibrozil improves outcome after stroke. We hypothesized that prophylactic administration of gemfibrozil improves outcome after ischemic stroke. In this study, we measured the impact of gemfibrozil in two permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models in young adult male mice on normal diet. First, we tested gemfibrozil in a filamentous MCAO model. Pretreatment with gemfibrozil (30 mg/kg) for 7 days moderately but significantly reduced infarct size at 24 h after MCAO. A higher dose (120 mg/kg) did not attenuate infarct size. Rather, it tended to increase brain swelling. Second, we tested in a distal MCAO model. Gemfibrozil (30 mg/kg) for 7 days before and after stroke significantly attenuated cortical lesion size at 7 days after MCAO. Cortical blood flow measured by laser speckle imaging was improved by gemfibrozil in the ischemic hemisphere. In non-stroke animals gemfibrozil also altered gene expression levels of PPARs in both the aorta and brain in organ specific manners; however, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was not significantly affected. These findings suggested the possibility that the observed infarct reductions and cortical blood flow improvements in ischemic brains were not through eNOS-mediated mechanisms. Further investigations may be meritorious to examine whether prophylactic usage of gemfibrozil against stroke is beneficial.

  18. Inverse biomimetics: how robots can help to verify concepts concerning sensorimotor control of human arm and leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Seyfarth, André

    2009-01-01

    Simulation test, hardware test and behavioral comparison test are proposed to experimentally verify whether a technical control concept for limb movements is logically precise, physically sound, and biologically relevant. Thereby, robot test-beds may play an integral part by mimicking functional limb movements. The procedure is exemplarily demonstrated for human aiming movements with the forearm: when comparing competitive control concepts, these movements are described best by a spring-like operating muscular-skeletal device which is assisted by feedforward control through an inverse internal model of the limb--without regress to a forward model of the limb. In a perspective on hopping, the concept of exploitive control is addressed, and its comparison to concepts derived from classical control theory advised.

  19. Teaching practice and experiences of verifying the three laws of genetics based on the SSLP marker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-Ying; Fan, Kai; Ye, Yan-Fang; Wang, Bin; Wu, Wei-Ren; Lan, Tao

    2017-09-20

    We explored the practical effect of the genetic analysis of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) molecular markers in rice in the genetics lab course. Two parents and their F 2 population were analyzed and detected with three SSLP molecular markers that located on two chromosomes of the rice genome. The markers' genotype data were used to verify the three laws of genetics, including segregation, independent assortment and linkage and crossing-over. Our practice has proved not only beneficial to deepen students' understandings about the three laws of genetics, but also conducive to cultivate students' interests in research and innovation and improve their skills and comprehensive analysis abilities. At the same time, the application scope of the experiment was discussed. This comprehensive experiment is also useful for the transformation of scientific research achievements into undergraduate experimental teaching.

  20. Cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary adenomas. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging findings and histologically verified dural invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daita, Go; Yonemasu, Yukichi; Nakai, Hirofumi; Takei, Hidetoshi; Ogawa, Katsuhiro [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and histologically verified invasion of the cavernous sinus by tumor cells was studied in 26 patients treated surgically for pituitary adenoma. Dural invasion of the sellar floor by tumor cells was found in 10 cases (38%). All patients were classified according to MR imaging findings into three types. Type I showed a gadolinium-enhanced stripe medial to the carotid artery (5 patients), none of which showed dural invasion. Type II showed no enhanced stripe (17 patients), six of which showed dural invasion. Within this type, tumor size and dural invasion showed no correlation. Type III showed displacement or encasement of the carotid artery by the tumor with or without extracranial extension (4 patients), all of which showed massive infiltration of the tumor cells into the dura mater. This study shows that preoperative MR imaging can provide information for assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus in patients with pituitary adenoma. (author).

  1. SIFT: A method to verify the IMRT fluence delivered during patient treatment using an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Sandra C.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Boer, Hans C.J. de

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy patients are increasingly treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and high tumor doses. As part of our quality control program to ensure accurate dose delivery, a new method was investigated that enables the verification of the IMRT fluence delivered during patient treatment using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), irrespective of changes in patient geometry. Methods and materials: Each IMRT treatment field is split into a static field and a modulated field, which are delivered in sequence. Images are acquired for both fields using an EPID. The portal dose image obtained for the static field is used to determine changes in patient geometry between the planning CT scan and the time of treatment delivery. With knowledge of these changes, the delivered IMRT fluence can be verified using the portal dose image of the modulated field. This method, called split IMRT field technique (SIFT), was validated first for several phantom geometries, followed by clinical implementation for a number of patients treated with IMRT. Results: The split IMRT field technique allows for an accurate verification of the delivered IMRT fluence (generally within 1% [standard deviation]), even if large interfraction changes in patient geometry occur. For interfraction radiological path length changes of 10 cm, deliberately introduced errors in the delivered fluence could still be detected to within 1% accuracy. Application of SIFT requires only a minor increase in treatment time relative to the standard IMRT delivery. Conclusions: A new technique to verify the delivered IMRT fluence from EPID images, which is independent of changes in the patient geometry, has been developed. SIFT has been clinically implemented for daily verification of IMRT treatment delivery

  2. Verifying mapping, monitoring and modeling of fine sediment pollution sources in West Maui, Hawai'i, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovski-Darriau, C.; Stock, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, and the fishing and tourism industries they support, depend on clean waters. Fine sediment pollution from nearshore watersheds threatens these enterprises in West Maui, Hawai'i. To effectively mitigate sediment pollution, we first have to know where the sediment is coming from, and how fast it erodes. In West Maui, we know that nearshore sediment plumes originate from erosion of fine sand- to silt-sized air fall deposits where they are exposed by grazing, agriculture, or other disturbances. We identified and located these sediment sources by mapping watershed geomorphological processes using field traverses, historic air photos, and modern orthophotos. We estimated bank lowering rates using erosion pins, and other surface erosion rates were extrapolated from data collected elsewhere on the Hawaiian Islands. These measurements and mapping led to a reconnaissance sediment budget which showed that annual loads are dominated by bank erosion of legacy terraces. Field observations during small storms confirm that nearshore sediment plumes are sourced from bank erosion of in-stream, legacy agricultural deposits. To further verify this sediment budget, we used geochemical fingerprinting to uniquely identify each potential source (e.g. stream banks, agricultural fields, roads, other human modified soils, and hillslopes) from the Wahikuli watershed (10 km2) and analyzed the fine fraction using ICP-MS for elemental geochemistry. We propose to apply this the fingerprinting results to nearshore suspended sediment samples taken during storms to identify the proportion of sediment coming from each source. By combining traditional geomorphic mapping, monitoring and geochemistry, we hope to provide a powerful tool to verify the primary source of sediment reaching the nearshore.

  3. Declining trend in the incidence of biopsy-verified coeliac disease in the adult population of Finland, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, L J; Saarinen, M M; Kolho, K-L

    2017-12-01

    The frequency of coeliac disease (CD) has been on the rise over the past decades, especially in Western Europe, but current trends are unclear. To research the recent temporal changes in the incidence of adult, biopsy-verified coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) in Finland, a country with a high frequency of coeliac disease. All coeliac disease and DH cases diagnosed at age 20-79 years during 2005-2014 were retrieved from a nationwide database documenting all applicants for monthly compensation to cover the extra cost of maintaining a gluten-free diet. This benefit is granted on the basis of histology, not socioeconomic status. Temporal trends in the annual incidences were estimated using Poisson regression analyses. The total incidence of coeliac disease decreased from 33/100 000 during the years 2005-2006 to 29/100 000 during 2013-2014. The mean annual incidence of coeliac disease was nearly twice as high among women as among men, 42 vs 22 per 100 000, respectively. For middle- and old-aged women, the average rate of decrease in incidence was 4.8% (95% CI 3.9-5.7) per year and for men 3.0% (1.8-4.1) (P for linear trend adults, the rate of change remained low and nonsignificant throughout the period 2005-2014. Although the awareness of coeliac disease has increased during the past decades, the incidence of biopsy-verified diagnoses is not increasing, which suggests that exposure to yet unidentified triggering factors for coeliac disease has plateaued among the Finnish adult population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  5. Standardized Treatment of Neonatal Status Epilepticus Improves Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mandy L; Malloy, Katherine M; Lawson, Sheena N; Rose, Rebecca S; Buss, William F; Mietzsch, Ulrike

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to decrease practice variation in treatment of neonatal status epilepticus by implementing a standardized protocol. Our primary goal was to achieve 80% adherence to the algorithm within 12 months. Secondary outcome measures included serum phenobarbital concentrations, number of patients progressing from seizures to status epilepticus, and length of hospital stay. Data collection occurred for 6 months prior and 12 months following protocol implementation. Adherence of 80% within 12 months was partially achieved in patients diagnosed in our hospital; in pretreated patients, adherence was not achieved. Maximum phenobarbital concentrations were decreased (56.8 vs 41.0 µg/mL), fewer patients progressed from seizures to status epilepticus (46% vs 36%), and hospital length of stay decreased by 9.7 days in survivors. In conclusion, standardized, protocol-driven treatment of neonatal status epilepticus improves consistency and short-term outcome. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Arthroscopic all-inside meniscal repair - Does the meniscus heal? A clinical and radiological follow-up examination to verify meniscal healing using a 3-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Mayer, Michael; Tauber, Mark [Department of Traumatology and Sports Injuries, Salzburg (Austria); Forstner, Rosemarie [University Hospital of Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Minnich, Bernd [University of Salzburg, Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to correlate clinical and radiological results using a 3-T MRI to verify meniscal healing after arthroscopic all-inside meniscus repair. We selected 27 patients (14 men and 13 women) with an average age of 31 {+-} 9 years and retrospective clinical examinations and radiological assessments using a 3-T MRI after all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair were conducted. Repair of the medial meniscus was performed in 19 patients and of the lateral meniscus in eight. In 17 patients (63%), we performed concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The mean follow-up period was 4.5 {+-} 1.7 years. The Lysholm score and Tegner activity index were used for clinical evaluation. Four grades were used to classify the radiological signal alterations within the meniscus: central globular (grade 1); linear horizontal or band-like (grade 2); intrameniscal alterations and linear signal alterations communicating with the articular surface (grade 3); and complex tears (grade 4). At follow-up, the average Lysholm score was 76 {+-} 15 points, with ten of the patients placed in group 6 based on the Tegner activity index. MRI examinations revealed no signal alteration in three patients, grade 1 in 0, grade 2 in five, grade 3 in 13, and grade 4 in six. The MRI findings correlated positively with the clinical scores in 21 patients (78%). Correlation of clinical and radiological examination was performed using 3-T MRI. In spite of satisfactory clinical outcomes at follow-up, a radiological signal alteration may still be visible on MRI, which was believed to be scar tissue, but could not be proven definitively. Imaging with a 3-Tesla MRI after meniscal suture surgery provides good but no definitive reliability on meniscus healing and therefore gives no advantage compared to 1.5-T MRI, with good clinical outcome using an all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair. 3T-MRI can not substitute diagnostic arthroscopy in patients with persistent complaints after

  7. Arthroscopic all-inside meniscal repair - Does the meniscus heal? A clinical and radiological follow-up examination to verify meniscal healing using a 3-T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, Thomas; Resch, Herbert; Mayer, Michael; Tauber, Mark; Forstner, Rosemarie; Minnich, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate clinical and radiological results using a 3-T MRI to verify meniscal healing after arthroscopic all-inside meniscus repair. We selected 27 patients (14 men and 13 women) with an average age of 31 ± 9 years and retrospective clinical examinations and radiological assessments using a 3-T MRI after all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair were conducted. Repair of the medial meniscus was performed in 19 patients and of the lateral meniscus in eight. In 17 patients (63%), we performed concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The mean follow-up period was 4.5 ± 1.7 years. The Lysholm score and Tegner activity index were used for clinical evaluation. Four grades were used to classify the radiological signal alterations within the meniscus: central globular (grade 1); linear horizontal or band-like (grade 2); intrameniscal alterations and linear signal alterations communicating with the articular surface (grade 3); and complex tears (grade 4). At follow-up, the average Lysholm score was 76 ± 15 points, with ten of the patients placed in group 6 based on the Tegner activity index. MRI examinations revealed no signal alteration in three patients, grade 1 in 0, grade 2 in five, grade 3 in 13, and grade 4 in six. The MRI findings correlated positively with the clinical scores in 21 patients (78%). Correlation of clinical and radiological examination was performed using 3-T MRI. In spite of satisfactory clinical outcomes at follow-up, a radiological signal alteration may still be visible on MRI, which was believed to be scar tissue, but could not be proven definitively. Imaging with a 3-Tesla MRI after meniscal suture surgery provides good but no definitive reliability on meniscus healing and therefore gives no advantage compared to 1.5-T MRI, with good clinical outcome using an all-inside arthroscopic meniscal repair. 3T-MRI can not substitute diagnostic arthroscopy in patients with persistent complaints after

  8. Continuous oscillation: outcome in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, G A; Tyler, M L; Hudson, L D; Sherrill, D L; Quan, S F

    1995-09-01

    To compare turning by an oscillating bed to standard 2-hour turning. Outcomes were survival, length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of pneumonia. One hundred and three intensive care patients were randomly assigned to standard turning or turning by an oscillating bed. Data, collected at baseline, daily for 7 days, and then three times weekly until study discharge, included demographics, initial Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, ventilatory/gas exchange parameters, indicators of pneumonia, nursing measures, and chest roentgenograph. There were no significant differences for LOS, duration of ventilation, nor incidence of pneumonia. Higher survival for subjects on the oscillating bed reached borderline significance (P = .056) for subjects with APACHE II greater than or equal to 20. Longitudinal data were analyzed using the random effects model. No differences in ventilatory or gas exchange parameters were identified. Among subjects who developed pneumonia there was a significantly higher respiratory score (nursing acuity scale) for subjects on the oscillating bed. In selected critically ill patients oscillating therapy may improve survival and improve airway clearance. The frequency and degree of turning needed to prevent complications and improve outcome remains unclear. These newer beds should be used with discrimination so as to not increase hospital costs unnecessarily.

  9. Toward verifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions with the CMAQ model: motivation, model description and initial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P; Pinto, Joseph P; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by the question of whether and how a state-of-the-art regional chemical transport model (CTM) can facilitate characterization of CO2 spatiotemporal variability and verify CO2 fossil-fuel emissions, we for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate CO2. This paper presents methods, input data, and initial results for CO2 simulation using CMAQ over the contiguous United States in October 2007. Modeling experiments have been performed to understand the roles of fossil-fuel emissions, biosphere-atmosphere exchange, and meteorology in regulating the spatial distribution of CO2 near the surface over the contiguous United States. Three sets of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes were used as input to assess the impact of uncertainty of NEE on CO2 concentrations simulated by CMAQ. Observational data from six tall tower sites across the country were used to evaluate model performance. In particular, at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO), a tall tower site that receives urban emissions from Denver CO, the CMAQ model using hourly varying, high-resolution CO2 fossil-fuel emissions from the Vulcan inventory and Carbon Tracker optimized NEE reproduced the observed diurnal profile of CO2 reasonably well but with a low bias in the early morning. The spatial distribution of CO2 was found to correlate with NO(x), SO2, and CO, because of their similar fossil-fuel emission sources and common transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the potential of using a regional CTM to help interpret CO2 observations and understand CO2 variability in space and time. The ability to simulate a full suite of air pollutants in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of their use as tracers for CO2 source attribution. This work serves as a proof of concept and the foundation for more comprehensive examinations of CO2 spatiotemporal variability and various uncertainties in the future. Atmospheric CO2 has long been modeled

  10. Building and verifying a severity prediction model of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on BISAP, MEWS and routine test indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Yu-Xin; Ju, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    To discuss the value of the Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP), Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), serum Ca2+, similarly hereinafter, and red cell distribution width (RDW) for predicting the severity grade of acute pancreatitis and to develop and verify a more accurate scoring system to predict the severity of AP. In 302 patients with AP, we calculated BISAP and MEWS scores and conducted regression analyses on the relationships of BISAP scoring, RDW, MEWS, and serum Ca2+ with the severity of AP using single-factor logistics. The variables with statistical significance in the single-factor logistic regression were used in a multi-factor logistic regression model; forward stepwise regression was used to screen variables and build a multi-factor prediction model. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was constructed, and the significance of multi- and single-factor prediction models in predicting the severity of AP using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was evaluated. The internal validity of the model was verified through bootstrapping. Among 302 patients with AP, 209 had mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and 93 had severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). According to single-factor logistic regression analysis, we found that BISAP, MEWS and serum Ca2+ are prediction indexes of the severity of AP (P-value0.05). The multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that BISAP and serum Ca2+ are independent prediction indexes of AP severity (P-value0.05); BISAP is negatively related to serum Ca2+ (r=-0.330, P-valuemodel is as follows: ln()=7.306+1.151*BISAP-4.516*serum Ca2+. The predictive ability of each model for SAP follows the order of the combined BISAP and serum Ca2+ prediction model>Ca2+>BISAP. There is no statistical significance for the predictive ability of BISAP and serum Ca2+ (P-value>0.05); however, there is remarkable statistical significance for the predictive ability using the newly built prediction model as well as BISAP

  11. Verifying 4D gated radiotherapy using time-integrated electronic portal imaging: a phantom and clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slotman Ben J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiration-gated radiotherapy (RGRT can decrease treatment toxicity by allowing for smaller treatment volumes for mobile tumors. RGRT is commonly performed using external surrogates of tumor motion. We describe the use of time-integrated electronic portal imaging (TI-EPI to verify the position of internal structures during RGRT delivery Methods TI-EPI portals were generated by continuously collecting exit dose data (aSi500 EPID, Portal vision, Varian Medical Systems when a respiratory motion phantom was irradiated during expiration, inspiration and free breathing phases. RGRT was delivered using the Varian RPM system, and grey value profile plots over a fixed trajectory were used to study object positions. Time-related positional information was derived by subtracting grey values from TI-EPI portals sharing the pixel matrix. TI-EPI portals were also collected in 2 patients undergoing RPM-triggered RGRT for a lung and hepatic tumor (with fiducial markers, and corresponding planning 4-dimensional CT (4DCT scans were analyzed for motion amplitude. Results Integral grey values of phantom TI-EPI portals correlated well with mean object position in all respiratory phases. Cranio-caudal motion of internal structures ranged from 17.5–20.0 mm on planning 4DCT scans. TI-EPI of bronchial images reproduced with a mean value of 5.3 mm (1 SD 3.0 mm located cranial to planned position. Mean hepatic fiducial markers reproduced with 3.2 mm (SD 2.2 mm caudal to planned position. After bony alignment to exclude set-up errors, mean displacement in the two structures was 2.8 mm and 1.4 mm, respectively, and corresponding reproducibility in anatomy improved to 1.6 mm (1 SD. Conclusion TI-EPI appears to be a promising method for verifying delivery of RGRT. The RPM system was a good indirect surrogate of internal anatomy, but use of TI-EPI allowed for a direct link between anatomy and breathing patterns.

  12. Comprehensive sulfation model verified for T-T sorbent clusters during flue gas desulfurization at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuran Li; Haiying Qi; Changfu You; Lizhai Yang [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

    2010-08-15

    An empirical sulfation model for T-T sorbent clusters was developed based on amassed experimental results under moderate temperatures (300-800{sup o}C). In the model, the reaction rate is a function of clusters mass, SO{sub 2} concentration, CO{sub 2} concentration, calcium conversion and temperature. The smaller pore volume partly results in a lower reaction rate at lower temperatures. The exponent on SO{sub 2} concentration is 0.88 in the rapid reaction stage and then decreases gradually as reaction progresses. The exponent on the fraction of the unreacted calcium is 1/3 in the first stage and then increases significantly in the second stage. The CO{sub 2} concentration has a negative influence on SO{sub 2} removal, especially for the temperature range of 400-650{sup o}C, which should be avoided to achieve a high effective calcium conversion. The sulfation model has been verified for the T-T sorbent clusters and has also been applied to CaO particles. Over extensive reaction conditions, the predictions agree well with experimental data. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Analysis to verify effectiveness of alternative cooling method in case of loss of RHR function during mid-loop operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagae, Takashi; Tamaki, Tomohiko; Murase, Michio; Ayano, Teruyoshi

    2003-01-01

    In the mid-loop operation during shutdown of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant, the core decay heat is cooled by the residual heat removal (RHR) system. In the case of loss of the RHR function, core cooling is achieved by reflux cooling through the steam generator (SG) when the reactor coolant system (RCS) is closed, or by gravity injection of water from the refueling water storage pit (RWSP) when a large opening is present in the RCS. However, it is uncertain whether core cooling can be achieved by these alternative cooling methods, if the opening is not large enough in the RCS. In this study, the effectiveness of the reflux cooling through the SG and the gravity injection of water from the RWSP in the mid-loop operation three days after shutdown was investigated by using RELAP5/MOD3.2 with a plant model representing a typical 4-loop PWR plant in Japan, assuming that two bases of the pressurizer safety valves were removed. As a result, it was verified that in the case of a combination of the reflux cooling by through the SG and gravity injection of water from the RWSP, the time until the core was uncovered with water extended about an hour from that in the case of no cooling method. (author)

  14. Disturbed holistic processing in autism spectrum disorders verified by two cognitive tasks requiring perception of complex visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahachi, Takayuki; Yamashita, Ko; Iwase, Masao; Ishigami, Wataru; Tanaka, Chitaru; Toyonaga, Koji; Maeda, Shizuyo; Hirotsune, Hideto; Tei, Yosyo; Yokoi, Koichi; Okajima, Shoji; Shimizu, Akira; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2008-06-30

    Central coherence is a key concept in research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It refers to the process in which diverse information is integrated and higher meaning is constructed in context. A malfunction in this process could result in abnormal attention to partial information in preference to the whole. To verify this hypothesis, we studied the performance of two visual tasks by 10 patients with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and by 26 (experiment 1) or 25 (experiment 2) normal subjects. In experiment 1, the subjects memorized pictures, some pictures with a change related to the main theme (D1) and others with a change not related to the main theme (D2); then the same pictures were randomly presented to the subjects who were asked to find the change. In experiment 2, the subjects were presented pictures of a normal (N) or a Thatcherized (T) face arranged side by side inversely (I) or uprightly (U) and to judge them as the same or different. In experiment 1, ASD subjects exhibited significantly lower rates of correct responses in D1 but not in D2. In experiment 2, ASD subjects exhibited significantly longer response times in NT-U but not in TN-I. These results showed a deficit in holistic processing, which is consistent with weak central coherence in ASD.

  15. An alternative effective method for verifying the multileaf collimator leaves speed by using a digital-video imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ing-Ming; Wu, Jay; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Ding, Hueisch-Jy

    2010-01-01

    We present an alternative effective method for verifying the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves speed using a digital-video imaging system in daily dynamic conformal radiation therapy (DCRT) and intensity-modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) in achieving increased convenience and shorter treatment times. The horizontal leaves speed measured was within 1.76-2.08 cm/s. The mean full range of traveling time was 20 s. The initial speed-up time was within 1.5-2.0 s, and the slowing-down time was within 2.0-2.5 s. Due to gravity the maximum speed-up effect in the X1 bank was +0.10 cm/s, but the lagging effect in the X2 bank was -0.20 cm/s. This technique offered an alternative method with electronic portal imaging device (EPID), charged coupled device (CCD) or a light field for the measurement of MLC leaves speed. When time taken on the linac was kept to a minimum, the image could be processed off-line.

  16. Efficiency and Flexibility of Fingerprint Scheme Using Partial Encryption and Discrete Wavelet Transform to Verify User in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Ali A

    2014-01-01

    Now, the security of digital images is considered more and more essential and fingerprint plays the main role in the world of image. Furthermore, fingerprint recognition is a scheme of biometric verification that applies pattern recognition techniques depending on image of fingerprint individually. In the cloud environment, an adversary has the ability to intercept information and must be secured from eavesdroppers. Unluckily, encryption and decryption functions are slow and they are often hard. Fingerprint techniques required extra hardware and software; it is masqueraded by artificial gummy fingers (spoof attacks). Additionally, when a large number of users are being verified at the same time, the mechanism will become slow. In this paper, we employed each of the partial encryptions of user's fingerprint and discrete wavelet transform to obtain a new scheme of fingerprint verification. Moreover, our proposed scheme can overcome those problems; it does not require cost, reduces the computational supplies for huge volumes of fingerprint images, and resists well-known attacks. In addition, experimental results illustrate that our proposed scheme has a good performance of user's fingerprint verification.

  17. Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) for MISSE-5 Verified and Readied for Flight on STS-114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip P.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    The Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE) is a space solar cell experiment built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-5): Data Acquisition and Control Hardware and Software. It represents a collaborative effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the U.S. Naval Academy. The purpose of this experiment is to place current and future solar cell technologies on orbit where they will be characterized and validated. This is in response to recent on-orbit and ground test results that raised concerns about the in-space survivability of new solar cell technologies and about current ground test methodology. The various components of the FTSCE are assembled into a passive experiment container--a 2- by 2- by 4-in. folding metal container that will be attached by an astronaut to the outer structure of the International Space Station. Data collected by the FTSCE will be relayed to the ground through a transmitter assembled by the U.S. Naval Academy. Data-acquisition electronics and software were designed to be tolerant of the thermal and radiation effects expected on orbit. The experiment has been verified and readied for flight on STS-114.

  18. Automatic data-processing equipment of moon mark of nail for verifying some experiential theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Renjie; Fu, Chenyu; Xu, Zhiyong; Huang, Jianyuan

    2016-04-29

    Doctors who practice Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) diagnose using four methods - inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and pulse feeling/palpation. The shape and shape changes of the moon marks on the nails are an important indication when judging the patient's health. There are a series of classical and experimental theories about moon marks in TCM, which does not have support from statistical data. To verify some experiential theories on moon mark in TCM by automatic data-processing equipment. This paper proposes the equipment that utilizes image processing technology to collect moon mark data of different target groups conveniently and quickly, building a database that combines this information with that gathered from the health and mental status questionnaire in each test. This equipment has a simple design, a low cost, and an optimized algorithm. The practice has been proven to quickly complete automatic acquisition and preservation of key data about moon marks. In the future, some conclusions will likely be obtained from these data; some changes of moon marks related to a special pathological change will be established with statistical methods.

  19. Standard practice of calibration of force-measuring instruments for verifying the force indication of testing machines

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this practice is to specify procedures for the calibration of force-measuring instruments. Procedures are included for the following types of instruments: 1.1.1 Elastic force-measuring instruments, and 1.1.2 Force-multiplying systems, such as balances and small platform scales. Note 1Verification by deadweight loading is also an acceptable method of verifying the force indication of a testing machine. Tolerances for weights for this purpose are given in Practices E 4; methods for calibration of the weights are given in NIST Technical Note 577, Methods of Calibrating Weights for Piston Gages. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Other metric and inch-pound values are regarded as equivalent when required. 1.3 This practice is intended for the calibration of static force measuring instruments. It is not applicable for dynamic or high speed force calibrations, nor can the results of calibrations performed in accordance with this practice be assumed valid for...

  20. Modeling of coronal mass ejections with the STEREO heliospheric imagers verified with in situ observations by the Heliophysics System Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, Christian; Isavnin, Alexey; Kilpua, Emilia; Bothmer, Volker; Mrotzek, Nicolas; Boakes, Peter; Rodriguez, Luciano; Krupar, Vratislav; Eastwood, Jonathan; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard; Barnes, David; Winslow, Reka; Helcats Team

    2017-04-01

    We present the first study to verify modeling of CMEs as observed by the heliospheric imagers on the two STEREO spacecraft with a large scale dataset of in situ plasma and magnetic field observations from the Heliophysics System Observatory, including MESSENGER, VEX, Wind, and the in situ measurements on the two STEREO spacecraft. To this end, we have established a new interplanetary CME catalog (ICMECAT) for these spacecraft by gathering and updating individual ICME lists. In addition, we have re-calculated the in situ parameters in a consistent way, resulting in 668 events observed between 2007-2015. We then calculated the efficacy of the STEREO/HI instruments for predicting (in hindsight) with the SSEF30 model the arrival time and speed of CMEs as well as hit/miss ratios. We also show how ICMECAT gives decent statistics concerning CME impacts on all of the terrestrial planets, including Mars. The results show some major implications for future heliospheric imagers which may be used for space weather forecasting. Our effort should also serve as a baseline for the upcoming new era in heliospheric science with Solar Orbiter, Solar Probe Plus, BepiColombo returning partly comparable observations in the next decade. The presented work has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ 2007-2013) under grant agreement No. 606692 [HELCATS].

  1. Young Stars in the Camelopardalis Dust and Molecular Clouds. VI. YSOs Verified by Spitzer and Akari Infrared Photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straižys V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Using photometric data of infrared surveys, young stellar object (YSO status is verified for 141 objects selected in our previous papers in the Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis segment of the Milky Way bounded by Galactic coordinates (l, b = (132-158°, ±12°. The area includes the known star- forming regions in the emission nebulae W3, W4 and W5 and the massive YSO AFGL490. Spectral energy distribution (SED curves between 700 nm and 160 μm, constructed from the GSC 2, 2MASS, IRAS, MSX, Spitzer and AKARI data, are used to estimate the evolutionary stages of these stars. We confirm the YSO status for most of the objects. If all of the investigated objects were YSOs, 45% of them should belong to Class I, 41% to class II and 14% to Class III. However, SEDs of some of these objects can be affected by nearby extended infrared sources, like compact H II regions, infrared clusters or dusty galaxies.

  2. Quality assurance for high dose rate brachytherapy treatment planning optimization: using a simple optimization to verify a complex optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deufel, Christopher L; Furutani, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    As dose optimization for high dose rate brachytherapy becomes more complex, it becomes increasingly important to have a means of verifying that optimization results are reasonable. A method is presented for using a simple optimization as quality assurance for the more complex optimization algorithms typically found in commercial brachytherapy treatment planning systems. Quality assurance tests may be performed during commissioning, at regular intervals, and/or on a patient specific basis. A simple optimization method is provided that optimizes conformal target coverage using an exact, variance-based, algebraic approach. Metrics such as dose volume histogram, conformality index, and total reference air kerma agree closely between simple and complex optimizations for breast, cervix, prostate, and planar applicators. The simple optimization is shown to be a sensitive measure for identifying failures in a commercial treatment planning system that are possibly due to operator error or weaknesses in planning system optimization algorithms. Results from the simple optimization are surprisingly similar to the results from a more complex, commercial optimization for several clinical applications. This suggests that there are only modest gains to be made from making brachytherapy optimization more complex. The improvements expected from sophisticated linear optimizations, such as PARETO methods, will largely be in making systems more user friendly and efficient, rather than in finding dramatically better source strength distributions. (paper)

  3. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Turney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%, whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations.

  4. Verifying the buildingEXODUS through an emergency response procedure (ERP) exercise at an underground intervention shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajedi, Noor Aqilah A.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah A.; Ismail, Mohd Ashraf M.; Shamsudin, Shahrul A.

    2017-10-01

    An Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is an essential safety procedure that needs to be taken into account for railway operations, especially for underground railway networks. Several parameters need to be taken into consideration in planning an ERP such as the design of tunnels and intervention shafts, and operation procedures for underground transportation systems. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to observe and analyse the Emergency Response Procedure (ERP) exercise for the underground train network at the LRT Kelana Jaya Line. The exercise was conducted at one of the underground intervention shaft exits, where the height of the staircase from the bottom floor to the upper floor was 24.59 metres. Four cameras were located at selected levels of the shaft, and 71 participants were assigned for the evacuation exercise. The participants were tagged with a number at the front and back of their safety vests. Ten respondents were randomly selected to give details of their height and weight and, at the same time, they had to self-record the time taken for them to evacuate from the bottom to the top of the shaft. The video footages that were taken during the ERP were analysed, and the data were used for the verification process on the buildingEXODUS simulation software. It was found that the results of the ERP experiment were significantly similar to the simulation results, thereby successfully verifying the simulation. This verification process was important to ensure that the results of the simulation were in accordance with the real situation. Therefore, a further evacuation analysis made use of the results from this verification.

  5. Experimentally verifiable Yang-Mills spin 2 gauge theory of gravity with group U(1) x SU(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, a Yang-Mills spin 2 gauge theory of gravity is proposed. Based on both the verification of the helicity 2 property of the SU(2) gauge bosons of the theory and the agreement of the theory with most observational and experimental evidence, the authors argues that the theory is truly a gravitational theory. An internal symmetry group, the eigenvalues of its generators are identical with quantum numbers, characterizes the interactions of a given class. The author demonstrates that the 4-momentum P μ of a fermion field generates the U(1) x SU(2) internal symmetry group for gravity, but not the transformation group T 4 . That particles are classified by mass and spin implies that the U(1) x SU(2), instead of the Poincare group, is a symmetry group of gravity. It is shown that the U(1) x SU(2) group represents the time displacement and rotation in ordinary space. Thereby internal space associated with gravity is identical with Minkowski spacetime, so a gauge potential of gravity carries two space-time indices. Then he verifies that the SU(2) gravitational boson has helicity 2. It is this fact, spin from internal spin, that explains alternatively why the gravitational field is the only field which is characterized by spin 2. The Physical meaning of gauge potentials of gravity is determined by comparing theory with the results of experiments, such as the Collella-Overhauser-Werner (COW) experiment and the Newtonian limit, etc. The gauge potentials this must identify with ordinary gravitational potentials

  6. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Shaun; Cameron, Elyssa R; Cloutier, Christopher A; Buddle, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%), whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations.

  7. Characterization of an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Jhonny Antonio Benavente

    2011-01-01

    The metrological coherence among standard systems is a requirement for assuring the reliability of dosimetric quantities measurements in ionizing radiation field. Scientific and technologic improvements happened in beta radiation metrology with the installment of the new beta secondary standard BSS2 in Brazil and with the adoption of the internationally recommended beta reference radiations. The Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Center for Nuclear Technology (LCD/CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, implemented the BSS2 and methodologies are investigated for characterizing the beta radiation fields by determining the field homogeneity, the accuracy and uncertainties in the absorbed dose in air measurements. In this work, a methodology to be used for verifying the metrological coherence among beta radiation fields in standard systems was investigated; an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films were used and measurements were done in terms of absorbed dose in air. The reliability of both the extrapolation chamber and the radiochromic film was confirmed and their calibrations were done in the LCD/CDTN in 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 85 Kr and 147 Pm beta radiation fields. The angular coefficients of the extrapolation curves were determined with the chamber; the field mapping and homogeneity were obtained from dose profiles and isodose with the radiochromic films. A preliminary comparison between the LCD/CDTN and the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / Sao Paulo (LCI/IPEN) was carried out. Results with the extrapolation chamber measurements showed in terms of absorbed dose in air rates showed differences between both laboratories up to de -I % e 3%, for 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 85 Kr and 147 Pm beta radiation fields, respectively. Results with the EBT radiochromic films for 0.1, 0.3 and 0.15 Gy absorbed dose in air, for the same beta radiation fields, showed differences up to 3%, -9% and -53%. The beta radiation field mappings with

  8. Predictors of Outcome and Severity in Adult Filipino Patients with Febrile Neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gregory Y. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study aimed to describe the profile of Filipino febrile neutropenia patients and to determine parameters associated with severe outcomes. Methods. This is a retrospective study of Filipino febrile neutropenia patients admitted to the Philippine General Hospital. Patients were described in terms of clinical presentation and stratified according to the presence or absence of severe outcomes. Prognostic factors were then identified using regression analysis. Results. 115 febrile episodes in 102 patients were identified. Regression analysis yielded prolonged fever >7 days prior to admission (OR 2.43; 95% CI, 0.77–7.74, isolation of a pathogen on cultures (OR 2.69; 95% CI, 1.04–6.98, and nadir absolute neutrophil count (ANC 7 days prior to admission, positive pathogen on cultures, and nadir ANC < 100 during admission predicted severe outcomes, whereas G-CSF use and complete antibiotic therapy were associated with better outcomes. These prognostic variables might be useful in identifying patients that need more intensive treatment and monitoring.

  9. 222Radon Concentration Measurements biased to Cerro Prieto Fault for Verify its Continuity to the Northwest of the Mexicali Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro-Mancilla, O.; Lopez, D. L.; Reyes-Lopez, J. A.; Carreón-Diazconti, C.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.

    2009-05-01

    The need to know the exact location in the field of the fault traces in Mexicali has been an important affair due that the topography in this valley is almost flat and fault traces are hidden by plow zone, for this reason, the southern and northern ends of the San Jacinto and Cerro Prieto fault zones, respectively, are not well defined beneath the thick sequence of late Holocene Lake Cahuilla deposits. The purpose of this study was to verify if Cerro Prieto fault is the continuation to the southeast of the San Jacinto Fault proposed by Hogan in 2002 who based his analysis on pre-agriculture geomorphy, relocation and analysis of regional microseismicity, and trench exposures from a paleoseismic site in Laguna Xochimilco, Mexicali. In this study, four radon (222Rn) profiles were carried out in the Mexicali Valley, first, to the SW-NE of Cerro Prieto Volcano, second, to the W-E along the highway Libramiento San Luis Río Colorado-Tecate, third, to the W-E of Laguna Xochimilco and fourth, to the W-E of the Colonia Progreso. The Radon results allow us to identify in the Cerro Prieto profile four regions where the values exceed 100 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), these regions can be associated to fault traces, one of them associated to the Cerro Prieto Fault (200 pCi/L) and other related with Michoacán de Ocampo Fault (450 pCi/L). The profile Libramiento San Luis Río Colorado-Tecate, show three regions above 100 pCi/L, two of them related to the same faults. In spite of the results of the Laguna Xochimilco, site used by Hogan (2002), the profile permit us observe three regions above the 100 pCi/L, but we can associate only one of the regions above this level to the Michoacán de Ocampo Fault, but none region to the Cerro Prieto Fault. Finally in spite of the Colonia Progreso is the shortest profile with only five stations, it shows one region with a value of 270 pCi/L that we can correlate with the Cerro Prieto Fault. The results of this study allow us to think in the

  10. A study to modify, extend, and verify, an existing model of interactive-constructivist school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numedahl, Paul Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the effects an interactive-constructive teaching and learning approach, the use of children's literature in science teaching and parental involvement in elementary school science had on student achievement in and attitudes toward science. The study was done in the context of Science PALS, a professional development program for inservice teachers. An existing model for interactive-constructive elementary science was modified to include five model variables; student achievement, student attitudes, teacher perceptions, teacher performance, and student perceptions. Data were collected from a sample of 12 teachers and 260 third and fourth grade students. Data analysis included two components, (1) the examination of relationships between teacher performance, teacher perceptions, student achievement and attitudes, and (2) the verification of a model using path analysis. Results showed a significant correlation between teacher perceptions and student attitude. However, only one model path was significant; thus, the model could not be verified. Further examination of the significant model path was completed. Study findings included: (1) Constructivist notions of teaching and learning may cause changes in the traditional role relationship between teachers and students leading to negative student attitudes. (2) Children who perceive parental interest toward science education are likely to have a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (3) Students who perceive science instruction as relevant are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science learning, increased self-confidence in science, and possess accurate ideas concerning the nature of science. (4) Students who perceive their classroom as aligning with constructivist principles are likely to possess a positive attitude toward science, an increased self

  11. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  12. Outcomes in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Mihai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving the outcomes in reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL requires a rigorous and permanent assessment of specific parameters. Therefore, we can increase the degree of reproducibility of the procedure and identify particular aspects in order to achieve an adequate and individualized therapeutic approach for each case. In order to accomplish this goal, the use of complex means (scores of quantifying results is required. That includes objective means of verifying the parameters in knee surgery, and a subjective evaluation of the patient in order to compare the results.

  13. Imaging in chronic achilles tendinopathy: a comparison of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings in 27 histologically verified cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastroem, M.; Gentz, C.F.; Nilsson, P.; Rausing, A.; Sjoeberg, S.; Westlin, N.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To compare information gained by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic achilles tendinopathy with regard to the nature and severity of the lesion. Design. Imaging of both achilles tendons with ultrasonography and MRI was performed prior to unilateral surgery. Operative findings and histological biopsies together served as a reference. Patients. Twenty-seven patients (22 men, 5 women; mean age 44 years; 21 athletes) suffering from chronic achilles tendinopathy participated in the study. Eighteen patients had unilateral and 9 had bilateral symptoms. Results and conclusions. Surgical findings included 4 partial ruptures, 21 degenerative lesions and 2 macroscopically normal cases. Microscopy revealed tendinosis (degeneration) in all tendon biopsies, including cases with a partial rupture, but only slight changes in the paratendinous tissues (paratenon). Ultrasonography was positive in 21 of 26 and MRI in 26 of 27 cases. Severe intratendinous abnormalities and a sagittal tendon diameter >10 mm suggested a partial rupture. In tendons with a false negative result histopathological changes were mild and a tendency towards a better clinical outcome was noted in the sonographic cases. Assessment of the paratenon was unreliable with both methods. Ultrasonography and MRI give similar information and may have their greatest potential as prognostic instruments. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Outcome prediction in gastroschisis - The gastroschisis prognostic score (GPS) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligandla, Pramod S; Baird, Robert; Skarsgard, Eric D; Emil, Sherif; Laberge, Jean-Martin

    2017-05-01

    The GPS enables risk stratification for gastroschisis and helps discriminate low from high morbidity groups. The purpose of this study was to revalidate GPS's characterization of a high morbidity group and to quantify relationships between the GPS and outcomes. With REB approval, complete survivor data from a national gastroschisis registry was collected. GPS bowel injury scoring was revalidated excluding the initial inception/validation cohorts (>2011). Length of stay (LOS), 1st enteral feed days (dFPO), TPN days (dTPN), and aggregate complications (COMP) were compared between low and high morbidity risk groups. Mathematical relationships between outcomes and integer increases in GPS were explored using the entire cohort (2005-present). Median (range) LOS, dPO, and dTPN for the entire cohort (n=849) was 36 (26,62), 13 (9,18), and 27 (20,46) days, respectively. High-risk patients (GPS≥2; n=80) experienced significantly worse outcomes than low risk patients (n=263). Each integer increase in GPS was associated with increases in LOS and dTPN by 16.9 and 12.7days, respectively (pGPS effectively discriminates low from high morbidity risk groups. Within the high risk group, integer increases in GPS produce quantitatively differentiated outcomes which may guide initial counseling and resource allocation. IIb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vivax malaria in children: recurrences with standard total dose of primaquine administered in 3 vs. 7 days Malaria vivax en niños: recurrencias con dosis total estándar de primaquina administrada durante 3 frente a 7 días

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Worldwide, the efficacy of cloroquine-primaquine for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malarious attacks has not been thoroughly evaluated. In Latin America such studies are scarce, and in Colombia, almost nonexisting.

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of two regimens for administration of primaquine in children aged less than 18 years.

    Methodology: A clinical, controlled, unmasked study was carried out, with randomized administration of two primaquine regimens, namely: 0.50 mg/kg/day for 7 days (0.50-7 vs. 1.17 mg/kg/day for 3 days (1.17-3.

  16. Moderators of smoking cessation outcomes in a randomized-controlled trial of varenicline versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Rae A; Claus, Eric D; Wilcox, Claire E; Mickey, Jessica; Arenella, Pamela B; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2017-12-01

    Varenicline has gained a reputation as the optimal intervention for treatment resistant smokers, yet more than half of those who try it do not succeed. To better understand individual differences in the effectiveness of varenicline, this study evaluates the effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and examines the influence of psychological factors on treatment outcome. Two hundred five cigarette smokers interested in quitting were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of varenicline or placebo. Outcomes examined were CO-confirmed continuous abstinence for the past month, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 7-day point prevalence. Varenicline-treated participants were more likely than placebo to achieve continuous abstinence at the end of treatment (OR = 3.29; RR = 2.62), and 7-day point prevalence rates showed an effect of medication at each time point. Participants in both groups significantly reduced their smoking during the course of treatment and follow-up, and the medication by visit interaction was significant in the expected direction. Impulsivity and personality style emerged as moderators of the relationship between medication condition and treatment outcome. In addition to replicating efficacy results for varenicline versus placebo, the present study shows that the efficacy of pharmacotherapy is influenced by psychological factors. In an era where pharmacotherapy is often perceived as the "silver bullet," we are reminded that smoking cessation is a dynamic process and intervention must be adaptable to address individual differences.

  17. Impact of Fluoroquinolone Exposure Prior to Tuberculosis Diagnosis on Clinical Outcomes in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yong Kyun; Yu, Shinae; Jung, Jiwon; Chong, Yong Pil; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Shim, Tae Sun; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2016-07-01

    There have been concerns about an association of fluoroquinolone (FQ) use prior to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis with adverse outcomes. However, FQ use might prevent clinical deterioration in missed TB patients, especially in those who are immunocompromised, until they receive definitive anti-TB treatment. All adult immunocompromised patients with smear-negative and culture-positive TB at a tertiary care hospital in Korea over a 2-year period were included in this study. Long-term FQ (≥7 days) use was defined as exposure to FQ for at least 7 days prior to TB diagnosis. A total of 194 patients were identified: 33 (17%) in the long-term FQ group and 161 (83%) in the comparator, including a short-term FQ group (n = 23), non-FQ group (n = 78), and a group receiving no antibiotics (n = 60). Patients in the long-term FQ group presented with atypical chest radiologic pattern more frequently than those in the comparator (77% [24/31] versus 46% [63/138]; P = 0.001). The median time from mycobacterial test to positive mycobacterial culture appeared to be longer in the long-term FQ group (8.1 weeks versus 7.7 weeks; P = 0.09), although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in the long-term FQ group were less likely to receive empirical anti-TB treatment (55% versus 74%; P = 0.03). The median time from mycobacterial test to anti-TB therapy was longer in the long-term FQ group (4.6 weeks versus 2.2 weeks; P 0.99) or in the 30-day (6% versus 6%; P > 0.99) or 90-day (12% versus 12%; P > 0.99) mortality rate between the two groups. FQ exposure (≥7 days) prior to TB diagnosis in immunocompromised patients appears not to be associated with adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Measuring Population Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Parrish, R. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    An ideal population health outcome metric should reflect a population's dynamic state of physical, mental, and social well-being. Positive health outcomes include being alive; functioning well mentally, physically, and socially; and having a sense of well-being. Negative outcomes include death, loss of function, and lack of well-being. In contrast to these health outcomes, diseases and injuries are intermediate factors that influence the likelihood of achieving a state of health. On the basis...

  19. Learning Outcomes Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Spoelstra, Howard; Burgoyne, Louise; O’Tuathaigh, Colm

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the study The learning outcomes study, conducted as part of WP3 of the BioApp project, has as objectives: (a) generating a comprehensive list of the learning outcomes; (b) reaching an agreement on the scope and priority of the learning outcomes, and (c) making suggestions for the further

  20. [Chorionicity and adverse perinatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel; Laureano, Carla; Branco, Miguel; Nordeste, Ana; Fonseca, Margarida; Pinheiro, Adelaide; Silva, Maria Isabel; Almeida, Maria Céu

    2005-01-01

    Considering the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in diamniotic monochorionic twins, the authors evaluated and compared the adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. A retrospective study was conducted in all twin deliveries that occurred in the Obstetric Unit of Maternidade Bissaya-Barreto, for a period of tree years (from the 1st of January 1999 until the 31st of December 2001). From de 140 diamniotic twin pregnancies studied, we considered two groups according to the chorionicity: monochorionic and dichorionic. We compared multiple parameters as, epidemiologic data, adverse obstetric outcome, gestacional delivery age, type of delivery and the morbidity, the mortality and the follow-up of the newborn. The statistic tests used were the X2 and the t student. From the 140 twin pregnancies included in the study, 66% (92 cases) presented dichorionic placentation and 34% (48 cases) were monochorionic. In the group of monochorionic pregnancies, we observed highly difference related to pathology of amniotic fluid (14.5% vs 2.2%), discordant fetal growth (41.6% vs 22.8%) and rate of preterm delivery (66.6% vs 32.6%). Related to the newborn we verified that they had a lower average birth weight (1988g vs 2295g), a highly rate of weight discordancy (23% vs 15.3%), intraventricular haemorrhage (2.2% vs 0%) and IUGR (6.6% vs 1.6%), statistically significant in the monochorionic group. Also the perinatal mortality rate was significantly higher in the monochorionic pregnancies (93.7 per thousand vs 21.7 per thousand). The high rate of morbidity and mortality related to the monochorionic twin pregnancies, implies the need of a correct identification of the type of chorionicity and also a high standard of prenatal surveillance in prenatal specialised health centers.

  1. Outcomes for children hospitalized with abusive versus noninflicted abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Lotwin, Irwin; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    Abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) is the second leading cause of child abuse mortality. Previous outcome studies have been limited to data from trauma centers. The goals of this study were (1) to examine mortality, length of hospitalization, and hospital charges among a national sample of children hospitalized for AAT; and (2) to compare these outcomes with children with noninflicted abdominal trauma. Hospitalization data for children aged 0 to 9 years were obtained from the 2003 and 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database. Cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and external cause of injury codes. Multivariable regression analyses were used to compare outcomes of children with AAT versus those with noninflicted injury. Children with AAT were younger, and more often insured by Medicaid. Among children surviving to discharge, those with AAT had longer hospitalizations (adjusted mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] length of stay: 7.9 (6.6-9.3) vs 6.4 (6.1-6.7) days, P assist families at risk should be supported.

  2. Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Pegels, Nicolette; Lago, Adriana; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds, including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons meat products from the target species demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the target DNAs.

  3. Verifying Operational and Developmental Air Force Weather Cloud Analysis and Forecast Products Using Lidar Data from Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Air Force Weather has developed various cloud analysis and forecast products designed to support global Department of Defense (DoD) missions. A World-Wide Merged Cloud Analysis (WWMCA) and short term Advected Cloud (ADVCLD) forecast is generated hourly using data from 16 geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. Additionally, WWMCA and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) data are used in a statistical long-term (out to five days) cloud forecast model known as the Diagnostic Cloud Forecast (DCF). The WWMCA and ADVCLD are generated on the same polar stereographic 24 km grid for each hemisphere, whereas the DCF is generated on the same grid as its parent NWP model. When verifying the cloud forecast models, the goal is to understand not only the ability to detect cloud, but also the ability to assign it to the correct vertical layer. ADVCLD and DCF forecasts traditionally have been verified using WWMCA data as truth, but this might over-inflate the performance of those models because WWMCA also is a primary input dataset for those models. Because of this, in recent years, a WWMCA Reanalysis product has been developed, but this too is not a fully independent dataset. This year, work has been done to incorporate data from external, independent sources to verify not only the cloud forecast products, but the WWMCA data itself. One such dataset that has been useful for examining the 3-D performance of the cloud analysis and forecast models is Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data from various sites around the globe. This presentation will focus on the use of the Department of Energy (DoE) ARM data to verify Air Force Weather cloud analysis and forecast products. Results will be presented to show relative strengths and weaknesses of the analyses and forecasts.

  4. Multiple parameters anomalies for verifying the geosystem spheres coupling effect: a case study of the 2010 Ms7.1 Yushu earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the research of earthquake anomaly recognition, the coupling effect of multiple geosystem spheres can be expected to reasonably interpretating the correlation between various anomalous signals before strong earthquake. Specially, the development of the Lithosphere–Atmosphere–Ionosphere (LAI coupling model has been accepted as verified by some experimental, thermal and electromagnetic data. However, quasi-synchronous anomalies of the multiple parameters, including thermal, radon and electromagnetic data, have not been reported in a single event case for verifying the geosystem spheres coupling effect. In this paper, we firstly summarized the reported studies on the power spectrum density (PSD in the ELF/VLF band and radon data recorded from Guza seismic station. Then, historical surface latent heat flux (SLHF data from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project was employed for investigating anomalous change in a month before the April 14, 2010, Ms7.1 Yushu earthquake which is one of the typical intra-continental earthquakes in Tibet Plateau. The results from spatial and temporal analysis revealed that anomalous fields of PSD and SLHF data were located close to the epicenter and the ends of some active faults at Bayan Har Block and all anomalous dates converged between April 8 and 11 (6 to 3 days before the Yushu earthquake. Therefore, we suggest that the anomalies of multiple parameters before the main shock are related with the Yushu earthquake. This paper could give an ideal case study to verify the geosystem spheres coupling effect happened in a single event.

  5. Verifying the spin of centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbeke, J.F.A.; Eklund, G.; Esch, B.P.M. van; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Janssens, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a non proliferation assessment of open source data that is related to the large scale production of 235 U. Solution methods and engineering models are indicated by referring to standard works in the field of isotope separation. The technique is illustrated with a calculation of the feed flow rate to a 164 first generation machine cascade, such as the Iranian IR-1 cascades that are currently installed in the Iranian Nuclear Fuel Enrichment Plant in Natanz.

  6. Verifying and Validating Simulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    This presentation is a high-level discussion of the Verification and Validation (V&V) of computational models. Definitions of V&V are given to emphasize that “validation” is never performed in a vacuum; it accounts, instead, for the current state-of-knowledge in the discipline considered. In particular comparisons between physical measurements and numerical predictions should account for their respective sources of uncertainty. The differences between error (bias), aleatoric uncertainty (randomness) and epistemic uncertainty (ignorance, lack-of- knowledge) are briefly discussed. Four types of uncertainty in physics and engineering are discussed: 1) experimental variability, 2) variability and randomness, 3) numerical uncertainty and 4) model-form uncertainty. Statistical sampling methods are available to propagate, and analyze, variability and randomness. Numerical uncertainty originates from the truncation error introduced by the discretization of partial differential equations in time and space. Model-form uncertainty is introduced by assumptions often formulated to render a complex problem more tractable and amenable to modeling and simulation. The discussion concludes with high-level guidance to assess the “credibility” of numerical simulations, which stems from the level of rigor with which these various sources of uncertainty are assessed and quantified.

  7. Selective otolith dysfunctions objectively verified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzari, Leonardo; MacDougall, Hamish G; Burgess, Ann M; Curthoys, Ian S

    2014-01-01

    Vertigo and vigorous horizontal spontaneous nystagmus in a presenting patient is usually taken to indicate unilaterally reduced horizontal canal function. However here we report results which question that presumption. In three such patients with an acute vestibular syndrome, complete testing of all peripheral vestibular sense organs using new tests of canal and otolith function (vHIT and VEMPs) showed that semicircular canal function was normal, but that there were unilateral otolithic deficits which probably caused their acute syndrome.

  8. Verifying the Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1975-01-01

    This article, based on a talk the author gave to the 'Innominates', an interdisciplinary faculty group at the University of Chicago, focuses on events of the years surrounding the British Expeditions to Brazil and West Africa in 1919 that led to the confirmation of Einstein's theory of relativity. (BT)

  9. Verifying business processes using spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.; Mateescu, R.; Mauw, S.; Springintveld, J.; Holzmann, G.; Najm, E.; Serhrouchni, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present an application of the Spin model-checker in Testbed, a framework for business process reengineering. Business processes are described by end-users of Testbed in a graphi- cal language with a causality-based semantics, called Amber. The Amber language contains various constructs describing

  10. Specifying and Verifying Concurrent Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    for Verification and Specification of Concurrent Systems, held in La - Colle - Sur - Loup , France in October, 1984. Work Supported in part by the National...Proc. ACM Symposium on Princi- 0 ples of Programming Languages, Las Vegas, (January 1980), 251-261. [7] J. V. Guttag and J. J. Horning. An Introduction...names in ’V(S). However, the two formulas behave differently under a renaming mapping p. In particu- lar. p(Vv :A( LA )) equals Vv :p(A(v)), so the

  11. Standardized methods to verify absorbed dose in irradiated food for insect control. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Irradiation to control insect infestation of food is increasingly accepted and applied, especially as a phytosanitary treatment of food as an alternative to fumigation. However, unlike other processes for insect control, irradiation does not always result in immediate insect death. Thus, it is conceivable that fresh and dried fruits and tree nuts, which have been correctly irradiated to meet insect disinfestation/quarantine requirements, may still contain live insects at the time of importation. There is, however, a movement by plant quarantine authorities away from inspecting to ensure the absence of live insects in imported consignments towards examining through administrative procedures that a treatment required by law has been given. Nevertheless, there is a need to provide plant quarantine inspectors with a reliable objective method to verify that a minimum absorbed dose of radiation was given to supplement administrative procedures. Such an objective method is expected to bolster the confidence of the inspectors in clearing the consignment without delay and to facilitate trade in irradiated commodities. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project (CRP) in 1994 to generate data on the verification of absorbed dose of irradiation in fresh, dried fruits and tree nuts for insect disinfestation/quarantine purposes. A standardized label dose indicator available commercially was used to verify the minimum/maximum absorbed dose of the irradiated commodities for these purposes as required by regulations in certain countries. It appears that such a label dose indicator with certain modifications could be made available to assist national authorities and the food industry to verify the absorbed dose of irradiation to facilitate trade in such irradiated commodities. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of this co-ordinated research project and includes the papers presented by the participants

  12. A proposal of verifying of an inductive voltage transformers precision class; Uma proposta de verificacao da classe de exatidao de transformadores de potencial indutivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Izael Pereira da

    1997-07-01

    The possibility of verifying the inductive voltage transformer (IVT) precision class during its operational life by means of simple excitation and short circuit tests is shown. By this way, the transportation of such equipment to laboratories or factories for new calibrations is avoided. As IVT precision is function of geometric parameters and material characteristics such as winding resistivity, core permeability and others, if they do not change, there is no reason to expect modifications in the precision of the equipment. After a critical analysis, is intended to demonstrate and experimentally verify that excitation and short-circuit test are sufficient to detect any modification in the above parameters. If such alteration are not detected, it is possible to assure that the equipment maintains its specified class of precision. The Moellinger and Gewecke method is used in order to determine the actual value of turns ratio and the separate leakage reactance of primary winding. These parameters are not easily obtainable in practice. The present Brazilian Rule for IVT does not mention any method which permits the determination os such parameters. Comparison of errors obtained by the present method with those found with Schering-Alberti Bridge, showed that this methodology is effective and useful mainly when precision test equipment (such as A C relation bridge, standard transformer, standard burdens) are not available, and it is necessary to verify a transformer condition or even decide about a non-accordance between two results founded in laboratories through conventional methods. Several discussions about transformer models are also included, in particular the decomposition method, which, being essentially different from the T equivalent model, shows interesting aspects of transformer analysis. Two other points of special interest are: the critical analysis of the Moellinger and Gewecke method described at part 3.5 and its possible insertion in the NBR 6820

  13. Verifying influenza and pneumococcal immunization status of children in 2009-2010 from primary care practice records and from the North Carolina Immunization Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehling, Katherine A; Vannoy, Lauren; Peters, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    The North Carolina Immunization Registry (NCIR) has been available since 2004. We sought to measure its utilization among practices that provide primary care for children who are enrolled in a prospective influenza surveillance study. This study included children aged 0.5-17 years who presented with fever or acute respiratory symptoms to an emergency department or inpatient setting in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, from September 1, 2009, through May 19, 2010. Study team members verified influenza and pneumococcal immunization status by requesting records from each child's primary care practice and by independently reviewing the NCIR. We assessed agreement of nonregistry immunization medical records with NCIR data using the kappa statistic. Fifty-six practices confirmed the immunization status of 292 study-enrolled children. For most children (238/292, 82%), practices verified the child's immunizations by providing a copy of the NCIR record. For 54 children whose practices verified their immunizations by providing practice records alone, agreement with the NCIR by the kappa statistic was 0.6-0.7 for seasonal and monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccines and 0.8-0.9 for pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines. A total of 221 (98%) of 226 enrolled children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR. NCIR usage may vary in other regions of North Carolina. More than 95% of children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR; thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 goal for immunization information systems was met in this population. We found substantial agreement between practice records and the NCIR for influenza and pneumococcal immunizations in children.

  14. Lifestyle and IVF Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Whereas much has been written about the prognostic factors associated with outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) such as female age, diagnosis, and ovarian reserve, relatively little attention has been devoted to patient-oriented lifestyles that may influence IVF outcomes. Patients are particularly interested in this topic because many patients wish to partner with their physicians and want to know specific behaviors to improve their chances of IVF success. This brief review is not intended as an exhaustive literature search of all possible lifestyles that may influence assisted reproductive outcome nor is it intended to be a comprehensive review of individual topics. It does give, however, a brief overview of a number of areas in which patient-specific behaviors may influence outcomes in assisted reproduction. Specifically, this review will look at the effects of smoking, alcohol consumption, caffeine, diet, exercise, and exposure to the reproductive toxin bisphenol A on IVF outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Following Regional Cerebral Perfusion with Neuromonitoring for Neonatal Aortic Arch Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropoulos, Dean B.; Easley, R. Blaine; Brady, Ken; McKenzie, E. Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S.; Dickerson, Heather A.; Shekerdemian, Lara S.; Meador, Marcie; Eisenman, Carol; Hunter, Jill V.; Turcich, Marie; Voigt, Robert G.; Fraser, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study we report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain injury, and 12 month neurodevelopmental outcomes, when regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is utilized for neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. Methods Fifty seven neonates receiving RCP during aortic arch reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective outcome study. RCP flows were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler monitoring. Brain MRI were performed preoperatively and 7 days postoperatively. Bayley Scales of Infant Development III was performed at 12 months. Results Mean RCP time was 71 ± 28 minutes (range 5–121), mean flow 56.6 ± 10.6 ml/kg/min. New postoperative MRI brain injury was seen in 40% of patients. For 35 RCP patients at age 12 months, mean Bayley III composite standard scores were: Cognitive = 100.1 ± 14.6,(range 75–125); Language = 87.2 ± 15.0, (range 62–132); Motor = 87.9 ± 16.8, (range 58–121).Increasing duration of RCP was not associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusions Neonatal aortic arch repair with RCP utilizing a neuromonitoring strategy results in 12-month cognitive outcomes that are at reference population norms; language and motor outcomes are lower than the reference population norms by 0.8–0.9 standard deviation. This largest RCP group with neurodevelopmental outcomes published to date demonstrates that this technique is effective and safe in supporting the brain during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. PMID:22766302

  16. Factors predicting the outcome of acute renal failure in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khana, N.; Akhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the factors predicting renal outcome in patients developing acute renal failure in pregnancy. Study Design: Descriptive cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Nephrology Unit of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from October 2006 to March 2007. Methodology: Patients with acute renal failure due to complications of pregnancy, with normal size of both the kidneys on ultrasound were enrolled, and followed for a period of 60 days or until recovery of renal function. Patient's age and parity, presence of antenatal care, type of complication of pregnancy, foetal outcome and duration of oliguria were compared between patients who remained dialysis dependent and those who recovered renal function. Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and student's t-test, were used for determining the association of categorical and continuous variables with dialysis dependency. Results: The mean age was 29 +- 6 years. Most patients came from rural areas of interior Sindh. Sixty eight percent did not have antenatal checkups. Antepartum haemorrhage (p=0.002) and prolonged duration of oliguria (35 +- 15.7 days, p= < 0.001) were associated with dialysis dependency, which was observed in 50% of the study group. Conclusion: Ante-partum haemorrhage and prolonged oliguria were strong predictors of irreversible renal failure. This highlights the need for early recognition and referral, and the importance of trained birth attendants and antenatal care. (author)

  17. Catheter ablation for the treatment of electrical storm in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: short- and long-term outcomes in a prospective single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbucicchio, Corrado; Santamaria, Matteo; Trevisi, Nicola; Maccabelli, Giuseppe; Giraldi, Francesco; Fassini, Gaetano; Riva, Stefania; Moltrasio, Massimo; Cireddu, Manuela; Veglia, Fabrizio; Della Bella, Paolo

    2008-01-29

    Electrical storm (ES) caused by recurrent episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) can cause sudden death in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and adversely affects prognosis in survivors. Catheter ablation has been proposed for treating ES, but its long-term effect in a large population has never been verified. Ninety-five consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (72 patients), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (10 patients), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (13 patients) undergoing catheter ablation for drug-refractory ES were prospectively evaluated. Short-term efficacy was defined by a complete protocol of programmed electric stimulation and by in-hospital outcome; long-term analysis addressed ES recurrence, cardiac mortality, and VT recurrence. Pleomorphic/nontolerated VTs required electroanatomic and noncontact mapping in 48 and 22 patients, respectively, and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in 10 patients. An epicardial approach was used in 10 patients. After 1 to 3 procedures, induction of any clinical VT(s) by programmed electrical stimulation was prevented in 85 patients (89%). ES was acutely suppressed in all patients; a minimum period of 7 days with stable rhythm was required before hospital discharge. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 1 to 43 months), 87 patients (92%) were free of ES and 63 patients (66%) were free of VT recurrence. Eight of 10 patients with persistent inducibility of clinical VT(s) had ES recurrence; 4 of them died suddenly despite appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator intervention. All together, 11 of 95 patients (12%) died of cardiac-related reasons. In the group of patients presenting with all clinical VTs acutely abolished, no ES recurrence was documented, and cardiac mortality was significantly lower compared with the group of patients showing > or = 1 clinical VT still inducible after catheter ablation. Advanced strategies of catheter ablation

  18. Clinical and neurocognitive outcome in symptomatic isovaleric acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its first description over 40 years ago, knowledge of the clinical course of isovaleric acidemia (IVA, a disorder predisposing to severe acidotic episodes during catabolic stress, is still anecdotal. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic presentation and factors determining the neurological and neurocognitive outcomes of patients diagnosed with IVA following clinical manifestation. Methods Retrospective data on 21 children and adults with symptomatic IVA diagnosed from 1976 to 1999 were analyzed for outcome determinants including age at diagnosis and number of catabolic episodes. Sixteen of 21 patients were evaluated cross-sectionally focusing on the neurological and neurocognitive status. Additionally, 155 cases of patients with IVA published in the international literature were reviewed and analyzed for outcome parameters including mortality. Results 57% of study patients (12/21 were diagnosed within the first weeks of life and 43% (9/21 in childhood. An acute metabolic attack was the main cause of diagnostic work-up. 44% of investigated study patients (7/16 showed mild motor dysfunction and only 19% (3/16 had cognitive deficits. No other organ complications were found. The patients' intelligence quotient was not related to the number of catabolic episodes but was inversely related to age at diagnosis. In published cases, mortality was high (33% if associated with neonatal diagnosis, following manifestation at an average age of 7 days. Conclusions Within the group of "classical" organic acidurias, IVA appears to be exceptional considering its milder neuropathologic implications. The potential to avoid neonatal mortality and to improve neurologic and cognitive outcome under early treatment reinforces IVA to be qualified for newborn screening.

  19. N-Nitroso compounds: Assessing agreement between food frequency questionnaires and 7-day food records

    Science.gov (United States)

    N-nitroso compounds are recognized as important dietary carcinogens. Accurate assessment of N-nitroso intake is fundamental to advancing research regarding its role with cancer. Previous studies have not used a quantitative database to estimate the intake of these compounds in a US population. To ad...

  20. Milk-derived proteins and minerals alter serum osteocalcin in prepubertal boys after 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, A.B.; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2010-01-01

    growth depending on the content of milk minerals (calcium and phosphorus). This was a randomized, parallel, double-blind study. Eight-year-old boys (n = 57) received 1 of 4 milk drinks: whey protein with low or high content of minerals, or casein protein with low or high content of minerals. The amount......OC was significantly affected by the treatments (P milk-derived proteins and minerals with regard to sOC (P = .01). The intake of milk drinks containing whey increased sOC at the low content of minerals, whereas it decreased sOC at the high content of minerals (P ...). In contrast, milk drinks containing casein increased sOC both at the low and at the high contents of minerals. In conclusion, whey and casein (corresponding to their content in 1.5 L of milk) differently affect sOC in 8-year-old boys depending on the content of milk minerals, but do not seem to affect other...

  1. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A

    2002-01-01

    +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  2. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  3. Prevalence of Fabry Disease and Outcomes in Young Canadian Patients With Cryptogenic Ischemic Cerebrovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Sylvain; Saposnik, Gustavo; Lebovic, Gerald; Pope, Karen; Selchen, Daniel; Moore, David F

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies reported Fabry disease in 0% to 4% of young patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke (IS). We sought to determine the prevalence of Fabry and outcomes among young Canadians with cryptogenic IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We prospectively enrolled individuals aged 18 to 55 with IS or speech or motor TIA, and no cause identified despite predetermined investigation. α-galactosidase-A gene was sequenced for Fabry diagnosis. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was measured at presentation to quantify stroke severity. Modified Rankin Scale determined functional outcomes7 days after presentation and 6 months later. We enrolled 365 patients with IS and 32 with TIA. α-galactosidase-A sequencing identified a single carrier of a genetic variant of unknown significance (p.R118C) and no well-recognized pathogenic variants. Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 3.1. Proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale of 0 to 2 was 70.7% at ≤7 days and 87.4% at 6 months. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at presentation and diabetes mellitus predicted 6-month modified Rankin Scale. Thirteen patients experienced 5 recurrent IS and 9 TIA during follow-up. No patient died. Most patients (98.7%) returned home. Among previous workers, 43% had residual working limitations. In this Canadian cohort of patients with cryptogenic IS or TIA, the prevalence of Fabry was 0.3% if p.R118C variant is considered as pathogenic. This suggests that more cost-effective methods should be applied for diagnosis of Fabry rather than systematic genetic screening in this population. Overall, cryptogenic IS in young adults is associated with favorable outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. A comprehensive analysis verified by experiment of a refractometer based on an SMF28–small-core singlemode fiber (SCSMF)–SMF28 fiber structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiang; Semenova, Yuliya; Wang, Pengfei; Farrell, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical model for an SMF28–small-core SMF (SCSMF)–SMF28 structure based refractometer is developed based on the modal propagation analysis (MPA) method. The simulation result shows that the wavelength shift of this refractometer changes exponentially as the surrounding refractive index (SRI) varies. The core diameter of SCSMF does not have a significant influence on the sensitivity of the refractometer but cladding diameter does have. The simulation results are verified experimentally and it is also experimentally demonstrated that there is a maximum sensitivity of 1808 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) for an SRI range from 1.324 to 1.431 and that, as expected, the wavelength shift response is an exponential function of SRI

  5. Post-upgrade testing on a radiotherapy oncology information system with an embedded record and verify system following the IAEA Human Health Report No. 7 recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, Thulani; Colyer, Christopher; Bhardwaj, Anup Kumar; Rijken, James; Morton, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Record and verify (R&V) systems have proven that their application in radiotherapy clinics leads to a significant reduction in mis-treatments of patients. The purpose of this technical note is to share our experience of acceptance testing, commissioning and setting up a quality assurance programme for the MOSAIQ® oncology information system and R&V system after upgrading from software version 2.41 to 2.6 in a multi-vendor, multi-site environment. Testing was guided primarily by the IAEA Human Report No. 7 recommendations, but complemented by other departmental workflow specific tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time successful implementation of the IAEA Human Health Report Series No. 7 recommendations have been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On Verifying Currents and Other Features in the Hawaiian Islands Region Using Fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System Compared to Global Ocean Model and Ocean Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, P. G.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster introduces and evaluates features concerning the Hawaii, USA region using the U.S. Navy's fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS-OS™) coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). It also outlines some challenges in verifying ocean currents in the open ocean. The system is evaluated using in situ ocean data and initial forcing fields from the operational global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Verification shows difficulties in modelling downstream currents off the Hawaiian islands (Hawaii's wake). Comparing HYCOM to NCOM current fields show some displacement of small features such as eddies. Generally, there is fair agreement from HYCOM to NCOM in salinity and temperature fields. There is good agreement in SSH fields.

  7. Using the PALS Architecture to Verify a Distributed Topology Control Protocol for Wireless Multi-Hop Networks in the Presence of Node Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The PALS architecture reduces distributed, real-time asynchronous system design to the design of a synchronous system under reasonable requirements. Assuming logical synchrony leads to fewer system behaviors and provides a conceptually simpler paradigm for engineering purposes. One of the current limitations of the framework is that from a set of independent "synchronous machines", one must compose the entire synchronous system by hand, which is tedious and error-prone. We use Maude's meta-level to automatically generate a synchronous composition from user-provided component machines and a description of how the machines communicate with each other. We then use the new capabilities to verify the correctness of a distributed topology control protocol for wireless networks in the presence of nodes that may fail.

  8. A verified spider bite and a review of the literature confirm Indian ornamental tree spiders (Poecilotheria species) as underestimated theraphosids of medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Joan; von Dechend, Margot; Mordasini, Raffaella; Ceschi, Alessandro; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Literature on bird spider or tarantula bites (Theraphosidae) is rare. This is astonishing as they are coveted pets and interaction with their keepers (feeding, cleaning the terrarium or taking them out to hold) might increase the possibility for bites. Yet, this seems to be a rare event and might be why most theraphosids are considered to be harmless, even though the urticating hairs of many American species can cause disagreeable allergic reactions. We are describing a case of a verified bite by an Indian ornamental tree spider (Poecilotheria regalis), where the patient developed severe, long lasting muscle cramps several hours after the bite. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on bites of these beautiful spiders and conclude that a delayed onset of severe muscle cramps, lasting for days, is characteristic for Poecilotheria bites. We discuss Poecilotheria species as an exception from the general assumption that theraphosid bites are harmless to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation of continuous glucose monitoring profiles with pregnancy outcomes in nondiabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joyce F; Kogut, Elizabeth A; Lee, Henry C; Mannan, Jana L; Navabi, Kasra; Taslimi, M Mark; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether hyperglycemic excursions detected by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) correlate with birth weight percentile and other pregnancy outcomes, and whether CGM correlates better with these outcomes than a single glucose value from a 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT). This was a prospective observational study of 55 pregnant patients without preexisting diabetes, who wore a CGM device for up to 7 days, between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation. The area under the curve (AUC) of hyperglycemic excursions above various thresholds (110, 120, 130, 140, and 180 mg/dL) was calculated. These AUC values, and results from a standard 50-g GCT, were correlated with our primary outcome of birth weight percentile, and secondary outcomes of unplanned operative delivery, pregnancy complications, delivery complications, fetal complications, and neonatal complications. A consistent correlation was seen between all AUC thresholds and birth weight percentile (r = 0.29, p AUC-110, -120, -130, and -140; r = 0.25, p = 0.07 for AUC-180). This correlation was stronger than that of 1-hour oral GCT (r = -0.02, p = 0.88). There was no association between AUC values and other outcomes. Among nondiabetic pregnant patients, hyperglycemic excursions detected by CGM show a stronger correlation to birth weight percentile than blood glucose values obtained 1-hour after a 50-g oral GCT. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Acute postoperative seizures and long-term seizure outcome after surgery for hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Casciato, Sara; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Mascia, Addolorata; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Grammaldo, Liliana G; De Risi, Marco; Meldolesi, Giulio N; Romigi, Andrea; Esposito, Vincenzo; Picardi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence and the prognostic value of acute postoperative seizures (APOS) in patients surgically treated for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). We studied 139 consecutive patients with TLE-HS who underwent epilepsy surgery and were followed up for at least 5 years (mean duration of follow-up 9.1 years, range 5-15). Medical charts were reviewed to identify APOS, defined as ictal events with the exception of auras occurring within the first 7 days after surgery. Seizure outcome was determined at annual intervals. Patients who were in Engel Class Ia at the last contact were classified as having a favorable outcome. Seizure outcome was favorable in 99 patients (71%). Six patients (4%) experienced APOS and in all cases their clinical manifestations were similar to the habitual preoperative seizures. All patients with APOS had unfavorable long-term outcome, as compared with 35 (26%) of 133 in whom APOS did not occur (pseizure outcome. Given some study limitations, our findings should be regarded as preliminary and need confirmation from future larger, prospective, multicenter studies. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consultant input in acute medical admissions and patient outcomes in hospitals in England: a multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Bell

    Full Text Available Recent recommendations for physicians in the UK outline key aspects of care that should improve patient outcomes and experience in acute hospital care. Included in these recommendations are Consultant patterns of work to improve timeliness of clinical review and improve continuity of care. This study used a contemporaneous validated survey compared with clinical outcomes derived from Hospital Episode Statistics, between April 2009 and March 2010 from 91 acute hospital sites in England to evaluate systems of consultant cover for acute medical admissions. Clinical outcomes studied included adjusted case fatality rates (aCFR, including the ratio of weekend to weekday mortality, length of stay and readmission rates. Hospitals that had an admitting Consultant presence within the Acute Medicine Unit (AMU, or equivalent for a minimum of 4 hours per day (65% of study group had a lower aCFR compared with hospitals that had Consultant presence for less than 4 hours per day (p40 acute medical admissions per day had a lower aCFR compared to hospitals with fewer than 40 admissions per day (p<0.03 and had a lower 7 day re-admission rate (p<0.02. This study is the first large study to explore the potential relationships between systems of providing acute medical care and clinical outcomes. The results show an association between well-designed systems of Consultant working practices, which promote increased patient contact, and improved patient outcomes in the acute hospital setting.

  12. Eficácia do regime terapêutico empregando a associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, durante uma semana, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes com úlcera péptica Efficacy of the dosing regimen of pantoprazole 40 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg, twice daily for 7 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2004-03-01

    : Seventy-one patients (36 females, 35 males, average age 41.9 years from three Brazilian university centers (located in the cities of Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre, with peptic ulcers confirmed by endoscopy, and infections by H. pylory proven by at least two diagnostic testings were admitted in the trial. An association of pantoprazole 40 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1.0 g was administered to patients twice daily for 7 days. RESULTS: By the end of treatment all patients were examined for digestive symptoms, presence of adverse events, and treatment adherence. Sixty days after the end of the treatment a new endoscopy with biopsies and respiratory function testing with 13C-urea breath test was performed in order to determine the eradication rates of that microorganism. Patients showing negative results at least in the 13C-urea breath test and in one other test (urease or histology were considered H. pylory-negative. By the end of the trial, 60/69 (87%, CI 95% = 78.9-94.8 patients had the H. pylory eradicated in the per protocol analysis and 60/71 (84.5%, CI 95% = 76-92.9 in the intention-to-treat analysis. One patient was withdrawn from the trial due to a diarrhea. Twelve (16.9% patients showed adverse symptoms that were deemed as mild symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion is that the association of pantoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin administered during 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated alternative as regards the eradication of H. pylory in patients with peptic ulcer in Brazil.

  13. Neonatal Glycemia and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Christopher J D; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Anstice, Nicola S; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gamble, Gregory D; Harris, Deborah L; Jacobs, Robert J; Jiang, Yannan; Paudel, Nabin; Signal, Matthew; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2015-10-15

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause neurologic impairment, but evidence supporting thresholds for intervention is limited. We performed a prospective cohort study involving 528 neonates with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks who were considered to be at risk for hypoglycemia; all were treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). We intermittently measured blood glucose for up to 7 days. We continuously monitored interstitial glucose concentrations, which were masked to clinical staff. Assessment at 2 years included Bayley Scales of Infant Development III and tests of executive and visual function. Of 614 children, 528 were eligible, and 404 (77% of eligible children) were assessed; 216 children (53%) had neonatal hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration, Hypoglycemia, when treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter, was not associated with an increased risk of the primary outcomes of neurosensory impairment (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.20; P=0.67) and processing difficulty, defined as an executive-function score or motion coherence threshold that was more than 1.5 SD from the mean (risk ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.51; P=0.74). Risks were not increased among children with unrecognized hypoglycemia (a low interstitial glucose concentration only). The lowest blood glucose concentration, number of hypoglycemic episodes and events, and negative interstitial increment (area above the interstitial glucose concentration curve and below 47 mg per deciliter) also did not predict the outcome. In this cohort, neonatal hypoglycemia was not associated with an adverse neurologic outcome when treatment was provided to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.).

  14. High Baseline Postconcussion Symptom Scores and Concussion Outcomes in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Aimee; Sufrinko, Alicia; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Some healthy athletes report high levels of baseline concussion symptoms, which may be attributable to several factors (eg, illness, personality, somaticizing). However, the role of baseline symptoms in outcomes after sport-related concussion (SRC) has not been empirically examined. To determine if athletes with high symptom scores at baseline performed worse than athletes without baseline symptoms on neurocognitive testing after SRC. Cohort study. High school and collegiate athletic programs. A total of 670 high school and collegiate athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into groups with either no baseline symptoms (Postconcussion Symptom Scale [PCSS] score = 0, n = 247) or a high level of baseline symptoms (PCSS score > 18 [top 10% of sample], n = 68). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 2 to 7 days after SRC with the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test and PCSS. Outcome measures were Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time) and total symptom score on the PCSS. The groups were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni correction to assess interactions between group and time for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment. The no-symptoms group represented 38% of the original sample, whereas the high-symptoms group represented 11% of the sample. The high-symptoms group experienced a larger decline from preinjury to postinjury than the no-symptoms group in verbal (P = .03) and visual memory (P = .05). However, total concussion-symptom scores increased from preinjury to postinjury for the no-symptoms group (P = .001) but remained stable for the high-symptoms group. Reported baseline symptoms may help identify athletes at risk for worse outcomes after SRC. Clinicians should examine baseline symptom levels to better identify patients for earlier referral and treatment for their

  15. Nonspecific abdominal pain in pediatric primary care: evaluation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Elizabeth M; Fiks, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of children with nonspecific abdominal pain (AP) in primary care, their evaluation, and their outcomes. Between 2007 and 2009, a retrospective cohort of children from 5 primary care practices was followed from an index visit with AP until a well-child visit 6 to 24 months later (outcome visit). Using International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9), codes and chart review, we identified afebrile children between 4 and 12 years old with AP. Use of diagnostic testing was assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association of index visit clinical and demographic variables with persistent pain at the outcome visit, and receipt of a specific diagnosis. Three hundred seventy-five children presented with AP, representing 1% of the total population of 4- to 12-year-olds during the study period. Eighteen percent of children had persistent pain, and 70% of the study cohort never received a specific diagnosis for their pain. Seventeen percent and 14% of children had laboratory and radiology testing at the index visit, respectively. Only 3% of laboratory evaluations helped to yield a diagnosis. Among variables considered, only preceding pain of more than 7 days at the index visit was associated with persistent pain (odds ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.19-3.89). None of the variables considered was associated with receiving a specific diagnosis. Most children with AP do not receive a diagnosis, many have persistent pain, and very few receive a functional AP diagnosis. Results support limited use of diagnostic testing and conservative management consistent with national policy statements. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  17. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... multinomial logit analysis, and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach, coupled with the quality of the RAIS-Migra data source, allows the authors to evaluate the education policy impacts over time. Findings: The main results show that the education level raises the propensity...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...

  18. Improving surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Walia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of cataract surgery are worse than we would like them to be. Community-based studies show that up to 40% of eyes have a postoperative presenting vision of < 6/60. Eyes with intraocular lenses (IOLs do better; however, it has been shown that even in prosperous middle-income countries, such as Venezuela, in 20% of pseudophakic eyes presenting vision was < 6/60 and in 15% best corrected vision was worse than 6/60.Poor outcomes matter. Patients deserve improved vision whenever possible and poor outcomes deter prospective patients from coming for surgery and probably reduce their willingness to pay for their treatment – particularly if they have to pay in advance!In this article, we offer some suggestions for improving the quality of cataract surgery. We admit that there is little evidence base for most of these suggestions and that some of them are controversial. However, we hope to stimulate debate.

  19. Outcomes in transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, L A

    1999-07-01

    Outcomes data in medicine can be limited by subjective methodologic issues such as poor selection of end points and use of nonvalidated systems for quality adjustment. Blood transfusion analyses are further complicated by the fact that transfusion seldom is primary therapy but is usually supportive or adjunctive. Thus, much of the outcome data in transfusion medicine are either unavailable or in one of two areas. The first area is prevention of bad sequelae of various cytopenias or factor deficiencies. The second is decreasing adverse effects of transfusion itself. A different useful area for outcome and root cause approaches in individual institutions is examining preanalytical and postanalytical processes of their own. Examples are sample labeling accuracy, quality and timeliness of blood suppliers, internal delivery processes and times, and product wastage. Use review can be changed to real time from retrospective time. By reducing complaints about service to objective data, realistic change can be made in internal and external processes.

  20. Teleophthalmology: improving patient outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha OK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Omana Kesary Sreelatha,1 Sathyamangalam VenkataSubbu Ramesh2 1Ophthalmology Department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman; 2Department of Optometry, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India Abstract: Teleophthalmology is gaining importance as an effective eye care delivery modality worldwide. In many developing countries, teleophthalmology is being utilized to provide quality eye care to the underserved urban population and the unserved remote rural population. Over the years, technological innovations have led to improvement in evidence and teleophthalmology has evolved from a research tool to a clinical tool. The majority of the current teleophthalmology services concentrate on patient screening and appropriate referral to experts. Specialty care using teleophthalmology services for the pediatric group includes screening as well as providing timely care for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Among geriatric eye diseases, specialty teleophthalmology care is focused toward screening and referral for diabetic retinopathy (DR, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD, and other sight-threatening conditions. Comprehensive vision screening and refractive error services are generally covered as part of most of the teleophthalmology methods. Over the past decades, outcome assessment of health care system includes patients’ assessments on their health, care, and services they receive. Outcomes, by and large, remain the ultimate validators of the effectiveness and quality of medical care. Teleophthalmology produces the same desired clinical outcome as the traditional system. Remote portals allow specialists to provide care over a larger region, thereby improving health outcomes and increasing accessibility of specialty care to a larger population. A high satisfaction level and acceptance is reported in the majority of the studies because of increased accessibility and reduced traveling cost and time

  1. Verifying the transition from low levels of nuclear weapons to a nuclear weapon-free world. VERTIC research report no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, T.; Wilson, H.

    1999-01-01

    The process of verifying the complete elimination of nuclear warheads in national stockpiles can be divided, conceptually, into four stages: first, comprehensive declarations of warhead and material inventories, as a base-line from which verified disarmament can proceed; second, the transfer of all nuclear weapons and weapons-grade fissile material into bonded store; third, demilitarisation measures, such as to render warheads unusable without disassembly and refabrication; fourth, dismantlement of warheads and disposition of fissile material. Many of the technologies and technologies and techniques needed for verifying the elimination of nuclear warheads have been worked out at a general level, largely in US studies. While it is essential that these techniques are refined and improved, what is most important now, if disarmament is to proceed expeditiously, is for each of the nuclear weapon states (NWS) themselves to study the central verification problems and requirements in order to identify particular techniques and approaches that meet their needs. As yet there is no system of integrated data exchange and verification that any of the NWS is willing to endorse. Each of the NWS should give detailed consideration to the logistics of dismantling the warheads in their respective stockpiles, including, for example, the practicalities of accommodating international verification at their potential dismantlement facilities. Each of the NWS might usefully review exactly which details of warhead design and construction have to remain secret in the course of the disarmament process, in the first place from one another, and second from the IAEA or any other international body that might be involved in international disarmament arrangements. Introducing transparency and verification into national nuclear weapons programmes might have a significant financial cost. Research and ingenuity might reduce this cost, however, and early investments in these fields, with sharing of

  2. A fully electronic intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) process implemented in a network comprised of independent treatment planning, record and verify, and delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Daniel W; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to implement an electronic method to perform and analyze intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA) using an aSi megavoltage electronic portal imaging device in a network comprised of independent treatment planning, record and verify (R&V), and delivery systems. A verification plan was generated in the treatment planning system using the actual treatment plan of a patient. After exporting the treatment fields to the R&V system, the fields were delivered in QA mode with the aSi imager deployed. The resulting dosimetric images are automatically stored in a DICOM-RT format in the delivery system treatment console computer. The relative dose density images are subsequently pushed to the R&V system. The absolute dose images are then transferred electronically from the treatment console computer to the treatment planning system and imported into the verification plan in the dosimetry work space for further analysis. Screen shots of the gamma evaluation and isodose comparison are imported into the R&V system as an electronic file (e.g. PDF) to be reviewed prior to initiation of patient treatment. A relative dose image predicted by the treatment planning system can also be sent to the R&V system to be compared with the relative dose density image measured with the aSi imager. Our department does not have integrated planning, R&V, and delivery systems. In spite of this, we are able to fully implement a paperless and filmless IMRT QA process, allowing subsequent analysis and approval to be more efficient, while the QA document is directly attached to its specific patient chart in the R&V system in electronic form. The calculated and measured relative dose images can be compared electronically within the R&V system to analyze the density differences and ensure proper dose delivery to patients. In the absence of an integrated planning, verifying, and delivery system, we have shown that it is nevertheless possible to develop a

  3. Neuropsychological Testing in Pathologically Verified Alzheimer Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia: How Well Do the Uniform Data Set Measures Differentiate Between Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Aaron R; Leger, Gabriel C; Miller, Justin B; Banks, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    Differences in cognition between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are well described in clinical cohorts, but have rarely been confirmed in studies with pathologic verification. For emerging therapeutics to succeed, determining underlying pathology early in the disease course is increasingly important. Neuropsychological evaluation is an important component of the diagnostic workup for AD and FTD. Patients with FTD are thought to have greater deficits in language and executive function while patients with AD are more likely to have deficits in memory. To determine if performance on initial cognitive testing can reliably distinguish between patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and AD neuropathology. In addition, are there other factors of the neuropsychological assessment that can be used to enhance the accuracy of underlying pathology? Using a logistic regression we retrospectively compared neurocognitive performance on initial evaluation of 106 patients with pathologically verified FTLD (pvFTLD), with 558 pathologically verified AD (pvAD) patients from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center using data from the Uniform Data Set (UDS) and the neuropathology data set. As expected, pvFTLD patients were younger, demonstrated better memory performance, and had more neuropsychiatric symptoms than pvAD patients. Other results were less predictable: pvFTLD patients performed better on one test of executive function (trail making test part B) but worse on another (digit span backward). Performance on language testing did not strongly distinguish the 2 groups. To determine what factors led to a misdiagnosis of AD in patients with FTLD, we further analyzed a small group of pvFTLD patients. These patients demonstrated older age and lower Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire counts compared with accurately diagnosed cases. Other than memory, numerical scores of neurocognitive performance on the UDS are of limited value in

  4. Cognitive outcome of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anne; Jambaqué, Isabelle; Lassonde, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is now widely accepted as an effective therapeutic option for carefully selected children with medically refractory epilepsy. The surgical procedure may cause cognitive deficits or exacerbate existing impairments, but it may also improve cognitive abilities by the restoration of functions located in adjacent or contralateral areas that had been secondarily affected by the epilepsy or the underlying pathology. Compared to adults, better cognitive outcome has been reported in children, a finding probably due to the developing state of the brain, which possesses considerable structural and functional plasticity. More extensive and effective surgery such as hemispherectomy is more commonly used in the pediatric population, and this must also influence surgical outcome. However, studies related to cognitive outcome of epilepsy surgery in children are limited, and controversial results are often reported. In this chapter, we provide a current overview of the literature on cognitive outcomes in children who undergo different types of epilepsy surgery, including focal resections as well as corpus callosotomy and hemispherectomy. Early surgical intervention appears to be a rational option for the treatment of childhood epilepsy since many cognitive deficits are linked to the epileptic process and may disappear when seizures are controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic Outcomes in Prosthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W.; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify the types of economic measures currently used in implant prosthodontics and determine the degree to which cost of care is considered in the context of any positive outcome of the care provided. Materials and Methods: A literature

  6. Final report on the survey to verify a new method for power load leveling; Fuka heijunka shinshuho jissho chosa saishu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this verification survey is to verify the effectiveness of a system using capacitor for power load leveling and output leveling in the photovoltaic power generation. For the former, the charge is conducted in the nighttime, and the discharge in load peak time in the daytime. The capacity required is small for the output, and therefore, there is a viability of capacitor. For the latter, abrupt output variations by solar cells are leveled by storage device using capacitor. Since the output variation generated in a short time by solar cells requires responsibility and life in case of abrupt charge/discharge, it is suitable to use capacitor. The demonstration use capacitor is an organic stacking type for the former, and an organic jelly-role type for the latter. As a result of the demonstration, for the former, a power storage system which has 32-module series/parallel connection bank switch type + 2-way ac/dc exchanger was made and operated for verification. The overall efficiency of 85% was obtained. For the latter, a system which has 2,400F x 70 series bank, 6,000F x 70 series bank x 3 parallel bank and 3kW solar cells was operated for verification. Much effect of output leveling was confirmed. (NEDO)

  7. Long-term mortality and causes of death in endoscopically verified upper gastrointestinal bleeding: comparison of bleeding patients and population controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miilunpohja, S; Jyrkkä, J; Kärkkäinen, J M; Kastarinen, H; Heikkinen, M; Paajanen, H; Rantanen, T; Hartikainen, Jek

    2017-11-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common emergency, with in-hospital mortality between 3 and 14%. However, the long-term mortality and causes of death are unknown. We investigated the long-term mortality and causes of death in UGIB patients in a retrospective single-centre case-control study design. A total of 569 consecutive patients, aged ≥18 years, admitted to Kuopio University Hospital for their first endoscopically verified UGIB during the years 2009-2011 were identified from hospital records. For each UGIB patient, an age, sex and hospital district matched control patient was identified from the Statistics Finland database. Data on endoscopy procedures, laboratory values, comorbidities and medication were obtained from patient records. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from Statistics Finland. In-hospital mortality of UGIB patients was low at 3.3%. The long-term (mean follow-up 32 months) mortality of UGIB patients was significantly higher than controls (34.1 versus 12.1%, p death compared to controls was highest (HR 19.2, 95% CI 7.0-52.4, p causes of death were related to comorbidities and did not differ from causes of death in controls. UGIB patients have three times higher long-term mortality than population controls.

  8. Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Verifying CO2 Containment Final Report CRADA No. TC-2036-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, W. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ebrom, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This collaborative effort was in support of the CO2 Capture Project (CCP), to develop techniques that integrate overhead images of plant species, plant health, geological formations, soil types, aquatic, and human use spatial patterns for detection and discrimination of any CO2 releases from underground storage formations. The goal of this work was to demonstrate advanced hyperspectral geobotanical remote sensing methods to assess potential leakage of CO2 from underground storage. The timeframes and scales relevant to the long-term storage of CO2 in the subsurface make remote sensing methods attractive. Moreover, it has been shown that individual field measurements of gas composition are subject to variability on extremely small temporal and spatial scales. The ability to verify ultimate reservoir integrity and to place individual surface measurements into context will be crucial to successful long-term monitoring and verification activities. The desired results were to produce a defined and tested procedure that could be easily used for long-term monitoring of possible CO2 leakage from underground CO2 sequestration sites. This testing standard will be utilized on behalf of the oil industry.

  9. Use of agricultural statistics to verify the interannual variability in land surface models: a case study over France with ISBA-A-gs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the interannual variability of the above-ground biomass of herbaceous vegetation simulated by the ISBA-A-gs land surface model, within the SURFEX modelling platform, French agricultural statistics for C3 crops and grasslands were compared with the simulations for the 1994–2008 period. While excellent correlations are obtained for grasslands, representing the interannual variability of crops is more difficult. It is shown that, the Maximum Available soil Water Capacity (MaxAWC has a large influence on the correlation between the model and the agricultural statistics. In particular, high values of MaxAWC tend to reduce the impact of the climate interannual variability on the simulated biomass. Also, high values of MaxAWC allow the simulation of a negative trend in biomass production, in relation to a marked warming trend, of about 0.12 Kyr−1 on average, affecting the daily maximum air temperature during the growing period (April–June. This trend is particularly acute in Northern France. The estimates of MaxAWC for C3 crops and grasslands, currently used in SURFEX, are about 129 mm and do not vary much. Therefore, more accurate grid-cell values of this parameter are needed.

  10. Verifying the performance of artificial neural network and multiple linear regression in predicting the mean seasonal municipal solid waste generation rate: A case study of Fars province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sama; Karimi-Jashni, Ayoub

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the mass of solid waste generation plays an important role in integrated solid waste management plans. In this study, the performance of two predictive models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was verified to predict mean Seasonal Municipal Solid Waste Generation (SMSWG) rate. The accuracy of the proposed models is illustrated through a case study of 20 cities located in Fars Province, Iran. Four performance measures, MAE, MAPE, RMSE and R were used to evaluate the performance of these models. The MLR, as a conventional model, showed poor prediction performance. On the other hand, the results indicated that the ANN model, as a non-linear model, has a higher predictive accuracy when it comes to prediction of the mean SMSWG rate. As a result, in order to develop a more cost-effective strategy for waste management in the future, the ANN model could be used to predict the mean SMSWG rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Verifying the Rechargeability of Li-CO2 Batteries on Working Cathodes of Ni Nanoparticles Highly Dispersed on N-Doped Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Wang, Xin-Gai; Zhang, Xu; Xie, Zhaojun; Chen, Ya-Nan; Ma, Lipo; Peng, Zhangquan; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    Li-CO 2 batteries could skillfully combine the reduction of "greenhouse effect" with energy storage systems. However, Li-CO 2 batteries still suffer from unsatisfactory electrochemical performances and their rechargeability is challenged. Here, it is reported that a composite of Ni nanoparticles highly dispersed on N-doped graphene (Ni-NG) with 3D porous structure, exhibits a superior discharge capacity of 17 625 mA h g -1 , as the air cathode for Li-CO 2 batteries. The batteries with these highly efficient cathodes could sustain 100 cycles at a cutoff capacity of 1000 mA h g -1 with low overpotentials at the current density of 100 mA g -1 . Particularly, the Ni-NG cathodes allow to observe the appearance/disappearance of agglomerated Li 2 CO 3 particles and carbon thin films directly upon discharge/charge processes. In addition, the recycle of CO 2 is detected through in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry. This is a critical step to verify the electrochemical rechargeability of Li-CO 2 batteries. Also, first-principles computations further prove that Ni nanoparticles are active sites for the reaction of Li and CO 2 , which could guide to design more advantageous catalysts for rechargeable Li-CO 2 batteries.

  12. Verify Super Double-Heterogeneous Spherical Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis AND HTR Spherical Super Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray S. Chang

    2005-01-01

    The currently being developed advanced High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (HTR) is able to achieve a simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the innovative features in these HTRs is reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products even under extreme accident conditions. Traditionally, the effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel pebble/block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. However, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. An advanced KbK-sph model and whole pebble super lattice model (PSLM), which can address and update the burnup dependent Dancoff effect during the EqFC analysis. The pebble homogeneous lattice model (HLM) is verified by the burnup characteristics with the double-heterogeneous KbK-sph lattice model results. This study summarizes and compares the KbK-sph lattice model and HLM burnup analyzed results. Finally, we discuss the Monte-Carlo coupling with a fuel depletion and buildup code--ORIGEN-2 as a fuel burnup analysis tool and its PSLM calculated results for the HTR EqFC burnup analysis

  13. MOTION VERIFIED RED STARS (MoVeRS): A CATALOG OF PROPER MOTION SELECTED LOW-MASS STARS FROM WISE, SDSS, AND 2MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dhital, Saurav, E-mail: ctheisse@bu.edu [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We present a photometric catalog of 8,735,004 proper motion selected low-mass stars (KML-spectral types) within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint, from the combined SDSS Data Release 10 (DR10), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) point-source catalog (PSC), and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) AllWISE catalog. Stars were selected using r − i, i − z, r − z, z − J, and z − W1 colors, and SDSS, WISE, and 2MASS astrometry was combined to compute proper motions. The resulting 3,518,150 stars were augmented with proper motions for 5,216,854 earlier type stars from the combined SDSS and United States Naval Observatory B1.0 catalog (USNO-B). We used SDSS+USNO-B proper motions to determine the best criteria for selecting a clean sample of stars. Only stars whose proper motions were greater than their 2σ uncertainty were included. Our Motion Verified Red Stars catalog is available through SDSS CasJobs and VizieR.

  14. Prestroke physical activity is associated with severity and long-term outcome from first-ever stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, L.H.; Truelsen, T.; Gluud, C.

    2008-01-01

    were randomized in the ExStroke Pilot Trial to an intervention of repeated instructions and encouragement to increase the level of physical activity or to a control group. Prestroke level of physical activity was assessed retrospectively by interview using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prestroke level of physical activity influenced stroke severity and long-term outcome. METHODS: Patients included into the present analyses represent a subset of patients with first-ever stroke enrolled into the ExStroke Pilot Trial. Patients with ischemic stroke...... (PASE) questionnaire. The PASE questionnaire quantifies the amount of physical activity done during a 7-day period. In this prospectively collected patient population initial stroke severity was measured using the Scandinavian Stroke Scale and long-term outcome was assessed after 2 years using...

  15. Clinical Outcome And Arginine Serum of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Supplemented by Snakehead Fish Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Retnaningsih; Abidin, Zainal

    2018-02-01

    Background: Levels of arginine associated with clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Arginine is a protein needed to synthesis nitric oxide (NO), a potential vasodilator and antioxidant. Snakehead fish is a source of protein which has antioxidant activity. Snakehead fish contains mineral, vitamin, and amino acids. One of the amino acids that were found quite high in snakehead fish extract is arginine. The aim of this study was done to determine the effect of snakehead fish extracts (SFE) on serum arginin levels and clinical outcome of AIS patients. Methods: It was double-blind randomized pretest-posttest control group design, with. AIS patients were divided into two groups i.e. snakehead fish extracts (SFE) and control. SFE group were administered 15 grams SFE for 7 days . Arginine serum levels and clinical outcome (measured by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale = NIHSS) were measured before and after treatment, other related factors were also analyzed in Logistic regression. Results: A total of 42 subjects who were performed random allocation as SFE or control group. There was no differences in subject characteristics between the two groups. There was a differences Δ arginine serum levels between SFE and control (33.6±19.95 μmol/L 0.3±2.51 μmol/L pgender factor that affected on improvement of NIHSS (OR=7; p=0,01). Conclusion: There is Clinical outcome improvement and enhancement of arginine serum levels in AIS patient with snakehead fish extract supplementation.

  16. Poor outcome prediction by burst suppression ratio in adults with post-anoxic coma without hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinglin; Su, Yingying; Hussain, Mohammed; Chen, Weibi; Ye, Hong; Gao, Daiquan; Tian, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Burst suppression ratio (BSR) is a quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) parameter. The purpose of our study was to compare the accuracy of BSR when compared to other EEG parameters in predicting poor outcomes in adults who sustained post-anoxic coma while not being subjected to therapeutic hypothermia. EEG was registered and recorded at least once within 7 days of post-anoxic coma onset. Electrodes were placed according to the international 10-20 system, using a 16-channel layout. Each EEG expert scored raw EEG using a grading scale adapted from Young and scored amplitude-integrated electroencephalography tracings, in addition to obtaining qEEG parameters defined as BSR with a defined threshold. Glasgow outcome scales of 1 and 2 at 3 months, determined by two blinded neurologists, were defined as poor outcome. Sixty patients with Glasgow coma scale score of 8 or less after anoxic accident were included. The sensitivity (97.1%), specificity (73.3%), positive predictive value (82.5%), and negative prediction value (95.0%) of BSR in predicting poor outcome were higher than other EEG variables. BSR1 and BSR2 were reliable in predicting death (area under the curve > 0.8, P coma who do not undergo therapeutic hypothermia when compared to other qEEG parameters.

  17. Thrombolytic therapy use for acute myocardial infarction and outcome in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Hadi A R; Al Suwaidi, J; Bener, A; Khinji, A; Al Binali, H A

    2005-07-10

    Data on the outcome of patients treated with thrombolytic therapy in the Arab world is scarce. The main objective of this study is to study the 7-day morbidity and mortality rate and the rate of use of thrombolytic therapy in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy in the Middle East. We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for all patients who were admitted to Coronary Care Unit in Cardiology Department in Hamad Medical during the period (1991-2001). Patients were divided into two groups in relation to ethnicity whether they received thrombolysis or not. In each group, the number of patients, age at the time of admission, gender, cardiovascular risk profile, therapy and outcome in regard of in-hospital complication and 7-day death as primary end point were analyzed. Of the total 5388 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction during the 10-year period, 66.3% (3567) with STE MI were found, 61.4% (2190) of them received thrombolytic therapy while 38.6% (1377) were not eligible for thrombolytic therapy. The remaining 33.7% (1821) were admitted with non-STE MI. In consideration of ethnic variation, patients with STE MI eligible for thrombolytic therapy, 29.6% (1598) were Qataris and 70.4% (3792) were non-Qataris. Thrombolytic therapy was administered to 25.9% (414) of Qatari patients and 51.3% (1947) of non-Qataris. The mortality rate of Qatari patients who received thrombolytic therapy was 9.2% (38) vs. 19.5% (231) who did not receive thrombolytic therapy (pnationals when compared to non-Qataris. Reperfusion therapy may be underutilized in the developing world. Increased use of reperfusion therapy would result in reduced mortality rate. Global measures to encourage the use of reperfusion therapy including patients' education, and strategies to improve the health care system are needed.

  18. Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michelle; Shen, Alex; O'Brien, Karel; Robinson, Joan L; Davies, H Dele; Simpson, Kim; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Langley, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Sauve, Reginald; Synnes, Anne; Tan, Ben; de Repentigny, Louis; Rubin, Earl; Hui, Chuck; Kovacs, Lajos; Yau, Yvonne C W; Richardson, Susan E

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days). All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, candidiasis enrolled from 2001 to 2003 were included in this study. Factors associated with occurrence and outcome of EOD in ELBW infants were determined. Forty-five ELBW infants and their 84 matched controls were included. Fourteen (31%) ELBW infants had EOD. Birth weight <750 g, gestation <25 weeks, chorioamnionitis, and vaginal delivery were all strongly associated with EOD. Infection with Candida albicans, disseminated disease, pneumonia, and cardiovascular disease were significantly more common in EOD than in LOD. The EOD case fatality rate (71%) was higher than in LOD (32%) or controls (15%) (P = .0001). The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment and mortality combined was similar in EOD (86%) and LOD (72%), but higher than in controls (32%; P = .007). ELBW infants with EOD have a very poor prognosis compared to those with LOD. The role of perinatal transmission in EOD is supported by its association with chorioamnionitis, vaginal delivery, and pneumonia. Dissemination and cardiovascular involvement are common, and affected infants often die. Empiric treatment should be considered for ELBW infants delivered vaginally who have pneumonia and whose mothers have chorioamnionitis or an intrauterine foreign body. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  20. How Best to Obtain Valid, Verifiable Data Online From Male Couples? Lessons Learned From an eHealth HIV Prevention Intervention for HIV-Negative Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason; Lee, Ji-Young; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-09-20

    As interest increases in the development of eHealth human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-preventive interventions for gay male couples, Web-based methods must also be developed to help increase the likelihood that couples enrolled and data collected from them represent true unique dyads. Methods to recruit and collect reliable and valid data from both members of a couple are lacking, yet are crucial for uptake of novel sexual health and HIV-prevention eHealth interventions. Methods to describe best practices to recruit male couples using targeted advertisements on Facebook are also lacking in the literature, yet could also help in this uptake. The objective of our study was to describe challenges and lessons learned from experiences from two phases (developmental phase and online randomized controlled trial [RCT]) of an eHealth HIV-prevention intervention for concordant HIV-negative male couples in terms of (1) recruiting male couples using targeted advertisements on Facebook, (2) validating that data came from two partners of the couple, and (3) verifying that the two partners of the couple are in a relationship with each other. The developmental phase refined the intervention via in-person focus groups, whereas the pilot-testing phase included an online RCT. For both phases, couples were recruited via targeted Facebook advertisements. Advertisements directed men to a study webpage and screener; once eligible, participants provided consent electronically. A partner referral system was embedded in the consenting process to recruit the relationship partner of the participant. Both men of the couple had to meet all eligibility criteria-individually and as a couple-before they could enroll in the study. Verification of couples' relationships was assessed via the concurrence of predetermined screener items from both partners, done manually in the developmental phase and electronically in the pilot-testing phase. A system of decision rules was developed to assess the

  1. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature, and Gas Mass Measurements With Modified Blackbody Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    We use a large data set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I of this series) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement physical properties of star-forming regions. In this part of the series (Paper II), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We find from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star formation sites and low-density regions, where for those “contaminated” pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost in the far-infrared background. When measuring the total gas mass of regions in moderate background, we find that modified blackbody fitting works well (absolute error: + 9%; −13%) up to 10 kpc distance (errors increase with distance). Commonly, the initial images are convolved to the largest common beam-size, which smears contaminated pixels over large areas. The resulting information loss makes this commonly used technique less verifiable as now χ {sup 2} values cannot be used as a quality indicator of a fitted pixel. Our control measurements of the total gas mass (without the step of convolution to the largest common beam size) produce similar results (absolute error: +20%; −7%) while having much lower median errors especially for the high-mass stellar feedback phase. In upcoming papers (Paper III; Paper IV) of this series we test the reliability of measured star formation rate with direct and indirect

  2. A mathematical method for verifying the validity of measured information about the flows of energy resources based on the state estimation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderin, A. V.; Sof'in, V. V.; Samoylenko, V. O.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts aimed at improving energy efficiency in all branches of the fuel and energy complex shall be commenced with setting up a high-tech automated system for monitoring and accounting energy resources. Malfunctions and failures in the measurement and information parts of this system may distort commercial measurements of energy resources and lead to financial risks for power supplying organizations. In addition, measurement errors may be connected with intentional distortion of measurements for reducing payment for using energy resources on the consumer's side, which leads to commercial loss of energy resource. The article presents a universal mathematical method for verifying the validity of measurement information in networks for transporting energy resources, such as electricity and heat, petroleum, gas, etc., based on the state estimation theory. The energy resource transportation network is represented by a graph the nodes of which correspond to producers and consumers, and its branches stand for transportation mains (power lines, pipelines, and heat network elements). The main idea of state estimation is connected with obtaining the calculated analogs of energy resources for all available measurements. Unlike "raw" measurements, which contain inaccuracies, the calculated flows of energy resources, called estimates, will fully satisfy the suitability condition for all state equations describing the energy resource transportation network. The state equations written in terms of calculated estimates will be already free from residuals. The difference between a measurement and its calculated analog (estimate) is called in the estimation theory an estimation remainder. The obtained large values of estimation remainders are an indicator of high errors of particular energy resource measurements. By using the presented method it is possible to improve the validity of energy resource measurements, to estimate the transportation network observability, to eliminate

  3. Canada - Atomic Energy Control Board, Canada. Summary of a common cause failure event which occurred in a Canadian utility. 'Failure to Verify Poison Isotopic'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Operating Policies and Principles (OP and Ps) are referenced in the reactor operating license. They contain not only general safety principles, but also define safety parameters and their numerical values for the operation of the nuclear power plant. The event described highlights the difficulties to implement the OP and Ps into detailed purchase orders. In Candu reactors gadolinium nitrate and boric oxide are used as neutron absorbers in the moderator. The concentration of neutron absorbers in the moderator is safety significant because a small change in concentration in coincidence with other failures (e.g. LOCA) can result in a sudden increase of power. To ensure that new shipments of gadolinium nitrate or boric acid meet the required specifications, these must undergo quarantine so that samples could be taken and forwarded for analysis. The chemistry unit of the NPP issued this requirements in a 'note to file'. In the event, two separated purchase orders, one for gadolinium nitrate and one for boric oxide, were placed. The purchase orders did not stipulate the requirements to quarantine, inform the chemistry unit or to analyse samples. They only stated that correct isotopic and chemical purity were required. The gadolinium nitrate as well as the boron oxide were both not quarantined and even the purity was not verified. The chemistry unit felt that a 'note to file' memo was sufficient to ensure that the OP and Ps are met taking into account the low shipment rate and sufficient experiences before. The analysis of the event revealed several causal factors. Four main factors were pointed out: - Work practices, - Resource Management, - Written communication, - Managerial methods. The actions taken after the event focused on the identified deficiencies

  4. Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data from a Single Private Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngju; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Oh, Seung-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Um, Yoo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Cheol Min

    2016-05-01

    Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers. In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69-10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36-4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.06), and low cotinine levels of pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates.

  5. HHF test with 80x80x1 Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups for verifying the joining technology of the ITER blanket First Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Bae, Young Dug; Kim, Suk Kwon; Hong, Bong Guen; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Jeong Yong; Choi, Byung Kwon; Jung, Hyun Kyu

    2008-11-15

    Through the fabrication of the Cu/SS and Be/Cu joint specimens, fabrication procedure such as material preparation, canning, degassing, HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), PHHT (Post HIP heat treatment) was established. The HIP conditions (1050 .deg. C, 100 MPa 2 hr for Cu/SS, 580 .deg. C 100 MPa 2 hr for Be/Cu) were developed through the investigation on joint specimen fabricated with the various HIP conditions; the destructive tests of joint include the microstructure observation of the interface with the examination of the elemental distribution, tension test, bend test, Charpy impact test and fracture toughness test. However, since the joint should be tested under the High Heat Flux (HHF) conditions like the ITER operation for verifying its joint integrity, several HHF tests were performed like the previous HHF test with the Cu/SS, Be/Cu, Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups. In the present study, the HHF test with Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups, which have 80 mm x 80 mm single Be tile and each material depths were kept to be the same as the ITER blanket FW. The Mock-ups fabricated with three kinds of interlayers such as Cr/Ti/Cu, Ti/Cr/Cu, Ti/Cu, which were different from the developed interlayer (Cr/Cu), total 6 Mock-ups were fabricated. Preliminary analysis were performed to decide the test conditions; they were tested with up to 2.5 MW/m2 of heat fluxes and 20 cycles for each Mock-up in a given heat flux. They were tested with JUDITH-1 at FZJ in Germany. During tests, all Mock-ups showed delamination or full detachment of Be tile and it can be concluded that the joints with these interlayers have a bad joining but it can be used as a good data for developing the Be/Cu joint with HIP.

  6. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature, and Gas Mass Measurements with Modified Blackbody Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Dale, James E.

    2017-11-01

    We use a large data set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I of this series) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement physical properties of star-forming regions. In this part of the series (Paper II), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We find from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star formation sites and low-density regions, where for those “contaminated” pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost in the far-infrared background. When measuring the total gas mass of regions in moderate background, we find that modified blackbody fitting works well (absolute error: + 9%; -13%) up to 10 kpc distance (errors increase with distance). Commonly, the initial images are convolved to the largest common beam-size, which smears contaminated pixels over large areas. The resulting information loss makes this commonly used technique less verifiable as now χ 2 values cannot be used as a quality indicator of a fitted pixel. Our control measurements of the total gas mass (without the step of convolution to the largest common beam size) produce similar results (absolute error: +20%; -7%) while having much lower median errors especially for the high-mass stellar feedback phase. In upcoming papers (Paper III; Paper IV) of this series we test the reliability of measured star formation rate with direct and indirect techniques.

  7. Analysis and comparison of modern methods of turf irrigation, verifying the capability of existing information systems through the use of numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Facoetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The automated irrigation of parks and gardens in public areas has become more and more a common practice due to the many benefits it brings in terms of improving the quality of urban green areas. Since this practice requires significant volumes of water, and this becomes increasingly scarce and expensive, it is necessary that the design criteria and use management aim at maximizing the irrigation efficiency. There are conflicting relationship and competition between trees and turf for several reasons. On one hand the different irrigation needs can cause excess water in the root zones of the trees, on the other hand the surface roots of trees and the shade created from the leaves by the dripline (projection line of the canopy) determine an unfavorable area to the growth of the turf because of light factor. It follows that for an optimal design of an irrigation system is necessary to separate the turf areas from trees, with the disadvantage of considerably complicate the geometries of the sprinklers. Each tree or group of trees need to be associated to a not irrigated area. This problem seems not to have a specifically bibliographical evidence, although there are operating standards primarily used to define buffer zones for trees from constructions (British Standard 5837:2005). Ideally, a high number of sprinklers is required to follow the shape of the areas perfectly. Hence, an additional step is necessary to simplify these geometries, identifying a correct scheme for the sprinkler spacing. Such a sequence of geometric operations has been tested on the "Indro Montanelli" park in Milan, obtaining a reduction of the irrigated area of 47% and a water saving of around 30%. We intend to continue the research applying the model to other parks, verifying its applicability in different situations.

  8. Metabolic effect of bodyweight whole-body vibration in a 20-min exercise session: A crossover study using verified vibration stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Milanese

    Full Text Available The ability of whole body vibration (WBV to increase energy expenditure (EE has been investigated to some extent in the past using short-term single exercises or sets of single exercises. However, the current practice in WBV training for fitness is based on the execution of multiple exercises during a WBV training session for a period of at least 20 min; nevertheless, very limited and inconsistent data are available on EE during long term WBV training session. This crossover study was designed to demonstrate, in an adequately powered sample of participants, the ability of WBV to increase the metabolic cost of exercise vs. no vibration over the time span of a typical WBV session for fitness (20 min. Twenty-two physically active young males exercised on a vibration platform (three identical sets of six different exercises using an accelerometer-verified vibration stimulus in both the WBV and no vibration condition. Oxygen consumption was measured with indirect calorimetry and expressed as area under the curve (O2(AUC. Results showed that, in the overall 20-min training session, WBV increased both the O2(AUC and the estimated EE vs. no vibration by about 22% and 20%, respectively (P<0.001 for both, partial eta squared [η2] ≥0.35 as well as the metabolic equivalent of task (+5.5%, P = 0.043; η2 = 0.02 and the rate of perceived exertion (+13%, P<0.001; ŋ2 = 0.16. Results demonstrated that vibration is able to significantly increase the metabolic cost of exercise in a 20-min WBV training session.

  9. Improving utility conservation programs: outcomes, interventions, and evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condelli, L; Archer, D; Aronson, E; Curbow, B; McLeod, B; Pettigrew, T F; White, L T; Yates, S

    1984-06-01

    Four major California utility companies have active energy conservation programs mandated by the State's Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). These companies evaluate their programs and send reports of the evaluations to the CPUC. A review of 213 of these reports revealed a marketing research approach toward promoting conservation. Advertising and informational campaigns characterize most programs, and attitudes and self-reported behavior were the major outcome measures. This approach is shown to be ineffective. Suggestions for improvement include: (1) the use of actual energy consumption as the primary outcome measure in evaluating conservation programs; (2) the abandonment of conventional advertising, and the use of it only for the promotion of ''hard'' interventions; (3) increased use of social diffusion methods to disseminate information; (4) the design of more effective educational material by incorporating cognitive social psychological principles; and (5) the utilization of ''hard'' interventions that have a direct, verifiable link to conservation.

  10. Colostomy in neonates under local anaesthesia: indications, technique and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukong, Christopher Suiye; Jabo, Basheer Abdullahi; Mfuh, Anita Yafeh

    2012-01-01

    Colostomy is a resuscitative procedure in paediatric surgical practice. In critical patients, mortality may be high, if general anaesthesia is used. Local anaesthesia may be an alternative in this group of neonates. The aim of this article was to evaluate the indications, the technique and outcome of colostomy in neonates under local anaesthesia. A prospective analysis of 38 neonates who had colostomy under local anaesthesia, from July 2008 to September 2011, in our centre. There were 34 boys and 4 girls. The median age was 4 days (range 2-11 days),and all presented in a critical state. The indication for colostomy was anorectal malformation 37 (97.4%) and colonic atresia 1 (2.6%). COLOSTOMY: sigmoid 7 (18.4%), descending 29 (76.3%), transverse 2 (5.3%). The median duration of the procedure was 45 minutes (range 30-60 minutes). The hospital stay was 7-15 days (median 7 days) and cost of treatment 7000-7500 Naira (median 7500 Naira = $50). There were 5 (13.2%) early complications, namely, skin excoriation 2, superficial site infection 2, and bowel evisceration 1; mortality was 2 (5.3%). The late complications were stomal stenosis 1 (2.6%), colostomy diarrhoea 2 (5.3%), and parastomal hernia 2 (5.3%). 25 (65.7%) had colostomy takedown and 13 (34%) were yet to have colostomy takedown. Follow-up was for 1-2 years. None of the patients had a permanent colostomy. Colostomy in neonates under local anaesthesia is feasible, safe and cost-effective. The outcome is good and may be used when neonatal anaesthetic expertise and intensive care facilities are lacking.

  11. Verifying the Relative Efficacy between Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy and Its Alternatives for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Network Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingwei Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common breathing disorder, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy together with its alternatives has been developed to treat this disease. This network meta-analysis (NMA was aimed to compare the efficacy of treatments for OSA. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Embase were searched for eligible studies. A conventional and NMA was carried out to compare all therapies. Sleeping characteristics, including Apnea–Hypopnea Index (AHI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, arterial oxygen saturation, and arousal index (AI, and changes of blood pressure were selected as outcomes. A total of 84 studies were finally included after rigorous screenings. For the primary outcomes of AHI and ESS, the value of auto-adjusting positive airway pressure (APAP, CPAP, and oral appliance (OA all showed statistically reduction compared with inactive control (IC. Similar observation was obtained in AI, with treatments of the three active interventions. A lower effect of IC in SaO2 was exhibited when compared with APAP, CPAP, and OA. Similar statistically significant results were presented in 24 h systolic blood pressure and 24 h DBP when comparing with CPAP. Our NMA identified CPAP as the most efficacious treatment for OSA patients after the evaluation of sleeping characteristics and blood pressures. In addition, more clinical trials are needed for further investigation due to the existence of inconsistency observed in this study.

  12. Outcome of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Kumar, N.; Baloch, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the implementation of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in renal stone management and evaluate the factors for efficacy and safety of PCNL. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients aged above 12 years of age, irrespective of gender with normal renal function, mean stone size > 2 cm, lower pole stones > 1 cm, and ESWL failure were selected. After the procedure, on the first postoperative day, a plain abdominal radiograph was obtained to verify stone clearance. A nephrostomy tube was clamped overnight and subsequently removed when no residual stone which needs second sitting was seen. Results: In 175 patients, 62.86% (n=110) were male and the mean age was 35 A +- 9.56 years. One hundred and seventeen (66.85%) patients were primarily stone free and 13.71% (n=24) patients needed a second look procedure, thus, a total of 80.57% (n=141) patients were stone free in the same admission. Complications included failure in 4.0% (n=7) patients, bleeding in 8.57% (n=15) patients, a small residual stone in 15.43% (n=27) patients; and puncture site pain almost in every patient. Transient fever occurred in 55.43% (n=97) patients, urinary leakage in 8.57% (n=15) patients, urinary tract infections in 5.14% (n=9) patients, ureteric colic in 3.43% (n=6) patients, colonic injury in 0.57% (n=1) patient; and nephrectomy was required in 0.57% (n=1) patient due to severe bleeding. One patient (0.57%) expired due to anaesthesia complications. Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has a good success rate. There is minimal blood loss, and few major complications. (author)

  13. Predicting sports betting outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Flis, Borut

    2014-01-01

    We wish to build a model, which could predict the outcome of basketball games. The goal was to achieve an sufficient enough accuracy to make a profit in sports betting. One learning example is a game in the NBA regular season. Every example has multiple features, which describe the opposing teams. We tried many methods, which return the probability of the home team winning and the probability of the away team winning. These probabilities are used for risk analysis. We used the best model in h...

  14. Explaining governance outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Paul; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    network analysis school, which has focused on the relationship between processes of interest intermediation and their impact on policy-making outcomes.We examine how each school is underpinned by important epistemological differences between positivist, interpretivist and critical realist approaches.......We argue that these differences complicate and make contestable what would otherwise seem to be an intuitively attractive argument in favour of combining these two schools. In seeking to understand better how these two schools might be combined, we adopt a critical realist approach and make a distinction...

  15. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    -down model of feeding back research findings to subjects” (Roberts and Sarangi 2003, 340) although, arguably, making results applicable to a real-world context ought to be an essential goal of researcher-practitioner studies. This issue forms the background of the presentation, in which it will be discussed...... how the dissemination of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners (cf. e.g. Nørreklit et al. 1987; Puchta & Potter 2004). The presentation will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross...

  16. Functional and morphological parameters with tissue characterization of cardiovascular magnetic imaging in clinically verified ''infarct-like myocarditis''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Johannes [Paracelsus Medical Univ., General Hospital Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Radiology; Rogg, H.J.; Pauschinger, M.; Fessele, K. [Paracelsus Medical Univ., General Hospital Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Bareiter, T.; Baer, I. [Paracelsus Medical Univ., General Hospital Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Neuroradiology; Loose, R. [Paracelsus Medical Univ., General Hospital Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-04-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has increasingly proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for evaluating patients with suspected myocarditis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of functional and morphological parameters including tissue characterization in patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis''. 43 patients with clinically verified cases of ''infarct-like myocarditis'' (median time to MRI scanning after admission for acute symptoms 3 days) and 35 control patients matched by age and sex were included in this retrospective case control study. In this study we used a 1.5 T MRI scanner conducting steady-state-free-precession sequences, T2-weighted imaging, T1-weighted imaging before and after contrast administration and late gadolinium enhancement sequences. According to the recommendations for CMR diagnosis of myocarditis (Lake Louise consensus criteria), a scan was positive for acute myocarditis if 2 of 3 CMR criteria were present. 30 % of the patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'' had a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, 11 % had an increased LV end-diastolic volume index and 35 % had an increased LV mass index. The sensitivity of wall motion abnormalities was 63 % with a regional distribution in 49 %. In 47 % of cases regional wall motion abnormalities were present in the lateral left ventricular segments. Pericardial effusions were discovered in 65 % of cases with a circular appearance in 21 % and focal manifestation in 44 %. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CMR in patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'' were 67 %, 100 % and 82 %, respectively. The LGE alone was the most sensitive test parameter with 86 %, providing a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 92 %. Our study results can be applied to the subgroup of patients with ''infarct-like myocarditis'', where we found that LGE alone was the

  17. Predictive power of the ESUR scoring system for prostate cancer diagnosis verified with targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmöller, L.; Quentin, M.; Arsov, C.; Hiester, A.; Kröpil, P.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P.; Antoch, G.; Blondin, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PI-RADS summed score (PS sum ) demonstrated very good diagnostic values, especially for higher grade PCa. • Lesions with PS sum ≥13 represented prostate cancer in 88% and higher grade prostate cancer in 42%. • Sensitivity and NPV was nearly 100% for higher grade PCa detection using a cut-off limit of PS sum 10. • Peripheral zone lesions demonstrated better diagnostic value with the PS sum compared to transitional zone lesions. • Further improvement of the PI-RADS score is required to prevent unnecessary overdiagnosis. - Abstract: Purpose: This study evaluates the diagnostic value of the ESUR scoring system (PI-RADS) regarding prostate cancer detection using MR-guided in-bore biopsies (IB-GB) as the reference standard. Methods: 566 lesions in 235 consecutive patients (65.7 ± 7.9 years, PSA 9.9 ± 8.5 ng/ml) with a multiparametric (mp)-MRI (T2WI, DWI, DCE) of the prostate at 3 T were scored using the PI-RADS scoring system. PI-RADS single (PS single ), summed (PS sum ), and overall (PS overall ) scores were determined. All lesions were histologically verified by IB-GB. Results: Lesions with a PS sum below 9 contained no prostate cancer (PCa) with Gleason score (GS) ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. A PS sum of 13–15 (PS overall V) resulted in 87.8% (n = 108) in PCa and in 42.3% (n = 52) in GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. Transition zone (TZ) lesions with a PS sum of 13–15 (PS overall V) resulted in 76.3% (n = 36) in PCa and in 26.3% (n = 10) in GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7, whereas for peripheral zone (PZ) lesions cancer detection rate at this score was 92.9% (n = 79) and 49.4% (n = 42) for GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. Using a threshold of PS sum ≥ 10, sensitivity was 86.0%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 86.2%. For higher grade PCa sensitivity was 98.6%, and NPV was 99.5%. Conclusion: A PS sum below 9 excluded a higher grade PCa, whereas lesions with a PS sum ≥ 13 (PS overall V) represented in 88% PCa, and in 42% higher grade PCa. The PS sum or PS overall demonstrated a

  18. Unfavourable outcomes in orthognathic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy Bonanthaya; P Anantanarayanan

    2013-01-01

    Unfavourable outcomes are part and parcel of performing surgeries of any kind. Unfavourable outcomes are results of such work, which the patient and or the clinician does not like. This is an attempt to review various causes for unfavorable outcomes in orthognathic surgery and discuss them in detail. All causes for unfavorable outcomes may be classified as belonging to one of the following periods A) Pre- Treatment B) During treatment Pre-Treatment: In orthognathic surgery- as in any other di...

  19. Creating an outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerge, J B

    2000-01-01

    Four constructs used to build a framework for outcomes management for a large midwestern tertiary hospital are described in this article. A system framework outlining a model of clinical integration and population management based in Steven Shortell's work is discussed. This framework includes key definitions of high-risk patients, target groups, populations and community. Roles for each level of population management and how they were implemented in the health care system are described. A point of service framework centered on seven dimensions of care is the next construct applied on each nursing unit. The third construct outlines the framework for role development. Three roles for nursing were created to implement strategies for target groups that are strategic disease categories; two of those roles are described in depth. The philosophy of nursing practice is centered on caring and existential advocacy. The final construct is the modification of the Dartmouth model as a common framework for outcomes. System applications of the scorecard and lessons learned in the 2-year process of implementation are shared

  20. Predicting outcome after appendicectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    AIM: To validate an intraoperative appendicitis severity score (IASS) and examine outcome following emergency appendectomy. METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken, enrolling consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy. Data were obtained independently on preoperative Alvarado scores, IASS (0-3: 0 no inflammation, 1 engorged appendix\\/no peritonitis, 2 peritoneal reaction\\/exudate or 3 evidence of perforation\\/abscess) and postoperative outcome parameters. RESULTS: There were 149 patients identified with a mean age of 20.7 years. There was no association between Alvarado score and length of hospital stay, septic complication, patient sex or duration of symptoms (p>0.05). IASS was found to be an independent risk factor for septic complication, wound infection (p<0.05) and length of hospital stay (p<0.001). There was no correlation between preoperative duration of symptoms or time until surgery and intraoperative score. CONCLUSIONS: This simple scoring system can identify patients more likely to suffer morbidity following emergency appendicectomy. Specifically, this system identifies patients who have a high risk of sepsis and therefore could be of use when comparing healthcare performance.

  1. Neurodevelopmental outcomes after regional cerebral perfusion with neuromonitoring for neonatal aortic arch reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropoulos, Dean B; Easley, R Blaine; Brady, Ken; McKenzie, E Dean; Heinle, Jeffrey S; Dickerson, Heather A; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Meador, Marcie; Eisenman, Carol; Hunter, Jill V; Turcich, Marie; Voigt, Robert G; Fraser, Charles D

    2013-02-01

    In this study we report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain injury and 12-month neurodevelopmental outcomes when regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is used for neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. Fifty-seven neonates receiving RCP during aortic arch reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective outcome study. RCP flows were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler monitoring. Brain MRI was performed preoperatively and 7 days postoperatively. Bayley Scales of Infant Development III was performed at 12 months. Mean RCP time was 71 ± 28 minutes (range, 5 to 121 minutes) and mean flow was 56.6 ± 10.6 mL/kg/min. New postoperative MRI brain injury was seen in 40% of patients. For 35 RCP patients at age 12 months, mean Bayley Scales III Composite standard scores were: Cognitive, 100.1 ± 14.6 (range, 75 to 125); Language, 87.2 ± 15.0 (range, 62 to 132); and Motor, 87.9 ± 16.8 (range, 58 to 121). Increasing duration of RCP was not associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Neonatal aortic arch repair with RCP using a neuromonitoring strategy results in 12-month cognitive outcomes that are at reference population norms. Language and motor outcomes are lower than the reference population norms by 0.8 to 0.9 standard deviations. The neurodevelopmental outcomes in this RCP cohort demonstrate that this technique is effective and safe in supporting the brain during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term Outcomes of a Cell Phone–Delivered Intervention for Smokers Living With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Danysh, Heather E.; Fletcher, Faith E.; Tami-Maury, Irene; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; King, Rachel Marks; Arduino, Roberto C.; Vidrine, Damon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS (PLWHA) have a substantially higher prevalence of cigarette smoking compared to the general population. In addition, PLWHA are particularly susceptible to the adverse health effects of smoking. Our primary objective was to design and test the efficacy over 12 months of a smoking cessation intervention targeting PLWHA. Methods. Participants were enrolled from an urban HIV clinic with a multiethnic and economically disadvantaged patient population. Participants received smoking cessation treatment either through usual care (UC) or counseling delivered by a cell phone intervention (CPI). The 7-day point prevalence abstinence was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months using logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models. Results. We randomized 474 HIV-positive smokers to either the UC or CPI group. When evaluating the overall treatment effect (7-day abstinence outcomes from 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups), participants in the CPI group were 2.41 times (P = .049) more likely to demonstrate abstinence compared to the UC group. The treatment effect was strongest at the 3-month follow-up (odds ratio = 4.3, P .05). Conclusions. Cell phone–delivered smoking cessation treatment has a positive impact on abstinence rates compared to a usual care approach. Future research should focus on strategies for sustaining the treatment effect in the long term. PMID:23704120

  3. Long-term outcomes of a cell phone-delivered intervention for smokers living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritz, Ellen R; Danysh, Heather E; Fletcher, Faith E; Tami-Maury, Irene; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; King, Rachel Marks; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2013-08-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS (PLWHA) have a substantially higher prevalence of cigarette smoking compared to the general population. In addition, PLWHA are particularly susceptible to the adverse health effects of smoking. Our primary objective was to design and test the efficacy over 12 months of a smoking cessation intervention targeting PLWHA. Participants were enrolled from an urban HIV clinic with a multiethnic and economically disadvantaged patient population. Participants received smoking cessation treatment either through usual care (UC) or counseling delivered by a cell phone intervention (CPI). The 7-day point prevalence abstinence was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months using logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models. We randomized 474 HIV-positive smokers to either the UC or CPI group. When evaluating the overall treatment effect (7-day abstinence outcomes from 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups), participants in the CPI group were 2.41 times (P = .049) more likely to demonstrate abstinence compared to the UC group. The treatment effect was strongest at the 3-month follow-up (odds ratio = 4.3, P .05). Cell phone-delivered smoking cessation treatment has a positive impact on abstinence rates compared to a usual care approach. Future research should focus on strategies for sustaining the treatment effect in the long term.

  4. Outcome Controllability and Counterfactual Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roese, Neal J.; Olson, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined impact of outcome controllability on counterfactual thoughts (thoughts of what could have been). Two studies showed that outcome controllability affected counterfactual direction: thoughts on how things could have been better were more frequent following controllable outcomes, and thoughts on how things could have been worse followed…

  5. Catastrophic Outcomes in Free Tissue Transfer: A Six-Year Review of the NSQIP Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No studies report robust data on the national incidence and risk factors associated with catastrophic medical outcomes following free tissue transfer. Methods. The American College of Surgeons (ACS multicenter, prospective National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP database was used to identify patients who underwent free tissue transfer between 2006 and 2011. Multivariable logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results. Over the 6-year study period 2,349 patients in the NSQIP database underwent a free tissue transfer procedure. One hundred and twenty-two patients had at least one catastrophic medical outcome (5.2%. These 122 patients had 151 catastrophic medical outcomes, including 93 postoperative respiratory failure events (4.0%, 14 pulmonary emboli (0.6%, 13 septic shock events (0.5%, 12 myocardial infarctions (0.5%, 6 cardiac arrests (0.3%, 4 strokes (0.2%, 1 coma (0.0%, and 8 deaths (0.3%. Total length of hospital stay was on average 14.7 days longer for patients who suffered a catastrophic medical complication (P<0.001. Independent risk factors were identified. Conclusions. Free tissue transfer is a proven and safe technique. Catastrophic medical complications were infrequent but added significantly to length of hospital stay and patient morbidity.

  6. The anti-inflammatory drug carprofen improves long-term outcome and induces gliogenesis after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau-Zuchman, Orli; Shohami, Esther; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Trembovler, Victoria; Leker, Ronen R

    2012-01-20

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates acute and chronic inflammatory processes involving cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which may have detrimental effects on outcome and especially on brain regeneration. Therefore we aimed to study whether carprofen, a COX-2 inhibitor, would improve outcome and increase neurogenesis after TBI. TBI was induced in Sabra mice that were then treated with vehicle or carprofen for 7 days. Functional outcome was evaluated with the Neurological Severity Score (NSS).Cytokine levels were assessed 4 h post-TBI and water content was measured 24 h post TBI. Mice were given BrdU to label newborn cells for 10 days. The animals were killed 90 days post-TBI and the lesion size as well as newborn cell fate were assessed. Carprofen significantly reduced lesion size (p=0.002), decreased water content in the lesioned cortex (p=0.03), reduced the number of microglia in the lesioned cortex (pCarprofen led to significantly larger improvements in functional outcome (p≤0.008) which were durable over 90 days. Carprofen also induced a threefold increase in the proliferation of new cells in the peri-lesion area (p≤0.002), but newborn cells differentiated mainly into glia in both groups. Carprofen is neuroprotective and induces cell proliferation and gliogenesis after TBI. Treatment with carprofen is consistently associated with better functional outcome. Our results imply that anti-inflammatory drugs may represent novel therapeutic options for TBI.

  7. Predictive power of the ESUR scoring system for prostate cancer diagnosis verified with targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmöller, L., E-mail: Lars.Schimmoeller@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Quentin, M., E-mail: Michael.Quentin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, C., E-mail: Cristian.Arsov@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Hiester, A., E-mail: Andreas.Hiester@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Kröpil, P., E-mail: Patric.Kroepil@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Rabenalt, R., E-mail: Robert.Rabenalt@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Albers, P., E-mail: urologie@uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Antoch, G., E-mail: Antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Blondin, D., E-mail: Dirk.Blondin@sk-mg.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The PI-RADS summed score (PS{sub sum}) demonstrated very good diagnostic values, especially for higher grade PCa. • Lesions with PS{sub sum} ≥13 represented prostate cancer in 88% and higher grade prostate cancer in 42%. • Sensitivity and NPV was nearly 100% for higher grade PCa detection using a cut-off limit of PS{sub sum} 10. • Peripheral zone lesions demonstrated better diagnostic value with the PS{sub sum} compared to transitional zone lesions. • Further improvement of the PI-RADS score is required to prevent unnecessary overdiagnosis. - Abstract: Purpose: This study evaluates the diagnostic value of the ESUR scoring system (PI-RADS) regarding prostate cancer detection using MR-guided in-bore biopsies (IB-GB) as the reference standard. Methods: 566 lesions in 235 consecutive patients (65.7 ± 7.9 years, PSA 9.9 ± 8.5 ng/ml) with a multiparametric (mp)-MRI (T2WI, DWI, DCE) of the prostate at 3 T were scored using the PI-RADS scoring system. PI-RADS single (PS{sub single}), summed (PS{sub sum}), and overall (PS{sub overall}) scores were determined. All lesions were histologically verified by IB-GB. Results: Lesions with a PS{sub sum} below 9 contained no prostate cancer (PCa) with Gleason score (GS) ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. A PS{sub sum} of 13–15 (PS{sub overall} V) resulted in 87.8% (n = 108) in PCa and in 42.3% (n = 52) in GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. Transition zone (TZ) lesions with a PS{sub sum} of 13–15 (PS{sub overall} V) resulted in 76.3% (n = 36) in PCa and in 26.3% (n = 10) in GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7, whereas for peripheral zone (PZ) lesions cancer detection rate at this score was 92.9% (n = 79) and 49.4% (n = 42) for GS ≥ 4 + 3 = 7. Using a threshold of PS{sub sum} ≥ 10, sensitivity was 86.0%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 86.2%. For higher grade PCa sensitivity was 98.6%, and NPV was 99.5%. Conclusion: A PS{sub sum} below 9 excluded a higher grade PCa, whereas lesions with a PS{sub sum} ≥ 13 (PS{sub overall} V) represented in 88

  8. Achalasia: Outcome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anell; Catto-Smith, Anthony; Crameri, Joe; Simpson, Di; Alex, George; Hardikar, Winita; Cameron, Donald; Oliver, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Oesophageal achalasia is well-recognized but relatively rare in children, occasionally appearing as the "triple A" syndrome (with adrenal insufficiency and alacrima). Treatment modalities, as in adult practice, are not curative, often needing further interventions and spurring the search for better management. The outcome for syndromic variants is unknown. We sought to define the efficacy of treatments for children with achalasia with and without triple A syndrome. We conducted a retrospective analysis of presentation and outcomes for 42 children with achalasia presenting over three decades to a major pediatric referral center. Long term impact of the diagnosis was assessed by questionnaire. We identified 42 children including six with triple A syndrome. The median overall age at diagnosis was 10.8 years and median follow-up 1593 days. Initial Heller myotomy in 17 required further interventions in 11 (65%), while initial treatment with botulinum toxin (n = 20) was ultimately followed by myotomy in 17 (85%). Ten out of 35 patients who underwent myotomy required a repeat myotomy (29%). Patients with triple A syndrome developed symptoms earlier, but had delayed diagnosis, were more underweight at diagnosis and at last follow up. Questionnaire results suggested a significant long term deleterious impact on the quality of life of children and their families. Many children with achalasia relapse after initial treatment, undergoing multiple, different procedures, despite which symptoms persist and impact on quality of life. Symptoms develop earlier in patients with triple A syndrome, but the diagnosis is delayed and this has substantial nutritional impact. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Farmacoeconomia e outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Attanasio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical products are relevant for their contribution to the medicine progress and in health peoples improvement, altough this evidence goes back to the forthy years with the reduction in mortality, morbidity and hospitalisation rates. The ambivalence of drugs, both remedy and poison, needs a careful assessment of risks and benefits. Primitive estimates of health treatments evaluation occurred in the human history but the modern concept of evaluation in health care derived from cost-benefit analysis (welfare economics and technology assessment. Then a new discipline, pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research, developed with the contribution of health economics, clinical medicine, pharmacology, statistics and epidemiology. Pharmaceutical products are also relevant because of their responsability of health expenditure growth. From 1992, in Italy, several legislative actions were made to face up the pharmaceutical expenditure. The most important one (L. 537/1993 achieved the maximum decrease of 16,8%, in 1994, and modified radically the pharmaceutical policy. Nevertheless, in the following six years the pharma