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Sample records for outcome strongly depends

  1. Outcome of Treatment of Human HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells With Roscovitine Strongly Depends on the Dosage and Cell Cycle Status Prior to the Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wesierska-Gadek, J.; Borza, A.; Walzi, E.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Maurer, M.; Komina, O.; Wandl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2009), s. 937-955 ISSN 0730-2312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : APOPTOSIS * CELL CYCLE ARREST * CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.935, year: 2009

  2. Why does the martensitic transformation temperature strongly depend on composition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, X.; Otsuka, K.

    2000-01-01

    The reason for the strong composition and heat-treatment dependence of the martensitic transformation temperature was investigated by a simple Landau-type model. Assuming the anharmonic and coupling coefficients are insensitive to composition, we obtained an important result martensitic transformation occurs at a critical elastic constant c' and a critical TA 2 phonon energy ω η 2 , which are independent of alloy composition. This result gained support from a large body of experimental data of Cu-based alloys. Since c' and phonon energy are strongly dependent on composition, the constancy of c' at Ms demands that the (transformation) temperature must exhibit an opposite effect to compensate the composition effect. Therefore, the lower the c', the higher the Ms is. Because the temperature dependence of c' is weak (due to the 1 st order nature of the transformation), the big c' change by a slight composition change must be compensated by a large change in temperature. Thus Ms has strong composition dependence. The effect of quench is to increase point defects, being equivalent to a composition change, thus has a strong effect on Ms. From the present study, we can conclude that the strong composition dependence of Ms is mainly a harmonic effect. (orig.)

  3. Strong dependence of ultracold chemical rates on electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.

    2010-01-01

    We use the quantum threshold laws combined with a classical capture model to provide an analytical estimate of the chemical quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of two colliding particles at ultralow temperatures. We apply this quantum threshold model (QT model) to indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules in an electric field. At ultracold temperatures and in weak electric fields, the cross sections and rate coefficients depend only weakly on the electric dipole moment d induced by the electric field. In stronger electric fields, the quenching processes scale as d 4(L+(1/2)) where L>0 is the orbital angular-momentum quantum number between the two colliding particles. For p-wave collisions (L=1) of indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules at ultracold temperatures, the quenching rate thus scales as d 6 . We also apply this model to pure two-dimensional collisions and find that chemical rates vanish as d -4 for ultracold indistinguishable fermions. This model provides a quick and intuitive way to estimate chemical rate coefficients of reactions occuring with high probability.

  4. Promoting Strong ISO 50001 Outcomes with Supportive National Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee, T.; Siciliano, Graziella; de los Reyes, Pamela

    2015-08-04

    The ISO 50001 standard is a key mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency globally. An increasing number of companies are seeking certification, creating the need for personnel that are competent to conduct ISO 50001 certification audits. The growth of ISO 50001 is expected to accelerate as more companies integrate ISO 50001 into their corporate sustainability strategies and supplier requirements. Robust implementation of ISO 50001 represents an important tool for countries with climate change mitigation goals. Because of its dual focus on continual improvement of an organization’s energy management system (EnMS) and its energy performance improvement, ISO 50001 requires skills of both implementers and certification auditors that are not well-supported by current credentials and training. This paper describes an effort to address skill gaps of certification auditors, a critical factor to ensure that ISO 50001 implementations are robust and result in continued energy performance improvement. A collaboration of governments through the Energy Management Working Group (EMWG), formerly under Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP), has formed to build workforce capacity for ISO 50001 certification audits. The EMWG is leading the development of an internationally-relevant certification scheme for ISO 50001 Lead Auditor that meets requirements for ISO/IEC 17024 accreditation and ISO 50003 for defining ISO 50001 Lead Auditor competency. Wider availability of competent ISO 50001 Lead Auditors will ultimately increase the impact and market value of ISO 50001 certification and improve consistency of ISO 50001 certification outcomes by establishing a standardized and high level of knowledge and skills globally.

  5. Exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potentials for strong-field electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lein, Manfred; Kuemmel, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    By solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and inverting the time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme we obtain the exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potential of density-functional theory for the strong-field dynamics of a correlated system. We demonstrate that essential features of the exact exchange-correlation potential can be related to derivative discontinuities in stationary density-functional theory. Incorporating the discontinuity in a time-dependent density-functional calculation greatly improves the description of the ionization process

  6. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  7. Asymptotic dependence of Gross–Tulub polaron ground-state energy in the strong coupling region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Kashirina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of translationally invariant polaron functional have been investigated in the region of strong and extremely strong coupling. It has been shown that the Gross–Tulub polaron functional obtained earlier using the methods of field theory was derived only for the region , where is the Fröhlich constant of the electron-phonon coupling. Various representations of exact and approximate polaron functionals have been considered. Asymptotic dependences of the polaron energy have been obtained using a functional extending the Gross–Tulub functional to the region of extremely strong coupling. The asymptotic dependence of polaron energies for an extremely strong coupling are (for the one-parameter variational function fk, and (for a two-parameter function . It has been shown that the virial theorem 1:3:4 holds for the two-parameter function . Minimization of the approximate functional obtained by expanding the exact Gross–Tulub functional in a series on leads to a quadratic dependence of the polaron energy. This approximation is justified for . For a two-parameter function , the corresponding dependence has the form . However, the use of approximate functionals, in contrast to the strict variational procedure, when the exact polaron functional varies, does not guarantee obtaining the upper limit for the polaron energy.

  8. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs in strongly diffusive regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of systematic optical pump–terahertz probe experiments, we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in the regime of strong carrier diffusion. The terahertz frequency-resolved transient sheet conductivity spectra are perfectly described by the Drude...... model, directly yielding the electron scattering rates. A diffusion model is applied to determine the spatial extent of the photoexcited electron-hole gas at each moment after photoexcitation, yielding the time-dependent electron density, and hence the density-dependent electron scattering time. We find...

  9. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sissay, Adonay [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lopata, Kenneth, E-mail: klopata@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  10. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  11. Outcome dependency alters the neural substrates of impression formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    How do people maintain consistent impressions of other people when other people are often inconsistent? The present research addresses this question by combining recent neuroscientific insights with ecologically meaningful behavioral methods. Participants formed impressions of real people whom they met in a personally involving situation. fMRI and supporting behavioral data revealed that outcome dependency (i.e., depending on another person for a desired outcome) alters previously identified neural dynamics of impression formation. Consistent with past research, a functional localizer identified a region of dorsomedial PFC previously linked to social impression formation. In the main task, this ROI revealed the predicted patterns of activity across outcome dependency conditions: greater BOLD response when information confirmed (vs. violated) social expectations if participants were outcome-independent and the reverse pattern if participants were outcome-dependent. We suggest that, although social perceivers often discount expectancy-disconfirming information as noise, being dependent on another person for a desired outcome focuses impression-formation processing on the most diagnostic information, rather than on the most tractable information. PMID:23850465

  12. Internuclear Separation Dependent Ionization of the Valence Orbitals of I2 by Strong Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Tagliamonti, V.; Gibson, G. N.

    2012-11-01

    Using a pump-dump-probe technique and Fourier-transform spectroscopy, we study the internuclear separation R dependence and relative strength of the ionization rates of the π and σ electrons of I2, whose valence orbitals are σg2πu4πg4σu0. We find that ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-2 (σg) has a strong dependence on R while the HOMO and HOMO-1 do not. Surprisingly, the ionization rate of the HOMO-2 exceeds the combined ionization rate of the less bound orbitals and this branching ratio increases with R. Since our technique produces target molecules that are highly aligned with the laser polarization, the σ orbitals will be preferentially ionized and undergo enhanced ionization at larger R compared to the π orbitals. Nevertheless, it is highly unusual that an inner orbital provides the dominant strong field ionization pathway in a small molecule.

  13. Bimodal voltage dependence of TRPA1: mutations of a key pore helix residue reveal strong intrinsic voltage-dependent inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xia; Lu, Yungang; Chen, Xueqin; Xiong, Jian; Zhou, Yuanda; Li, Ping; Xia, Bingqing; Li, Min; Zhu, Michael X; Gao, Zhaobing

    2014-07-01

    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is implicated in somatosensory processing and pathological pain sensation. Although not strictly voltage-gated, ionic currents of TRPA1 typically rectify outwardly, indicating channel activation at depolarized membrane potentials. However, some reports also showed TRPA1 inactivation at high positive potentials, implicating voltage-dependent inactivation. Here we report a conserved leucine residue, L906, in the putative pore helix, which strongly impacts the voltage dependency of TRPA1. Mutation of the leucine to cysteine (L906C) converted the channel from outward to inward rectification independent of divalent cations and irrespective to stimulation by allyl isothiocyanate. The mutant, but not the wild-type channel, displayed exclusively voltage-dependent inactivation at positive potentials. The L906C mutation also exhibited reduced sensitivity to inhibition by TRPA1 blockers, HC030031 and ruthenium red. Further mutagenesis of the leucine to all natural amino acids individually revealed that most substitutions at L906 (15/19) resulted in inward rectification, with exceptions of three amino acids that dramatically reduced channel activity and one, methionine, which mimicked the wild-type channel. Our data are plausibly explained by a bimodal gating model involving both voltage-dependent activation and inactivation of TRPA1. We propose that the key pore helix residue, L906, plays an essential role in responding to the voltage-dependent gating.

  14. Position-Dependent Dynamics Explain Pore-Averaged Diffusion in Strongly Attractive Adsorptive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekelberg, William P; Siderius, Daniel W; Shen, Vincent K; Truskett, Thomas M; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-12

    Using molecular simulations, we investigate the relationship between the pore-averaged and position-dependent self-diffusivity of a fluid adsorbed in a strongly attractive pore as a function of loading. Previous work (Krekelberg, W. P.; Siderius, D. W.; Shen, V. K.; Truskett, T. M.; Errington, J. R. Connection between thermodynamics and dynamics of simple fluids in highly attractive pores. Langmuir 2013, 29, 14527-14535, doi: 10.1021/la4037327) established that pore-averaged self-diffusivity in the multilayer adsorption regime, where the fluid exhibits a dense film at the pore surface and a lower density interior pore region, is nearly constant as a function of loading. Here we show that this puzzling behavior can be understood in terms of how loading affects the fraction of particles that reside in the film and interior pore regions as well as their distinct dynamics. Specifically, the insensitivity of pore-averaged diffusivity to loading arises from the approximate cancellation of two factors: an increase in the fraction of particles in the higher diffusivity interior pore region with loading and a corresponding decrease in the particle diffusivity in that region. We also find that the position-dependent self-diffusivities scale with the position-dependent density. We present a model for predicting the pore-average self-diffusivity based on the position-dependent self-diffusivity, which captures the unusual characteristics of pore-averaged self-diffusivity in strongly attractive pores over several orders of magnitude.

  15. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  16. Strong adhesion by regulatory T cells induces dendritic cell cytoskeletal polarization and contact-dependent lethargy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiahuan; Ganguly, Anutosh; Mucsi, Ashley D; Meng, Junchen; Yan, Jiacong; Detampel, Pascal; Munro, Fay; Zhang, Zongde; Wu, Mei; Hari, Aswin; Stenner, Melanie D; Zheng, Wencheng; Kubes, Paul; Xia, Tie; Amrein, Matthias W; Qi, Hai; Shi, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Dendritic cells are targeted by regulatory T (T reg) cells, in a manner that operates as an indirect mode of T cell suppression. In this study, using a combination of single-cell force spectroscopy and structured illumination microscopy, we analyze individual T reg cell-DC interaction events and show that T reg cells exhibit strong intrinsic adhesiveness to DCs. This increased DC adhesion reduces the ability of contacted DCs to engage other antigen-specific cells. We show that this unusually strong LFA-1-dependent adhesiveness of T reg cells is caused in part by their low calpain activities, which normally release integrin-cytoskeleton linkage, and thereby reduce adhesion. Super resolution imaging reveals that such T reg cell adhesion causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in DCs toward the T reg cell adhesion zone. Although it is reversible upon T reg cell disengagement, this sequestration of essential cytoskeletal components causes a lethargic state of DCs, leading to reduced T cell priming. Our results reveal a dynamic cytoskeletal component underlying T reg cell-mediated DC suppression in a contact-dependent manner. © 2017 Chen et al.

  17. Experimental evidence that density dependence strongly influences plant invasions through fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M

    2018-04-01

    Populations of range expanding species encounter patches of both favorable and unfavorable habitat as they spread across landscapes. Theory shows that increasing patchiness slows the spread of populations modeled with continuously varying population density when dispersal is not influence by the environment or individual behavior. However, as is found in uniformly favorable landscapes, spread remains driven by fecundity and dispersal from low density individuals at the invasion front. In contrast, when modeled populations are composed of discrete individuals, patchiness causes populations to build up to high density before dispersing past unsuitable habitat, introducing an important influence of density dependence on spread velocity. To test the hypothesized interaction between habitat patchiness and density dependence, we simultaneously manipulated these factors in a greenhouse system of annual plants spreading through replicated experimental landscapes. We found that increasing the size of gaps and amplifying the strength of density dependence both slowed spread velocity, but contrary to predictions, the effect of amplified density dependence was similar across all landscape types. Our results demonstrate that the discrete nature of individuals in spreading populations has a strong influence on how both landscape patchiness and density dependence influence spread through demographic and dispersal stochasticity. Both finiteness and landscape structure should be critical components to theoretical predictions of future spread for range expanding native species or invasive species colonizing new habitat. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  19. Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (2 to 5 layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us ...

  20. Strong temperature dependence of extraordinary magnetoresistance correlated to mobility in a two-contact device

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2012-02-21

    A two-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device has been fabricated and characterized at various temperatures under magnetic fields applied in different directions. Large performance variations across the temperature range have been found, which are due to the strong dependence of the EMR effect on the mobility. The device shows the highest sensitivity of 562ω/T at 75 K with the field applied perpendicularly. Due to the overlap between the semiconductor and the metal shunt, the device is also sensitive to planar fields but with a lower sensitivity of about 20 to 25% of the one to perpendicular fields. © 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  1. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  2. Long-term outcome in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, L.A.; Halbertsma, F.J.; Houterman, S.; Wevers, R.A.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; Jakobs, C.; Struys, E.; van der Hoeven, J.H.; Sival, D.A.; Willemsen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim  The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method  Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11

  3. Studies of the wavelength dependence of non-sequential double ionization of xenon in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, P.; Wiehle, R.; Kamke, W.; Helm, H.; Witzele, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The non-sequential double ionization of noble gases in strong fields is still a process which is not completely understood. The most challenging question is: what is the dominant physical process behind the knee structure in the yield of doubly charged ions which are produced in the focus of an ultrashort laser pulse in dependence of the intensity? Numerous studies can be explained with the so-called rescattering model, where an electron is freed by the strong laser field and then driven back to its parent ion due to the oscillation of the field. Through this backscattering process it is possible to kick out a second electron. However in the low intensity or multiphoton (MPI) region this model predicts that the first electron can not gain enough energy in the oscillating electric field to further ionize or excite the ion. We present experimental results for xenon in the MPI region which show a significant contribution of doubly charged ions. A Ti:sapphire laser system (800 nm, 100 fs) is used to ionize the atoms. The coincident detection of the momentum distribution of the photoelectrons with an imaging spectrometer and the time of flight spectrum of the ions allows a detailed view into the ionization process. For the first time we also show a systematic study of the wavelength dependence (780-830 nm and 1180-1550 nm) on the non-sequential double ionization. The ratio Xe 2+ /Xe + shows a surprising oscillatory behavior with varying wavelength. Ref. 1 (author)

  4. Graphical models for inference under outcome-dependent sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didelez, V; Kreiner, S; Keiding, N

    2010-01-01

    a node for the sampling indicator, assumptions about sampling processes can be made explicit. We demonstrate how to read off such graphs whether consistent estimation of the association between exposure and outcome is possible. Moreover, we give sufficient graphical conditions for testing and estimating......We consider situations where data have been collected such that the sampling depends on the outcome of interest and possibly further covariates, as for instance in case-control studies. Graphical models represent assumptions about the conditional independencies among the variables. By including...

  5. Strongly scale-dependent CMB dipolar asymmetry from super-curvature fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: C.Byrnes@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We reconsider the observed CMB dipolar asymmetry in the context of open inflation, where a supercurvature mode might survive the bubble nucleation. If such a supercurvature mode modulates the amplitude of the curvature power spectrum, it would easily produce an asymmetry in the power spectrum. We show that current observational data can be accommodated in a three-field model, with simple quadratic potentials and a non-trivial field-space metric. Despite the presence of three fields, we believe this model is so far the simplest that can match current observations. We are able to match the observed strong scale dependence of the dipolar asymmetry, without a fine tuning of initial conditions, breaking slow roll or adding a feature to the evolution of any field.

  6. Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-09-23

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (two to five layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us to use an optical method to quickly determine the crystalline orientation without tunneling electron microscopy or scanning tunneling microscopy. Our results provide much needed experimental information about the band structures and exciton nature in few-layer phosphorene.

  7. Associations Between Participant Ratings of PREP for Strong Bonds and Marital Outcomes 1 Year Postintervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Post, Kristina M; Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M

    2017-07-01

    After completing a relationship education program, collecting participant evaluations of the program is common practice. These are generally used as an index of "consumer satisfaction" with the program, with implications for feasibility and quality. Rarely have these ratings been used as predictors of changes in marital quality, although such feedback may be the only data providers collect or have immediate access to when considering the success of their efforts. To better understand the utility of such ratings to predict outcomes, we evaluated links between participant ratings and changes in self-reported marital satisfaction and communication scores one year later for a sample of 191 Army couples who had participated in a relationship education program delivered by Army chaplains (PREP for Strong Bonds). Overall ratings of general satisfaction with the program and the leader did not predict changes in marital outcomes one year later, whereas higher ratings of how much was learned, program helpfulness, increased similarity in outlook regarding Army life, and helpfulness of communication skills training predicted greater change in communication skills one year later. Higher ratings of items reflecting intent to invest more time in the relationship, and increased confidence in constructive communication and working as a team with the spouse predicted greater increases in both marital satisfaction and communication skills one year later. The constructs of intention and confidence (akin to perceived behavioral control) suggest that the Theory of Planned Behavior may be particularly useful when considering which Army couples will show ongoing benefit after relationship education.

  8. Predictors of posttreatment drinking outcomes in patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; Saiz, Pilar A; García-Portilla, Paz; De Cos, Francisco J; Dapía, Sonia; Alvarez, Sandra; Nogueiras, Luis; Bobes, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This cohort study examined how predictors of alcohol dependence treatment outcomes work together over time by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment predictors. A sample of 274 alcohol-dependent patients was recruited and assessed at baseline, 6 months after treatment initiation (end of the active intervention phase), and 18 months after treatment initiation (end of the 12-month research follow-up phase). At each assessment point, the participants completed a battery of standardized tests [European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), Alcohol Timeline Followback (TLFB), Fagerström, and International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)] that measured symptom severity and consequences; biological markers of alcohol consumption were also tested at each assessment point. A sequential strategy with univariate and multivariate analyses was used to identify how pretreatment and posttreatment predictors influence outcomes up to 1 year after treatment. Pretreatment variables had less predictive power than posttreatment ones. OCDS scores and biological markers of alcohol consumption were the most significant variables for the prediction of posttreatment outcomes. Prior pharmacotherapy treatment and relapse prevention interventions were also associated with posttreatment outcomes. The findings highlight the positive impact of pharmacotherapy during the first 6 months after treatment initiation and of relapse prevention during the first year after treatment and how posttreatment predictors are more important than pretreatment predictors.

  9. Ascaroside expression in Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly dependent on diet and developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascarosides form a family of small molecules that have been isolated from cultures of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are often referred to as "dauer pheromones" because most of them induce formation of long-lived and highly stress resistant dauer larvae. More recent studies have shown that ascarosides serve additional functions as social signals and mating pheromones. Thus, ascarosides have multiple functions. Until now, it has been generally assumed that ascarosides are constitutively expressed during nematode development.Cultures of C. elegans were developmentally synchronized on controlled diets. Ascarosides released into the media, as well as stored internally, were quantified by LC/MS. We found that ascaroside biosynthesis and release were strongly dependent on developmental stage and diet. The male attracting pheromone was verified to be a blend of at least four ascarosides, and peak production of the two most potent mating pheromone components, ascr#3 and asc#8 immediately preceded or coincided with the temporal window for mating. The concentration of ascr#2 increased under starvation conditions and peaked during dauer formation, strongly supporting ascr#2 as the main population density signal (dauer pheromone. After dauer formation, ascaroside production largely ceased and dauer larvae did not release any ascarosides. These findings show that both total ascaroside production and the relative proportions of individual ascarosides strongly correlate with these compounds' stage-specific biological functions.Ascaroside expression changes with development and environmental conditions. This is consistent with multiple functions of these signaling molecules. Knowledge of such differential regulation will make it possible to associate ascaroside production to gene expression profiles (transcript, protein or enzyme activity and help to determine genetic pathways that control ascaroside biosynthesis. In conjunction with findings

  10. Strong composition-dependent disorder in InAs1-xNx alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaissa, H.; Zaoui, A.; Ferhat, M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the main causes of disorder in the InAs 1-x N x alloys (x = 0, 0.03125, 0.0625, 0.09375, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.875, 0.90625, 0.9375, 0.96875 and 1). The calculation is based on the density-functional theory in the local-density approximation. We use a plane wave-expansion non-norm conserving ab initio Vanderbilt pseudopotentials. To avoid the difficulty of considering the huge number of atomic configurations, we use an appropriate strategy in which we consider four configurations for a given composition where the N atoms are not randomly distributed. We mainly show that the band gap decreases (increases) rapidly with increasing (decreasing) compositions of N. As a consequence the optical band gap bowing is found to be strong and composition dependent. The obtained compounds, from these alloys, may change from semi-conducting to metal (passing to a negative bowing) and could be useful for device applications, especially at certain composition.

  11. Spatial occupancy models applied to atlas data show Southern Ground Hornbills strongly depend on protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M; Johnson, Devin S; Altwegg, Res; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-03-01

    Determining the range of a species and exploring species--habitat associations are central questions in ecology and can be answered by analyzing presence--absence data. Often, both the sampling of sites and the desired area of inference involve neighboring sites; thus, positive spatial autocorrelation between these sites is expected. Using survey data for the Southern Ground Hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) from the Southern African Bird Atlas Project, we compared advantages and disadvantages of three increasingly complex models for species occupancy: an occupancy model that accounted for nondetection but assumed all sites were independent, and two spatial occupancy models that accounted for both nondetection and spatial autocorrelation. We modeled the spatial autocorrelation with an intrinsic conditional autoregressive (ICAR) model and with a restricted spatial regression (RSR) model. Both spatial models can readily be applied to any other gridded, presence--absence data set using a newly introduced R package. The RSR model provided the best inference and was able to capture small-scale variation that the other models did not. It showed that ground hornbills are strongly dependent on protected areas in the north of their South African range, but less so further south. The ICAR models did not capture any spatial autocorrelation in the data, and they took an order, of magnitude longer than the RSR models to run. Thus, the RSR occupancy model appears to be an attractive choice for modeling occurrences at large spatial domains, while accounting for imperfect detection and spatial autocorrelation.

  12. Parameter dependence and outcome dependence in dynamical models for state vector reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.; Butterfield, J.; Fleming, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The authors apply the distinction between parameter independence and outcome independence to the linear and nonlinear models of a recent nonrelativistic theory of continuous state vector reduction. It is shown that in the nonlinear model there is a set of realizations of the stochastic process that drives the state vector reduction for which parameter independence is violated for parallel spin components in the EPR-Bohm setup. Such a set has an appreciable probability of occurrence (∼ 1/2). On the other hand, the linear model exhibits only extremely small parameter dependence effects. Some specific features of the models are investigated and it is recalled that, as has been pointed out recently, to be able to speak of definite outcomes (or equivalently of possessed objective elements of reality) at finite times, the criteria for their attribution to physical systems must be slightly changed. The concluding section is devoted to a detailed discussion of the difficulties met when attempting to take, as a starting point for the formulation of a relativistic theory, a nonrelativistic scheme which exhibits parameter dependence. Here the authors derive a theorem which identifies the precise sense in which the occurrence of parameter dependence forbids a genuinely relativistic generalization. Finally, the authors show how the appreciable parameter dependence of the nonlinear model gives rise to problems with relativity, while the extremely weak parameter dependence of the linear model does not give rise to any difficulty, provided the appropriate criteria for the attribution of definite outcomes are taken into account. 19 refs

  13. Testing rank-dependent utility theory for health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2003-10-01

    Systematic violations of expected utility theory (EU) have been reported in the context of both money and health outcomes. Rank-dependent utility theory (RDU) is currently the most popular and influential alternative theory of choice under circumstances of risk. This paper reports a test of the descriptive performance of RDU compared to EU in the context of health. When one of the options is certain, violations of EU that can be explained by RDU are found. When both options are risky, no evidence that RDU is a descriptive improvement over EU is found, though this finding may be due to the low power of the tests. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cohort profile: Study of Transition, Outcomes and Gender (STRONG) to assess health status of transgender people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Virginia P; Nash, Rebecca; Hunkeler, Enid; Contreras, Richard; Cromwell, Lee; Becerra-Culqui, Tracy A; Getahun, Darios; Giammattei, Shawn; Lash, Timothy L; Millman, Andrea; Robinson, Brandi; Roblin, Douglas; Silverberg, Michael J; Slovis, Jennifer; Tangpricha, Vin; Tolsma, Dennis; Valentine, Cadence; Ward, Kevin; Winter, Savannah; Goodman, Michael

    2017-12-27

    The Study of Transition, Outcomes and Gender (STRONG) was initiated to assess the health status of transgender people in general and following gender-affirming treatments at Kaiser Permanente health plans in Georgia, Northern California and Southern California. The objectives of this communication are to describe methods of cohort ascertainment and data collection and to characterise the study population. A stepwise methodology involving computerised searches of electronic medical records and free-text validation of eligibility and gender identity was used to identify a cohort of 6456 members with first evidence of transgender status (index date) between 2006 and 2014. The cohort included 3475 (54%) transfeminine (TF), 2892 (45%) transmasculine (TM) and 89 (1%) members whose natal sex and gender identity remained undetermined from the records. The cohort was matched to 127 608 enrollees with no transgender evidence (63 825 women and 63 783 men) on year of birth, race/ethnicity, study site and membership year of the index date. Cohort follow-up extends through the end of 2016. About 58% of TF and 52% of TM cohort members received hormonal therapy at Kaiser Permanente. Chest surgery was more common among TM participants (12% vs 0.3%). The proportions of transgender participants who underwent genital reconstruction surgeries were similar (4%-5%) in the two transgender groups. Results indicate that there are sufficient numbers of events in the TF and TM cohorts to further examine mental health status, cardiovascular events, diabetes, HIV and most common cancers. STRONG is well positioned to fill existing knowledge gaps through comparisons of transgender and reference populations and through analyses of health status before and after gender affirmation treatment. Analyses will include incidence of cardiovascular disease, mental health, HIV and diabetes, as well as changes in laboratory-based endpoints (eg, polycythemia and bone density), overall and in relation to

  15. Measuring Outcome in the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Sadicario, Jaclyn S.; Woody, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Little in known about the extent to which outcome measures used in studies of the treatment of cocaine dependence are associated with longer-term use and with broader measures of clinical improvement. The current study examined reductions in use, and abstinence-oriented measures, in relation to functioning and longer-term clinical benefits in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Methods Overall drug use, cocaine use, and functioning in a number of addiction-related domains for 487 patients diagnosed with DSM-IV cocaine dependence and treated with one of four psychosocial interventions in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study were assessed monthly during 6 months of treatment and at 9, 12, 15, and 18 month follow-up. Results Measures of during-treatment reduction in use were moderately correlated with drug and cocaine use measures 12 months, but showed non-significant or small correlations with measures of functioning at 12 months. Highest correlations were evident for abstinence measures (maximum consecutive days abstinence and completely abstinent) during treatment in relation to sustained (3 month) abstinence at 12 months. Latent class analysis of patterns of change over time revealed that most patients initially (months 1 to 4 of treatment) either became abstinent immediately or continued to use every month. Over the couse of follow-up, patients either maintained abstinence or used regularly – intermittent use was less common. Conclusions There were generally small associations between various measures of cocaine use and longer-term clinical benefits, other than abstinence was associated with continued abstinence. No one method of measuring outcome of treatment of cocaine dependence appears superior to others. PMID:26366427

  16. Associated genetic syndromes and extracardiac malformations strongly influence outcomes of fetuses with congenital heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensemlali, Myriam; Bajolle, Fanny; Ladouceur, Magalie; Fermont, Laurent; Lévy, Marilyne; Le Bidois, Jérôme; Salomon, Laurent J; Bonnet, Damien

    2016-05-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is often associated with extracardiac malformations (ECMs) and genetic syndromes. To determine the effect of cytogenetic anomalies and/or ECMs associated with CHD on parental decision to choose termination of pregnancy (TOP) or compassionate care (CC), as well as on the outcome of children born alive. This 10-year retrospective study included all prenatally diagnosed cases of CHD in a single tertiary referral centre. From January 2002 to December 2011, 2036 consecutive cases of fetal CHD (798 TOPs and 1238 live births, including 59 with postnatal CC) were included. CHD was associated with a known cytogenetic anomaly in 9.8% of cases and a major ECM in 11.7% of cases. The proportion of prenatally identified associated cytogenetic anomalies was significantly lower in the live-birth group than in the TOP plus CC group (4.2% vs 17.5%; P<0.001); this was also true for ECMs (8.1% vs 16.7%; P<0.001). The mortality rate was higher in the group with an associated cytogenetic anomaly or ECM (29.1%) than in cases with isolated CHD; a 2.4-fold increase in the death rate was observed (95% confidence interval 1.34-4.38; P=0.003). These associations remained significant after multivariable analysis, including the severity of the CHD (uni- or biventricular physiology). Prenatal diagnosis of a known cytogenetic anomaly or major ECM strongly influences parental decision to choose TOP or postnatal CC. Genetic syndromes and ECMs are associated with a higher mortality rate, independent of the complexity of the CHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Strong renormalization scheme dependence in τ-lepton decay: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, J.

    1995-01-01

    The question of the renormalization scheme dependence of the τ semileptonic decay rate is examined in response to a recent criticism. Particular attention is payed to a distinction between a consistent quantitative description of this dependence and the actual selection of a subset of ''acceptable'' renormalization schemes. It is pointed out that this criticism is valid only within a particular definition of the ''strength'' of the renormalization scheme dependence and should not discourage further attempts to use the semileptonic τ decay rate for quantitative tests of perturbative QCD

  18. Photon and spin dependence of the resonance line shape in the strong coupling regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyashita, Seiji; Shirai, Tatsuhiko; Mori, Takashi; De Raedt, Hans; Bertaina, Sylvain; Chiorescu, Irinel

    2012-01-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a spin ensemble coupled to cavity photons. Recently, related experimental results have been reported, showing the existence of the strong coupling regime in such systems. We study the eigenenergy distribution of the multi-spin system (following the Tavis-Cummings

  19. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  20. Strong dopant dependence of electric transport in ion-gated MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piatti, Erik; Chen, Qihong; Ye, Jianting

    2017-01-01

    We report modifications of the temperature-dependent transport properties of MoS2 thin flakes via field-driven ion intercalation in an electric double layer transistor. We find that intercalation with Li+ ions induces the onset of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Intercalation with K+ leads

  1. A note on the almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove some almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences under some mild conditions. The results extend the ASCLT to nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences and give substantial improvements for the weight sequence obtained by Lin et al. (Comput. Math. Appl. 62(2:635-640, 2011.

  2. On an nth-order infinitesimal generator and time-dependent operator differential equation with a strongly almost periodic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aribindi Satyanarayan Rao

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Banach space, if u is a Stepanov almost periodic solution of a certain nth-order infinitesimal generator and time-dependent operator differential equation with a Stepanov almost periodic forcing function, then u,u′,…,u (n−2 are all strongly almost periodic and u (n−1 is weakly almost periodic.

  3. Strong diameter-dependence of nanowire emission coupled to waveguide modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, Dick van, E-mail: a.d.v.dam@tue.nl; Haverkort, Jos E. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Abujetas, Diego R.; Sánchez-Gil, José A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Serrano, 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bakkers, Erik P. A. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Gómez Rivas, Jaime, E-mail: j.gomezrivas@differ.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research DIFFER, P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-03-21

    The emission from nanowires can couple to waveguide modes supported by the nanowire geometry, thus governing the far-field angular pattern. To investigate the geometry-induced coupling of the emission to waveguide modes, we acquire Fourier microscopy images of the photoluminescence of nanowires with diameters ranging from 143 to 208 nm. From the investigated diameter range, we conclude that a few nanometers difference in diameter can abruptly change the coupling of the emission to a specific mode. Moreover, we observe a diameter-dependent width of the Gaussian-shaped angular pattern in the far-field emission. This dependence is understood in terms of interference of the guided modes, which emit at the end facets of the nanowire. Our results are important for the design of quantum emitters, solid state lighting, and photovoltaic devices based on nanowires.

  4. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  5. Laser based imaging of time depending microscopic scenes with strong light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Wilhelm, Eugen; Rothe, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    Investigating volume scatterometry methods based on short range LIDAR devices for non-static objects we achieved interesting results aside the intended micro-LIDAR: the high speed camera recording of the illuminated scene of an exploding wire -intended for Doppler LIDAR tests - delivered a very effective method of observing details of objects with extremely strong light emission. As a side effect a schlieren movie is gathered without any special effort. The fact that microscopic features of short time processes with high emission and material flow might be imaged without endangering valuable equipment makes this technique at least as interesting as the intended one. So we decided to present our results - including latest video and photo material - instead of a more theoretical paper on our progress concerning the primary goal.

  6. On Strong Positive Frequency Dependencies of Quality Factors in Local-Earthquake Seismic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Igor B.; Jhajhria, Atul; Deng, Wubing

    2018-03-01

    Many observations of seismic waves from local earthquakes are interpreted in terms of the frequency-dependent quality factor Q( f ) = Q0 f^{η } , where η is often close to or exceeds one. However, such steep positive frequency dependencies of Q require careful analysis with regard to their physical consistency. In particular, the case of η = 1 corresponds to frequency-independent (elastic) amplitude decays with time and consequently requires no Q-type attenuation mechanisms. For η > 1, several problems with physical meanings of such Q-factors occur. First, contrary to the key premise of seismic attenuation, high-frequency parts of the wavefield are enhanced with increasing propagation times relative to the low-frequency ones. Second, such attenuation cannot be implemented by mechanical models of wave-propagating media. Third, with η > 1, the velocity dispersion associated with such Q(f) occurs over unrealistically short frequency range and has an unexpected oscillatory shape. Cases η = 1 and η > 1 are usually attributed to scattering; however, this scattering must exhibit fortuitous tuning into the observation frequency band, which appears unlikely. The reason for the above problems is that the inferred Q values are affected by the conventional single-station measurement procedure. Both parameters Q 0 and are apparent, i.e., dependent on the selected parameterization and inversion method, and they should not be directly attributed to the subsurface. For η ≈ 1, parameter Q 0 actually describes the frequency-independent amplitude decay in access of some assumed geometric spreading t -α , where α is usually taken equal one. The case η > 1 is not allowed physically and could serve as an indicator of problematic interpretations. Although the case 0 < η < 1 is possible, its parameters Q 0 and may also be biased by the measurement procedure. To avoid such difficulties of Q-based approaches, we recommend measuring and interpreting the amplitude-decay rates

  7. Polarization-dependent solitons in the strong coupling regime of semiconductor microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.; Zhang, W.L.; Wu, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of polarization on formation of vectorial polariton soliton in semiconductor microcavities through numerical simulations. It is found that the polariton solution greatly depends on the polarization of both the pump and exciting fields. By properly choosing the pump and exciting field polarization, bright–bright or bright–dark vectorial polariton solitons can be formed. Especially, when the input conditions of pump or exciting field of the two opposite polarizations are slightly asymmetric, an interesting phenomenon that the dark solitons transform into bright solitons occurs in the branch of soliton solutions.

  8. Strong composition dependence of adhesive properties of ultraviolet curing adhesives with modified acrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yefeng; Li, Yandong; Wang, Fupeng; Peng, Cheng; Xu, Zhichao; Hu, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) curable adhesives have been widely researched in fields of health care and electronic components. UV curing systems with modified acrylic ester prepolymers have been frequently employed. In order to clarify composition dependence of adhesive properties of adhesives containing modified acrylates, in this work, several UV curing adhesives bearing urethane and epoxy acrylates were designed and fabricated. The effects of prepolymer, diluent, feed ratio, initiator and assistant on adhesive performances were investigated. This work might offer a facile route to gain promising high-performance UV curable adhesives with desired adhesive traits through regulating their compositions.

  9. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  10. Strong Delayed Interactive Effects of Metal Exposure and Warming: Latitude-Dependent Synergisms Persist Across Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong V; Stoks, Robby

    2017-02-21

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies. These results highlight that a more complete life-cycle approach that incorporates the possibility of delayed interactions between contaminants and warming in a geographical context is crucial for a more realistic risk assessment in a warming world.

  11. Orientation dependent slip and twinning during compression and tension of strongly textured magnesium AZ31 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Samman, T., E-mail: al-samman@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Li, X. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Chowdhury, S. Ghosh [CSIR National Metallurgical Laboratory, MST Division, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Over recent years there have been a remarkable number of studies dealing with compression of magnesium. A literature search, however, shows a noticeably less number of papers concerned with tension and a very few papers comparing both modes, systematically, in one study. The current investigation reports the anisotropic deformation behavior and concomitant texture and microstructure evolution investigated in uniaxial tension and compression tests in two sample directions performed on an extruded commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 at different Z conditions. For specimens with the loading direction parallel to the extrusion axis, the tension-compression strength anisotropy was pronounced at high Z conditions. Loading at 45{sup o} from the extrusion axis yielded a tension-compression strength behavior that was close to isotropic. During tensile loading along the extrusion direction the extrusion texture resists twinning and favors prismatic slip (contrary to compression). This renders the shape change maximum in the basal plane and equal to zero along the c-axis, which resulted in the orientation of individual grains remaining virtually intact during all tension tests at different Z conditions. For the other investigated sample direction, straining was accommodated along the c-axis, which was associated with a lattice rotation, and thus, a change of crystal orientation. Uniaxial compression at a low Z condition (400 deg. C/10{sup -4} s{sup -1}) yielded a desired texture degeneration, which was explained on the basis of a more homogeneous partitioning of slip systems that reduces anisotropy and enhanced dynamic recrystallization (DRX), which counteracts the strong deformation texture. The critical strains for the nucleation of DRX in tensiled specimens at the highest investigated Z condition (200 deg. C/10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were found to range between 4% and 5.6%.

  12. Tunable photonic crystal for THz radiation in layered superconductors: Strong magnetic-field dependence of the transmission coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Josephson plasma waves are scattered by the Josephson vortex lattice. This scattering results in a strong dependence, on the in-plane magnetic-field H ab , of the reflection and transmission of THz radiation propagating in layered superconductors. In particular, a tunable band-gap structure (THz photonic crystal) occurs in such a medium. These effects can be used, by varying H ab , for the selective frequency-filtering of THz radiation

  13. PROLARM: Cancer risk from medical diagnostic exposures is strongly dependent upon patients' prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschner, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Matthias; Dietlein, Markus; Schicha, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: a) To evaluate the impact of the reduced life expectancy of patients (compared to a non-patient group with same age distribution) on their risk of developing cancer from the diagnostic use of radiation. b) To find an approximation to such reduction in risk which depends only on the patient's age, a, and his life expectancy, but is independent of the choice of values for the baseline risk of cancer incidence, m(a), and the enhanced relative risk ERR(a) from radiation exposure. Method: The lifetime attributable risk LAR (of a radiation-induced malignancy to manifest itself) is a function of age at exposure, e, and given by integrating over attained age, a, the product of ERR(a), baseline cancer risk m(a) and the relative probability of surviving to age a, S'(a,e). We define a 'prognosis-based LAR modifier' (PROLARM) as the ratio of risks for non-patient, LAR(a), and patient, LAR p (a), a dimensionless quantity that gives a measure of reduction of LAR due to the patient's prognosis. With the survival of the patient group, S p ' (a,e), and for any choice of fitted function for ERR(a) like those used in BEIR VII report, PROLARM ≥∫d'(a,e) da/∫S p '(a,e) da, i.e. the ratio of the survival integrals gives a lower (thus conservative) estimate of the reduction in risk. Results: The method was applied to n=4285 patients with metastatic breast cancer for whom survival as a function of age at metastasis was known. Figure shows that LAR is decreased significantly for all ages at exposure. At younger ages, this decrease is more pronounced (PROLARM ≥ 20 for e ≤ 65). Example: using ERR values of BEIR VII, the LAR due to 10 mSv effective dose at age a = 50 would drop from 1.2 E-3 for non-patient to 4.3E-5 for a patient, i.e. by a factor (PROLARM) of 29. Using only survival data, that factor is 27 (but no LAR can be computed). In other words: 10 mSv for a patient correspond risk-wise to 0.4 mSv for non-patient. The method can be applied to any pathology

  14. PAH effects on meio- and microbial benthic communities strongly depend on bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, J Fredrik; Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    The effects of anthropogenic pollutants in dissimilar habitats can vary depending on differences in bioavailability. The factors determining bioavailability are not yet fully understood. This study was performed to evaluate whether analysis of total PAH concentrations in sediments is a satisfactory measurement to indicate environmental effects or if bioavailability is needed to be taken into account. We have here performed a 60-day experiment, where nominal PAH concentrations of 1,300 μg/kg sediment were added to three different marine sediments. Meiofaunal and microbial communities were analyzed for alterations in community response at 30 and 60 days. Results showed that bioavailability of PAHs varied between the three different sediments. Nonetheless, the petroleum addition gave rise to significant negative effects on all three sediments at both time points. The two direct measurements of toxicity on the microbial community, potential nitrification and denitrification, displayed a lower effect of the PAH addition in the muddy sediment at both time points, compared to the other two sediment types. No effects were seen in the analysis of meiofaunal community structure. Measurements of PAH bioavailability in the three sediment types concurred with the results from the microbial community, revealing a lower bioavailability in the muddy sediment compared to the other two sediment types, 34% compared to sandy and 18% compared to organic at day 0. At day 60 it was 61% lower compared to sandy and 20% lower compared to organic. The negative effects of the PAH addition on the microbial nitrogen cycle were in six out of eight cases best correlated to the amount of alkylated bioavailable PAH in the sediments, and thus microbial nitrogen cycle is a possible good indicator for assessing PAH-induced stress. The results presented here have implications for risk analysis studies of petroleum-contaminated marine sediments; consequently, sediment characteristics and its effects on

  15. Current dependent angular magnetoresistance in strongly Pr-doped Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandu, V; Gyawali, P; Katuwal, T; Almasan, C C; Taylor, B J; Maple, M B

    2009-01-01

    We report a strong dependence of the angular magnetoresistance (AMR) on the current density in Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ single crystal above the critical temperature T c = 13 K for any applied field up to 14 T. We estimated the current dependence from the angular dependence of the top resistance R top , as measured on the face where the current is applied, and the bottom resistance R bot as measured on the opposite face. At any temperature, both below and above T c , R top decreases as the field becomes parallel to the current and ab-plane with an angle dependence that suggests an important contribution arising from the vortex flow. R bot evolves from a monotonic to nonmonotonic angle dependence with three minima and two maxima in the angle range 0 - 180 deg. as the temperature increases. For less Pr-doped samples, Y 0.58 Pr 0.42 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (T c = 39 K) and Y 0.68 rP 0.32 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (T c = 55 K), where the interplane resistivity is much lower, both R top and R bot follow the same monotonic angle dependence in all temperature and field range.

  16. Prediction of strong acceleration motion depended on focal mechanism; Shingen mechanism wo koryoshita jishindo yosoku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Y; Ejiri, J [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes simulation results of strong acceleration motion with varying uncertain fault parameters mainly for a fault model of Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. For the analysis, based on the fault parameters, the strong acceleration motion was simulated using the radiation patterns and the breaking time difference of composite faults as parameters. A statistic waveform composition method was used for the simulation. For the theoretical radiation patterns, directivity was emphasized which depended on the strike of faults, and the maximum acceleration was more than 220 gal. While, for the homogeneous radiation patterns, the maximum accelerations were isotopically distributed around the fault as a center. For variations in the maximum acceleration and the predominant frequency due to the breaking time difference of three faults, the response spectral value of maximum/minimum was about 1.7 times. From the viewpoint of seismic disaster prevention, underground structures including potential faults and non-arranging properties can be grasped using this simulation. Significance of the prediction of strong acceleration motion was also provided through this simulation using uncertain factors, such as breaking time of composite faults, as parameters. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Outcome of alcohol dependence: The role of continued care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Pratima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study attempted to determine the effects of continued care on subjects with alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: Study patients were recruited from a slum in Bangalore. The control group comprised individuals from a lower socio-economic status. Both groups received identical treatment from a specialised de-addiction facility. The study group also received weekly continued care in the community, either at a clinic located within the slum or through home visits. Those patients without stable jobs were referred for employment. The control group was given routine hospital follow-up visits. Both groups were evaluated on the Alcohol Problem Questionnaire and quantity/frequency of drinking at baseline and every 3 month interval for one year after discharge. Results: Both groups showed improvement in terms of reduction of drinking at 3 months, with the study group showing a 64% improvement with respect to the number of non drinking days and the control group showed a 50% improvement. However, at 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months, the study group continued to maintain these gains while the control group showed a downward slide (differences significant at P < 0.05. At the end of 12 months, the study group maintained a 53% improvement with respect to the number of non drinking days as compared with baseline, while the control group had an improvement of only 28%. Conclusions: Follow-up support and continued care appear to significantly improve longer-term recovery in alcohol dependents.

  18. Noise-induced extinction for a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastically forced ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey population. In the deterministic case, we show that the model exhibits the stable interior equilibrium point or limit cycle corresponding to the co-existence of both species. We investigate a probabilistic mechanism of the noise-induced extinction in a zone of stable interior equilibrium point. Computational methods based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique are applied for the analysis of the dispersion of random states near stable interior equilibrium point. This method allows to construct a confidence domain and estimate the threshold value of the noise intensity for a transition from the coexistence to the extinction.

  19. Bombarding energy dependence of nucleon exchange and energy dissipation in the strongly damped reaction 209Bi + 136Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, W.W.; Schroeder, W.U.; Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.; Randrup, J.

    1980-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved in the understanding of strongly damped reactions at energies several MeV/u above the Coulomb barrier, some important experimental results are not yet clearly understood. Among these is the degree of correlation between the nucleon exchange and the large energy losses observed. Experimental evidence suggesting nucleon exchange as described by a one-body model to be the major component of the dissipation mechanism is discussed. It is concluded that the previously unexplained bombarding energy dependence between energy loss and fragment charge dispersion can be understood on the basis of a nucleon exchange model, provided the Pauli exclusion principle is taken into account. No necessity is seen to invoke further energy dissipation mechanisms. 7 figures

  20. The validity of dependence as a health outcome measure in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, D Eldon; Kadiyala, Srikanth; Neumann, Peter J; Veenstra, David L; Sullivan, Sean D

    2013-05-01

    Relating to Alzheimer's disease (AD), dependence has been defined as the increased need for assistance due to deterioration in cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. Our objective was to evaluate the association between dependence and measures of functional impairment. Data were compiled by the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the association between dependence and cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. The independent association with dependence was positive. Dependence was most strongly associated with physical functioning. A secondary analysis suggested a strong association of dependence with multiple impairments, as measured by the interaction terms, in more severe patients. We find that dependence is simultaneously associated with physical functioning, cognition, and behavior, which support the construct validity of dependence. Dependence might be a more simple measure to explain the multifaceted disease progression of AD and convey the increasing need for care.

  1. The Validity of Dependence as a Health Outcome Measure in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, D. Eldon; Kadiyala, Srikanth; Neumann, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Sullivan, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Relating to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dependence has been defined as the increased need for assistance due to deterioration in cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. Our objective was to evaluate the association between dependence and measures of functional impairment. Methods Data were compiled by the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the association between dependence and cognition, physical functioning, and behavior. Results The independent association with dependence was positive. Dependence was most strongly associated with physical functioning. A secondary analysis suggested a strong association of dependence with multiple impairments, as measured by the interaction terms, in more severe patients. Conclusions We find that dependence is simultaneously associated with physical functioning, cognition, and behavior, which support the construct validity of dependence. Dependence might be a more simple measure to explain the multifaceted disease progression of AD and convey the increasing need for care. PMID:23512996

  2. Functional outcome in subretinal electronic implants depends on foveal eccentricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Katarina; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Gekeler, Florian; Kusnyerik, Akos; Sachs, Helmut; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-11-19

    An active microelectronic subretinal implant, developed to replace the photoreceptive function in hereditary degenerations of the outer retina, has been applied in a pilot and clinical study in patients with end-stage retinal degeneration. The study population comprised 20 blind patients, all of whom lost vision as result of a hereditary retinal disease. An active visual implant was placed surgically within the subretinal space of each patient: subfoveal placement in eight patients (group 1) and parafoveal placement in 12 (group 2). Standardized low-vision tests, including light perception, light localization, movement detection, grating acuity, and visual acuity by Landolt C-rings, were used under masked, randomized implant-OFF and implant-ON conditions. For the chip-mediated vision functional results of both subject groups were compared. Three of 20 patients were excluded from analysis because of surgical or technical implant issues. Among patients with nonfoveal placement of the implant, 80% could perceive light, 10% recognized location, and 10% correctly distinguished stripe patterns up to a resolution of 0.33 cycles/degree. No nonfoveal placement patient passed the motion or Landolt C-ring tests. When the implant was placed subfoveally, 100% of patients could perceive light and determine light localization, 75% could resolve motion up to 35°/s, 88% correctly distinguished stripe patterns up to a resolution of 3.3 cycles/degree, and 38% passed a Landolt C-ring test with a decimal visual acuity of up to 20/546 (logMAR 1.43). Subfoveal placement of active subretinal visual implants allows superior measurable outcomes compared to para- or nonfoveal placement locations. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01024803, NCT00515814.).

  3. Quality of life outcome after subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depends on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar S; Reker, Paul; Stalinski, Lisa; Silverdale, Monty; Rizos, Alexandra; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Steffen, Julia; Samuel, Michael; Dembek, Till A; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Antonini, Angelo; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how quality of life outcome after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) depends on age. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 120 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we investigated the PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Unified PD Rating Scale-III, Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, complications, activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose preoperatively and at 5 months follow-up. Significant changes at follow-up were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. To explore the influence of age post hoc, the patients were classified into 3 age groups (≤59, 60-69, ≥70 years). Intragroup changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank and intergroup differences with Kruskal-Wallis tests. The strength of clinical responses was evaluated using effect size. The PDQuestionnaire-8, Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor complications, activities of daily living, and levodopa equivalent daily dose significantly improved in the overall cohort and all age groups with no significant intergroup differences. However, PDQuestionnaire-8 effect sizes for age groups ≤59, 60 to 69, and ≥70 years, respectively, were strong, moderate, and small. Furthermore, PDQuestionnaire-8 domain analyses revealed that all domains except cognition and emotional well-being significantly improved in patients aged ≤59 years, whereas only communication, activities of daily living, and stigma improved in patients aged 60-69 years, and activities of daily living and stigma in patients aged ≥70 years. Although quality of life, motor complications, and activities of daily living significantly improved in all age groups after bilateral STN-DBS, the beneficial effect on overall quality of life was more pronounced and affected a wider range of quality of life domains in younger patients. © 2017 International

  4. Resolution-of-identity stochastic time-dependent configuration interaction for dissipative electron dynamics in strong fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-05-14

    In this contribution, we introduce a method for simulating dissipative, ultrafast many-electron dynamics in intense laser fields. The method is based on the norm-conserving stochastic unraveling of the dissipative Liouville-von Neumann equation in its Lindblad form. The N-electron wave functions sampling the density matrix are represented in the basis of singly excited configuration state functions. The interaction with an external laser field is treated variationally and the response of the electronic density is included to all orders in this basis. The coupling to an external environment is included via relaxation operators inducing transition between the configuration state functions. Single electron ionization is represented by irreversible transition operators from the ionizing states to an auxiliary continuum state. The method finds its efficiency in the representation of the operators in the interaction picture, where the resolution-of-identity is used to reduce the size of the Hamiltonian eigenstate basis. The zeroth-order eigenstates can be obtained either at the configuration interaction singles level or from a time-dependent density functional theory reference calculation. The latter offers an alternative to explicitly time-dependent density functional theory which has the advantage of remaining strictly valid for strong field excitations while improving the description of the correlation as compared to configuration interaction singles. The method is tested on a well-characterized toy system, the excitation of the low-lying charge transfer state in LiCN.

  5. Resolution-of-identity stochastic time-dependent configuration interaction for dissipative electron dynamics in strong fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Tremblay, Jean Christophe [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-14

    In this contribution, we introduce a method for simulating dissipative, ultrafast many-electron dynamics in intense laser fields. The method is based on the norm-conserving stochastic unraveling of the dissipative Liouville-von Neumann equation in its Lindblad form. The N-electron wave functions sampling the density matrix are represented in the basis of singly excited configuration state functions. The interaction with an external laser field is treated variationally and the response of the electronic density is included to all orders in this basis. The coupling to an external environment is included via relaxation operators inducing transition between the configuration state functions. Single electron ionization is represented by irreversible transition operators from the ionizing states to an auxiliary continuum state. The method finds its efficiency in the representation of the operators in the interaction picture, where the resolution-of-identity is used to reduce the size of the Hamiltonian eigenstate basis. The zeroth-order eigenstates can be obtained either at the configuration interaction singles level or from a time-dependent density functional theory reference calculation. The latter offers an alternative to explicitly time-dependent density functional theory which has the advantage of remaining strictly valid for strong field excitations while improving the description of the correlation as compared to configuration interaction singles. The method is tested on a well-characterized toy system, the excitation of the low-lying charge transfer state in LiCN.

  6. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance). Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i) were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii) strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii) were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv) bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities. PMID:23840819

  7. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ogbechi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this

  8. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Janssens

    Full Text Available Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance. Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.

  9. Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Zoe E; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew J; Walker, Karen Z; Truby, Helen

    2015-03-01

    Accelerometry provides information on habitual physical capability that may be of value in the assessment of function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This preliminary investigation describes the relationship between community ambulation measured by the StepWatch activity monitor and the current standard of functional assessment, the 6-minute walk test, in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 13). All participants completed a 6-minute walk test and wore the StepWatch™ monitor for 5 consecutive days. Both the 6-minute walk test and StepWatch accelerometry identified a decreased capacity for ambulation in boys with Duchenne compared to healthy controls. There were strong, significant correlations between 6-minute walk distance and all StepWatch parameters in affected boys only (r = 0.701-0.804). These data proffer intriguing observations that warrant further exploration. Specifically, accelerometry outcomes may compliment the 6-minute walk test in assessment of therapeutic interventions for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Facile synthesis and strongly microstructure-dependent electrochemical properties of graphene/manganese dioxide composites for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhongxing; Sun, Ping; Ren, Yinjuan; Zhu, Jiliang; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan

    2014-09-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention since it was firstly stripped from graphite by two physicists in 2004, and the supercapacitor based on graphene has obtained wide attention and much investment as well. For practical applications of graphene-based supercapacitors, however, there are still many challenges to solve, for instance, to simplify the technological process, to lower the fabrication cost, and to improve the electrochemical performance. In this work, graphene/MnO2 composites are prepared by a microwave sintering method, and we report here a relatively simple method for the supercapacitor packaging, i.e., dipping Ni-foam into a graphene/MnO2 composite solution directly for a period of time to coat the active material on a current collector. It is found that the microwave reaction time has a significant effect on the microstructure of graphene/MnO2 composites, and consequently, the electrochemical properties of the supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 composites are strongly microstructure dependent. An appropriately longer microwave reaction time, namely, 15 min, facilitates a very dense and homogeneous microstructure of the graphene/MnO2 composites, and thus, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved in the supercapacitor device, including a high specific capacitance of 296 F/g and a high capacitance retention of 93% after 3,000 times of charging/discharging cycles.

  11. Facile synthesis and strongly microstructure-dependent electrochemical properties of graphene/manganese dioxide composites for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention since it was firstly stripped from graphite by two physicists in 2004, and the supercapacitor based on graphene has obtained wide attention and much investment as well. For practical applications of graphene-based supercapacitors, however, there are still many challenges to solve, for instance, to simplify the technological process, to lower the fabrication cost, and to improve the electrochemical performance. In this work, graphene/MnO2 composites are prepared by a microwave sintering method, and we report here a relatively simple method for the supercapacitor packaging, i.e., dipping Ni-foam into a graphene/MnO2 composite solution directly for a period of time to coat the active material on a current collector. It is found that the microwave reaction time has a significant effect on the microstructure of graphene/MnO2 composites, and consequently, the electrochemical properties of the supercapacitors based on graphene/MnO2 composites are strongly microstructure dependent. An appropriately longer microwave reaction time, namely, 15 min, facilitates a very dense and homogeneous microstructure of the graphene/MnO2 composites, and thus, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved in the supercapacitor device, including a high specific capacitance of 296 F/g and a high capacitance retention of 93% after 3,000 times of charging/discharging cycles. PACS 81.05.ue; 78.67.Sc; 88.80.fh PMID:25258609

  12. Respiration of the external mycelium in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis shows strong dependence on recent photosynthates and acclimation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeyer, A; Ineson, P; Ostle, N; Fitter, A H

    2006-01-01

    * Although arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, their basic biology and, in particular, their respiratory response to temperature remain obscure. * A pulse label of the stable isotope (13)C was applied to Plantago lanceolata, either uninoculated or inoculated with the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. The extra-radical mycelium (ERM) of the fungus was allowed to grow into a separate hyphal compartment excluding roots. We determined the carbon costs of the ERM and tested for a direct temperature effect on its respiration by measuring total carbon and the (13)C:(12)C ratio of respired CO(2). With a second pulse we tested for acclimation of ERM respiration after 2 wk of soil warming. * Root colonization remained unchanged between the two pulses but warming the hyphal compartment increased ERM length. delta(13)C signals peaked within the first 10 h and were higher in mycorrhizal treatments. The concentration of CO(2) in the gas samples fluctuated diurnally and was highest in the mycorrhizal treatments but was unaffected by temperature. Heating increased ERM respiration only after the first pulse and reduced specific ERM respiration rates after the second pulse; however, both pulses strongly depended on radiation flux. * The results indicate a fast ERM acclimation to temperature, and that light is the key factor controlling carbon allocation to the fungus.

  13. Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy due to antiquitin deficiency: achieving a favourable outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, R.; Pereira, C.; Rodrigues, F.; Alfaite, C.; Garcia, P.; Robalo, C.; Fineza, I.; Goncalves, O.; Struys, E.A.; Salomons, G.S.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Diogo, L.

    2013-01-01

    We report 4 pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy patients in which good outcome was determined in three. The 4 patients were male and aged from 7 to 24 years old (from three unrelated Caucasian families). A clinical diagnosis of neonatal pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy was confirmed by biochemical and

  14. Strong Dependence of Hydration State of F-Actin on the Bound Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Imao, Asato; Mogami, George; Chishima, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Takaya; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Wazawa, Tetsuichi

    2016-07-21

    Understanding of the hydration state is an important issue in the chemomechanical energetics of versatile biological functions of polymerized actin (F-actin). In this study, hydration-state differences of F-actin by the bound divalent cations are revealed through precision microwave dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy. G- and F-actin in Ca- and Mg-containing buffer solutions exhibit dual hydration components comprising restrained water with DR frequency f2 (fw). The hydration state of F-actin is strongly dependent on the ionic composition. In every buffer tested, the HMW signal Dhyme (≡ (f1 - fw)δ1/(fwδw)) of F-actin is stronger than that of G-actin, where δw is DR-amplitude of bulk solvent and δ1 is that of HMW in a fixed-volume ellipsoid containing an F-actin and surrounding water in solution. Dhyme value of F-actin in Ca2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Ca(2+)) is markedly higher than in Mg2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Mg(2+)). Moreover, in the presence of 2 mM Mg(2+), the hydration state of F-actin is changed by adding a small fraction of Ca(2+) (∼0.1 mM) and becomes closer to that of the Ca-bound form in Ca2.0-buffer. This is consistent with the results of the partial specific volume and the Cotton effect around 290 nm in the CD spectra, indicating a change in the tertiary structure and less apparent change in the secondary structure of actin. The number of restrained water molecules per actin (N2) is estimated to be 1600-2100 for Ca2.0- and F-buffer and ∼2500 for Mg2.0-buffer at 10-15 °C. These numbers are comparable to those estimated from the available F-actin atomic structures as in the first water layer. The number of HMW molecules is roughly explained by the volume between the equipotential surface of -kT/2e and the first water layer of the actin surface by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation using UCSF Chimera.

  15. Multiple cyber attacks against a target with observation errors and dependent outcomes: Characterization and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Maochao; Xu, Shouhuai; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a cybersecurity model: An attacker can launch multiple attacks against a target with a termination strategy that says that the attacker will stop after observing a number of successful attacks or when the attacker is out of attack resources. However, the attacker's observation of the attack outcomes (i.e., random variables indicating whether the target is compromised or not) has an observation error that is specified by both a false-negative and a false-positive probability. The novelty of the model we study is the accommodation of the dependence between the attack outcomes, because the dependence was assumed away in the literature. In this model, we characterize the monotonicity and bounds of the compromise probability (i.e., the probability that the target is compromised). In addition to extensively showing the impact of dependence on quantities such as compromise probability and attack cost, we give methods for finding the optimal strategy that leads to maximum compromise probability or minimum attack cost. This study highlights that the dependence between random variables cannot be assumed away, because the results will be misleading. - Highlights: • A novel cybersecurity model is proposed to accommodate the dependence among attack outcomes. • The monotonicity and bounds of the compromise probability are studied. • The dependence effect on the compromise probability and attack cost is discussed via simulation. • The optimal strategy that leads to maximum compromise probability or minimum attack cost is presented.

  16. Re-construction of action awareness depends on an internal model of action-outcome timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Machts, Judith; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Haggard, Patrick; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-04-01

    The subjective time of an instrumental action is shifted towards its outcome. This temporal binding effect is partially retrospective, i.e., occurs upon outcome perception. Retrospective binding is thought to reflect post-hoc inference on agency based on sensory evidence of the action - outcome association. However, many previous binding paradigms cannot exclude the possibility that retrospective binding results from bottom-up interference of sensory outcome processing with action awareness and is functionally unrelated to the processing of the action - outcome association. Here, we keep bottom-up interference constant and use a contextual manipulation instead. We demonstrate a shift of subjective action time by its outcome in a context of variable outcome timing. Crucially, this shift is absent when there is no such variability. Thus, retrospective action binding reflects a context-dependent, model-based phenomenon. Such top-down re-construction of action awareness seems to bias agency attribution when outcome predictability is low. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Power Distance Exacerbate or Mitigate the Effects of Abusive Supervision? It Depends on the Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Huiwen; Ferris, D. Lance; Brown, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that the effects of abusive supervision are likely to be moderated by subordinate power distance orientation and that the nature of the moderating effect will depend on the outcome. Drawing upon work suggesting that high power distance orientation subordinates are more tolerant of supervisory mistreatment, we posited that high power…

  18. Effect of quality chronic disease management for alcohol and drug dependence on addiction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Witas, Julie; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of the quality of primary care-based chronic disease management (CDM) for alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) dependence on addiction outcomes. We assessed quality using (1) a visit frequency based measure and (2) a self-reported assessment measuring alignment with the chronic care model. The visit frequency based measure had no significant association with addiction outcomes. The self-reported measure of care-when care was at a CDM clinic-was associated with lower drug addiction severity. The self-reported assessment of care from any healthcare source (CDM clinic or elsewhere) was associated with lower alcohol addiction severity and abstinence. These findings suggest that high quality CDM for AOD dependence may improve addiction outcomes. Quality measures based upon alignment with the chronic care model may better capture features of effective CDM care than a visit frequency measure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hydrocephalus following spontaneous aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often associated with unfavorable outcome. This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal SAH patients but without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight aneurysmal SAH patients were evaluated. Using functional scores, those without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital were compared to those already with hydrocephalus on admission, those who developed it during hospitalization, and those who did not develop it throughout their hospital stay. The Glasgow Coma Score, modified Fisher SAH grade, and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade were determined at the emergency room. Therapeutic outcomes immediately after discharge and 18 months after were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Results Hydrocephalus accounted for 61.9% (104/168) of all episodes, including 82 with initial hydrocephalus on admission and 22 with subsequent hydrocephalus. Both the presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage on admission and post-operative intra-cerebral hemorrhage were independently associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without hydrocephalus on admission. After a minimum 1.5 years of follow-up, the mean Glasgow outcome score was 3.33 ± 1.40 for patients with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and 4.21 ± 1.19 for those without. Conclusions The presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, and higher mean scores of the modified Fisher SAH and World Federation of Neurosurgical grading on admission imply risk of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without initial hydrocephalus. These patients have worse short- and long-term outcomes and longer hospitalization. PMID:22765765

  20. Ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold harmonics of H2 in an elliptical strong laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Peng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-11-18

    We study the ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold (NT) harmonics of pre-aligned H2 molecules using the time-dependent density functional theory. The anomalous maximum appearing at a non-zero ellipticity for the generated NT harmonics can be attributed to multiphoton effects of the orthogonally polarized component of the elliptical driving laser field. Our calculation also shows that the structure of the bound-state, such as molecular alignment and bond length, can be sensitively reflected on the ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold harmonics.

  1. Cocaine dependent individuals discount future rewards more than future losses for both cocaine and monetary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Bruner, Natalie R; Johnson, Patrick S

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence and other forms of drug dependence are associated with steeper devaluation of future outcomes (delay discounting). Although studies in this domain have typically assessed choices between monetary gains (e.g., receive less money now versus receive more money after a delay), delay discounting is also applicable to decisions involving losses (e.g., small loss now versus larger delayed loss), with gains typically discounted more than losses (the "sign effect"). It is also known that drugs are discounted more than equivalently valued money. In the context of drug dependence, however, relatively little is known about the discounting of delayed monetary and drug losses and the presence of the sign effect. In this within-subject, laboratory study, delay discounting for gains and losses was assessed for cocaine and money outcomes in cocaine-dependent individuals (n=89). Both cocaine and monetary gains were discounted at significantly greater rates than cocaine and monetary losses, respectively (i.e., the sign effect). Cocaine gains were discounted significantly more than monetary gains, but cocaine and monetary losses were discounted similarly. Results suggest that cocaine is discounted by cocaine-dependent individuals in a systematic manner similar to other rewards. Because the sign effect was shown for both cocaine and money, delayed aversive outcomes may generally have greater impact than delayed rewards in shaping present behavior in this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Neurophysiological model of tinnitus: dependence of the minimal masking level on treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Hazell, J W; Graham, R L

    1994-11-01

    Validity of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus (Jastreboff, 1990), outlined in this paper, was tested on data from multicenter trial of tinnitus masking (Hazell et al., 1985). Minimal masking level, intensity match of tinnitus, and the threshold of hearing have been evaluated on a total of 382 patients before and after 6 months of treatment with maskers, hearing aids, or combination devices. The data has been divided into categories depending on treatment outcome and type of approach used. Results of analysis revealed that: i) the psychoacoustical description of tinnitus does not possess a predictive value for the outcome of the treatment; ii) minimal masking level changed significantly depending on the treatment outcome, decreasing on average by 5.3 dB in patients reporting improvement, and increasing by 4.9 dB in those whose tinnitus remained the same or worsened; iii) 73.9% of patients reporting improvement had their minimal masking level decreased as compared with 50.5% for patients not showing improvement, which is at the level of random change; iv) the type of device used has no significant impact on the treatment outcome and minimal masking level change; v) intensity match and threshold of hearing did not exhibit any significant changes which can be related to treatment outcome. These results are fully consistent with the neurophysiological interpretation of mechanisms involved in the phenomenon of tinnitus and its alleviation.

  3. Differences in treatment outcome among marijuana-dependent young adults with and without antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Caroline J; Oberleitner, Lindsay M; Scott, Melanie C; Crowley, Michael J; Babuscio, Theresa A; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have addressed comorbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and marijuana dependence in young adults, and results from previous studies are inconsistent. This study evaluated differences in pretreatment characteristics and treatment outcomes between marijuana-dependent young adults with and without ASPD. Data for this study were derived from a randomized trial, in which marijuana-dependent young adults (n = 136) between 18 and 25 years of age were randomized to four behavioral conditions: (1) MET/CBT with CM, (2) MET/CBT without CM, (3) DC with CM, and (4) DC without CM. Forty-four percent of the participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ASPD. ASPD clients had significantly more lifetime alcohol dependence disorders, marijuana use in the 28 days pretreatment, arrests, and assault and weapon charges compared to those without ASPD. ASPD clients did not differ in retention or substance use outcomes at 8 weeks posttreatment or the 6-month follow-up. In general, both groups had more attendance in the voucher condition, but there were no significant ASPD by treatment interactions. These data suggest that marijuana-dependent young adults with comorbid ASPD do not necessarily have poorer retention or substance use outcomes compared with marijuana-dependent young adults who do not have ASPD when treated in a well-defined behavioral therapy protocol. Previous research has shown increased risks for clients with comorbid ASPD and marijuana dependence; however, our findings suggest that specialized programs for clients with ASPD may not be necessary if they are provided with empirically supported, structured treatments.

  4. On the model dependence of the determination of the strong coupling constant in second order QCD from e+e--annihilation into hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achterberg, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Apel, W.D.; Engler, J.; Fluegge, G.; Forstbauer, B.; Fries, D.C.; Fues, W.; Gamerdinger, K.; Henkes, T.; Hopp, G.; Krueger, M.; Kuester, H.; Mueller, H.; Randoll, H.; Schmidt, G.; Schneider, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kruse, U.; Lierl, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bonneaud, G.; Colas, P.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Laplanche, F.; Le Diberder, F.; Mallik, U.; Ros, E.; Veillet, J.J.; Behrend, H.J.; Fenner, H.; Schachter, M.J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.

    1983-12-01

    Hadronic events obtained with the CELLO detector at PETRA are compared with second order QCD predictions using different models for the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into hadrons. We find that the model dependence in the determination of the strong coupling constant persists when going from first to second order QCD calculations. (orig.)

  5. Time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation for composite bosons as the strong-coupling limit of the fermionic broken-symmetry random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strinati, G.C.; Pieri, P.

    2004-01-01

    The linear response to a space- and time-dependent external disturbance of a system of dilute condensed composite bosons at zero temperature, as obtained from the linearized version of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, is shown to result also from the strong-coupling limit of the time-dependent BCS (or broken-symmetry random-phase) approximation for the constituent fermions subject to the same external disturbance. In this way, it is possible to connect excited-state properties of the bosonic and fermionic systems by placing the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in perspective with the corresponding fermionic approximations

  6. Concurrent cannabis use during treatment for comorbid ADHD and cocaine dependence: effects on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Garawi, Fatima; Bisaga, Adam; Brooks, Daniel; Raby, Wilfrid N; Rubin, Eric; Nunes, Edward V; Levin, Frances R

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the United States with especially high prevalence of use among those with psychiatric disorders. Few studies have examined the relationship between concurrent cannabis use and treatment outcome among patients receiving treatment for comorbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. This study investigated the effects of cannabis use on treatment retention and abstinence from cocaine among cocaine dependent patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Cocaine dependent patients diagnosed with current ADHD (DSM-IV, N = 92) aged 25 to 51 participated in a randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate for treatment of ADHD and cocaine dependence in an outpatient setting. The majority of patients (69%) used cannabis during treatment. Results suggest that moderate/intermittent cannabis users had greater retention rates compared to abstainers and consistent users (p = .02). This study is the first to examine concurrent cannabis use in cocaine dependent patients diagnosed with ADHD.

  7. Strong Temperature Dependence in the Reactivity of H 2 on RuO 2 (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Dahal, Arjun; Dohnálek, Zdenek; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2016-08-04

    The ability of hydrogen to facilitate many types of heterogeneous catalysis starts with its adsorption. As such, understanding the temperature-dependence sticking of H2 is critical toward controlling and optimizing catalytic conditions in those cases where adsorption is rate-limiting. In this work, we examine the temperature-dependent sticking of H2/D2 to the clean RuO2(110) surface using the King & Wells molecular beam approach, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We show that the sticking probability (molecular or dissociative) of H2/D2 on this surface is highly temperature-dependent, decreasing from ~0.4-0.5 below 25 K to effectively zero above 200 K. Both STM and TPD reveal that OH/OD formation is severely limited for adsorption temperatures above ~150 K. Previous literature reports of extensive surface hydroxylation from H2/D2 exposures at room temperature were most likely the result of inadvertent contamination brought about from dosing by chamber backfilling.

  8. Strong dependence of rain-induced lidar depolarization on the illumination angle: experimental evidence and geometrical-optics interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G; Bissonnette, L R

    2001-09-20

    Backscatter and depolarization lidar measurements from clouds and precipitation are reported as functions of the elevation angle of the pointing lidar direction. We recorded the data by scanning the lidar beam (Nd:YAG) at a constant angular speed of ~3.5 degrees /s while operating at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We show that in rain there is an evident and at times spectacular dependence on the elevation angle. That dependence appears to be sensitive to raindrop size. We have developed a three-dimensional polarization-dependent ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the backscatter and the depolarization ratio by large nonspherical droplets. We have applied it to raindrop shapes derived from existing static and dynamic (oscillating) models. We show that many of the observed complex backscatter and depolarization features can be interpreted to a good extent by geometrical optics. These results suggest that there is a definite need for more extensive calculations of the scattering phase matrix elements for large deformed raindrops as functions of the direction of illumination. Obvious applications are retrieval of information on the liquid-solid phase of precipitation and on the size and the vibration state of raindrops.

  9. Energy dependence of jet-structures and determination of the strong coupling constant αsub(s) in e+e- annihilation with the CELLO detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, G.

    1985-07-01

    We considered multihadronic events and we studied the energy dependence of the jet-structure of those events. We confirmed the existence of 3-jet and 4-jet events in high energy data as predicted by QCD. In parallel we checked the energy dependence of different jet-measures which is predicted by the fragmentation models. We determined the strong coupling constant αsub(s) using different methods and we found a strong model dependence of the αsub(s) determination in second order QCD. The study of the particle density between the jet-axes resulted in a light preference for the LUND-String model as compared to models with independent jet-fragmentation. (orig.) [de

  10. Surface area-dependence of gas-particle interactions influences pulmonary and neuroinflammatory outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Christina R.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Sanchez, Bethany N.; Rivero, Valeria; Lucas, Selita; Herbert, Guy; Liu, June; Irshad, Hammad; McDonald, Jacob D.; Bleske, Barry E.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE?/?) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, ge...

  11. Context-dependent representation of response-outcome in monkey prefrontal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Sawaguchi, Toshiyuki

    2005-07-01

    For behaviour to be purposeful, it is important to monitor the preceding behavioural context, particularly for factors regarding stimulus, response and outcome. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) appears to play a major role in such a context-dependent, flexible behavioural control system, and this area is likely to have a neuronal mechanism for such retrospective coding, which associates response-outcome with the information and/or neural systems that guided the response. To address this hypothesis, we recorded neuronal activity from the DLPFC of monkeys performing memory- and sensory-guided saccade tasks, each of which had two conditions with reward contingencies. We found that post-response activity of a subset of DLPFC neurons was modulated by three factors relating to earlier events: the direction of the immediately preceding response, its outcome (reward or non-reward) and the information type (memory or sensory) that guided the response. Such neuronal coding should play a role in associating response-outcome with information and/or neural systems used to guide behaviour - that is, 'retrospective monitoring' of behavioural context and/or neural systems used for guiding behaviour - thereby contributing to context-dependent, flexible control of behaviours.

  12. Proof of the formula for the ideal gas scattering kernel for nuclides with strongly energy dependent scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenstein, W.

    2004-01-01

    The current study is a sequel to a paper by Rothenstein and Dagan [Ann. Nucl. Energy 25 (1998) 209] where the ideal gas based kernel for scatterers with internal structure was introduced. This double differential kernel includes the neutron energy after scattering as well as the cosine of the scattering angle for isotopes with strong scattering resonances. A new mathematical formalism enables the inclusion of the new kernel in NJOY [MacFarlane, R.E., Muir, D.W., 1994. The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System Version 91 (LA-12740-m)]. Moreover the computational time of the new kernel is reduced significantly, feasible for practical application. The completeness of the new kernel is proven mathematically and demonstrated numerically. Modifications necessary to remove the existing inconsistency of the secondary energy distribution in NJOY are presented

  13. Joint analysis of binary and quantitative traits with data sharing and outcome-dependent sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Wu, Colin O; Kwak, Minjung; Jiang, Wenhua; Joo, Jungnam; Lima, Joao A C

    2012-04-01

    We study the analysis of a joint association between a genetic marker with both binary (case-control) and quantitative (continuous) traits, where the quantitative trait values are only available for the cases due to data sharing and outcome-dependent sampling. Data sharing becomes common in genetic association studies, and the outcome-dependent sampling is the consequence of data sharing, under which a phenotype of interest is not measured for some subgroup. The trend test (or Pearson's test) and F-test are often, respectively, used to analyze the binary and quantitative traits. Because of the outcome-dependent sampling, the usual F-test can be applied using the subgroup with the observed quantitative traits. We propose a modified F-test by also incorporating the genotype frequencies of the subgroup whose traits are not observed. Further, a combination of this modified F-test and Pearson's test is proposed by Fisher's combination of their P-values as a joint analysis. Because of the correlation of the two analyses, we propose to use a Gamma (scaled chi-squared) distribution to fit the asymptotic null distribution for the joint analysis. The proposed modified F-test and the joint analysis can also be applied to test single trait association (either binary or quantitative trait). Through simulations, we identify the situations under which the proposed tests are more powerful than the existing ones. Application to a real dataset of rheumatoid arthritis is presented. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Unitary Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Bose Gases with the Time-Dependent Variational Monte Carlo Method in Continuous Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleo, Giuseppe; Cevolani, Lorenzo; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Holzmann, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.

  15. Missing continuous outcomes under covariate dependent missingness in cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Anower; Diaz-Ordaz, Karla; Bartlett, Jonathan W

    2017-06-01

    Attrition is a common occurrence in cluster randomised trials which leads to missing outcome data. Two approaches for analysing such trials are cluster-level analysis and individual-level analysis. This paper compares the performance of unadjusted cluster-level analysis, baseline covariate adjusted cluster-level analysis and linear mixed model analysis, under baseline covariate dependent missingness in continuous outcomes, in terms of bias, average estimated standard error and coverage probability. The methods of complete records analysis and multiple imputation are used to handle the missing outcome data. We considered four scenarios, with the missingness mechanism and baseline covariate effect on outcome either the same or different between intervention groups. We show that both unadjusted cluster-level analysis and baseline covariate adjusted cluster-level analysis give unbiased estimates of the intervention effect only if both intervention groups have the same missingness mechanisms and there is no interaction between baseline covariate and intervention group. Linear mixed model and multiple imputation give unbiased estimates under all four considered scenarios, provided that an interaction of intervention and baseline covariate is included in the model when appropriate. Cluster mean imputation has been proposed as a valid approach for handling missing outcomes in cluster randomised trials. We show that cluster mean imputation only gives unbiased estimates when missingness mechanism is the same between the intervention groups and there is no interaction between baseline covariate and intervention group. Multiple imputation shows overcoverage for small number of clusters in each intervention group.

  16. The extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends strongly on the organism and conditions for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular genetics we have introduced uncoupled ATPase activity in two different bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, and determined the elasticities of the growth rate and glycolytic flux towards the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. During balanced growth in batch...... cultures of E. coli the ATP demand was found to have almost full control on the glycolytic flux (FCC=0.96) and the flux could be stimulated by 70%. In contrast to this, in L. lactis the control by ATP demand on the glycolytic flux was close to zero. However, when we used non-growing cells of L. lactis...... (which have a low glycolytic flux) the ATP demand had a high flux control and the flux could be stimulated more than two fold. We suggest that the extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends on how much excess capacity of glycolysis is present in the cells....

  17. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm 2 to 0.6×0.6 cm 2 , normalized to values at 5×5cm 2 . Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm 2 fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class-specific reference

  18. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm{sup 2} to 0.6×0.6 cm{sup 2}, normalized to values at 5×5cm{sup 2}. Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm{sup 2} fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class

  19. Integration of Distinct Objects in Visual Working Memory Depends on Strong Objecthood Cues Even for Different-Dimension Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-05-01

    What makes an integrated object in visual working memory (WM)? Past evidence suggested that WM holds all features of multidimensional objects together, but struggles to integrate color-color conjunctions. This difficulty was previously attributed to a challenge in same-dimension integration, but here we argue that it arises from the integration of 2 distinct objects. To test this, we examined the integration of distinct different-dimension features (a colored square and a tilted bar). We monitored the contralateral delay activity, an event-related potential component sensitive to the number of objects in WM. The results indicated that color and orientation belonging to distinct objects in a shared location were not integrated in WM (Experiment 1), even following a common fate Gestalt cue (Experiment 2). These conjunctions were better integrated in a less demanding task (Experiment 3), and in the original WM task, but with a less individuating version of the original stimuli (Experiment 4). Our results identify the critical factor in WM integration at same- versus separate-objects, rather than at same- versus different-dimensions. Compared with the perfect integration of an object's features, the integration of several objects is demanding, and depends on an interaction between the grouping cues and task demands, among other factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla, E-mail: kpaj@novonordisk.com [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Nielsen, Malik Nygaard [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Hansen, Troels Krarup [Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Williams, Julie M. [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  1. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nielsen, Malik Nygaard; Hansen, Troels Krarup; Williams, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  2. Strong subjective recovery as a protective factor against the effects of positive symptoms on quality of life outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2014-08-01

    Interest in recovery from schizophrenia has been growing steadily, with much of the focus on remission from psychotic symptoms and a return to functioning. Less is known about the experience of subjective recovery and its relationships with other important outcomes, such as quality of life and the formation and sustenance of social connections. This study sought to address this gap in knowledge by examining the links between self perceived recovery, symptoms, and the social components of quality of life. Sixty eight veterans with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who were participating in a study of cognitive remediation and work were concurrently administered the Recovery Assessment Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that subjective recovery moderated the relationship between positive symptoms and both QLS intrapsychic foundations scores and QLS instrumental role functioning after controlling for negative symptoms. Further examination of this interaction revealed that for individuals with substantial positive symptoms, higher levels of subjective recovery were associated with better instrumental role functioning and intrapsychic foundational abilities. Greater self perceived recovery is linked with stronger quality of life, both in regards to the cognitive and affective bases for socialization and active community involvement, even in the presence of substantial psychotic symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Functional brain networks associated with cognitive control, cocaine dependence, and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worhunsky, Patrick D; Stevens, Michael C; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-06-01

    Individuals with cocaine dependence often evidence poor cognitive control. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate networks of functional connectivity underlying cognitive control in cocaine dependence and examine the relationship of the networks to the disorder and its treatment. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to fMRI data to investigate if regional activations underlying cognitive control processes operate in functional networks, and whether these networks relate to performance and treatment outcome measures in cocaine dependence. Twenty patients completed a Stroop task during fMRI prior to entering outpatient treatment and were compared to 20 control participants. ICA identified five distinct functional networks related to cognitive control interference events. Cocaine-dependent patients displayed differences in performance-related recruitment of three networks. Reduced involvement of a "top-down" fronto-cingular network contributing to conflict monitoring correlated with better treatment retention. Greater engagement of two "bottom-up" subcortical and ventral prefrontal networks related to cue-elicited motivational processing correlated with abstinence during treatment. The identification of subcortical networks linked to cocaine abstinence and cortical networks to treatment retention suggests that specific circuits may represent important, complementary targets in treatment development for cocaine dependence. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Right Heart End-Systolic Remodeling Index Strongly Predicts Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparison With Validated Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsallem, Myriam; Sweatt, Andrew J; Aymami, Marie C; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Selej, Mona; Lu, HongQuan; Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie; Schnittger, Ingela; McConnell, Michael V; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Zamanian, Roham T; Haddad, Francois

    2017-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic dimensions provide information on both size and function. We investigated whether an internally scaled index of end-systolic dimension is incremental to well-validated prognostic scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension. From 2005 to 2014, 228 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were prospectively enrolled. RV end-systolic remodeling index (RVESRI) was defined by lateral length divided by septal height. The incremental values of RV free wall longitudinal strain and RVESRI to risk scores were determined. Mean age was 49±14 years, 78% were female, 33% had connective tissue disease, 52% were in New York Heart Association class ≥III, and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 11.2±6.4 WU. RVESRI and right atrial area were strongly connected to the other right heart metrics. Three zones of adaptation (adapted, maladapted, and severely maladapted) were identified based on the RVESRI to RV systolic pressure relationship. During a mean follow-up of 3.9±2.4 years, the primary end point of death, transplant, or admission for heart failure was reached in 88 patients. RVESRI was incremental to risk prediction scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension, including the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management score, the Pulmonary Hypertension Connection equation, and the Mayo Clinic model. Using multivariable analysis, New York Heart Association class III/IV, RVESRI, and log NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) were retained (χ 2 , 62.2; P right heart metrics, RVESRI demonstrated the best test-retest characteristics. RVESRI is a simple reproducible prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Multi-morbidity, dependency, and frailty singly or in combination have different impact on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jean; Leung, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Multi-morbidity, dependency, and frailty were studied simultaneously in a community-living cohort of 4,000 men and women aged 65 years and over to examine the independent and combined effects on four health outcomes (mortality, decline in physical function, depression, and polypharmacy). The influence of socioeconomic status on these relationships is also examined. Mortality data was documented after a mean follow-up period of 9 years, while other health outcomes were documented after 4 years of follow-up. Fifteen percent of the cohort did not have any of these syndromes. Of the remaining participants, nearly one third had multi-morbidity and frailty (pre-frail and frail), while all three syndromes were present in 11 %. All syndromes as well as socioeconomic status were significantly associated with all health outcomes. Mortality was only increased for age, being male, frailty status, and combinations of syndromes that included frailty. Both multi-morbidity and frailtymale was protective. Only a combination of all three syndromes, and age per se, increased the risk of depressive symptoms at 4 years while being male conferred reduced risk. Multi-morbidity, but not frailty status or dependency, and all syndrome combinations that included multi-morbidity were associated with use of ≥ four medications. Decline in homeostatic function with age may thus be quantified and taken into account in prediction of various health outcomes, with a view to prevention, management, formulation of guidelines, service planning, and the conduct of randomized controlled trials of interventions or treatment.

  6. Substance use, symptom, and employment outcomes of persons with a workplace mandate for chemical dependency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Constance; Lu, Yun; Hinman, Agatha; Monahan, John; Bonnie, Richard J; Moore, Charles D; Chi, Felicia W; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the role of workplace mandates to chemical dependency treatment in treatment adherence, alcohol and drug abstinence, severity of employment problems, and severity of psychiatric problems. The sample included 448 employed members of a private, nonprofit U.S. managed care health plan who entered chemical dependency treatment with a workplace mandate (N=75) or without one (N=373); 405 of these individuals were followed up at one year (N=70 and N=335, respectively), and 362 participated in a five-year follow up (N=60 and N=302, respectively). Propensity scores predicting receipt of a workplace mandate were calculated. Logistic regression and ordinary least-squares regression were used to predict length of stay in chemical dependency treatment, alcohol and drug abstinence, and psychiatric and employment problem severity at one and five years. Overall, participants with a workplace mandate had one- and five-year outcomes similar to those without such a mandate. Having a workplace mandate also predicted longer treatment stays and improvement in employment problems. When other factors related to outcomes were controlled for, having a workplace mandate predicted abstinence at one year, with length of stay as a mediating variable. Workplace mandates can be an effective mechanism for improving work performance and other outcomes. Study participants who had a workplace mandate were more likely than those who did not have a workplace mandate to be abstinent at follow-up, and they did as well in treatment, both short and long term. Pressure from the workplace likely gets people to treatment earlier and provides incentives for treatment adherence.

  7. Substance Use, Symptom, and Employment Outcomes of Persons With a Workplace Mandate for Chemical Dependency Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Constance; Lu, Yun; Hinman, Agatha; Monahan, John; Bonnie, Richard J.; Moore, Charles D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the role of workplace mandates to chemical dependency treatment in treatment adherence, alcohol and drug abstinence, severity of employment problems, and severity of psychiatric problems. Methods The sample included 448 employed members of a private, nonprofit U.S. managed care health plan who entered chemical dependency treatment with a workplace mandate (N=75) or without one (N=373); 405 of these individuals were followed up at one year (N=70 and N=335, respectively), and 362 participated in a five-year follow up (N=60 and N=302, respectively). Propensity scores predicting receipt of a workplace mandate were calculated. Logistic regression and ordinary least-squares regression were used to predict length of stay in chemical dependency treatment, alcohol and drug abstinence, and psychiatric and employment problem severity at one and five years. Results Overall, participants with a workplace mandate had one- and five-year outcomes similar to those without such a mandate. Having a workplace mandate also predicted longer treatment stays and improvement in employment problems. When other factors related to outcomes were controlled for, having a workplace mandate predicted abstinence at one year, with length of stay as a mediating variable. Conclusions Workplace mandates can be an effective mechanism for improving work performance and other outcomes. Study participants who had a workplace mandate were more likely than those who did not have a workplace mandate to be abstinent at follow-up, and they did as well in treatment, both short and long term. Pressure from the workplace likely gets people to treatment earlier and provides incentives for treatment adherence. PMID:19411353

  8. Calculation of the structural properties of a strange quark star in the presence of a strong magnetic field using a density dependent bag constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Hajar Bahri; Fatemeh Kayanikhoo

    2012-01-01

    We have calculated the structural properties of a strange quark star with a static model in the presence of a strong magnetic field.To this end,we use the MITbag model with a density dependent bag constant.To parameterize the density dependence of the bag constant,we have used our results for the lowest order constrained variational calculation of the asymmetric nuclear matter.By calculating the equation of state of strange quark matter,we have shown that the pressure of this system increases by increasing both density and magnetic field.Finally,we have investigated the effect of density dependence of the bag constant on the structural properties of a strange quark star.

  9. Non-motor outcomes of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depend on location of active contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Weis, Luca; Dembek, Till A; Samuel, Michael; Rizos, Alexandra; Silverdale, Monty; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Antonini, Angelo; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-03-16

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the influence of the location of neurostimulation on NMS. To investigate the impact of active contact location on NMS in STN-DBS in PD. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 50 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we collected NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety/depression, HADS-A/-D), PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, motor complications, activities of daily living (ADL), and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up. Changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank/t-test and Bonferroni-correction for multiple comparisons. Although the STN was targeted visually, we employed an atlas-based approach to explore the relationship between active contact locations and DBS outcomes. Based on fused MRI/CT-images, we identified Cartesian coordinates of active contacts with patient-specific Mai-atlas standardization. We computed linear mixed-effects models with x-/y-/z-coordinates as independent, hemispheres as within-subject, and test change scores as dependent variables. NMSS, NMSQ, PDQ-8, motor examination, complications, and LEDD significantly improved at follow-up. Linear mixed-effect models showed that NMS and QoL improvement significantly depended on more medial (HADS-D, NMSS), anterior (HADS-D, NMSQ, PDQ-8), and ventral (HADS-A/-D, NMSS, PDQ-8) neurostimulation. ADL improved more in posterior, LEDD in lateral neurostimulation locations. No relationship was observed for motor examination and complications scores. Our study provides evidence that more anterior, medial, and ventral STN-DBS is significantly related to more beneficial non-motor outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Improving tobacco dependence treatment outcomes for smokers of lower socioeconomic status: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Christine E; Bickel, Warren K; Franck, Christopher T; Panissidi, Luana; Pittman, Jami C; Stayna, Helen; Evans, Shenell

    2017-12-01

    Evidence-based treatments for tobacco dependence are significantly less effective for smokers of lower socioeconomic status which contributes to socioeconomic disparities in smoking prevalence rates and health. We aimed to reduce the socioeconomic gradient in treatment outcomes by systematically adapting evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral treatment for tobacco dependence for diverse lower socioeconomic smokers. Participants were randomized to adapted or standard treatment, received six 1-h group treatment sessions, and were followed for six months. We examined the effectiveness of the adapted treatment to improve treatment outcomes for lower socioeconomic groups. Participants (n=227) were ethnically, racially, and socioeconomically diverse. The adapted treatment significantly reduced the days to relapse for the two lowest socioeconomic groups: SES1: M=76.6 (SD 72.9) vs. 38.3 (SD 60.1) days to relapse (RR=0.63 95% CI, 0.45, 0.88, p=0.0013); SES2: M=88.2 (SD 67.3) vs. 40.1 (SD 62.6 days to relapse (RR=0.57 95% CI, 0.18, 0.70, p=0.0024). Interactions between socioeconomic status and condition were significant for initial abstinence (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.09, 1.46, p=0.002), approached significance for 3-month abstinence (OR=0.90, 95% CI 0.80, 1.01, psocioeconomic smokers and reduce inequities in days to relapse. Novel methods of providing targeted extended support are needed to improve long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10 11 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10 9 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10 9 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)

  12. Induction of complex immune responses and strong protection against retrovirus challenge by adenovirus-based immunization depends on the order of vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfuß, Meike; Wensing, Ina; Windmann, Sonja; Hrycak, Camilla Patrizia; Bayer, Wibke

    2017-02-06

    In the Friend retrovirus mouse model we developed potent adenovirus-based vaccines that were designed to induce either strong Friend virus GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cell or antibody responses, respectively. To optimize the immunization outcome we evaluated vaccination strategies using combinations of these vaccines. While the vaccines on their own confer strong protection from a subsequent Friend virus challenge, the simple combination of the vaccines for the establishment of an optimized immunization protocol did not result in a further improvement of vaccine effectivity. We demonstrate that the co-immunization with GagL 85-93 /leader-gag encoding vectors together with envelope-encoding vectors abrogates the induction of GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cells, and in successive immunization protocols the immunization with the GagL 85-93 /leader-gag encoding vector had to precede the immunization with an envelope encoding vector for the efficient induction of GagL 85-93 -specific CD8 + T cells. Importantly, the antibody response to envelope was in fact enhanced when the mice were adenovirus-experienced from a prior immunization, highlighting the expedience of this approach. To circumvent the immunosuppressive effect of envelope on immune responses to simultaneously or subsequently administered immunogens, we developed a two immunizations-based vaccination protocol that induces strong immune responses and confers robust protection of highly Friend virus-susceptible mice from a lethal Friend virus challenge.

  13. Outcome-Dependent Sampling Design and Inference for Cox's Proportional Hazards Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jichang; Liu, Yanyan; Cai, Jianwen; Sandler, Dale P; Zhou, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    We propose a cost-effective outcome-dependent sampling design for the failure time data and develop an efficient inference procedure for data collected with this design. To account for the biased sampling scheme, we derive estimators from a weighted partial likelihood estimating equation. The proposed estimators for regression parameters are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. A criteria that can be used to optimally implement the ODS design in practice is proposed and studied. The small sample performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation studies. The proposed design and inference procedure is shown to be statistically more powerful than existing alternative designs with the same sample sizes. We illustrate the proposed method with an existing real data from the Cancer Incidence and Mortality of Uranium Miners Study.

  14. Outcome-Dependent Sampling Design and Inference for Cox’s Proportional Hazards Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jichang; Liu, Yanyan; Cai, Jianwen; Sandler, Dale P.; Zhou, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a cost-effective outcome-dependent sampling design for the failure time data and develop an efficient inference procedure for data collected with this design. To account for the biased sampling scheme, we derive estimators from a weighted partial likelihood estimating equation. The proposed estimators for regression parameters are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. A criteria that can be used to optimally implement the ODS design in practice is proposed and studied. The small sample performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation studies. The proposed design and inference procedure is shown to be statistically more powerful than existing alternative designs with the same sample sizes. We illustrate the proposed method with an existing real data from the Cancer Incidence and Mortality of Uranium Miners Study. PMID:28090134

  15. Dose dependency of outcomes of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy in new rabbit empyema models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florova, Galina; Azghani, Ali O.; Buchanan, Ann; Boren, Jake; Allen, Timothy; Rahman, Najib M.; Koenig, Kathleen; Chamiso, Mignote; Karandashova, Sophia; Henry, James; Idell, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of empyema (EMP) is increasing worldwide; EMP generally occurs with pleural loculation and impaired drainage is often treated with intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) or surgery. A number of IPFT options are used clinically with empiric dosing and variable outcomes in adults. To evaluate mechanisms governing intrapleural fibrinolysis and disease outcomes, models of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus pneumoniae were generated in rabbits and the animals were treated with either human tissue (tPA) plasminogen activator or prourokinase (scuPA). Rabbit EMP was characterized by the development of pleural adhesions detectable by chest ultrasonography and fibrinous coating of the pleura. Similar to human EMP, rabbits with EMP accumulated sizable, 20- to 40-ml fibrinopurulent pleural effusions associated with extensive intrapleural organization, significantly increased pleural thickness, suppression of fibrinolytic and plasminogen-activating activities, and accumulation of high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, plasminogen, and extracellular DNA. IPFT with tPA (0.145 mg/kg) or scuPA (0.5 mg/kg) was ineffective in rabbit EMP (n = 9 and 3 for P. multocida and S. pneumoniae, respectively); 2 mg/kg tPA or scuPA IPFT (n = 5) effectively cleared S. pneumoniae-induced EMP collections in 24 h with no bleeding observed. Although intrapleural fibrinolytic activity for up to 40 min after IPFT was similar for effective and ineffective doses of fibrinolysin, it was lower for tPA than for scuPA treatments. These results demonstrate similarities between rabbit and human EMP, the importance of pleural fluid PAI-1 activity, and levels of plasminogen in the regulation of intrapleural fibrinolysis and illustrate the dose dependency of IPFT outcomes in EMP. PMID:27343192

  16. Outcome of heroin-dependent adolescents presenting for opiate substitution treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2012-01-01

    Because the outcome of methadone and buprenorphine substitution treatment in adolescents is unclear, we completed a retrospective cohort study of 100 consecutive heroin-dependent adolescents who sought these treatments over an 8-year recruitment period. The participants\\' average age was 16.6 years, and 54 were female. Half of the patient group remained in treatment for over 1 year. Among those still in treatment at 12 months, 39% demonstrated abstinence from heroin. The final route of departure from the treatment program was via planned detox for 22%, dropout for 32%, and imprisonment for 8%. The remaining 39% were transferred elsewhere for ongoing opiate substitution treatment after a median period of 23 months of treatment. Males were more likely to exit via imprisonment (p < .05), but other outcomes were not predicted by gender. There were no deaths during treatment among these 100 patients who had a cumulative period of 129 person years at risk. Our findings suggest that this treatment delivers reductions in heroin use and that one fifth of patients will exit treatment following detox completion within a 1- to 2-year time frame.

  17. Do clinical outcomes in chronic hemodialysis depend on the choice of a dialyzer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Nephrologists are presented with a range of choices when selecting a dialyzer for chronic hemodialysis. Dialyzers differ in the material, structure, permeability and surface area of their membrane, and how the dialyzer is sterilized. Opinions vary regarding the impact of dialyzer characteristics on patient outcomes and which, if any, of these properties to take into account when choosing a dialyzer can be confusing. In the general dialysis population, there is no compelling evidence that the choice of a membrane material from among those materials currently in clinical use has a significant impact on morbidity or mortality (although there are rare patients who will react adversely to a given dialysis membrane). Similarly, most dialyzers are capable of adequately removing small solutes, such as urea, provided they are used with an appropriate blood flow rate and treatment time to ensure delivery of a single-pool Kt/V(urea) of at least 1.25 for men and 1.65 for women. However, in some dialysis patient subpopulations, the results of randomized clinical trials suggest that use of dialyzer containing high-flux membranes confers an outcome advantage. The extent to which this advantage is realized might also depend on how the dialyzer is used, with application in convective therapies such as hemodiafiltration being superior to diffusive therapies such as hemodialysis. This possibility is currently the subject of several large clinical trials. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. External K+ dependence of strong inward rectifier K+ channel conductance is caused not by K+ but by competitive pore blockade by external Na.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiko

    2018-06-15

    Strong inward rectifier K + (sKir) channels determine the membrane potentials of many types of excitable and nonexcitable cells, most notably the resting potentials of cardiac myocytes. They show little outward current during membrane depolarization (i.e., strong inward rectification) because of the channel blockade by cytoplasmic polyamines, which depends on the deviation of the membrane potential from the K + equilibrium potential ( V - E K ) when the extracellular K + concentration ([K + ] out ) is changed. Because their open - channel conductance is apparently proportional to the "square root" of [K + ] out , increases/decreases in [K + ] out enhance/diminish outward currents through sKir channels at membrane potentials near their reversal potential, which also affects, for example, the repolarization and action-potential duration of cardiac myocytes. Despite its importance, however, the mechanism underlying the [K + ] out dependence of the open sKir channel conductance has remained elusive. By studying Kir2.1, the canonical member of the sKir channel family, we first show that the outward currents of Kir2.1 are observed under the external K + -free condition when its inward rectification is reduced and that the complete inhibition of the currents at 0 [K + ] out results solely from pore blockade caused by the polyamines. Moreover, the noted square-root proportionality of the open sKir channel conductance to [K + ] out is mediated by the pore blockade by the external Na + , which is competitive with the external K + Our results show that external K + itself does not activate or facilitate K + permeation through the open sKir channel to mediate the apparent external K + dependence of its open channel conductance. The paradoxical increase/decrease in outward sKir channel currents during alternations in [K + ] out , which is physiologically relevant, is caused by competition from impermeant extracellular Na . © 2018 Ishihara.

  19. Thickness Dependence of Magnetic Relaxation and E-J Characteristics in Superconducting (Gd-Y)-Ba-Cu-O Films with Strong Vortex Pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Kumar, Dhananjay [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current density Jc on temperature, magnetic field, and film thickness has been investigated in (Gd-Y)BaCu-oxide materials of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 m thickness. Generally, the Jc decreases with film thickness at investigated temperatures and magnetic fields. The nature and strength of the pinning centers for vortices have been identified through angular and temperature measurements, respectively. These films do not exhibit c-axis correlated vortex pinning, but do have correlated defects oriented near the ab-planes. For all film thicknesses studied, strong pinning dominates at most temperatures. The vortex dynamics were investigated through magnetic relaxation studies in the temperature range of 5 77 K in 1 T and 3 T applied magnetic fields, H || surface-normal. The creep rate S is thickness dependent at high temperatures, implying that the pinning energy is also thickness dependent. Maley analyses of the relaxation data show an inverse power law variation for the effective pinning energy Ueff ~ (J0/J) . Finally, the electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics were determined over a wide range of dissipation by combining experimental results from transport, swept field magnetometry (VSM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. We develop a self-consistent model of the combined experimental results, leading to an estimation of the critical current density Jc0(T) in the absence of flux creep.

  20. Global existence and large time asymptotic behavior of strong solutions to the Cauchy problem of 2D density-dependent Navier–Stokes equations with vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Boqiang; Shi, Xiaoding; Zhong, Xin

    2018-06-01

    We are concerned with the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional (2D) nonhomogeneous incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with vacuum as far-field density. It is proved that if the initial density decays not too slow at infinity, the 2D Cauchy problem of the density-dependent Navier–Stokes equations on the whole space admits a unique global strong solution. Note that the initial data can be arbitrarily large and the initial density can contain vacuum states and even have compact support. Furthermore, we also obtain the large time decay rates of the spatial gradients of the velocity and the pressure, which are the same as those of the homogeneous case.

  1. Long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation across a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riella, Leonardo V; Safa, Kassem; Yagan, Jude; Lee, Belinda; Azzi, Jamil; Najafian, Nader; Abdi, Reza; Milford, Edgar; Mah, Helen; Gabardi, Steven; Malek, Sayeed; Tullius, Stefan G; Magee, Colm; Chandraker, Anil

    2014-06-27

    More than 30% of potential kidney transplant recipients have pre-existing anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies. This subgroup has significantly lower transplant rates and increased mortality. Desensitization has become an important tool to overcome this immunological barrier. However, limited data is available regarding long-term outcomes, in particular for the highest risk group with a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (CDC XM) before desensitization. Between 2002 and 2010, 39 patients underwent living-kidney transplantation across a positive CDC XM against their donors at our center. The desensitization protocol involved pretransplant immunosuppression, plasmapheresis, and low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin±rituximab. Measured outcomes included patient survival, graft survival, renal function, rates of rejection, infection, and malignancy. The mean and median follow-up was 5.2 years. Patient survival was 95% at 1 year, 95% at 3 years, and 86% at 5 years. Death-censored graft survival was 94% at 1 year, 88% at 3 years, and 84% at 5 years. Uncensored graft survival was 87% at 1 year, 79% at 3 years, and 72% at 5 years. Twenty-four subjects (61%) developed acute antibody-mediated rejection of the allograft and one patient lost her graft because of hyperacute rejection. Infectious complications included pneumonia (17%), BK nephropathy (10%), and CMV disease (5%). Skin cancer was the most prevalent malignancy in 10% of patients. There were no cases of lymphoproliferative disorder. Mean serum creatinine was 1.7±1 mg/dL in functioning grafts at 5 years after transplantation. Despite high rates of early rejection, desensitization in living-kidney transplantation results in acceptable 5-year patient and graft survival rates.

  2. Simultaneous fluorescence light-up and selective multicolor nucleobase recognition based on sequence-dependent strong binding of berberine to DNA abasic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Shao, Yong; Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Xu, Shujuan

    2012-04-28

    Label-free DNA nucleobase recognition by fluorescent small molecules has received much attention due to its simplicity in mutation identification and drug screening. However, sequence-dependent fluorescence light-up nucleobase recognition and multicolor emission with individual emission energy for individual nucleobases have been seldom realized. Herein, an abasic site (AP site) in a DNA duplex was employed as a binding field for berberine, one of isoquinoline alkaloids. Unlike weak binding of berberine to the fully matched DNAs without the AP site, strong binding of berberine to the AP site occurs and the berberine's fluorescence light-up behaviors are highly dependent on the target nucleobases opposite the AP site in which the targets thymine and cytosine produce dual emission bands, while the targets guanine and adenine only give a single emission band. Furthermore, more intense emissions are observed for the target pyrimidines than purines. The flanking bases of the AP site also produce some modifications of the berberine's emission behavior. The binding selectivity of berberine at the AP site is also confirmed by measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, excited-state lifetime, DNA melting and fluorescence quenching by ferrocyanide and sodium chloride. It is expected that the target pyrimidines cause berberine to be stacked well within DNA base pairs near the AP site, which results in a strong resonance coupling of the electronic transitions to the particular vibration mode to produce the dual emissions. The fluorescent signal-on and emission energy-modulated sensing for nucleobases based on this fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously used fluorophores. We expect that this approach will be developed as a practical device for differentiating pyrimidines from purines by positioning an AP site toward a target that is available for readout by this alkaloid probe. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  3. Surface area-dependence of gas-particle interactions influences pulmonary and neuroinflammatory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Zychowski, Katherine E; Sanchez, Bethany N; Rivero, Valeria; Lucas, Selita; Herbert, Guy; Liu, June; Irshad, Hammad; McDonald, Jacob D; Bleske, Barry E; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE -/- ) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G. The UFP and UFP + G exposure groups resulted in the most profound pulmonary and neuroinflammatory effects. Phagocytosis of UFP + G particles via resident alveolar macrophages was substantial in both mouse strains, particularly after chronic exposure, with concurrent increased proinflammatory cytokine expression of CXCL1 and TNFα in the bronchial lavage fluid. In the acute exposure paradigm, only UFP and UFP + G induced significant changes in pulmonary inflammation and only in the ApoE -/- animals. Similarly, acute exposure to UFP and UFP + G increased the expression of several cytokines in the hippocampus of ApoE -/- mice including Il-1β, IL-6, Tgf-β and Tnf-α and in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice including Ccl5, Cxcl1, Il-1β, and Tnf-α. Interestingly, Il-6 and Tgf-β expression were decreased in the C57BL/6 hippocampus after acute exposure. Chronic exposure to UFP + G increased expression of Ccl5, Cxcl1, Il-6, and Tgf-β in the ApoE -/- hippocampus, but this effect was minimal in the C57BL/6 mice, suggesting compensatory mechanisms to manage neuroinflammation in this strain. Inflammatory responses the lung and brain were most substantial in ApoE -/- animals exposed to UFP + G, suggesting that the surface area-dependent interaction of gases and

  4. Association of the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Provision With Prenatal Care Use and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jamie R; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2018-02-13

    The effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) dependent coverage provision on pregnancy-related health care and health outcomes is unknown. To determine whether the dependent coverage provision was associated with changes in payment for birth, prenatal care, and birth outcomes. Retrospective cohort study, using a differences-in-differences analysis of individual-level birth certificate data comparing live births among US women aged 24 to 25 years (exposure group) and women aged 27 to 28 years (control group) before (2009) and after (2011-2013) enactment of the dependent coverage provision. Results were stratified by marital status. The dependent coverage provision of the ACA, which allowed young adults to stay on their parent's health insurance until age 26 years. Primary outcomes were payment source for birth, early prenatal care (first visit in first trimester), and adequate prenatal care (a first trimester visit and 80% of expected visits). Secondary outcomes were cesarean delivery, premature birth, low birth weight, and infant neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. The study population included 1 379 005 births among women aged 24-25 years (exposure group; 299 024 in 2009; 1 079 981 in 2011-2013), and 1 551 192 births among women aged 27-28 years (control group; 325 564 in 2009; 1 225 628 in 2011-2013). From 2011-2013, compared with 2009, private insurance payment for births increased in the exposure group (36.9% to 35.9% [difference, -1.0%]) compared with the control group (52.4% to 51.1% [difference, -1.3%]), adjusted difference-in-differences, 1.9 percentage points (95% CI, 1.6 to 2.1). Medicaid payment decreased in the exposure group (51.6% to 53.6% [difference, 2.0%]) compared with the control group (37.4% to 39.4% [difference, 1.9%]), adjusted difference-in-differences, -1.4 percentage points (95% CI, -1.7 to -1.2). Self-payment for births decreased in the exposure group (5.2% to 4.3% [difference, -0.9%]) compared with the

  5. Estimates of success in patients with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation depend upon outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Grøvle, Lars; Brox, Jens Ivar; Natvig, Bård; Keller, Anne; Soldal, Dag; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-10-01

    The objectives were to estimate the cut-off points for success on different sciatica outcome measures and to determine the success rate after an episode of sciatica by using these cut-offs. A 12-month multicenter observational study was conducted on 466 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. The cut-off values were estimated by ROC curve analyses using Completely recovered or Much better on a 7-point global change scale as external criterion for success. The cut-off values (references in brackets) at 12 months were leg pain VAS 17.5 (0-100), back pain VAS 22.5 (0-100), Sciatica Bothersomeness Index 6.5 (0-24), Maine-Seattle Back Questionnaire 4.5 (0-12), and the SF-36 subscales bodily pain 51.5, and physical functioning 81.7 (0-100, higher values indicate better health). In conclusion, the success rates at 12 months varied from 49 to 58% depending on the measure used. The proposed cut-offs may facilitate the comparison of success rates across studies.

  6. Statistical inference for the additive hazards model under outcome-dependent sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jichang; Liu, Yanyan; Sandler, Dale P; Zhou, Haibo

    2015-09-01

    Cost-effective study design and proper inference procedures for data from such designs are always of particular interests to study investigators. In this article, we propose a biased sampling scheme, an outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) design for survival data with right censoring under the additive hazards model. We develop a weighted pseudo-score estimator for the regression parameters for the proposed design and derive the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator. We also provide some suggestions for using the proposed method by evaluating the relative efficiency of the proposed method against simple random sampling design and derive the optimal allocation of the subsamples for the proposed design. Simulation studies show that the proposed ODS design is more powerful than other existing designs and the proposed estimator is more efficient than other estimators. We apply our method to analyze a cancer study conducted at NIEHS, the Cancer Incidence and Mortality of Uranium Miners Study, to study the risk of radon exposure to cancer.

  7. Implicit Valuation of the Near-Miss is Dependent on Outcome Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Parker J; Tata, Matthew S; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B; Gruber, Aaron J

    2018-03-01

    Gambling studies have described a "near-miss effect" wherein the experience of almost winning increases gambling persistence. The near-miss has been proposed to inflate the value of preceding actions through its perceptual similarity to wins. We demonstrate here, however, that it acts as a conditioned stimulus to positively or negatively influence valuation, dependent on reward expectation and cognitive engagement. When subjects are asked to choose between two simulated slot machines, near-misses increase valuation of machines with a low payout rate, whereas they decrease valuation of high payout machines. This contextual effect impairs decisions and persists regardless of manipulations to outcome feedback or financial incentive provided for good performance. It is consistent with proposals that near-misses cause frustration when wins are expected, and we propose that it increases choice stochasticity and overrides avoidance of low-valued options. Intriguingly, the near-miss effect disappears when subjects are required to explicitly value machines by placing bets, rather than choosing between them. We propose that this task increases cognitive engagement and recruits participation of brain regions involved in cognitive processing, causing inhibition of otherwise dominant systems of decision-making. Our results reveal that only implicit, rather than explicit strategies of decision-making are affected by near-misses, and that the brain can fluidly shift between these strategies according to task demands.

  8. Temporal framing and the hidden-zero effect: rate-dependent outcomes on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudé, Gideon P; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Henley, Amy J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D

    2018-05-01

    Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design. Regression suggested a main effect of delay, but not zero, framing after accounting for other demographic variables and manipulations. We observed a rate-dependent effect for the date-framing group, such that those with initially steep discounting exhibited greater sensitivity to the manipulation than those with initially shallow discounting. Subsequent analyses suggest these effects cannot be explained by regression to the mean. Experiment 2 addressed the possibility that the null effect of zero framing was due to within-subject exposure to the hidden- and explicit-zero conditions. A new Amazon Mechanical Turk sample completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in either hidden- or explicit-zero formats. Analyses revealed a main effect of reward magnitude, but not zero framing, suggesting potential limitations to the generality of the hidden-zero effect. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Dependence of outcomes of executing of sports exercises on mental condition of students which go in for sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titovich A.O.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of outcomes of executing of concrete sports exercise on mental condition of the sportsman is construed. 24 students participated in research. Sportsmen discharged six kinds of competitive exercises: run 100г, run of 110 meters with barriers, broad jumps, in height with the sixth and a jolting of a nucleus. It is exhibited, that before exercises of the relevant direction diagnostic parameters at sportsmen vary adequately to the basic demands. It is established, that outcomes of executing of physical exercises depend on adequacy of setting.

  10. Predicting Inpatient Detoxification Outcome of Alcohol and Drug Dependent Patients: The Influence of Sociodemographic Environment, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Medical Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Sofin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients. Methods. A mixed gender sample of 832 consecutively admitted drug and alcohol dependent patients were interviewed by an experienced physician. The impact of a variety of factors concerning social environment, therapy motivation, impulsivity related variables, medical history, and addiction severity on treatment outcome was examined. Results. 525 (63.1% of the patients completed detoxification treatment whereas 307 (36.9% dropped out prematurely. Being female, living in a partnership, having children, being employed, and having good education were predictive for a positive outcome. Family, health, the fear of losing the job, prosecution, and emergency admission were significant motivational predictors for treatment outcome. Being younger, history of imprisonment, and the number of previous drop-outs were predictive for a negative outcome. Conclusions. Variables concerning social environment and the number of previous drop-outs have been identified as best predictors for treatment outcome. Socially stable patients benefit from the current treatment setting and treatment shall be adapted for patients with negative predictors. Treatment may consequently be tailored with respect to intervention type, duration, and intensity to improve the outcome for those patients that fulfil criteria with negative impact on treatment retention.

  11. Carbon dots with strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards pH. Application as nanosensors for a broad range of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, Ali [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Hamid, E-mail: abd@iasbs.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    In this study, preparation of novel pH-sensitive N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using glucose and urea is reported. The prepared NCDs present strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards the pH that is a new behavior from these nanomaterials. By taking advantage of this unique behavior, two separated ratiometric pH sensors using emission spectra of the NCDs for both acidic (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and basic (pH 7.0 to 14.0) ranges of pH are constructed. Additionally, by considering the entire Excitation–Emission Matrix (EEM) of NCDs as analytical signal and using a suitable multivariate calibration method, a broad range of pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. The multivariate calibration method was independent from the concentration of NCDs and resulted in a very low average prediction error of 0.067 pH units. No changes in the predicted pH under UV irradiation (for 3 h) and at high ionic strength (up to 2 M NaCl) indicated the high stability of this pH nanosensor. The practicality of this pH nanosensor for pH determination in real water samples was validated with good accuracy and repeatability. - Highlights: • Novel pH-sensitive carbon dots with strong FL changes towards pH are reported. • Ratiometric FL pH-sensors for both acidic and basic ranges of pH are constructed. • Multivariate calibration methods were used to calibrate a broad range of pH. • Using EEM of carbon dots and ANN, pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. • The pH prediction is stable even at high ionic strength up to 2 M NaCl.

  12. The combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms and external factors enables Listeria monocytogenes to express a strong starvation survival response during multiple-nutrient starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Bwalya; Saldivar, Joshua C; Story, Robert; Ricke, Steven C; Johnson, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the starvation survival response (SSR) of a wild-type Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic DeltasigB mutant strain during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions over 28 days. This study examined the effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the proton motive force, substrate level phosphorylation, and oxidative phosphorylation on the SSR of L. monocytogenes 10403S and a DeltasigB mutant during multiple-nutrient starvation. The effects of starvation buffer changes on viability were also examined. During multiple-nutrient starvation, both strains expressed a strong SSR, suggesting that L. monocytogenes possesses SigB-independent mechanism(s) for survival during multiple-nutrient starvation. Neither strain was able to express an SSR following starvation buffer changes, indicating that the nutrients/factors present in the starvation buffer could be a source of energy for cell maintenance and survival. Neither the wild-type nor the DeltasigB mutant strain was able to elicit an SSR when exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol within the first 4 h of starvation. However, both strains expressed an SSR when exposed to chloramphenicol after 6 h or more of starvation, suggesting that the majority of proteins required to elicit an effective SSR in L. monocytogenes are likely produced somewhere between 4 and 6 h of starvation. The varying SSRs of both strains to the different metabolic inhibitors under aerobic or anaerobic conditions suggested that (1) energy derived from the proton motive force is important for an effective SSR, (2) L. monocytogenes utilizes an anaerobic electron transport during multiple-nutrient starvation conditions, and (3) the glycolytic pathway is an important energy source during multiple-nutrient starvation when oxygen is available, and less important under anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the data suggest that the combination of energy-dependent internal adaptation mechanisms

  13. Carbon dots with strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards pH. Application as nanosensors for a broad range of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, preparation of novel pH-sensitive N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using glucose and urea is reported. The prepared NCDs present strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards the pH that is a new behavior from these nanomaterials. By taking advantage of this unique behavior, two separated ratiometric pH sensors using emission spectra of the NCDs for both acidic (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and basic (pH 7.0 to 14.0) ranges of pH are constructed. Additionally, by considering the entire Excitation–Emission Matrix (EEM) of NCDs as analytical signal and using a suitable multivariate calibration method, a broad range of pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. The multivariate calibration method was independent from the concentration of NCDs and resulted in a very low average prediction error of 0.067 pH units. No changes in the predicted pH under UV irradiation (for 3 h) and at high ionic strength (up to 2 M NaCl) indicated the high stability of this pH nanosensor. The practicality of this pH nanosensor for pH determination in real water samples was validated with good accuracy and repeatability. - Highlights: • Novel pH-sensitive carbon dots with strong FL changes towards pH are reported. • Ratiometric FL pH-sensors for both acidic and basic ranges of pH are constructed. • Multivariate calibration methods were used to calibrate a broad range of pH. • Using EEM of carbon dots and ANN, pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. • The pH prediction is stable even at high ionic strength up to 2 M NaCl.

  14. Vibrational tug-of-war: The pKA dependence of the broad vibrational features of strongly hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoozen, Brian L.; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-04-01

    of strongly hydrogen-bonded structures depend on the relative pKA and other structural parameters will guide studies of biological structures and analysis of proton transfer studies using photoacids.

  15. Diffusion Capillary Phantom vs. Human Data: Outcomes for Reconstruction Methods Depend on Evaluation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah D. Lichenstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diffusion MRI provides a non-invasive way of estimating structural connectivity in the brain. Many studies have used diffusion phantoms as benchmarks to assess the performance of different tractography reconstruction algorithms and assumed that the results can be applied to in vivo studies. Here we examined whether quality metrics derived from a common, publically available, diffusion phantom can reliably predict tractography performance in human white matter tissue. Material and Methods: We compared estimates of fiber length and fiber crossing among a simple tensor model (diffusion tensor imaging, a more complicated model (ball-and-sticks and model-free (diffusion spectrum imaging, generalized q-sampling imaging reconstruction methods using a capillary phantom and in vivo human data (N=14. Results: Our analysis showed that evaluation outcomes differ depending on whether they were obtained from phantom or human data. Specifically, the diffusion phantom favored a more complicated model over a simple tensor model or model-free methods for resolving crossing fibers. On the other hand, the human studies showed the opposite pattern of results, with the model-free methods being more advantageous than model-based methods or simple tensor models. This performance difference was consistent across several metrics, including estimating fiber length and resolving fiber crossings in established white matter pathways. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the construction of current capillary diffusion phantoms tends to favor complicated reconstruction models over a simple tensor model or model-free methods, whereas the in vivo data tends to produce opposite results. This brings into question the previous phantom-based evaluation approaches and suggests that a more realistic phantom or simulation is necessary to accurately predict the relative performance of different tractography reconstruction methods. Acronyms: BSM: ball-and-sticks model; d

  16. Time-Dependent Behavior of Microvascular Blood Flow and Oxygenation: A Predictor of Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliga, Katarzyna Z; Gush, Rodney; Clough, Geraldine F; Chipperfield, Andrew John

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the time-dependent behaviour and algorithmic complexity of low-frequency periodic oscillations in blood flux (BF) and oxygenation signals from the microvasculature. Microvascular BF and oxygenation (OXY: oxyHb, deoxyHb, totalHb, and SO 2 %) was recorded from 15 healthy young adult males using combined laser Doppler fluximetry and white light spectroscopy with local skin temperature clamped to 33  °C and during local thermal hyperaemia (LTH) at 43 °C. Power spectral density of the BF and OXY signals was evaluated within the frequency range (0.0095-1.6 Hz). Signal complexity was determined using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) algorithm. Fold increase in BF during LTH was 15.6 (10.3, 22.8) and in OxyHb 4.8 (3.5, 5.9) (median, range). All BF and OXY signals exhibited multiple oscillatory components with clear differences in signal power distribution across frequency bands at 33 and 43 °C. Significant reduction in the intrinsic variability and complexity of the microvascular signals during LTH was found, with mean LZ complexity of BF and OxyHb falling by 25% and 49%, respectively ( ). These results provide corroboration that in human skin microvascular blood flow and oxygenation are influenced by multiple time-varying oscillators that adapt to local influences and become more predictable during increased haemodynamic flow. Recent evidence strongly suggests that the inability of microvascular networks to adapt to an imposed stressor is symptomatic of disease risk which might be assessed via BF and OXY via the combination signal analysis techniques described here.

  17. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  18. Atomic and electronic structure of trilayer graphene/SiC(0001): Evidence of Strong Dependence on Stacking Sequence and charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Debora; Brumme, Thomas; Girard, Jean-Christophe; Calandra, Matteo; Silly, Mathieu G; Sirotti, Fausto; Barbier, Antoine; Mauri, Francesco; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2016-09-15

    The transport properties of few-layer graphene are the directly result of a peculiar band structure near the Dirac point. Here, for epitaxial graphene grown on SiC, we determine the effect of charge transfer from the SiC substrate on the local density of states (LDOS) of trilayer graphene using scaning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Different spectra are observed and are attributed to the existence of two stable polytypes of trilayer: Bernal (ABA) and rhomboedreal (ABC) staking. Their electronic properties strongly depend on the charge transfer from the substrate. We show that the LDOS of ABC stacking shows an additional peak located above the Dirac point in comparison with the LDOS of ABA stacking. The observed LDOS features, reflecting the underlying symmetry of the two polytypes, were reproduced by explicit calculations within density functional theory (DFT) including the charge transfer from the substrate. These findings demonstrate the pronounced effect of stacking order and charge transfer on the electronic structure of trilayer or few layer graphene. Our approach represents a significant step toward understand the electronic properties of graphene layer under electrical field.

  19. Early and continuous neurologic improvements after intravenous thrombolysis are strong predictors of favorable long-term outcomes in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Leonard L L; Paliwal, Prakash; Teoh, Hock L; Seet, Raymond C; Chan, Bernard P L; Wakerley, Benjamin; Liang, Shen; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Chong, Vincent F; Ting, Eric Y S; Sharma, Vijay K

    2013-11-01

    CNI. Factors associated with favorable outcomes at 3 months on univariate analysis were younger age, female gender, hypertension, NIHSS score at onset, recanalization on transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring or repeat computed tomography (CT) angiography, ENI at 2 hours, and CNI. On multivariate analysis, NIHSS score at onset (OR per 1-point increase: .835, 95% CI: .751-.929, PENI at 2 hours (OR: 2.536, 95% CI: 1.321-5.102; P=.004), and CNI (OR: 7.253, 95% CI: 3.682-15.115; PENI and CNI within the first 24 hours are strong predictors of favorable functional outcomes in thrombolyzed AIS patients. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing nicotine dependence in adolescent E-cigarette users: The 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; S O'Malley, Stephanie

    2018-04-26

    Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms. In 2017, 520 adolescent past-month e-cigarette users completed the PROMIS-E during a school-based survey (50.5% female, 84.8% White, 16.22[1.19] years old). Adolescents also reported on sex, grade, race, age at e-cigarette use onset, vaping frequency, nicotine e-liquid use, and past-month cigarette smoking. Analyses included conducting confirmatory factor analysis and examining the internal consistency of the PROMIS-E. Bivariate correlations and independent-samples t-tests were used to examine unadjusted relationships between e-cigarette nicotine dependence and the proposed risk factors. Regression models were run in which all potential risk factors were entered as simultaneous predictors of PROMIS-E scores. The single-factor structure of the PROMIS-E was confirmed and evidenced good internal consistency. Across models, larger PROMIS-E scores were associated with being in a higher grade, initiating e-cigarette use at an earlier age, vaping more frequently, using nicotine e-liquid (and higher nicotine concentrations), and smoking cigarettes. Adolescent e-cigarette users reported experiencing nicotine dependence, which was assessed using the psychometrically sound PROMIS-E. Experiencing stronger nicotine dependence symptoms was associated with characteristics that previously have been shown to confer risk for frequent vaping and tobacco cigarette dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation after acute amphetamine administration: its relationship to brain c-fos induction is strongly dependent on the particular brain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotllant, David; Armario, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests a critical role of chromatin remodelling in the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs. We reasoned that Immunohistochemical detection of certain histone modifications may be a more specific tool than induction of immediate early genes (i.e. c-fos) to detect brain areas and neurons that are critical for the action of addictive drugs. Thus, in the present work we studied in adult male rats the effects of a high dose of amphetamine on brain pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation in serine 10 (pH3S(10)) and c-fos expression. We firstly observed that amphetamine-induced an increase in the number of pH3S(10) positive neurons in a restricted number of brain areas, with maximum levels at 30 min after the drug administration that declined at 90 min in most areas. In a second experiment we studied colocalization of pH3S(10) immunoreactivity (pH3S(10)-IR) and c-fos expression. Amphetamine increased c-fos expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (Acb), major Island of Calleja (ICjM), central amygdala (CeA), bed nucleus of stria terminalis lateral dorsal (BSTld) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Whereas no evidence for increase in pH3S(10) positive neurons was found in the mPFC and the PVN, in the striatum and the Acb basically all pH3S(10) positive neurons showed colocalization with c-fos. In ICjM, CeA and BSTld a notable degree of colocalization was found, but an important number of neurons expressing c-fos were negative for pH3S(10). The present results give support to the hypothesis that amphetamine-induced pH3S(10)-IR showed a more restricted pattern than brain c-fos induction, being this difference strongly dependent on the particular brain area studied. It is likely that those nuclei and neurons showing pH3S(10)-IR are more specifically associated to important effects of the drug, including neural plasticity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors strongly sensitise neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by a caspases-dependent increase of the pro- to anti-apoptotic proteins ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mühlethaler-Mottet, Annick; Flahaut, Marjorie; Bourloud, Katia Balmas; Auderset, Katya; Meier, Roland; Joseph, Jean-Marc; Gross, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the second most common solid childhood tumour, an aggressive disease for which new therapeutic strategies are strongly needed. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in most tumour cells, but not in normal tissues and therefore represents a valuable candidate in apoptosis-inducing therapies. Caspase-8 is silenced in a subset of highly malignant NB cells, which results in full TRAIL resistance. In addition, despite constitutive caspase-8 expression, or its possible restoration by different strategies, NB cells remain weakly sensitive to TRAIL indicating a need to develop strategies to sensitise NB cells to TRAIL. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are a new class of anti-cancer agent inducing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in tumour cells with very low toxicity toward normal cells. Although HDACIs were recently shown to increase death induced by TRAIL in weakly TRAIL-sensitive tumour cells, the precise involved sensitisation mechanisms have not been fully identified. NB cell lines were treated with various doses of HDACIs and TRAIL, then cytotoxicity was analysed by MTS/PMS proliferation assays, apoptosis was measured by the Propidium staining method, caspases activity by colorimetric protease assays, and (in)activation of apoptotic proteins by immunoblotting. Sub-toxic doses of HDACIs strongly sensitised caspase-8 positive NB cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis in a caspases dependent manner. Combined treatments increased the activation of caspases and Bid, and the inactivation of the anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, Bcl-x, RIP, and survivin, thereby increasing the pro- to anti-apoptotic protein ratio. It also enhanced the activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, the kinetics of caspases activation and inactivation of anti-apoptotic proteins is accelerated by combined treatment with TRAIL and HDACIs compared to TRAIL alone. In contrast, cell surface expression of TRAIL

  3. Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori detection by Giemsa staining is poor in comparison with immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization and strongly depends on inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsmár, Éva; Szirtes, Ildikó; Kramer, Zsófia; Szijártó, Attila; Bene, László; Buzás, György Miklós; Kenessey, István; Bronsert, Peter; Csanadi, Agnes; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Kiss, András; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Lotz, Gábor

    2017-08-01

    Conventional stainings (including H&E and special stains like Giemsa) are the most widely applied histopathologic detection methods of Helicobacter pylori (HP). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Giemsa staining with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a monocentric cohort of 2896 gastric biopsies and relate results to histologic alterations in order to find such histopathologic subgroups in which these methods underperform. All cases were categorized regarding presence or absence of chronic gastritis, inflammatory activity, and mucosal structural alterations. Giemsa revealed 687 cases (23.7%), IHC 795 cases (27.5%), and FISH 788 cases (27.2%) as being HP positive. Giemsa showed significantly lower overall sensitivity (83.3%) compared to IHC (98.8%) and FISH (98.0%). Moreover, the sensitivity of Giemsa dramatically dropped to 33.6% in the nonactive cases. We found that sensitivity of Giemsa strongly depends on HP density and, accordingly, on the presence of activity. Structural alterations (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, etc.) had only no or weak effect on sensitivity of the three stainings. Both IHC and FISH proved to be equally reliable HP detecting techniques whose diagnostic performance is minimally influenced by mucosal inflammatory and structural alterations contrary to conventional stainings. We highly recommend immunohistochemistry for clinically susceptible, nonactive chronic gastritis cases, if the conventional stain-based HP detection is negative. Moreover, we recommend to use IHC more widely as basic HP stain. Helicobacter pylori FISH technique is primarily recommended to determine bacterial clarithromycin resistance. Furthermore, it is another accurate diagnostic tool for HP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is strongly cell- and tissue-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-04-02

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection.

  5. Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is Strongly Cell- and Tissue-dependent*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  6. Influence of Flow Sequencing Attributed to Climate Change and Climate Variability on the Assessment of Water-dependent Ecosystem Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Nathan, R.; Horne, A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional approaches to characterize water-dependent ecosystem outcomes in response to flow have been based on time-averaged hydrological indicators, however there is increasing recognition for the need to characterize ecological processes that are highly dependent on the sequencing of flow conditions (i.e. floods and droughts). This study considers the representation of flow regimes when considering assessment of ecological outcomes, and in particular, the need to account for sequencing and variability of flow. We conducted two case studies - one in the largely unregulated Ovens River catchment and one in the highly regulated Murray River catchment (both located in south-eastern Australia) - to explore the importance of flow sequencing to the condition of a typical long-lived ecological asset in Australia, the River Red Gum forests. In the first, the Ovens River case study, the implications of representing climate change using different downscaling methods (annual scaling, monthly scaling, quantile mapping, and weather generator method) on the sequencing of flows and resulting ecological outcomes were considered. In the second, the Murray River catchment, sequencing within a historic drought period was considered by systematically making modest adjustments on an annual basis to the hydrological records. In both cases, the condition of River Red Gum forests was assessed using an ecological model that incorporates transitions between ecological conditions in response to sequences of required flow components. The results of both studies show the importance of considering how hydrological alterations are represented when assessing ecological outcomes. The Ovens case study showed that there is significant variation in the predicted ecological outcomes when different downscaling techniques are applied. Similarly, the analysis in the Murray case study showed that the drought as it historically occurred provided one of the best possible outcomes for River Red Gum

  7. Midregional-proAtrial Natriuretic Peptide and High Sensitive Troponin T Strongly Predict Adverse Outcome in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Repair of Mitral Valve Regurgitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wöhrle

    Full Text Available It is not known whether biomarkers of hemodynamic stress, myocardial necrosis, and renal function might predict adverse outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous repair of severe mitral valve insufficiency. Thus, we aimed to assess the predictive value of various established and emerging biomarkers for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE in these patients.Thirty-four patients with symptomatic severe mitral valve insufficiency with a mean STS-Score for mortality of 12.6% and a mean logistic EuroSCORE of 19.7% undergoing MitraClip therapy were prospectively included in this study. Plasma concentrations of mid regional-proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP, Cystatin C, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT, N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, galectin-3, and soluble ST-2 (interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 were measured directly before procedure. MACE was defined as cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HF.During a median follow-up of 211 days (interquartile range 133 to 333 days, 9 patients (26.5% experienced MACE (death: 7 patients, rehospitalization for HF: 2 patients. Thirty day MACE-rate was 5.9% (death: 2 patients, no rehospitalization for HF. Baseline concentrations of hsTnT (Median 92.6 vs 25.2 ng/L, NT-proBNP (Median 11251 vs 1974 pg/mL and MR-proANP (Median 755.6 vs 318.3 pmol/L, all p<0.001 were clearly higher in those experiencing an event vs event-free patients, while other clinical variables including STS-Score and logistic EuroSCORE did not differ significantly. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, NT-proBNP and in particular hsTnT and MR-proANP above the median discriminated between those experiencing an event vs event-free patients. This was further corroborated by C-statistics where areas under the ROC curve for prediction of MACE using the respective median values were 0.960 for MR-proANP, 0.907 for NT-proBNP, and 0.822 for hsTnT.MR-proANP and hsTnT strongly

  8. Unconventional superconductivity in cuprates, cobaltates and graphene. What is universal and what is material-dependent in strongly versus weakly correlated materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesel, Maximilian Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    A general theory for all classes of unconventional superconductors is still one of the unsolved key issues in condensed-matter physics. Actually, it is not yet fully settled if there is a common underlying pairing mechanism. Instead, it might be possible that several distinct sources for unconventional (not phonon-mediated) superconductivity have to be considered, or an electron-phonon interaction is not negligible. The focus of this thesis is on the most probable mechanism for the formation of Cooper pairs in unconventional superconductors, namely a strictly electronic one where spin fluctuations are the mediators. Studying different superconductors in this thesis, the emphasis is put on material-independent features of the pairing mechanism. In addition, the investigation of the phase diagrams enables a view on the vicinity of superconductivity. Thus, it is possible to clarify which competing quantum fluctuations enhance or weaken the propensity for a superconducting state. The broad range of superconducting materials requires the use of more than one numerical technique to study an appropriate microscopic description. This is not a problem but a big advantage because this facilitates the approach-independent description of common underlying physics. For this evaluation, the strongly correlated cuprates are simulated with the variational cluster approach. Especially the question of a pairing glue is taken into consideration. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between retarded and non-retarded contributions to the gap function. The cuprates are confronted with the cobaltate Na x CoO 2 and graphene. These weakly correlated materials are investigated with the functional renormalization group (fRG) and reveal a comprehensive phase diagram, including a d+id-wave superconductivity, which breaks time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding gap function is nodeless, but for NaCoO, it features a doping-dependent anisotropy. In addition, some general considerations on

  9. Unconventional superconductivity in cuprates, cobaltates and graphene. What is universal and what is material-dependent in strongly versus weakly correlated materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesel, Maximilian Ludwig

    2013-02-08

    A general theory for all classes of unconventional superconductors is still one of the unsolved key issues in condensed-matter physics. Actually, it is not yet fully settled if there is a common underlying pairing mechanism. Instead, it might be possible that several distinct sources for unconventional (not phonon-mediated) superconductivity have to be considered, or an electron-phonon interaction is not negligible. The focus of this thesis is on the most probable mechanism for the formation of Cooper pairs in unconventional superconductors, namely a strictly electronic one where spin fluctuations are the mediators. Studying different superconductors in this thesis, the emphasis is put on material-independent features of the pairing mechanism. In addition, the investigation of the phase diagrams enables a view on the vicinity of superconductivity. Thus, it is possible to clarify which competing quantum fluctuations enhance or weaken the propensity for a superconducting state. The broad range of superconducting materials requires the use of more than one numerical technique to study an appropriate microscopic description. This is not a problem but a big advantage because this facilitates the approach-independent description of common underlying physics. For this evaluation, the strongly correlated cuprates are simulated with the variational cluster approach. Especially the question of a pairing glue is taken into consideration. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between retarded and non-retarded contributions to the gap function. The cuprates are confronted with the cobaltate Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} and graphene. These weakly correlated materials are investigated with the functional renormalization group (fRG) and reveal a comprehensive phase diagram, including a d+id-wave superconductivity, which breaks time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding gap function is nodeless, but for NaCoO, it features a doping-dependent anisotropy. In addition, some general

  10. Mediated and Moderated Effects of Neurocognitive Impairment on Outcomes of Treatment for Substance Dependence and Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Matthew J.; Tate, Susan R.; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurocognitive impairment has not consistently predicted substance use treatment outcomes but has been linked to proximal mediators of outcome. These indirect effects have not been examined in adults with substance dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. We examined mediators and moderators of the effects of neurocognitive impairment on substance use among adults in treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression (MDD). Method Participants were veterans (N =197, mean age = 49.3 years, 90% male, 75% Caucasian) in a trial of two group interventions for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD. Measures examined here included intake neurocognitive assessments and percent days drinking (PDD), percent days using drugs (PDDRG), self-efficacy, 12-step affiliation, and depressive symptoms measured every 3 months from intake to the 18-month follow-up. Results Greater intake neurocognitive impairment predicted lower self-efficacy, lower 12-step affiliation, and greater depression severity, and these time-varying variables mediated the effects of impairment on future PDD and PDDRG. The prospective effects of 12-step affiliation on future PDD were greater for those with greater neurocognitive impairment. Impairment also interacted with depression to moderate the effects of 12-step affiliation and self-efficacy on PDD. Adults with greater impairment and currently severe depression had the strongest associations between 12-step affiliation/self-efficacy and future drinking. Conclusions Greater neurocognitive impairment may lead to poorer outcomes from group therapy for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD due to compromised change in therapeutic processes. Distal factors such as neurocognitive impairment can interact with dynamic risk factors to modulate the association between therapeutic processes and future drinking outcomes. PMID:24588403

  11. The Level of Alexithymia in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Does Not Influence Outcomes after Inpatient Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  12. The level of alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  13. The level of Alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Hein A.; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was

  14. Psychometric evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for use with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Sussman, Steve; Foulds, Jonathan; Fishbein, Howard; Grana, Rachel; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2018-01-02

    Psychometrically sound measures of e-cigarette dependence are lacking. We modified the PROMIS Nicotine Dependence Item Banks for use with e-cigarettes and evaluated the psychometrics of the 22-, 8- and 4-item adapted versions. 1009 adults who reported using e-cigarettes at least weekly completed an anonymous survey in Summer 2016 (50.2% male, 77.1% White, mean age 35.81 [10.71], 66.4% daily e-cigarette users, 72.6% current cigarette smokers). Psychometric analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, measurement invariance, examination of mean-level differences, convergent validity, and test-criterion relationships with e-cigarette use outcomes. All PROMIS-E versions had confirmable, internally consistent latent structures that were scalar invariant by sex, race, e-cigarette use (non-daily/daily), e-liquid nicotine content (no/yes), and current cigarette smoking status (no/yes). Daily e-cigarette users, nicotine e-liquid users, and cigarette smokers reported being more dependent on e-cigarettes than their counterparts. All PROMIS-E versions correlated strongly with one another, evidenced convergent validity with the Penn State E-cigarette Dependence Index and time to first e-cigarette use in the morning, and evidenced test-criterion relationships with vaping frequency, e-liquid nicotine concentration, and e-cigarette quit attempts. Similar results were observed when analyses were conducted within subsamples of exclusive e-cigarette users and duals-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Each PROMIS-E version evidenced strong psychometric properties for assessing e-cigarette dependence in adults who either use e-cigarette exclusively or who are dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. However, results indicated little benefit of the longer versions over the 4-item PROMIS-E, which provides an efficient assessment of e-cigarette dependence. The availability of the novel, psychometrically sound PROMIS-E can further research on a wide range of

  15. Functional Brain Networks Associated with Cognitive Control, Cocaine Dependence and Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Stevens, Michael C.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine dependence often evidence poor cognitive control. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate networks of functional connectivity underlying cognitive control in cocaine dependence and examine the relationship of the networks to the disorder and its treatment. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to fMRI data to investigate if regional activations underlying cognitive control processes operate in functional networks, and whether these networks...

  16. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  17. Dimensions of dependence and their influence on the outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Peter; Wang, Duolao; Tyrer, Helen; Crawford, Mike; Cooper, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    The personality trait of dependence is common in health-seeking behaviour. We therefore examined its impact in a large randomized controlled trial of psychological treatment for health anxiety. To test whether dependent personality traits were positive or negative in determining the outcome of an adapted form of cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety (CBT-HA) over the course of 5 years and whether dependent personality dysfunction could be viewed dimensionally in a similar way to the new ICD-11 diagnostic system for general personality disorder. Dependent personality dysfunction was assessed using a self-rated questionnaire, the Dependent Personality Questionnaire, at baseline in a randomized controlled trial of 444 patients from medical clinics with pathological health anxiety treated with a modified form of CBT-HA or standard treatment in the medical clinics, with assessment on five occasions over 5 years. Dependent personality dysfunction was assessed using four severity groups. Patients with mild and moderate dependent personality disorder treated with CBT-HA showed the greatest reduction in health anxiety compared with standard care, and those with no dependent dysfunction showed the least benefit. Patients with higher dependent traits received significantly more treatment sessions (8.6) than those with low trait levels (5.4) (p dependent personality. The reasons for this may be related to better adherence to psychological treatment and greater negative effects of frequent reassurance and excessive consultation in those treated in standard care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  19. Impulsivity and attentional bias as predictors of modafinil treatment outcome for retention and drug use in crack-cocaine dependent patients: Results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, Mascha; Blanken, Peter; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Hendriks, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    High impulsivity and attentional bias are common in cocaine-dependent patients and predict poor treatment outcomes. The pharmacological agent modafinil is studied for its cognitive-enhancing capacities and may therefore improve clinical outcomes in crack-cocaine dependent patients. In this study, we

  20. Innovative Adolescent Chemical Dependency Treatment and Its Outcome: A Model Based on Outward Bound Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeake, John D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes adolescent chemical dependency treatment model developed at Beech Hill Hospital (New Hampshire) which integrated Twelve Step-oriented alcohol and drug rehabilitation program with experiential education school, Hurricane Island Outward Bound School. Describes Beech Hill Hurricane Island Outward Bound School Adolescent Chemical Dependency…

  1. Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) for cocaine dependence in the Spanish public health system: 1 year outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Zacarés-Romaguera, Francisco; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Santonja-Gómez, Francisco J; García-Fernández, Gloria

    2011-11-01

    The development and dissemination of effective treatments for cocaine dependence is an important public health priority in Europe, and especially in Spain, given the increase in treatment demand over recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) for cocaine dependents at an outpatient clinic within the Spanish public health system. A total of 82 cocaine-dependent patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: Standard Treatment (n = 35) or CRA (n = 47). Dependent variables were treatment retention, cocaine abstinence and composite scores from the European version of the Addiction Severity Index at 12 month follow up. Of the patients who received CRA, 55% completed 6 months of treatment, versus 40% who received Standard Treatment. At the 12 month follow up, patients assigned to the CRA condition achieved higher rates of abstinence (95.2%) by comparison with Standard Treatment (69.2%). In the CRA group, 27% of the patients achieved continuous cocaine abstinence, versus 21% in the Standard Treatment group. The CRA group also obtained lower scores than the Standard Treatment group in all Addiction Severity Index composite scores. This study showed that CRA is a feasible treatment for cocaine addiction in a public community setting in Spain. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Effects of Elevated Ambient Temperature on Reproductive Outcomes and Offspring Growth Depend on Exposure Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Yahia Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance has been shown to be greatly affected by changes in environmental factors, such as temperature. However, it is also crucial to identify the particular stage of pregnancy that is most adversely affected by elevated ambient temperature. The aims of this study were to determine the effect on reproductive outcomes of exposure to elevated ambient temperature during different stages of pregnancy and to determine the effect of prenatal heat stress on offspring growth. Sixty pregnant rats were used in this study. The rats were divided equally into four groups as group 1 (control, group 2 (exposed to elevated temperature following implantation, group 3 (exposed to elevated temperature during pre- and periimplantation, and group 4 (exposed to elevated temperature during pre- and periimplantation and following implantation. Groups 3 and 4 had prolonged gestation periods, reduced litter sizes, and male-biased sex ratios. Moreover, the growth patterns of group 3 and 4 pups were adversely affected by prenatal exposure to elevated temperature. The differences between group 1 and group 3 and between group 1 and group 4 were highly significant. However, no significant differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 in the gestation length, sex ratios, and growth patterns. Thus, it can be concluded that exposure to elevated ambient temperature during pre- and periimplantation has stronger adverse effects on reproductive outcomes and offspring growth than postimplantation exposure.

  3. Antral follicle counts are strongly associated with live-birth rates after assisted reproduction, with superior treatment outcome in women with polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Jan; Brodin, Thomas; Berglund, Lars; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Olovsson, Matts; Bergh, Torbjörn

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the association of antral follicle count (AFC) with in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcome in a large unselected cohort of patients covering the entire range of AFC. Prospective observational study. University-affiliated private infertility center. 2,092 women undergoing 4,308 IVF-ICSI cycles. AFC analyzed for associations with treatment outcome and statistically adjusted for repeated treatments and age. Pregnancy rate, live-birth rate, and stimulation outcome parameters. The AFC was log-normally distributed. Pregnancy rates and live-birth rates were positively associated with AFC in a log-linear way, leveling out above AFC ∼30. Treatment outcome was superior among women with polycystic ovaries, independent from ovulatory status. The findings were significant also after adjustment for age and number of oocytes retrieved. Pregnancy and live-birth rates are log-linearly related to AFC. Polycystic ovaries, most often excluded from studies on ovarian reserve, fit as one extreme in the spectrum of AFC; a low count constitutes the other extreme, with the lowest ovarian reserve and poor treatment outcome. The findings remained statistically significant also after adjustment for the number of oocytes retrieved, suggesting this measure of ovarian reserve comprises information on oocyte quality and not only quantity. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Longitudinal Studies With Repeated Outcome Measures: Adjusting for Time-Dependent Confounding Using Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; Daniel, Rhian M; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2018-05-01

    Estimation of causal effects of time-varying exposures using longitudinal data is a common problem in epidemiology. When there are time-varying confounders, which may include past outcomes, affected by prior exposure, standard regression methods can lead to bias. Methods such as inverse probability weighted estimation of marginal structural models have been developed to address this problem. However, in this paper we show how standard regression methods can be used, even in the presence of time-dependent confounding, to estimate the total effect of an exposure on a subsequent outcome by controlling appropriately for prior exposures, outcomes, and time-varying covariates. We refer to the resulting estimation approach as sequential conditional mean models (SCMMs), which can be fitted using generalized estimating equations. We outline this approach and describe how including propensity score adjustment is advantageous. We compare the causal effects being estimated using SCMMs and marginal structural models, and we compare the two approaches using simulations. SCMMs enable more precise inferences, with greater robustness against model misspecification via propensity score adjustment, and easily accommodate continuous exposures and interactions. A new test for direct effects of past exposures on a subsequent outcome is described.

  5. Age-dependent effect of apolipoprotein E4 on functional outcome after controlled cortical impact in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah C; Zhang, Jimmy; Park, Juyeon; Zhang, Xuan; Bilal, Kiran; Walker, Kendall; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Tesco, Giuseppina; Whalen, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) gene leads to increased brain amyloid beta (Aβ) and poor outcome in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, its role in childhood TBI is controversial. We hypothesized that the transgenic expression of human APOE4 worsens the outcome after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult but not immature mice. Adult and immature APOE4 mice had worse motor outcome after CCI (P<0.001 versus wild type (WT)), but the Morris water maze performance was worse only in adult APOE4 mice (P=0.028 at 2 weeks, P=0.019 at 6 months versus WT), because immature APOE4 mice had performance similar to WT for up to 1 year after injury. Brain lesion size was similar in adult APOE4 mice but was decreased (P=0.029 versus WT) in injured immature APOE4 mice. Microgliosis was similar in all groups. Soluble brain Aβ(40) was increased at 48 hours after CCI in adult and immature APOE4 mice and in adult WT (P<0.05), and was dynamically regulated during the chronic period by APOE4 in adults but not immature mice. The data suggest age-dependent effects of APOE4 on cognitive outcome after TBI, and that therapies targeting APOE4 may be more effective in adults versus children with TBI.

  6. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G.; Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S.; Fischmann, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T 1 -relaxometry, T 2 -relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T 2 differences were small, but significant (p 2 correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  7. Impact of Social Cognition on Alcohol Dependence Treatment Outcome: Poorer Facial Emotion Recognition Predicts Relapse/Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia I; Derntl, Birgit; Osthaus, Friederike; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset on treatment completion. Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including 3 core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: (i) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), (ii) emotional perspective taking, and (iii) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. Subjective measures were also obtained, including estimates of task performance and a self-report measure of empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index). According to treatment outcomes, patients were divided into a patient group with a regular treatment course (e.g., with planned discharge and without relapse during treatment) or an irregular treatment course (e.g., relapse and/or premature and unplanned termination of treatment, "dropout"). Compared with patients completing treatment in a regular fashion, patients with relapse and/or dropout of treatment had significantly poorer facial emotion recognition ability at treatment onset. Additional logistic regression analyses confirmed these results and identified poor emotion recognition performance as a significant predictor for relapse/dropout. Self-report (subjective) measures did not correspond with neurobehavioral social cognition measures, respectively objective task performance. Analyses of individual subtypes of facial emotions revealed poorer recognition particularly of disgust, anger, and no (neutral faces) emotion in patients with relapse/dropout. Social cognition in AUD is clinically relevant. Less successful treatment outcome was associated with poorer facial emotion recognition ability at the beginning of

  8. Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and Cocaine Abusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations and Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah C. Mash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibogaine may be effective for transitioning opioid and cocaine dependent individuals to sobriety. American and European self-help groups provided public testimonials that ibogaine alleviated drug craving and opioid withdrawal symptoms after only a single dose administration. Preclinical studies in animal models of addiction have provided proof-of-concept evidence in support of these claims. However, the purported therapeutic benefits of ibogaine are based on anecdotal reports from a small series of case reports that used retrospective recruitment procedures. We reviewed clinical results from an open label case series (N = 191 of human volunteers seeking to detoxify from opioids or cocaine with medical monitoring during inpatient treatment. Whole blood was assayed to obtain pharmacokinetic measures to determine the metabolism and clearance of ibogaine. Clinical safety data and adverse events (AEs were studied in male and female subjects. There were no significant adverse events following administration of ibogaine in a dose range that was shown to be effective for blocking opioid withdrawal symptoms in this study. We used multi-dimensional craving questionnaires during inpatient detoxification to test if ibogaine was effective in diminishing heroin and cocaine cravings. Participants also completed standardized questionnaires about their health and mood before and after ibogaine treatment, and at program discharge. One-month follow-up data were reviewed where available to determine if ibogaine’s effects on drug craving would persist outside of an inpatient setting. We report here that ibogaine therapy administered in a safe dose range diminishes opioid withdrawal symptoms and reduces drug cravings. Pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence include detoxification, narcotic antagonists and long-term opioid maintenance therapy. Our results support product development of single oral dose administration of ibogaine for the treatment of opioid

  9. Obesity is a strong predictor of worse clinical outcomes and treatment responses in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the SWEFOT trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitsky, Adrian; Brismar, Kerstin; Hafström, Ingiäld; Hambardzumyan, Karen; Lourdudoss, Cecilia; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Saevarsdottir, Saedis

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyse the impact of obesity, in addition to known predictors, on disease outcome in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Body mass index (BMI) was available in 260 patients from the Swedish pharmacotherapy trial (SWEFOT). Differences in disease activity (DAS28), functional

  10. The grain size dependency of vesicular particle shapes strongly affects the drag of particles. First results from microtomography investigations of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Daniela; Dioguardi, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Acknowledging the grain size dependency of shape is important in volcanology, in particular when dealing with tephra produced and emplaced during and after explosive volcanic eruptions. A systematic measurement of the tridimensional shape of vesicular pyroclasts of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits (Agnano-Monte Spina, Astroni 6 and Averno 2 eruptions) varying in size from 8.00 to 0.016 mm has been carried out by means of X-Ray Microtomography. Data show that particle shape changes with size, especially for juvenile vesicular clasts, since it is dependent on the distribution and size of vesicles that contour the external clast outline. Two drag laws that include sphericity in the formula were used for estimating the dependency of settling velocity on shape. Results demonstrate that it is not appropriate to assume a size-independent shape for vesicular particles, in contrast with the approach commonly employed when simulating the ash dispersion in the atmosphere.

  11. Incision integrity and postoperative outcomes after microcoaxial phacoemulsification performed using 2 incision-dependent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Vaishali; Vasavada, Abhay R; Vasavada, Viraj A; Srivastava, Samaresh; Gajjar, Devarshi U; Mehta, Siddharth

    2013-04-01

    To compare incision integrity and clinical outcomes of 2 microcoaxial phacoemulsification systems. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Eyes were randomized to have phacoemulsification using a 1.8 mm clear corneal incision (CCI) system (Group 1, Stellaris system) or a 2.2 mm CCI system (Group 2, Intrepid Infiniti system). Incision enlargement at end of surgery was measured. At the conclusion of surgery, trypan blue was applied over the conjunctival surface, anterior chamber aspirate withdrawn, and ingress into anterior chamber measured. Postoperative observations included evaluation of the CCI using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), change in central corneal thickness (CCT), and anterior segment inflammation at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month and endothelial cell loss and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) at 3 months. Incision enlargement (P.05). At the end of surgery, it is not the initial incision size alone but also the distortion of the incision during subsequent stages of surgery that determine the integrity of the CCI. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 184 and 340). Both components (General Barriers, Weight Concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General Barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; Weight Concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. PMID:26979552

  14. Antisocial personality disorder predicts methamphetamine treatment outcomes in homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J

    2013-09-01

    One-hundred-thirty-one homeless, substance-dependent MSM were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention for reducing substance use and increasing healthy behavior. Participants were randomized into conditions that either provided additional rewards for substance abstinence and/or health-promoting/prosocial behaviors ("CM-full"; n=64) or for study compliance and attendance only ("CM-lite"; n=67). The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the affect of ASPD status on two primary study outcomes: methamphetamine abstinence, and engagement in prosocial/health-promoting behavior. Analyses revealed that individuals with ASPD provided more methamphetamine-negative urine samples (37.5%) than participants without ASPD (30.6%). When controlling for participant sociodemographics and condition assignment, the magnitude of this predicted difference increases to 10% and reached statistical significance (p<.05). On average, participants with ASPD earned fewer vouchers for health-promoting/prosocial behaviors than participants without ASPD ($10.21 [SD=$7.02] versus $18.38 [SD=$13.60]; p<.01). Participants with ASPD displayed superior methamphetamine abstinence outcomes regardless of CM schedule; even with potentially unlimited positive reinforcement, individuals with ASPD displayed suboptimal outcomes in achieving health-promoting/prosocial behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diameter-dependent photoluminescence properties of strong phase-separated dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN nanopillar LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qwang365@163.com [School of Science, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353 (China); School of Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Ji, Ziwu, E-mail: jiziwu@sdu.edu.cn [School of Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Zhou, Yufan; Wang, Xuelin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Baoli [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Xu, Xiangang [Key Laboratory of Functional Crystal Materials and Device (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Gao, Xingguo; Leng, Jiancai [School of Science, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanopillar LED with smaller diameter shows a larger strain relaxation in the MQWs. • Nanopillar induced blue shift of green peak is smaller than that of blue peak. • Nanopillar induced blue shift of green/blue peak at 300 K is smaller than at 4 K. • PL intensity decreases with reducing nanopillar diameter with same pillar density. - Abstract: In this paper, strong phase-separated blue/green dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN nanopillar (NP) light emitting diodes (LEDs) with the same NP density and various NP diameters were fabricated using focused ion beam etching. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to show the effect of NP diameter on the strain relaxation in the multi-quantum-wells (MQWs). The effect of NP diameter on optical behaviors of the strong phase-separated dual-wavelength InGaN/GaN NP LEDs was investigated for the first time by using micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The blue shifts of PL peak energies of the NP LEDs showed that the NP LED with a smaller diameter exhibited a larger strain relaxation in the MQWs, as confirmed by micro-Raman results. And the blue shift of green emission was smaller than that of blue emission. The total integrated PL intensities from the NP arrays were enhanced compared to the as-grown sample due to the increased recombination rate and light extraction efficiency. The enhancement factor decreased with decreasing the NP diameter in our experiments, which indicated that the loss of active volume was gradually dominant for the luminous efficiency of NP LEDs compared to the increased recombination rate and light extraction efficiency.

  16. Just showing up is not enough: Homework adherence and outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Suzanne E; Kiluk, Brian D; Frankforter, Tami; Babuscio, Theresa; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2016-10-01

    Homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) provides opportunities to practice skills. In prior studies, homework adherence was associated with improved outcome across a variety of disorders. Few studies have examined whether the relationship between homework adherence and outcome is maintained after treatment end or is independent of treatment attendance. This study combined data from 4 randomized clinical trials of CBT for cocaine dependence to examine relationships among homework adherence, participant variables, and cocaine use outcomes during treatment and at follow-up. The data set included only participants who attended at least 2 CBT sessions to allow for assignment and return of homework (N = 158). Participants returned slightly less than half (41.1%) of assigned homework. Longitudinal random effects regression suggested a greater reduction in cocaine use during treatment and through 12-month follow-up for participants who completed half or more of assigned homework (3-way interaction), F(2, 910.69) = 4.28, p = .01. In multiple linear regression, the percentage of homework adherence was associated with greater number of cocaine-negative urine toxicology screens during treatment, even when accounting for baseline cocaine use frequency and treatment attendance; at 3 months follow-up, multiple logistic regression indicated homework adherence was associated with cocaine-negative urine toxicology screen, controlling for baseline cocaine use and treatment attendance. These results extend findings from prior studies regarding the importance of homework adherence by demonstrating associations among homework and cocaine use outcomes during treatment and up to 12 months after, independent of treatment attendance and baseline cocaine use severity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Strong composition dependence of resistive switching in Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films on semiconducting substrates and its thermodynamic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Moradi, Omid; Şen, Canhan; Sen, Canhan; Boni, A. G.; Pintilie, L.; Mısırlıoğlu, Burç; Misirlioglu, Burc

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report on the variability of the Schottky effect in solution processed Ba1-xSrxTiO3 films (BST, x = 0, 0.5) grown on 0.5% Nb doped SrTiO3 substrates with top Pt electrodes (NSTO/BST/Pt). The films display leakage currents accompanied by varying degrees of hystereses in the current-voltage measurements. The magnitude of the leakage and hystereses depend on the Sr content. We focus on the current-voltage (I-V) behavior of our samples in the light of thermodynamic theory of ferr...

  18. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Fischmann, Arne [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T{sub 1}-relaxometry, T{sub 2}-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T{sub 2} differences were small, but significant (p < 0.001). Fat fraction and T{sub 2} correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  19. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling, E-mail: kongzl@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B. [National Taiwan Ocean University, Department of Food Science (China)

    2013-09-15

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica-chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica-chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica-chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line.

  20. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B.

    2013-09-01

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica-chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica-chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica-chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan-silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line.

  1. Antiproliferative effect of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan–silica nanoparticles strongly depends on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Zwe-Ling; Chang, Jenq-Sheng; Chang, Ke Liang B.

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan molecules interact with silica and encapsulate the Antrodia camphorata extract (ACE) polysaccharides to form composite nanoparticles. The nanoparticle suspensions of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica–chitosan and silica nanoparticles approach an average particle size of 210 and 294 nm in solution, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies of ACE polysaccharides are 66 and 63.5 %, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the formation of near-spherical nanoparticles. ACE polysaccharides solution had better antioxidative capability than ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica or silica–chitosan nanoparticles suspensions. The antioxidant capacity of nanoparticles increases with increasing dissolution time. The antitumor effects of ACE polysaccharides, ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in silica, or silica–chitosan nanoparticles increased with increasing concentration of nanoparticles. This is the first report demonstrating the potential of ACE polysaccharides encapsulated in chitosan–silica nanoparticles for cancer chemoprevention. Furthermore, this study suggests that antiproliferative effect of nanoparticle-encapsulated bioactive could significantly depend on the metabolic activity type of the cell line

  2. Nanocrystal Size-Dependent Efficiency of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells in the Strongly Coupled CdSe Nanocrystals/TiO2 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeong Jin; Paik, Taejong; Diroll, Benjamin; Edley, Michael E; Baxter, Jason B; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-06-15

    Light absorption and electron injection are important criteria determining solar energy conversion efficiency. In this research, monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized with five different diameters, and the size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency of CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs) is investigated by employing the atomic inorganic ligand, S(2-). Absorbance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of the uniform CdSe QDs are 2.5, 3.2, 4.2, 6.4, and 7.8 nm. Larger CdSe QDs generate a larger amount of charge under the irradiation of long wavelength photons, as verified by the absorbance results and the measurements of the external quantum efficiencies. However, the smaller QDs exhibit faster electron injection kinetics from CdSe QDs to TiO2 because of the high energy level of CBCdSe, as verified by time-resolved photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency results. Importantly, the S(2-) ligand significantly enhances the electronic coupling between the CdSe QDs and TiO2, yielding an enhancement of the charge transfer rate at the interfacial region. As a result, the S(2-) ligand helps improve the new size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency, showing best performance with 4.2-nm CdSe QDs, whereas conventional ligand, mercaptopropionic acid, does not show any differences in efficiency according to the size of the CdSe QDs. The findings reported herein suggest that the atomic inorganic ligand reinforces the influence of quantum confinement on the solar energy conversion efficiency of QDSSCs.

  3. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and explanations about their individual cognitive styles and the learning strategies that accommodate those styles. The study entailed examining students' achievement in a multiple-choice test and performance in a design task, and also their navigation patterns as they studied a science-oriented Webquest. The sample consisted of 149 eighth-grade students in 10 sections of a science class taught by two teachers in a public middle school. A two-group posttest-only design on one factor (style awareness) was used. Sixty-eight students in five sections of the class were assigned to the treatment group (field dependent/independent style awareness) while the other 81 students in five sections were assigned to the control group (no field dependent/independent style awareness). The study took place over a period of 6 days. On the first day, students in the treatment group were first tested and debriefed on their individual styles. Next, all students in both the treatment and control groups studied the hypermedia instructional module (Webquest) over a period of two days. On the fourth and fifth days students worked on the performance tasks, and on the sixth day students took the multiple-choice test and students in the control group were tested and debriefed on their individual styles. The findings indicate that style awareness significantly influenced the learning strategies of field-dependent students as they studied and carried out learning tasks in the Webquest. Field-dependent students with style awareness used hypertext links and navigated the menu sequentially a greater number of times than their counterparts with no style awareness

  4. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. The impact of parental alcohol dependence on the development and behavior outcome of children in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Sidhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a pivotal role in upbringing a child and shaping their future. However, children of alcoholics (COAs suffer due to their parent′s dependence pattern. The various domains affected encompass cognitive, behavioural, psychological, emotional and social spheres. This study was designed to assess the impact of alcohol dependence in the parent on the development and behavior of their children, so that further steps could be taken to minimize the negative influences. Aims: To study the impact of parental alcohol dependence on the development and behaviour outcome of children in various domains, alongwith the effect of the family environment. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital on 25 children between 6 and 18 years of age, whose atleast one parent was diagnosed as alcohol dependant. The other parent was assessed using a general health questionnaire-28. Child behaviour checklist and family evaluation scale (FES were then applied. Statistical Analysis Used: The analysis was done according the manuals provided with the respective scales to calculate the score. Results: Both male and female COAs had high externalizing and internalizing scores. The girls have higher internalizing scores while the boys of such parents have higher externalizing scores. The FES showed dysfunction in all the three dimensions, namely the relationship, personal growth and the system maintenance. Conclusions: Our study corroborates the findings of the studies done in the past on COAs. The COAs face various affective, anxiety, somatic, attention deficit/hyperactivity, oppositional defiant conduct problems.

  6. Effect of Electronic Reminders, Financial Incentives, and Social Support on Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction: The HeartStrong Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpp, Kevin G; Troxel, Andrea B; Mehta, Shivan J; Norton, Laurie; Zhu, Jingsan; Lim, Raymond; Wang, Wenli; Marcus, Noora; Terwiesch, Christian; Caldarella, Kristen; Levin, Tova; Relish, Mike; Negin, Nathan; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Snyder, Richard; Spettell, Claire M; Drachman, Brian; Kolansky, Daniel; Asch, David A

    2017-08-01

    Adherence to medications prescribed after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is low. Wireless technology and behavioral economic approaches have shown promise in improving health behaviors. To determine whether a system of medication reminders using financial incentives and social support delays subsequent vascular events in patients following AMI compared with usual care. Two-arm, randomized clinical trial with a 12-month intervention conducted from 2013 through 2016. Investigators were blinded to study group, but participants were not. Design was a health plan-intermediated intervention for members of several health plans. We recruited 1509 participants from 7179 contacted AMI survivors (insured with 5 large US insurers nationally or with Medicare fee-for-service at the University of Pennsylvania Health System). Patients aged 18 to 80 years were eligible if currently prescribed at least 2 of 4 study medications (statin, aspirin, β-blocker, antiplatelet agent), and were hospital inpatients for 1 to 180 days and discharged home with a principal diagnosis of AMI. Patients were randomized 2:1 to an intervention using electronic pill bottles combined with lottery incentives and social support for medication adherence (1003 patients), or to usual care (506 patients). Primary outcome was time to first vascular rehospitalization or death. Secondary outcomes were time to first all-cause rehospitalization, total number of repeated hospitalizations, medication adherence, and total medical costs. A total of 35.5% of participants were female (n = 536); mean (SD) age was 61.0 (10.3) years. There were no statistically significant differences between study arms in time to first rehospitalization for a vascular event or death (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.52; P = .84), time to first all-cause rehospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.09; P = .27), or total number of repeated hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.48; P

  7. Dose-dependent interaction between gemfibrozil and repaglinide in humans: strong inhibition of CYP2C8 with subtherapeutic gemfibrozil doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkalammi, Johanna; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2011-10-01

    Gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide inactivates CYP2C8 irreversibly. We investigated the effect of gemfibrozil dose on CYP2C8 activity in humans using repaglinide as a probe drug. In a randomized, five-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 0.25 mg of repaglinide 1 h after different doses of gemfibrozil or placebo. Concentrations of plasma repaglinide, gemfibrozil, their metabolites, and blood glucose were measured. A single gemfibrozil dose of 30, 100, 300, and 900 mg increased the area under the concentration-time curve of repaglinide 1.8-, 4.5-, 6.7-, and 8.3-fold (P Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetics was characterized by a slightly more than dose-proportional increase in the area under the curve of gemfibrozil and its glucuronide. The gemfibrozil-repaglinide interaction could be mainly explained by gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide concentration-dependent, mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8, with a minor contribution by competitive inhibition of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 at the highest gemfibrozil dose. The findings are consistent with ∼50% inhibition of CYP2C8 already with a single 30-mg dose of gemfibrozil and >95% inhibition with 900 mg. In clinical drug-drug interaction studies, a single 900-mg dose of gemfibrozil can be used to achieve nearly complete inactivation of CYP2C8.

  8. Immune-Mediated Damage Completes the Parabola: Cryptococcus neoformans Pathogenesis Can Reflect the Outcome of a Weak or Strong Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liise-anne Pirofski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis occurs most frequently in immunocompromised individuals. This has led to the prevailing view that this disease is the result of weak immune responses that cannot control the fungus. However, increasingly, clinical and experimental studies have revealed that the host immune response can contribute to cryptococcal pathogenesis, including the recent study of L. M. Neal et al. (mBio 8:e01415-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01415-17 that reports that CD4+ T cells mediate tissue damage in experimental murine cryptococcosis. This finding has fundamental implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of cryptococcal disease; it helps explain why immunotherapy has been largely unsuccessful in treatment and provides insight into the paradoxical observation that HIV-associated cryptococcosis may have a better prognosis than cryptococcosis in those with no known immune impairment. The demonstration that host-mediated damage can drive cryptococcal disease provides proof of concept that the parabola put forth in the damage-response framework has the flexibility to depict complex and changing outcomes of host-microbe interaction.

  9. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

    2009-07-27

    Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly dependent on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of {beta}1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPKpathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.

  10. Complex Dynamic Systems View on Conceptual Change: How a Picture of Students' Intuitive Conceptions Accrue from Dynamically Robust Task Dependent Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi; Nousiainen, Maiji

    2017-01-01

    We discuss here conceptual change and the formation of robust learning outcomes from the viewpoint of complex dynamic systems (CDS). The CDS view considers students' conceptions as context dependent and multifaceted structures which depend on the context of their application. In the CDS view the conceptual patterns (i.e. intuitive conceptions…

  11. Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, William, E-mail: billyding888@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Chamberlain, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary' s Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States); Cunningham, James [Carson Urology, Carson City, Nevada (United States); Yang Lixi [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Tay, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary' s Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naieve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary's Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic

  12. Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, William; Lee, John; Chamberlain, David; Cunningham, James; Yang Lixi; Tay, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naïve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary’s Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at ≤1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of ≤1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of ≤1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at ≤1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic variables for

  13. Effects of multiple electronic shells on strong-field multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-dependent density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, S.-I

    2009-01-01

    We present a time-dependent density-functional theory approach with proper long-range potential for an ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules N 2 and F 2 in intense short laser pulse fields with arbitrary molecular orientation. We show that the contributions of inner molecular orbitals to the total MPI probability can be sufficiently large or even dominant over the highest-occupied molecular orbital, depending on detailed electronic structure and symmetry, laser field intensity, and orientation angle. The multielectron effects in HHG are also very important. They are responsible for enhanced HHG at some orientations of the molecular axis. Even strongly bound electrons may have a significant influence on the HHG process.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Is Dependent on Oxidative Stress and Reflects Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neesha Rockwood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB and has been proposed as a biomarker of active disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb induces HO-1 as well as how its expression is affected by HIV-1 coinfection and successful antitubercular therapy (ATT are poorly understood. We found that HO-1 expression is markedly increased in rabbits, mice, and non-human primates during experimental Mtb infection and gradually decreased during ATT. In addition, we examined circulating concentrations of HO-1 in a cohort of 130 HIV-1 coinfected and uninfected pulmonary TB patients undergoing ATT to investigate changes in expression of this biomarker in relation to HIV-1 status, radiological disease severity, and treatment outcome. We found that plasma levels of HO-1 were elevated in untreated HIV-1 coinfected TB patients and correlated positively with HIV-1 viral load and negatively with CD4+ T cell count. In both HIV-1 coinfected and Mtb monoinfected patients, HO-1 levels were substantially reduced during successful TB treatment but not in those who experienced treatment failure or subsequently relapsed. To further delineate the molecular mechanisms involved in induction of HO-1 by Mtb, we performed a series of in vitro experiments using mouse and human macrophages. We found that Mtb-induced HO-1 expression requires NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production induced by the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6, which in turn triggers nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NRF-2. These observations provide further insight into the utility of HO-1 as a biomarker of both disease and successful therapy in TB monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected patients and reveal a previously undocumented pathway linking expression of the enzyme with oxidative stress.

  15. The Influence of Pituitary Size on Outcome After Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy in a Large Cohort of Dogs with Pituitary-Dependent Hypercortisolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sarah; Galac, S.; Tryfonidou, M. A.; Hesselink, J. W.; Penning, L. C.; Kooistra, H. S.; Meij, B. P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is one of the treatment strategies in the comprehensive management of dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH). OBJECTIVES To describe the influence of pituitary size at time of pituitary gland surgery on long-term outcome. ANIMALS

  16. Transplantation with positive complement-dependent microcytotoxicity crossmatch in contemporary kidney transplantation: Practice patterns and associated outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph J Graff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed clinical factors and graft survival associated with complement-dependent microcytotoxicity (CDC crossmatch (XM positive (+ kidney transplants in 1995 to 2009 United Network of Sharing (UNOS registry data. CDCXM negative (- transplants were selected from centers and years in which at least one CDCXM+ transplant was performed at a given center in a given year. CDCXM+ and CDCXM- results were compared with bivariate and multivariate survival analysis. Our observations are as follows: (1 The risk of graft loss with CDCXM+ vs. CDCXM- results was markedly lower than the risk observed historically, e.g., living donor (LD-CDCXM+ absolute all-cause graft survival reductions were 0.7% at 24 hours (P=0.007, 2.9% at one year (P <0.0001, 3.7% at five years (P<0.0001; deceased donor (DD-CDCXM+ absolute graft survival reductions were 0.7% at 24 hours (P=0.02, 3.5% at one year (P <0.0001, 2.7% at five years (P=0.0009. On covariate adjustment, the only significant association of CDCXM+ vs. CDCXM- results was with one-year graft loss risk: LD aHR 1.44 (95% CI 1.05-1.96, DD aHR 1.33 (CI 1.10-1.61. (2 CDCXM+ transplantation was more commonly performed among groups disadvantaged with respect to transplant access, including sensitized, previously transplanted women and black recipients. (3 In CDCXM+ recipients, there was a high percentage of flow cytometry (FC XM- and autoXM+ results. After removing these groups, outcomes with CDCXM+ results were relatively good. (4 CDCXM+/FCXM+ vs. CDCXM-/FCXM- graft loss risk was observed only in LD recipients transplanted at centers performing fewer than 10 such transplants during the study period: 11.0% reduction (P<0.0001 and aHR of 2.86 (CI 1.18-6.94 at one year; 14.7% reduction (P<0.0001 and aHR of 1.77 (CI 0.88-3.58 at five years. Although using CDCXM+ as a contraindication to transplantation has been associated with virtual elimination of hyperacute rejection, the negative effect of a CDCXM+ in contemporary

  17. Accounting for interactions and complex inter-subject dependency in estimating treatment effect in cluster-randomized trials with missing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prague, Melanie; Wang, Rui; Stephens, Alisa; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; DeGruttola, Victor

    2016-12-01

    Semi-parametric methods are often used for the estimation of intervention effects on correlated outcomes in cluster-randomized trials (CRTs). When outcomes are missing at random (MAR), Inverse Probability Weighted (IPW) methods incorporating baseline covariates can be used to deal with informative missingness. Also, augmented generalized estimating equations (AUG) correct for imbalance in baseline covariates but need to be extended for MAR outcomes. However, in the presence of interactions between treatment and baseline covariates, neither method alone produces consistent estimates for the marginal treatment effect if the model for interaction is not correctly specified. We propose an AUG-IPW estimator that weights by the inverse of the probability of being a complete case and allows different outcome models in each intervention arm. This estimator is doubly robust (DR); it gives correct estimates whether the missing data process or the outcome model is correctly specified. We consider the problem of covariate interference which arises when the outcome of an individual may depend on covariates of other individuals. When interfering covariates are not modeled, the DR property prevents bias as long as covariate interference is not present simultaneously for the outcome and the missingness. An R package is developed implementing the proposed method. An extensive simulation study and an application to a CRT of HIV risk reduction-intervention in South Africa illustrate the method. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  18. ModerateDrinking.com and Moderation Management: Outcomes of a randomized clinical trial with non-dependent problem drinkers1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Reid K.; Delaney, Harold D.; Campbell, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based protocol, Moderate Drinking (MD) (www.moderatedrinking.com) combined with use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM) (www.moderation.org) as opposed to the use of the online resources of MM alone. Method We randomly assigned 80 problem drinkers to either the experimental or control group with follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Seventy-five participants (94%) had outcome data at one or more follow-up points and 59 (73%) were assessed at all three follow-ups. Comparing baseline measures to the average outcomes at follow-ups indicated a significant overall reduction in both groups in alcohol-related problems and consumption variables. Compared to the control group, the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent (PDA). There was an interaction between intensity of drinking at baseline and treatment in determining outcomes assessing drinking. Less heavy drinkers in the experimental group had better outcomes on log Mean BAC per drinking day compared to the control group. Heavier drinkers did not differentially benefit from the MD program on this measure. Mixed model analyses in general corroborated these outcomes. Conclusion The outcome data provide partial evidence for the effectiveness of the MD web application combined with MM, compared to the effectiveness of the resources available online at MM by themselves. PMID:21319896

  19. Large variation in measures used to assess outcomes of opioid dependence treatment: A systematic review of longitudinal observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Darke, Shane; Simon, Roland; Griffiths, Paul

    2017-10-02

    Treatment outcomes for drug users are critical for informing policy and therapeutic practice. The coherence of outcomes, changes and drug use measures from observational studies on opioid use treatment were reviewed. Systematic review of the literature for longitudinal observational studies, from 1980 through November 2015, in all languages, with data on treated opioid users, using Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and additional strategies (e.g. Pubmed function 'related citations' and checking reference lists of eligible studies). Twenty-seven studies were included (11 countries, 85 publications, recruitment 1962-2009). Baseline n was >65 686 and median follow-up 34.5 months (21 studies) or 51.4 person-months (10 studies). Eight outcome domains were identified: 'drug use' (21/27 studies), 'crime' (13), 'health' (13), 'treatment-related' outcomes (16), 'social functioning' (13), 'harms' (8), 'mortality' (13) and 'economic estimates' (2 studies). All studies using drug use outcomes included a binary (abstinence) category in at least one measure. Studies typically reported outcomes on less than half (on average 3.7 or 46%) of the eight outcome domains, while the average was 5.1 (64%) in seven studies initiated since 2000. Wide variation exists in outcome measures found in longitudinal observational studies of treatment of opioid users. This reduces replicability of studies and suggests a lack of common expectations on treatment success. Future studies should consider using all or most of eight outcome domains identified (excluding economic analyses if unfeasible), non-binary measures and amount/value of drugs used and consensus meetings with joint ownership of scientific, treatment and patient communities. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Burn-center quality improvement: are burn outcomes dependent on admitting facilities and is there a volume-outcome "sweet-spot"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranjec, Tjasa; Turrentine, Florence E; Stukenborg, George; Young, Jeffrey S; Sawyer, Robert G; Calland, James F

    2012-05-01

    Risk factors of mortality in burn patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between burn centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute burn observations obtained from the National Burn Repository between 2003 and 2007 were used to estimate a multivariable logistic regression model that could predict patient mortality with reference to the admitting burn facility/facility volume, adjusted for differences in age, inhalation injury, %TBSA burned, and an additional factor, percent full thickness burn (%FTB). As previously reported, all three covariates (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, and age) were found to be highly statistically significant risk factors of mortality in burn patients (P value improve the multivariable model. The treatment/admitting facility was found to be an independent mortality predictor, with certain hospitals having increased odds of death and others showing a protective effect (decreased odds ratio). Hospitals with high burn volumes had the highest risk of mortality. Mortality outcomes of patients with similar risk factors (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, age, and %FTB) are significantly affected by the treating facility and their admission volumes.

  1. Impact of family-friendly prison policies on health, justice and child protection outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children: a cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Helen; Segal, Leonie; Lopez, Derrick; Li, Ian W; Preen, David B

    2017-08-23

    Female imprisonment has numerous health and social sequelae for both women prisoners and their children. Examples of comprehensive family-friendly prison policies that seek to improve the health and social functioning of women prisoners and their children exist but have not been evaluated. This study will determine the impact of exposure to a family-friendly prison environment on health, child protection and justice outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children. A longitudinal retrospective cohort design will be used to compare outcomes for mothers incarcerated at Boronia Pre-release Centre, a women's prison with a dedicated family-friendly environment, and their dependent children, with outcomes for mothers incarcerated at other prisons in Western Australia (that do not offer this environment) and their dependent children. Routinely collected administrative data from 1985 to 2013 will be used to determine child and mother outcomes such as hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, custodial sentences, community service orders and placement in out-of home care. The sample consists of all children born in Western Australia between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2011 who had a mother in a West Australian prison between 1990 and 2012 and their mothers. Children are included if they were alive and aged less than 18 years at the time of their mother's incarceration. The sample comprises an exposed group of 665 women incarcerated at Boronia and their 1714 dependent children and a non-exposed comparison sample of 2976 women incarcerated at other West Australian prisons and their 7186 dependent children, creating a total study sample of 3641 women and 8900 children. This project received ethics approval from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and the University of Western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee. © Article author(s) (or their

  2. Opioid dependence and substitution therapy: thymoquinone as potential novel supplement therapy for better outcome for methadone maintenance therapy substitution therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Liyana Hazwani Mohd; Bakar, Nor Hidayah Abu; Mohamad, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Methadone is widely being used for opioid substitution therapy. However, the administration of methadone to opioid dependent individual is frequently accompanied by withdrawal syndrome and chemical dependency develops. Other than that, it is also difficult to retain patients in the treatment programme making their retention rates are decreasing over time. This article is written to higlights the potential use of prophetic medicines, Nigella sativa, as a supplement for opioid dependent receiving methadone. It focuses on the potential role of N. sativa and its major active compound, Thymoquinone (TQ) as a calcium channel blocking agent to reduce withdrawal syndrome and opioid dependency. PMID:25859295

  3. Opioid dependence and substitution therapy: thymoquinone as potential novel supplement therapy for better outcome for methadone maintenance therapy substitution therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyana Hazwani Mohd Adnan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methadone is widely being used for opioid substitution therapy. However, the administration of methadone to opioid dependent individual is frequently accompanied by withdrawal syndrome and chemical dependency develops. Other than that, it is also difficult to retain patients in the treatment programme making their retention rates are decreasing over time. This article is written to higlights the potential use of prophetic medicines, Nigella sativa, as a supplement for opioid dependent receiving methadone. It focuses on the potential role of N. sativa and its major active compound, Thymoquinone (TQ as a calcium channel blocking agent to reduce withdrawal syndrome and opioid dependency.

  4. Hyperosmotic stress strongly potentiates serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcriptional activity in ehrlich lettré ascites cells through a mechanism involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbatenko, Andrej; Wiwel, Maria; Klingberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Long-term osmotic stress results in altered gene transcription, however, with the exception of the TonE/TonEBP system, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that upon osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) fibroblasts, the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway is transien......Long-term osmotic stress results in altered gene transcription, however, with the exception of the TonE/TonEBP system, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that upon osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) fibroblasts, the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway......) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are differentially regulated in ELA cells. SRF Ser103 phosphorylation and SRF-dependent transcriptional activity were strongly augmented 5–30¿min and 24¿h, respectively, after hyperosmotic stress (50% increase in extracellular ionic strength), in a p38...... dephosphorylated within 5¿min of shrinkage. MSK1 phosphorylation recovered within 30¿min in a p38-MAPK-dependent manner. CREB was transiently dephosphorylated after shrinkage in a manner exacerbated by p38 MAPK inhibition or MSK1 knockdown, but unaffected by inhibition of RSK. In conclusion, in ELA cells...

  5. The adaptive and maladaptive faces of dependency in later life: links to physical and psychological health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine; Consedine, Nathan; Magai, Carol

    2008-11-01

    Negotiating the balance between reliance on others and desires for autonomy is a fundamental task of successful aging. The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend a three-factor model of interpersonal dependency in a sample of older adults, and to examine the physical and psychological health correlates of this multifaceted construct. Data come from the third wave of a population-based study of older Americans (n = 166; mean age 80 years). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis of selected dependency items from two scales, and then conducted logistic and hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the association of dependency factors with self-reported health, use of hypertension medication, depressed affect and positive affect. We found three factors closely paralleling those of Bornstein and Languirand's (Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 3-23, 2004) measure: destructive overdependence, healthy dependency and dysfunctional detachment, as well as a fourth factor we labeled 'healthy independence'. Healthy dependency was associated with better self-reported health. Dysfunctional detachment was related to a greater likelihood and healthy independence a lesser likelihood of taking hypertension medication. Whereas both healthy independence and healthy dependency were positively related to positive affect and negatively related to depressed affect, destructive overdependence was positively related to depressed affect. Understanding the complex nature of interpersonal dependency and autonomy in old age, as well as their implications for health and wellbeing, may enable practitioners to assist older adults in negotiating the task of balancing these needs.

  6. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  7. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1α-dependent reprogramming of leukocyte metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A.A.R.; Dickinson, R.S.; Murphy, F.; Thomson, J.P.; Marriott, H.M.; Tavares, A.; Willson, J.; Williams, L.; Lewis, A.; Mirchandani, A.; Coelho, P.D.S.; Doherty, C.; Ryan, E.; Watts, E.; Morton, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently coexist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil-mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning ...

  8. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1alpha dependent re-programming of leukocyte metabolism *

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, A.A.R.; Dickinson, R.S.; Murphy, F.; Thomson, J. P.; Marriott, H.M.; Tavares, A.; Willson, J.; Williams, L.; Lewis, A.; Mirchandani, A.; Dos Santos Coelho, P.; Doherty, C.; Ryan, E.; Watts, E.; Morton, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently co-exist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning animals through longer...

  9. The Political Consequences of Resource Dependence - How Natural Gas Export Can Affect Policy Outcomes: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øistein Breiland Harsem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the use of a liberal/rational framework as a baseline, this article examines whether economic asymmetric interdependence can yield political influence. More specifically, it examines exogenous gas supply to the EU and develops a theory that provides testable hypotheses aiming to answer whether the export of gas provides political advantages for the sender state. The outlined hypotheses, and more, are tested in a cross sectional time series dataset, where votes in the United Nations (UN Assembly are used as the dependent variable, as a measurement for the policy preferences of states. The empirical findings support the prediction made in the theory section. Gas dependence has a conditional effect on policy behaviour. The sender government has to be a sizeable international power, whilst the recipient government should have low military capabilities and be dependent on foreign support.

  10. Validity of the EQ-5D as a generic health outcome instrument in a heroin-dependent population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Bart P.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Blanken, Peter; de Borgie, Corianne A. J. M.; van Ree, Jan M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the EuroQol (EQ-5D) in a population of chronic, treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients. METHODS: The EQ-5D is studied relative to the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI)

  11. Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: We fit phenomenological tumor control probability (TCP) models to biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer patients to quantify the local dose-response of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the outcome after photon beam 3D-CRT of 103 patients with stage T1c-T3 prostate cancer treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (prescribed target doses between 64.8 and 81 Gy) who had a prostate biopsy performed ≥2.5 years after end of treatment. A univariate logistic regression model based on D mean (mean dose in the planning target volume of each patient) was fit to the whole data set and separately to subgroups characterized by low and high values of tumor-related prognostic factors T-stage ( 6), and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (≤10 ng/ml vs. >10 ng/ml). In addition, we evaluated five different classifications of the patients into three risk groups, based on all possible combinations of two or three prognostic factors, and fit bivariate logistic regression models with D mean and the risk group category to all patients. Dose-response curves were characterized by TCD 50 , the dose to control 50% of the tumors, and γ 50 , the normalized slope of the dose-response curve at TCD 50 . Results: D mean correlates significantly with biopsy outcome in all patient subgroups and larger values of TCD 50 are observed for patients with unfavorable compared to favorable prognostic factors. For example, TCD 50 for high T-stage patients is 7 Gy higher than for low T-stage patients. For all evaluated risk group definitions, D mean and the risk group category are independent predictors of biopsy outcome in bivariate analysis. The fit values of TCD 50 show a clear separation of 9-10.6 Gy between low and high risk patients. The corresponding dose-response curves are steeper (γ 50 =3.4-5.2) than those obtained when all patients are analyzed together (γ 50 =2

  12. Video-enabled cue-exposure-based intervention improves postdischarge drinking outcomes among alcohol-dependent men: A prospective study at a government addiction treatment setting in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattala, Prasanthi; Murthy, Pratima; Leung, Kit Sang; Rentala, Sreevani; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2017-04-25

    Returning to alcohol use following inpatient treatment occurs due to various real life cues/triggers. It is a challenge to demonstrate to patients how to deal with these triggers during inpatient treatment. Aims of the current study were (a) to evaluate the effectiveness of video-enabled cue-exposure-based intervention (VE-CEI) in influencing treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence, (b) to identify postdischarge predictors of intervention failure (returning to ≥50% of baseline alcohol consumption quantity/day). The VE-CEI comprises live action videos in which human characters model various alcohol use cues and strategies to deal with them effectively. The VE-CEI was administered to an inpatient alcohol-dependent sample (n = 43) and compared with treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 42) at a government addiction treatment setting in India. Patients were followed up over 6 months postdischarge to evaluate effectiveness of the VE-CEI on specific drinking outcomes. Over 6-month follow-up, VE-CEI group (vs. TAU) reported significantly lesser alcohol consumption quantity, fewer drinking days, and lower intervention failure rates. Results of multivariate Cox regression showed that participants who did not receive VE-CEI had an elevated risk of intervention failure (hazards ratio: 11.14; 95% confidence interval [4.93, 25.15]), other intervention failure predictors being early-onset dependence and increased baseline drinking. Findings provide evidence from India for effectiveness of cue-exposure-based intervention delivered using video technology in improving postdischarge treatment outcomes.

  13. Multinational Experiment 7. Outcome 4: Methodology to Understand Inter-Domain Dependencies and Vulnerabilities Guide v. 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    the methodology had reached its full maturity and proposed a number of changes, mainly pertaining to its clarification. Recommendations stemming from...34’ "’ ’iii ao > c:iij ·- c: N 8: c( "’ "’ .!! ::?i Qj ::::s "’ ’u ~ c. c: O :c~ l£ c: ~ .Q 8. M Cll ::::J ~ 0 ~ ... Qj ..!!!c ~9 c...example, the analyst should be able to superimpose or switch from the C2 Kmap to the intelligence Kmap when he or she works on the dependencies stemming

  14. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  15. Effect of smoking status and nicotine dependence on pain intensity and outcome of treatment in Indian patients with temporomandibular disorders: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyayan, Preeti Agarwal; Katyayan, Manish Khan

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the association of smoking with various forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain is vast, but that with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is scarce. The aims of this study are to evaluate the effect of smoking status (SS) and nicotine dependence (ND) on TMD pain intensity and treatment outcome in an Indian population with TMD. Nine hundred and sixty-two patients with TMD were selected for this longitudinal cohort study. Lifetime SS was evaluated and patients were classified as current smokers (YS), former smokers (FS), or nonsmokers (NS). The Fagerstrom test was used to evaluate the ND of YS. Pain intensity was evaluated using visual analog scale scores. Six months posttreatment, the pain intensity was again recorded. The effect of treatment was evaluated using a global transition outcome measure and categorized as treatment success or failure. A minimum 30% reduction in pain was used as a criterion for categorizing patients as those who had gotten "better." Data obtained from the study were compared using Chi-square tests, paired samples t -tests, and one-way ANOVA tests. The criterion for statistical significance for all analyses was set at P = 0.05. Among groups of SS, YS showed the maximum pain intensity at baseline and posttreatment. The outcome of treatment was most successful in NS and least in FS. The number of patients who had gotten "better" after treatment was significantly highest in NS. There was no significant difference between groups of ND with respect to pain intensity, treatment outcome, or "better" patients. Among Indian patients with TMD, smokers reported significantly greater pain intensity and poorer response to treatment than NS. Pain intensity or treatment outcome was independent of ND.

  16. Emergency Department-Initiated Buprenorphine for Opioid Dependence with Continuation in Primary Care: Outcomes During and After Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Gail; Chawarski, Marek C; O'Connor, Patrick G; Pantalon, Michael V; Busch, Susan H; Owens, Patricia H; Hawk, Kathryn; Bernstein, Steven L; Fiellin, David A

    2017-06-01

    Emergency department (ED)-initiated buprenorphine/naloxone with continuation in primary care was found to increase engagement in addiction treatment and reduce illicit opioid use at 30 days compared to referral only or a brief intervention with referral. To evaluate the long-term outcomes at 2, 6 and 12 months following ED interventions. Evaluation of treatment engagement, drug use, and HIV risk among a cohort of patients from a randomized trial who completed at least one long-term follow-up assessment. A total of 290/329 patients (88% of the randomized sample) were included. The followed cohort did not differ significantly from the randomized sample. ED-initiated buprenorphine with 10-week continuation in primary care, referral, or brief intervention were provided in the ED at study entry. Self-reported engagement in formal addiction treatment, days of illicit opioid use, and HIV risk (2, 6, 12 months); urine toxicology (2, 6 months). A greater number of patients in the buprenorphine group were engaged in addiction treatment at 2 months [68/92 (74%), 95% CI 65-83] compared with referral [42/79 (53%), 95% CI 42-64] and brief intervention [39/83 (47%), 95% CI 37-58; p < 0.001]. The differences were not significant at 6 months [51/92 (55%), 95% CI 45-65; 46/70 (66%) 95% CI 54-76; 43/76 (57%) 95% CI 45-67; p = 0.37] or 12 months [42/86 (49%) 95% CI 39-59; 37/73 (51%) 95% CI 39-62; 49/78 (63%) 95% CI 52-73; p = 0.16]. At 2 months, the buprenorphine group reported fewer days of illicit opioid use [1.1 (95% CI 0.6-1.6)] versus referral [1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.3)] and brief intervention [2.0 (95% CI 1.5-2.6), p = 0.04]. No significant differences in illicit opioid use were observed at 6 or 12 months. There were no significant differences in HIV risk or rates of opioid-negative urine results at any time. ED-initiated buprenorphine was associated with increased engagement in addiction treatment and reduced illicit opioid use during the 2-month interval

  17. Experimental induction of paromomycin resistance in antimony-resistant strains of L. donovani: outcome dependent on in vitro selection protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendrickx

    Full Text Available Paromomycin (PMM has recently been introduced for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Although no clinical resistance has yet been reported, proactive vigilance should be warranted. The present in vitro study compared the outcome and stability of experimental PMM-resistance induction on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Cloned antimony-resistant L. donovani field isolates from India and Nepal were exposed to stepwise increasing concentrations of PMM (up to 500 µM, either as promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes. One resulting resistant strain was cloned and checked for stability of resistance by drug-free in vitro passage as promastigotes for 20 weeks or a single in vivo passage in the golden hamster. Resistance selection in promastigotes took about 25 weeks to reach the maximal 97 µM inclusion level that did not affect normal growth. Comparison of the IC(50 values between the parent and the selected strains revealed a 9 to 11-fold resistance for the Indian and 3 to 5-fold for the Nepalese strains whereby the resistant phenotype was also maintained at the level of the amastigote. Applying PMM pressure to intracellular amastigotes produced resistance after just two selection cycles (IC(50 = 199 µM compared to the parent strain (IC(50 = 45 µM. In the amastigote-induced strains/clones, lower PMM susceptibilities were seen only in amastigotes and not at all in promastigotes. This resistance phenotype remained stable after serial in vitro passage as promastigote for 20 weeks and after a single in vivo passage in the hamster. This study clearly demonstrates that a different PMM-resistance phenotype is obtained whether drug selection is applied to promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes. These findings may have important relevance to resistance mechanism investigations and the likelihood of resistance development and detection in the field.

  18. Five year follow-up after autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for refractory, chronic, corticosteroid-dependent systemic lupus erythematosus: effect of conditioning regimen on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Richard K; Han, Xiaoqiang; Gozdziak, Paula; Yaung, Kim; Morgan, Amy; Clendenan, Allison M; Henry, Jacquelyn; Calvario, Michelle A; Datta, Syamal K; Helenowski, Irene; Schroeder, James

    2018-05-31

    Some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are refractory to traditional therapies, dependent on chronic corticosteroids, have organ damage, and are at high risk of mortality. In this group of patients, we report outcome at a median of five years after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) using two different non-myeloablative regimens. Four patients received a conditioning regimen of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and alemtuzumab (60 mg), while 26 patients underwent conditioning with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg), rATG (Thymoglobulin) (5.5 mg/kg), and rituximab 1000 mg. Unselected peripheral blood stem cells were infused on day 0. There were no treatment related deaths. Of the four patients treated with cyclophosphamide and alemtuzumab, none entered remission. For the 26 patients treated with cyclophosphamide, rATG, and rituximab, disease remission defined as no immune suppressive drugs except hydroxychloroquine and/or 10 mg or less of prednisone a day was 92% at 6 months, 92% at one year, 81% at 2 years, 71% at 3 years, and 62% at 4 and 5 years post-HSCT. Autologous HSCT outcome is dependent on the conditioning regimen but prior organ damage may cause lingering symptoms.

  19. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  1. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  2. Individualized Treatment for Tobacco Dependence in Addictions Treatment Settings: The Role of Current Depressive Symptoms on Outcomes at 3 and 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawertailo, Laurie A; Baliunas, Dolly; Ivanova, Anna; Selby, Peter L

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with concurrent tobacco dependence and other addictions often report symptoms of low mood and depression and as such may have more difficulty quitting smoking. We hypothesized that current symptoms of depression would be a significant predictor of quit success among a group of smokers receiving individualized treatment for tobacco dependence within addiction treatment settings. Individuals in treatment for other addictions were enrolled in a smoking cessation program involving brief behavioral counseling and individualized dosing of nicotine replacement therapy. The baseline assessment included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) for depression. Smoking cessation outcomes were measured at 3 and 6 months post-enrollment. Bivariate associations between cessation outcomes and PHQ9 score were analyzed. Of the 1,196 subjects enrolled to date, 1,171 (98%) completed the PHQ9. Moderate to severe depression (score >9) was reported by 28% of the sample, and another 29% reported mild depression (score between 5 and 9). Contrary to the extant literature and other findings by our own group, there was no association between current depression and cessation outcome at either 3 months (n = 1,171) (17.0% in those with PHQ9 > 9 vs. 19.8% in those with PHQ9 addictions treatment setting. These data indicate that patients in an addictions treatment setting can successfully quit smoking regardless of current depressive symptoms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement as a maintenance intervention for the treatment of cocaine dependence: post-intervention outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFulio, Anthony; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Aims Due to the chronicity of cocaine dependence, practical and effective maintenance interventions are needed to sustain long-term abstinence. We sought to assess the effects of long-term employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence after discontinuation of the intervention. Design Participants who initiated sustained opiate and cocaine abstinence during a 6-month abstinence reinforcement and training program worked as data entry operators and were randomly assigned to a group that could work independent of drug use (Control, n = 24), or an abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group that was required to provide cocaine- and opiate-negative urine samples to work and maintain maximum rate of pay. Setting A nonprofit data entry business. Participants Unemployed welfare recipients who persistently used cocaine while in methadone treatment. Measurements Urine samples and self-reports were collected every six months for 30 months. Findings During the employment year, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative samples than controls (82.7% and 54.2%; P = .01, OR = 4.61). During the follow-up year, the groups had similar rates of cocaine-negative samples (44.2% and 50.0%; P = .93), and HIV-risk behaviors. Participants’ social, employment, economic, and legal conditions were similar in the two groups across all phases of the study. Conclusions Employment-based reinforcement effectively maintains long-term cocaine abstinence, but many patients relapse to use when the abstinence contingency is discontinued, even after a year of abstinence-contingent employment. Relapse could be prevented in many patients by leaving employment-based abstinence reinforcement in place indefinitely, which could be facilitated by integrating it into typical workplaces. PMID:21226886

  4. Treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder – predictors for the outcomes with memantine and escitalopram medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol dependence comorbid with major depressive disorder poses a major challenge in the clinical setting. The results in the treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have been conflicting. Thus, we compared in alcohol-dependent patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor escitalopram to a compound that acts on different transporter system and may reduce craving, the glutamate receptor antagonist memantine. Methods Eighty alcohol-dependent patients comorbid with major depressive disorder in municipal alcohol clinics were randomized 1:1 to receive memantine 20 mg or escitalopram 20 mg in a double-blind manner. During the 26-week study period patients continued their routine treatment at the clinics. Abstinence was not required but encouraged. The patients attended visits weekly during the first month, and then at 3 and at 6 months. Outcome measures were Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS and Drinking Diary. Results The completion rate was high in both groups, especially among the patients who had been abstinent at the beginning of the study. However, among those patients who were not abstinent at baseline, 47% in both groups discontinued the study. Numbers of abstinent days were high in both groups throughout the study. Alcohol consumption measured by the AUDIT QF (quantity-frequency score was significantly reduced in both groups, as was the craving for alcohol measured by the OCDS. Early age at first alcohol intoxication predicted poor treatment outcomes in patients treated with escitalopram, and the same was seen with the early onset of the first depressive episode. The same predictive effects were not found in patients treated with memantine. Conclusion Our results indicate that both memantine and escitalopram are useful adjunct medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence co-morbid with major

  5. A targeted complement-dependent strategy to improve the outcome of mAb therapy, and characterization in a murine model of metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvington, Michelle; Huang, Yuxiang; Morgan, B. Paul; Qiao, Fei; van Rooijen, Nico; Atkinson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Complement inhibitors expressed on tumor cells provide an evasion mechanism against mAb therapy and may modulate the development of an acquired antitumor immune response. Here we investigate a strategy to amplify mAb-targeted complement activation on a tumor cell, independent of a requirement to target and block complement inhibitor expression or function, which is difficult to achieve in vivo. We constructed a murine fusion protein, CR2Fc, and demonstrated that the protein targets to C3 activation products deposited on a tumor cell by a specific mAb, and amplifies mAb-dependent complement activation and tumor cell lysis in vitro. In syngeneic models of metastatic lymphoma (EL4) and melanoma (B16), CR2Fc significantly enhanced the outcome of mAb therapy. Subsequent studies using the EL4 model with various genetically modified mice and macrophage-depleted mice revealed that CR2Fc enhanced the therapeutic effect of mAb therapy via both macrophage-dependent FcγR-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and by direct complement-mediated lysis. Complement activation products can also modulate adaptive immunity, but we found no evidence that either mAb or CR2Fc treatment had any effect on an antitumor humoral or cellular immune response. CR2Fc represents a potential adjuvant treatment to increase the effectiveness of mAb therapy of cancer. PMID:22442351

  6. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  7. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  8. Comparing methadone and buprenorphine maintenance with methadone-assisted withdrawal for the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund IO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingunn O Lund1, Heather Fitzsimons2, Michelle Tuten2, Margaret S Chisolm2, Kevin E O’Grady3, Hendrée E Jones2,41SERAF-Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 3Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD; 4Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: Pregnancy can motivate opioid-dependent women to seek substance abuse treatment. Research has demonstrated that although prenatal exposure to buprenorphine results in less severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS relative to prenatal methadone exposure, the maternal and other neonatal outcomes are similar for the two medications. Maternal and neonatal outcomes for opioid-dependent pregnant women receiving these medications have not been systematically compared with methadone-assisted withdrawal. The present study provides an initial assessment of the relative efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine maintenance versus methadone-assisted withdrawal in terms of neonatal and maternal delivery outcomes. Data were derived from (1 the MOTHER (Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research study at the Johns Hopkins University Bayview Medical Center (JHBMC, or (2 retrospective records review of women who underwent methadone-assisted withdrawal at the JHBMC during the time period in which participants were enrolled in the MOTHER study. Compared with the methadone maintenance group, the methadone-assisted withdrawal group had a significantly lower mean NAS peak score (Means = 13.7 vs 7.0; P = 0.002, required a significantly lower mean amount of morphine to treat NAS (Means = 82.8 vs 0.2; P < 0.001, had significantly fewer days medicated for NAS (Means = 31.5 vs 3.9; P < 0.001, and remained in the hospital for a significantly fewer number of

  9. AFM-based nanolithography : manipulating poly(dimethylsiloxane) : loading force, scan speed and image resolution dependence on stick-slip outcomes in the slow and fast scan directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.A.; Brown, C.L.; Myhra, S.; Watson, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    The various properties of a polymer will affect its functionality in a wide range of applications including biosensors, tissue engineering and biomaterials technology. Some of those require precise manipulation of laterally differentiated regions, currently taking place on the μm-scale. It is now apparent that this need must now be driven into the nm-regime. Using the AFM, the principal objective is to explore and investigate lithographic outcomes during tip-induced manipulation with the aid of work on poly(dimethylsiloxane), (PDMS). The frictional effects (including any in-plane relaxation), and their dependence on the loading force, scan speed and image resolution are examined. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  10. Could the survival and outcome benefit of adrenaline also be dependent upon the presence of gasping upon arrival of emergency rescuers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Eric M

    2014-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of adrenaline use during resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest found no benefit of adrenaline in survival to discharge or neurological outcomes. It did, however, find an advantage of standard dose adrenaline (SDA) over placebo and high dose adrenaline over SDA in overall survival to admission and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), which was also consistent with previous reviews. As a result, the question that remains is "Why is there no difference in the rate of survival to discharge when there are increased rates of ROSC and survival to admission in patients who receive adrenaline?" It was suggested that the lack of efficacy and effectiveness of adrenaline may be confounded by the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during cardiac arrest, which has been demonstrated in animal models. CPR quality was not measured or reported in the included randomized controlled trials. However, the survival and outcome benefit of adrenaline may also depend upon the presence of witnessed gasping and/or gasping upon arrival of emergency rescuers, which is a critical factor not accounted for in the analyses of the cited animal studies that allowed gasping but showed the survival and neurological outcome benefits of adrenaline use. Moreover, without the aid of gasping, very few rescuers can provide high-quality CPR. Also, age and the absence of gasping observed by bystanders and/or upon arrival of emergency- rescuers may be important factors in the determination of whether vasopressin instead of adrenaline should be used first. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  12. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  13. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  14. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  15. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  16. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  17. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...

  18. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  19. Identification of Novel Signal Transduction, Immune Function, and Oxidative Stress Genes and Pathways by Topiramate for Treatment of Methamphetamine Dependence Based on Secondary Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhua Niu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTopiramate (TPM is suggested to be a promising medication for treatment of methamphetamine (METH dependence, but the molecular basis remains to be elucidated.MethodsAmong 140 METH-dependent participants randomly assigned to receive either TPM (N = 69 or placebo (N = 71 in a previously conducted randomized controlled trial, 50 TPM- and 49 placebo-treated participants had a total 212 RNA samples available at baseline, week 8, and week 12 time points. Following our primary analysis of gene expression data, we reanalyzed the microarray expression data based on a latent class analysis of binary secondary outcomes during weeks 1–12 that provided a classification of 21 responders and 31 non-responders with consistent responses at both time points.ResultsBased on secondary outcomes, 1,381, 576, 905, and 711 differentially expressed genes at nominal P values < 0.05 were identified in responders versus non-responders for week 8 TPM, week 8 placebo, week 12 TPM, and week 12 placebo groups, respectively. Among 1,381 genes identified in week 8 TPM responders, 359 genes were identified in both week 8 and week 12 TPM groups, of which 300 genes were exclusively detected in TPM responders. Of them, 32 genes had nominal P values < 5 × 10−3 at either week 8 or week 12 and false discovery rates < 0.15 at both time points with consistent directions of gene expression changes, which include GABARAPL1, GPR155, and IL15RA in GABA receptor signaling that represent direct targets for TPM. Analyses of these 300 genes revealed 7 enriched pathways belonging to neuronal function/synaptic plasticity, signal transduction, inflammation/immune function, and oxidative stress response categories. No pathways were enriched for 72 genes exclusively detected in both week 8 and week 12 placebo groups.ConclusionThis secondary analysis study of gene expression data from a TPM clinical trial not only yielded consistent results with those of primary

  20. Enhanced neoplastic transformation by mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays: indication for a strong dependence on photon energy of the RBE(M) for various end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, D; Kelnhofer, K; Bär, K; Frankenberg-Schwager, M

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental assumption implicit in the use of the atomic bomb survivor data to derive risk estimates is that the gamma rays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are considered to have biological efficiencies equal to those of other low-LET radiations up to 10 keV/microm, including mammography X rays. Microdosimetric and radiobiological data contradict this assumption. It is therefore of scientific and public interest to evaluate the efficiency of mammography X rays (25-30 kVp) to induce cancer. In this study, the efficiency of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays to induce neoplastic cell transformation was evaluated using cells of a human hybrid cell line (CGL1). For both radiations, a linear-quadratic dose-effect relationship was observed for neoplastic transformation of CGL1 cells; there was a strong linear component for the 29 kVp X rays. The RBE(M) of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays was determined to be about 4 for doses energies of transformation of CGL1 cells. Both the data available in the literature and the results of the present study strongly suggest an increase of RBE(M) for carcinogenesis in animals, neoplastic cell transformation, and clastogenic effects with decreasing photon energy or increasing LET to an RBE(M) approximately 8 for mammography X rays relative to 60Co gamma rays.

  1. An important role of temperature dependent scattering time in understanding the high temperature thermoelectric behavior of strongly correlated system: La0.75Ba0.25CoO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Kumar, Devendra; Pandey, Sudhir K

    2017-03-15

    In the present work, we report the temperature dependent thermopower (α) behavior of La 0.75 Ba 0.25 CoO 3 compound in the temperature range 300-600 K. Using the Heikes formula, the estimated value of α corresponding to high-spin configuration of Co 3+ and Co 4+ ions is found to be  ∼16 [Formula: see text], which is close to the experimental value, ∼13 [Formula: see text], observed at  ∼600 K. The temperature dependent TE behavior of the compound is studied by combining the WIEN2K and BoltzTrap code. The self consistency field calculations show that the compound have ferromagnetic ground state structure. The electronic structure calculations give half metallic characteristic with a small gap of  ∼50 meV for down spin channel. The large and positive value for down spin channel is obtained due to the unique band structure shown by this spin channel. The temperature dependent relaxation time for both the spin-channel charge carriers is considered to study the thermopower data in temperature range 300-600 K. For evaluation of α, almost linear values of [Formula: see text] and a non-linear values of [Formula: see text] are taken into account. By taking the temperature dependent values of relaxation time for both the spin channels, the calculated values of α using two current model are found to be in good agreement with experimental values in the temperature range 300-600 K. At 300 K, the calculated value of electrical conductivity by using the same value of relaxation time, i.e. 0.1 [Formula: see text] 10 -14 seconds for spin-up and [Formula: see text] seconds for spin-dn channel, is found to be equal to the experimentally reported value.

  2. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  3. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  4. Comment on "a comparison of buprenorphine + naloxone to buprenorphine and methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Robert G; Gevertz, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article, Lund et al sought to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of various treatment regimens for opioid dependence during pregnancy.1 In their background, discussion the authors state that "In the United States buprenorphine plus naloxone [Suboxone(®)] … has been the preferred form of prescribed buprenorphine due to its reduced abuse liability relative to buprenorphine alone [Subutex(®)]." This claim is certainly consistent with the view of the firm that has manufactured and sold both products, Reckitt Benckiser. In September of 2011, the company announced that it was "… discontinuing distribution and sale of Subutex(®) tablets as we believe that mono product (product containing buprenorphine alone with no naloxone) creates a greater risk of misuse, abuse and diversion …".2 Supporting evidence for the alleged "reduced abuse liability" appears to be lacking, however, and evidence cannot be located in the two references cited by Dr. Lund and his co-authors, which in fact are silent on the subject of abuse potential.3,4 In contrast, it has been reported that the transition to buprenorphine/naloxone from the mono formulation has been associated with "… no reduction in injection risk behaviors among IDUs."5.

  5. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  6. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  7. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  8. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  9. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  10. A longitudinal analysis of nursing home outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porell, F; Caro, F G; Silva, A; Monane, M

    1998-10-01

    To investigate resident and facility attributes associated with long-term care health outcomes in nursing homes. Quarterly Management Minutes Questionnaire (MMQ) survey data for Medicaid case-mix reimbursement of nursing homes in Massachusetts from 1991 to 1994, for specification of outcomes and resident attributes. Facility attributes are specified from cost report data. Multivariate logistic and "state-dependence" regression models are estimated for survival, ADL functional status, incontinence status, and mental status outcomes from longitudinal residence histories of Medicaid residents spanning 3 to 36 months in length. Outcomes are specified to be a function of resident demographic and diagnostic attributes and facility-level operating and nurse staffing attributes. The estimated parameters for resident demographic and diagnostic attributes showed a great deal of construct validity with respect to clinical expectations regarding risk factors for adverse outcomes. Few facility attributes were associated with outcomes generally, and none was significantly associated with all four outcomes. The absence of uniform associations between facility attributes and the various long-term care health outcomes studied suggests that strong facility performance on one health outcome may coexist with much weaker performance on other outcomes. This has implications for the aggregation of individual facility performance measures on multiple outcomes and the development of overall outcome performance measures.

  11. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  12. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  13. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  14. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  15. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  16. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  17. Lung transplantation and survival outcomes in patients with oxygen-dependent COPD with regard to their alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekström M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Ekström, Hanan Tanash Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Individuals with severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD have an increased risk of developing COPD. However, outcomes during long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT in patients with severe AATD and hypoxemia are unknown.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, population-based, consecutive cohort study of patients on LTOT due to COPD in the period from January 1, 1987, to June 30, 2015, in the Swedish National Registry for Respiratory Failure (Swedevox. Severe AATD was identified using the Swedish AATD registry and confirmed by isoelectric focusing. Data on lung transplantation (LTx were obtained from the two lung transplantation centers in Sweden. Mortality and causes of death were assessed based on the National Causes of Death Registry and analyzed using multivariable Cox regression.Results: A total of 14,644 patients who started LTOT due to COPD were included in this study. No patient was lost to follow up. Patients with AATD were younger, included more males and more never smokers, and had fewer comorbidities. During a median follow-up of 1.6 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.7 on LTOT, patients without severe AATD had a higher mortality, hazard ratio [HR] 1.53 (95% CI, 1.24–1.88, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, performance status, level of hypoxemia, and comorbidities. Cardiovascular deaths were increased. A higher proportion of AATD patients underwent LTx, 53 (19% vs 118 (1%. Survival after LTx was similar for AATD and non-AATD patients and was predicted by age.Conclusion: In oxygen-dependent COPD, patients with severe AATD have a longer survival time on LTOT, but they have a similar prognosis after lung transplantation compared with patients without AATD. Keywords: COPD, long-term oxygen therapy, lung transplantation, severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

  18. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  19. Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.

    2007-01-01

    The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value

  20. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Beier, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... ecosystems with a net ecosystem carbon gain during the second year of 293 +/- 11 g C m(-2) year(-1) showing that the carbon sink strength of heather-dominated ecosystems may be considerable when C. vulgaris is in the building phase of its life cycle. The estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem.......65) was improved when the P-g rate was incorporated into the model (second year; R-2 = 0.79), suggesting that daytime R-E increased with increasing photosynthesis. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of R-E decreased from apparent Q(10) values of 3.3 to 3.9 by the classic equation to a more realistic Q(10...

  1. Outcomes of the Smoker's Health Project: A Pragmatic Comparative Effectiveness Trial of Tobacco-Dependence Interventions Based on Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey C.; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Patrick, Heather; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory,…

  2. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr3Ru2O7, graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent

  3. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  4. Dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens during within-session extinction, outcome-dependent, and habit-based instrumental responding for food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soyon; Phillips, Anthony G

    2007-04-01

    Dopamine (DA) activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is related to the general motivational effects of rewarding stimuli. Dickinson and colleagues have shown that initial acquisition of instrumental responding reflects action-outcome relationships based on instrumental incentive learning, which establishes the value of an outcome. Given that the sensitivity of responding to outcome devaluation is not affected by NAc lesions, it is unlikely that incentive learning during the action-outcome phase is mediated by DA activity in the NAc. DA efflux in the NAc after limited and extended training was compared on the assumption that comparable changes would be observed during both action-outcome- and habit-based phases of instrumental responding for food. This study also tested the hypothesis that increase in NAc DA activity is correlated with instrumental responding during extinction maintained by a conditioned stimulus paired with food. Rats were trained to lever press for food (random-interval 30 s schedule). On the 5th and 16th day of training, microdialysis samples were collected from the NAc or mediodorsal striatum (a control site for generalized activity) during instrumental responding in extinction and then for food reward, and analyzed for DA content using high performance liquid chromatography. Increase in DA efflux in the NAc accompanied responding for food pellets on both days 5 and 16, with the magnitude of increase significantly enhanced on day 16. DA efflux was also significantly elevated during responding in extinction only on day 16. These results support a role for NAc DA activity in Pavlovian, but not instrumental, incentive learning.

  5. Older Adults With a Combination of Vision and Hearing Impairment Experience Higher Rates of Cognitive Impairment, Functional Dependence, and Worse Outcomes Across a Set of Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob G S; Guthrie, Dawn M

    2017-08-01

    Hearing and vision impairment were examined across several health-related outcomes and across a set of quality indicators (QIs) in home care clients with both vision and hearing loss (or dual sensory impairment [DSI]). Data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed in a sample of older home care clients. The QIs represent the proportion of clients experiencing negative outcomes (e.g., falls, social isolation). The average age of clients was 82.8 years ( SD = 7.9), 20.5% had DSI and 8.5% had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clients with DSI were more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (not AD), have functional impairments, report loneliness, and have higher rates across 20 of the 22 QIs, including communication difficulty and cognitive decline. Clients with highly impaired hearing, and any visual impairment, had the highest QI rates. Individuals with DSI experience higher rates of adverse events across many health-related outcomes and QIs. Understanding the unique contribution of hearing and vision in this group can promote optimal quality of care.

  6. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  7. Diabetes is a strong predictor of mortality during tuberculosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment.......Strong evidence suggests diabetes may be associated with tuberculosis (TB) and could influence TB treatment outcomes. We assessed the role of diabetes on sputum culture conversion and mortality among patients undergoing TB treatment....

  8. Comparison of Caffeine and d-amphetamine in Cocaine-Dependent Subjects: Differential Outcomes on Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Reward Learning, and Salivary Paraxanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy M; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Fang, Wendy B; Ferré, Sergi; Moeller, F Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Due to indirect modulation of dopamine transmission, adenosine receptor antagonists may be useful in either treating cocaine use or improving disrupted cognitive-behavioral functions associated with chronic cocaine use. To compare and contrast the stimulant effects of adenosine antagonism to direct dopamine stimulation, we administered 150 mg and 300 mg caffeine, 20 mg amphetamine, and placebo to cocaine-dependent vs. healthy control subjects, matched on moderate caffeine use. Data were obtained on measures of cardiovascular effects, subjective drug effects (ARCI, VAS, DEQ), and a probabilistic reward-learning task sensitive to dopamine modulation. Levels of salivary caffeine and the primary caffeine metabolite paraxanthine were obtained on placebo and caffeine dosing days. Cardiovascular results revealed main effects of dose for diastolic blood pressure and heart rate; follow up tests showed that controls were most sensitive to 300 mg caffeine and 20 mg amphetamine; cocaine-dependent subjects were sensitive only to 300 mg caffeine. Subjective effects results revealed dose × time and dose × group interactions on the ARCI A, ARCI LSD, and VAS 'elated' scales; follow up tests did not show systematic differences between groups with regard to caffeine or d-amphetamine. Large between-group differences in salivary paraxanthine (but not salivary caffeine) levels were obtained under both caffeine doses. The cocaine-dependent group expressed significantly higher paraxanthine levels than controls under 150 mg and 3-4 fold greater levels under 300 mg at 90 min and 150 min post caffeine dose. However, these differences also covaried with cigarette smoking status (not balanced between groups), and nicotine smoking is known to alter caffeine/paraxanthine metabolism via cytochrome P450 enzymes. These preliminary data raise the possibility that adenosine antagonists may affect cocaine-dependent and non-dependent subjects differently. In conjunction with previous preclinical and

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  10. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  11. B7h-expressing dendritic cells and plasma B cells mediate distinct outcomes of ICOS costimulation in T cell-dependent antibody responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larimore Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. Results We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a corresponding increase in the concentration of antigen-specific high affinity serum IgG antibodies of all isotypes, without affecting the number of responding germinal center B cells. In contrast, ICOS costimulation mediated by dendritic cells in DC-B7hTg mice contributed to germinal center formation and selectively increased IgG2a production without affecting the overall magnitude of antibody responses. Conclusions Using transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression, we have revealed distinct roles of ICOS costimulation mediated by dendritic cells and B cells in the regulation of T cell-dependent antibody responses.

  12. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  13. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother-child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-10

    HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. 70 mother-child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and depression in mothers of children infected with HIV. The

  14. A 7-year follow-up of multidisciplinary rehabilitation among chronic neck and back pain patients. Is sick leave outcome dependent on psychologically derived patient groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Gunnar; Bergström, Cecilia; Hagberg, Jan; Bodin, Lennart; Jensen, Irene

    2010-04-01

    A valid method for classifying chronic pain patients into more homogenous groups could be useful for treatment planning, that is, which treatment is effective for which patient, and as a marker when evaluating treatment outcome. One instrument that has been used to derive subgroups of patients is the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate a classification method based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, to predict sick leave among chronic neck and back pain patients for a period of 7 years after vocational rehabilitation. As hypothesized, dysfunctional patients (DYS), according to the MPI-S, showed a higher amount of sickness absence and disability pension expressed in days than adaptive copers (AC) during the 7-years follow-up period, even when adjusting for sickness absence prior to rehabilitation (355.8days, 95% confidence interval, 71.7; 639.9). Forty percent of DYS patients and 26.7% of AC patients received disability pension during the follow-up period. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Further analyses showed that the difference between patient groups was most pronounced among patients with more than 60days of sickness absence prior to rehabilitation. Cost-effectiveness calculations indicated that the DYS patients showed an increase in production loss compared to AC patients. The present study yields support for the prognostic value of this subgroup classification method concerning long-term outcome on sick leave following this type of vocational rehabilitation. Copyright (c) 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcome of older persons admitted to intensive care unit, mortality, prognosis factors, dependency scores and ability trajectory within 1 year: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Level, Claude; Tellier, Eric; Dezou, Patrick; Chaoui, Karim; Kherchache, Aissa; Sejourné, Philippe; Rullion-Pac Soo, Anne Marie

    2017-12-06

    The outcome and functional trajectory of older persons admitted to intensive care (ICU) unit remain a true question for critical care physicians and geriatricians, due to the heterogeneity of geriatric population, heterogeneity of practices and absence of guidelines. To describe the 1-year outcome, prognosis factors and functional trajectory for older people admitted to ICU. In a prospective 1-year cohort study, all patients aged 75 years and over admitted to our ICU were included according to a global comprehensive geriatric assessment. Follow-up was conducted for 1 year survivors, in particular, ability scores and living conditions. Of 188 patients included [aged 82.3 ± 4.7 years, 46% of admissions, median SAPS II 53.5 (43-74), ADL of Katz's score 4.2 ± 1.6, median Barthel's index 71 (55-90), AGGIR scale 4.5 ± 1.5], the ICU, hospital and 1-year mortality were, respectively, 34, 42.5 and 65.5%. Prognosis factors were: SAPS 2, mechanical ventilation, comorbidity (Lee's and Mc Cabe's scores), disability scores (ADL of Katz's score, Barthel's index and AGGIR scale), admission creatinin, hypoalbuminemia, malignant haemopathy, cognitive impairment. One-year survivors lived in their own home for 83%, with a preserved physical ability, without significant variation of the three ability assessed scores compared to prior ICU admission. The mortality of older people admitted to ICU is high, with a significant impact of disabilty scores, and preserved 1-year survivor independency. Other studies, including a better comprehensive geriatric assessment, seem necessary to determine a predictive "phenotype" of survival with a "satisfactory" level of autonomy.

  16. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  17. Outcomes of the Smoker’s Health Project: a pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial of tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey C.; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Patrick, Heather; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory, namely, Intensive Treatment (IT; six contacts over 6 months), Extended Need Support (ENS; eight contacts over 12 months) and Harm Reduction (HR; eight contacts over 12 months with medication use if willing to reduce cigarette use by half). Among participants who completed the interventions, analyses revealed beneficial effects of ENS (15.7 versus 3.8%; χ 2(1) = 6.92, P < 0.01) and HR (13.6 versus 3.8%; χ 2(1) = 5.26, P < 0.05), relative to IT, on 12-month prolonged abstinence from tobacco. Also, analyses revealed beneficial effects of ENS (77.7 versus 43.0%; χ 2(1) = 24.90, P < 0.001) and HR (84.0 versus 43.0%; χ 2(1) = 37.41, P < 0.001), relative to IT, on use of first-line medications for smoking cessation. Hence, two new interventions were found to be efficacious particularly among participants who completed the interventions. Smokers who stay in treatment for an additional 6 months may benefit from an additional two contacts with practitioners, and thus it seems reasonable for policy makers to offer additional contacts given the health benefits associated with prolonged tobacco abstinence. PMID:27923864

  18. Interaction between an ADCY3 Genetic Variant and Two Weight-Lowering Diets Affecting Body Fatness and Body Composition Outcomes Depending on Macronutrient Distribution: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Goni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3 gene is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes including the development and function of adipose tissue. The effects of the ADCY3 rs10182181 genetic variant on changes in body composition depending on the macronutrient distribution intake after 16 weeks of the dietary intervention were tested. The ADCY3 genetic variant was genotyped in 147 overweight or obese subjects, who were randomly assigned to one of the two diets varying in macronutrient content: a moderately-high-protein diet and a low-fat diet. Anthropometric and body composition measurements (DEXA scan were recorded. Significant interactions between the ADCY3 genotype and dietary intervention on changes in weight, waist circumference, and body composition were found after adjustment for covariates. Thus, in the moderately-high-protein diet group, the G allele was associated with a lower decrease of fat mass, trunk and android fat, and a greater decrease in lean mass. Conversely, in the low-fat diet group carrying the G allele was associated with a greater decrease in trunk, android, gynoid, and visceral fat. Subjects carrying the G allele of the rs10182181 polymorphism may benefit more in terms of weight loss and improvement of body composition measurements when undertaking a hypocaloric low-fat diet as compared to a moderately-high-protein diet.

  19. Binomial outcomes in dataset with some clusters of size two: can the dependence of twins be accounted for? A simulation study comparing the reliability of statistical methods based on a dataset of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzet, Odile; Peacock, Janet L

    2017-07-20

    The analysis of perinatal outcomes often involves datasets with some multiple births. These are datasets mostly formed of independent observations and a limited number of clusters of size two (twins) and maybe of size three or more. This non-independence needs to be accounted for in the statistical analysis. Using simulated data based on a dataset of preterm infants we have previously investigated the performance of several approaches to the analysis of continuous outcomes in the presence of some clusters of size two. Mixed models have been developed for binomial outcomes but very little is known about their reliability when only a limited number of small clusters are present. Using simulated data based on a dataset of preterm infants we investigated the performance of several approaches to the analysis of binomial outcomes in the presence of some clusters of size two. Logistic models, several methods of estimation for the logistic random intercept models and generalised estimating equations were compared. The presence of even a small percentage of twins means that a logistic regression model will underestimate all parameters but a logistic random intercept model fails to estimate the correlation between siblings if the percentage of twins is too small and will provide similar estimates to logistic regression. The method which seems to provide the best balance between estimation of the standard error and the parameter for any percentage of twins is the generalised estimating equations. This study has shown that the number of covariates or the level two variance do not necessarily affect the performance of the various methods used to analyse datasets containing twins but when the percentage of small clusters is too small, mixed models cannot capture the dependence between siblings.

  20. Binomial outcomes in dataset with some clusters of size two: can the dependence of twins be accounted for? A simulation study comparing the reliability of statistical methods based on a dataset of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Sauzet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of perinatal outcomes often involves datasets with some multiple births. These are datasets mostly formed of independent observations and a limited number of clusters of size two (twins and maybe of size three or more. This non-independence needs to be accounted for in the statistical analysis. Using simulated data based on a dataset of preterm infants we have previously investigated the performance of several approaches to the analysis of continuous outcomes in the presence of some clusters of size two. Mixed models have been developed for binomial outcomes but very little is known about their reliability when only a limited number of small clusters are present. Methods Using simulated data based on a dataset of preterm infants we investigated the performance of several approaches to the analysis of binomial outcomes in the presence of some clusters of size two. Logistic models, several methods of estimation for the logistic random intercept models and generalised estimating equations were compared. Results The presence of even a small percentage of twins means that a logistic regression model will underestimate all parameters but a logistic random intercept model fails to estimate the correlation between siblings if the percentage of twins is too small and will provide similar estimates to logistic regression. The method which seems to provide the best balance between estimation of the standard error and the parameter for any percentage of twins is the generalised estimating equations. Conclusions This study has shown that the number of covariates or the level two variance do not necessarily affect the performance of the various methods used to analyse datasets containing twins but when the percentage of small clusters is too small, mixed models cannot capture the dependence between siblings.

  1. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  2. Towards TDDFT for Strongly Correlated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Ram Acharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present some details of our recently-proposed Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT for strongly-correlated materials in which the exchange-correlation (XC kernel is derived from the charge susceptibility obtained using Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (the TDDFT + DMFT approach. We proceed with deriving the expression for the XC kernel for the one-band Hubbard model by solving DMFT equations via two approaches, the Hirsch–Fye Quantum Monte Carlo (HF-QMC and an approximate low-cost perturbation theory approach, and demonstrate that the latter gives results that are comparable to the exact HF-QMC solution. Furthermore, through a variety of applications, we propose a simple analytical formula for the XC kernel. Additionally, we use the exact and approximate kernels to examine the nonhomogeneous ultrafast response of two systems: a one-band Hubbard model and a Mott insulator YTiO3. We show that the frequency dependence of the kernel, i.e., memory effects, is important for dynamics at the femtosecond timescale. We also conclude that strong correlations lead to the presence of beats in the time-dependent electric conductivity in YTiO3, a feature that could be tested experimentally and that could help validate the few approximations used in our formulation. We conclude by proposing an algorithm for the generalization of the theory to non-linear response.

  3. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  4. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  5. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  6. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  7. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  8. Nonlinear charge reduction effect in strongly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmah, D; Tessarotto, M; Salimullah, M

    2006-01-01

    The charge reduction effect, produced by the nonlinear Debye screening of high-Z charges occurring in strongly coupled plasmas, is investigated. An analytic asymptotic expression is obtained for the charge reduction factor (f c ) which determines the Debye-Hueckel potential generated by a charged test particle. Its relevant parametric dependencies are analysed and shown to predict a strong charge reduction effect in strongly coupled plasmas

  9. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  10. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  11. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  12. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  13. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  14. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  15. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  16. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  17. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  18. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  19. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  20. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  1. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  2. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  3. Strong dynamics and lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, David

    In this dissertation I use lattice gauge theory to study models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve new strong dynamics. Electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is the process by which elementary particles acquire mass. First proposed in the 1960s, this process has been clearly established by experiments, and can now be considered a law of nature. However, the physics underlying EWSB is still unknown, and understanding it remains a central challenge in particle physics today. A natural possibility is that EWSB is driven by the dynamics of some new, strongly-interacting force. Strong interactions invalidate the standard analytical approach of perturbation theory, making these models difficult to study. Lattice gauge theory is the premier method for obtaining quantitatively-reliable, nonperturbative predictions from strongly-interacting theories. In this approach, we replace spacetime by a regular, finite grid of discrete sites connected by links. The fields and interactions described by the theory are likewise discretized, and defined on the lattice so that we recover the original theory in continuous spacetime on an infinitely large lattice with sites infinitesimally close together. The finite number of degrees of freedom in the discretized system lets us simulate the lattice theory using high-performance computing. Lattice gauge theory has long been applied to quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong nuclear interactions. Using lattice gauge theory to study dynamical EWSB, as I do in this dissertation, is a new and exciting application of these methods. Of particular interest is non-perturbative lattice calculation of the electroweak S parameter. Experimentally S ≈ -0.15(10), which tightly constrains dynamical EWSB. On the lattice, I extract S from the momentum-dependence of vector and axial-vector current correlators. I created and applied computer programs to calculate these correlators and analyze them to determine S. I also calculated the masses

  4. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  5. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  6. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  7. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  8. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Drinking to Cope with Social Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigan, Maureen H.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated use of alcohol as a coping strategy to reduce anxiety or discomfort increases one's risk of developing alcohol dependence. Previous studies have found alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) strongly predict drinking behavior, in general, and also are related to drinking to cope. The purpose of the current study was to examine AOE that may be related to drinking to cope with discomfort in social situations. It was hypothesized that positive AOE, especially related to assertion and tension...

  9. Punishment as a Means of Competition: Implications for Strong Reciprocity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paál, Tünde; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Strong negative reciprocity, that is, sanctions imposed on norm violators at the punisher’s own expense, has powerful cooperation-enhancing effects in both real-life and experimental game situations. However, it is plausible that punishment may obtain alternative roles depending on social context and the personality characteristics of participants. We examined the occurrence of punishing behavior among 80 subjects in a strongly competitive Public Goods game setting. Despite the punishment condition, the amount of the contributions decreased steadily during the game. The amount of contributions had no significant effect on received and imposed punishments. The results indicate that certain social contexts (in this case, intensive competition) exert modifying effects on the role that punishment takes on. Subjects punished each other in order to achieve a higher rank and a financially better outcome. Punishment primarily functioned as a means of rivalry, instead of as a way of second-order cooperation, as strong reciprocity suggests. These results indicate the need for the possible modification of the social conditions of punishment mechanisms described by the strong reciprocity theory as an evolutionary explanation of human cooperation. PMID:25811464

  10. Punishment as a means of competition: implications for strong reciprocity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paál, Tünde; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Strong negative reciprocity, that is, sanctions imposed on norm violators at the punisher's own expense, has powerful cooperation-enhancing effects in both real-life and experimental game situations. However, it is plausible that punishment may obtain alternative roles depending on social context and the personality characteristics of participants. We examined the occurrence of punishing behavior among 80 subjects in a strongly competitive Public Goods game setting. Despite the punishment condition, the amount of the contributions decreased steadily during the game. The amount of contributions had no significant effect on received and imposed punishments. The results indicate that certain social contexts (in this case, intensive competition) exert modifying effects on the role that punishment takes on. Subjects punished each other in order to achieve a higher rank and a financially better outcome. Punishment primarily functioned as a means of rivalry, instead of as a way of second-order cooperation, as strong reciprocity suggests. These results indicate the need for the possible modification of the social conditions of punishment mechanisms described by the strong reciprocity theory as an evolutionary explanation of human cooperation.

  11. Punishment as a means of competition: implications for strong reciprocity theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Paál

    Full Text Available Strong negative reciprocity, that is, sanctions imposed on norm violators at the punisher's own expense, has powerful cooperation-enhancing effects in both real-life and experimental game situations. However, it is plausible that punishment may obtain alternative roles depending on social context and the personality characteristics of participants. We examined the occurrence of punishing behavior among 80 subjects in a strongly competitive Public Goods game setting. Despite the punishment condition, the amount of the contributions decreased steadily during the game. The amount of contributions had no significant effect on received and imposed punishments. The results indicate that certain social contexts (in this case, intensive competition exert modifying effects on the role that punishment takes on. Subjects punished each other in order to achieve a higher rank and a financially better outcome. Punishment primarily functioned as a means of rivalry, instead of as a way of second-order cooperation, as strong reciprocity suggests. These results indicate the need for the possible modification of the social conditions of punishment mechanisms described by the strong reciprocity theory as an evolutionary explanation of human cooperation.

  12. Corporate Governance Against Recommendations: The Cases of the Strong Executive and the Strong Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Král Pavel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several basic configurations of corporate governance according to the separation of ownership and control (Jensen’s theory. Effective governance is described as a situation whenan owner (or group of owners keeps the right to ratify and monitor strategic decisions while management has the right to initiate and implement those decisions. There are two particular situations how this recommendation is partially broken and both situations are linked to CEO duality. The first case happens when an owner loses or does not exercise the right to monitor management of the organization and is termed as the strong executive. The second case is calledthe strong ownership and is distinguished by an owner taking over implementations of the decisions. The focus of the study was to explore particularly configurations of the strong executive and the strong governance. A mixed method research design was chosen to explore the differences between the basic governance configurations. The sample was chosen by purposive sampling and covered a hundred for-profit organizations of all size and from all sectors of economy.The data were collected through interviews with representatives, mainly members of top management. We revealed that both of these configurations can bear good corporate performance but also bigger risks. The strong executive is typical for organizations with dispersed ownership or a publicly owned organization and the performance of the organization is fully dependent on competencies but also personalities of managers. This configuration contains a high risk of misuse of authority. The strong ownership is effective in small organizations while in a larger organization leads to an overexertion of owners and low performance because they usually faceproblems to keep focus on the strategic issues of the organization.

  13. Quantization rules for strongly chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R.; Bolte, J.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the quantization of strongly chaotic systems and apply several quantization rules to a model system given by the unconstrained motion of a particle on a compact surface of constant negative Gaussian curvature. We study the periodic-orbit theory for distinct symmetry classes corresponding to a parity operation which is always present when such a surface has genus two. Recently, several quantization rules based on periodic orbit theory have been introduced. We compare quantizations using the dynamical zeta function Z(s) with the quantization condition cos(π N(E)) = 0, where a periodix-orbit expression for the spectral staircase N(E) is used. A general discussion of the efficiency of periodic-orbit quantization then allows us to compare the different methods. The system dependence of the efficiency, which is determined by the topological entropy τ and the mean level density anti d(E), is emphasized. (orig.)

  14. Scaling of chaos in strongly nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulansky, Mario

    2014-06-01

    Although it is now understood that chaos in complex classical systems is the foundation of thermodynamic behavior, the detailed relations between the microscopic properties of the chaotic dynamics and the macroscopic thermodynamic observations still remain mostly in the dark. In this work, we numerically analyze the probability of chaos in strongly nonlinear Hamiltonian systems and find different scaling properties depending on the nonlinear structure of the model. We argue that these different scaling laws of chaos have definite consequences for the macroscopic diffusive behavior, as chaos is the microscopic mechanism of diffusion. This is compared with previous results on chaotic diffusion [M. Mulansky and A. Pikovsky, New J. Phys. 15, 053015 (2013)], and a relation between microscopic chaos and macroscopic diffusion is established.

  15. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning......Deformation twinning1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we...... find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...

  16. Pentacene Excitons in Strong Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnke, Klaus; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Rahman, Talat S; Kern, Klaus

    2018-02-05

    Electroluminescence spectroscopy of organic semiconductors in the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) provides access to the polarizability of neutral excited states in a well-characterized molecular geometry. We study the Stark shift of the self-trapped lowest singlet exciton at 1.6 eV in a pentacene nanocrystal. Combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with experiment allows for assignment of the observation to a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. Its charge separation is perpendicular to the applied field, as the measured polarizability is moderate and the electric field in the STM junction is strong enough to dissociate a CT exciton polarized parallel to the applied field. The calculated electric-field-induced anisotropy of the exciton potential energy surface will also be of relevance to photovoltaic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Designing asymmetric multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuezeng; Xiang, Hongjun; Rondinelli, James; Materials Theory; Design Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature need much more study. Here, we propose the concept of an alternative type of multiferroics, namely, the ``asymmetric multiferroic.'' In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from first principles that a Fe-Cr-Mo superlattice with the LiNbO3-type structure is such an asymmetric multiferroic. The strong ferrimagnetism, high ferroelectric polarization, and significant dependence of the magnetic transition temperature on polarization make this asymmetric multiferroic an ideal candidate for realizing electric-field control of magnetism at room temperature. Our study suggests that the asymmetric multiferroic may provide an alternative playground for voltage control of magnetism and find its applications in spintronics and quantum computing.

  18. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  19. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  20. Vascular adhesion protein-1 is elevated in primary sclerosing cholangitis, is predictive of clinical outcome and facilitates recruitment of gut-tropic lymphocytes to liver in a substrate-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Palak J; Tickle, Joseph; Vesterhus, Mette Nåmdal; Eddowes, Peter J; Bruns, Tony; Vainio, Jani; Parker, Richard; Smith, David; Liaskou, Evaggelia; Thorbjørnsen, Liv Wenche; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Auvinen, Kaisa; Hubscher, Stefan G; Salmi, Marko; Adams, David H; Weston, Chris J

    2018-06-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is the classical hepatobiliary manifestation of IBD. This clinical association is linked pathologically to the recruitment of mucosal T cells to the liver, via vascular adhesion protein (VAP)-1-dependent enzyme activity. Our aim was to examine the expression, function and enzymatic activation of the ectoenzyme VAP-1 in patients with PSC. We examined VAP-1 expression in patients with PSC, correlated levels with clinical characteristics and determined the functional consequences of enzyme activation by specific enzyme substrates on hepatic endothelium. The intrahepatic enzyme activity of VAP-1 was elevated in PSC versus immune-mediated disease controls and non-diseased liver (pgut-tropic α4β7 + lymphocytes to hepatic endothelial cells in vitro under flow was attenuated by 50% following administration of the VAP-1 inhibitor semicarbazide (pgut bacteria-was the most efficient (yielded the highest enzymatic rate) and efficacious in its ability to induce expression of functional mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 on hepatic endothelium. In a prospectively evaluated patient cohort with PSC, elevated serum soluble (s)VAP-1 levels predicted poorer transplant-free survival for patients, independently (HR: 3.85, p=0.003) and additively (HR: 2.02, p=0.012) of the presence of liver cirrhosis. VAP-1 expression is increased in PSC, facilitates adhesion of gut-tropic lymphocytes to liver endothelium in a substrate-dependent manner, and elevated levels of its circulating form predict clinical outcome in patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  2. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  3. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  4. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  5. The neonatal outcome in twin versus triplet and quadruplet pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nasseri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • <strong>BACKGROUND>: To assess the risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity in twin, triplet and quadruplet pregnancies.
    • <strong>METHODS>: In a retrospective study, the neonatal outcome of all twin, triplet and quadruplet gestations delivered from October 2001 to September 2006 was reviewed. The neonatal outcome of triples and quadruplets was compared with a matched group of twins for gestational age.
    • <strong>RESULTS>: During a 5-year period, 511 sets of twin pregnancies, 42 sets of triplet and 5 sets of quadruplet pregnancies were studied. The mean of gestational age for twins, triplets and quadruplets were 33.92 ± 3.5 weeks, 30.92 ± 3.8 weeks and 31.60 ± 2.0 weeks, respectively, (P = 0.0001. Triplets and quadruplets weighed less than twins, (P = 0.0001. Neonatal mortality was 13.5% for twins, 26.8% for triplets and 30% for quadruplets. In vitro fertilization, use of ovulation induction agents, and cesarean delivery in the women with triplet and quadruplet were significantly higher than in those with twin pregnancies, (P = 0.0001. The mean age of mothers with triplets and quadruplets was significantly higher than with twins (P = 0.026. There was not a significant difference in respiratory and non-respiratory short outcomes between triplets, quadruplets and twins when matched for gestational age. Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes was significantly lower in triplets and quadruplets than twins. There was no influence of birth order on neonatal mortality of triplet pregnancy. Neonatal mortality of triplet births was significantly decreased over the 5 years of the study period.
    • <strong>CONCLUSIONS>: Triplets and quadruplets have a similar neonatal outcome as twins when matched for gestational age. There is no influence of birth on the neonatal mortality of triplet pregnancy. It appears that outcome is mainly dependent on gestational age.
    • <strong>KEYWORDS>: Neonatal

    • Strong white photoluminescence from annealed zeolites

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Bai, Zhenhua; Fujii, Minoru; Imakita, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinji

      2014-01-01

      The optical properties of zeolites annealed at various temperatures are investigated for the first time. The annealed zeolites exhibit strong white photoluminescence (PL) under ultraviolet light excitation. With increasing annealing temperature, the emission intensity of annealed zeolites first increases and then decreases. At the same time, the PL peak red-shifts from 495 nm to 530 nm, and then returns to 500 nm. The strongest emission appears when the annealing temperature is 500 °C. The quantum yield of the sample is measured to be ∼10%. The PL lifetime monotonously increases from 223 μs to 251 μs with increasing annealing temperature. The origin of white PL is ascribed to oxygen vacancies formed during the annealing process. -- Highlights: • The optical properties of zeolites annealed at various temperatures are investigated. • The annealed zeolites exhibit strong white photoluminescence. • The maximum PL enhancement reaches as large as 62 times. • The lifetime shows little dependence on annealing temperature. • The origin of white emission is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies

    • Can strong gravitational lensing constrain dark energy?

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Lee, Seokcheon; Ng, K.-W.

      2007-01-01

      We discuss the ratio of the angular diameter distances from the source to the lens, D ds , and to the observer at present, D s , for various dark energy models. It is well known that the difference of D s s between the models is apparent and this quantity is used for the analysis of Type Ia supernovae. However we investigate the difference between the ratio of the angular diameter distances for a cosmological constant, (D ds /D s ) Λ , and that for other dark energy models, (D ds /D s ) other , in this paper. It has been known that there is lens model degeneracy in using strong gravitational lensing. Thus, we investigate the model independent observable quantity, Einstein radius (θ E ), which is proportional to both D ds /D s and velocity dispersion squared, σ v 2 . D ds /D s values depend on the parameters of each dark energy model individually. However, (D ds /D s ) Λ -(D ds /D s ) other for the various dark energy models, is well within the error of σ v for most of the parameter spaces of the dark energy models. Thus, a single strong gravitational lensing by use of the Einstein radius may not be a proper method to investigate the property of dark energy. However, better understanding to the mass profile of clusters in the future or other methods related to arc statistics rather than the distances may be used for constraints on dark energy

    • Strongly interacting photons and atoms

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Alge, W.

      1999-05-01

      This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

    • Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

      Science.gov (United States)

      Narayanan, M.

      2015-12-01

      The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

    • Jets in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Southampton, STAG Research Centre Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Morad, Razieh [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)

      2018-01-15

      In this paper, we study the dynamics of the light quark jet moving through the static, strongly coupled N = 4, anisotropic plasma with and without charge. The light quark is presented by a 2-parameters point-like initial condition falling string in the context of the AdS/CFT. We calculate the stopping distance of the light quark in the anisotropic medium and compare it with its isotropic value. We study the dependency of the stopping distance to the both string initial conditions and background parameters such as anisotropy parameter or chemical potential. Although the typical behavior of the string in the anisotropic medium is similar to the one in the isotropic AdS-Sch background, the string falls faster to the horizon depending on the direction of moving. Particularly, the enhancement of quenching is larger in the beam direction. We find that the suppression of stopping distance is more prominent when the anisotropic plasma have the same temperature as the isotropic plasma. (orig.)

    • Strongly coupled models at the LHC

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Vries, Maikel de

      2014-10-01

      physics and direct searches at the LHC. These tests provide stringent limits on f and the parameter space is slowly driven into the TeV range. Furthermore, a strategy on how to optimise present supersymmetry searches for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity is presented, with the goal to improve the constraints and yield more stringent limits on f. Finally, the robustness of translating effective operator constraints to beyond the Standard Model (BSM) theories is treated and turns out to crucially depend on the mass and coupling of BSM particles. This is especially relevant for hadron colliders where the partonic centre of mass energy is around the typical energy scales of natural BSM theories. The caveats in applying limits from effective operators are discussed using Z' and G' models, illustrating the effects for a large class of models. This analysis shows that the applicability of effective operators mainly depends on the ratio of the transfer energy in the events and the mass scale of the full theory. Moreover, based on these results a method is developed to recast existing experimental limits on effective operators to the full theory parameter space. It is concluded that strongly coupled models of electroweak symmetry breaking are still natural and compatible with LHC results. Moreover, these types of models provide new and interesting final state topologies for experimental searches at the LHC. For the high energy runs of the LHC these new searches will prove useful in determining the faith of composite models and maybe thereby the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking.

    • Russia needs a strong counterpart

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

      2008-01-01

      In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

    • Strong environmental coupling in a Josephson parametric amplifier

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.; Sundqvist, K. M.

      2014-01-01

      We present a lumped-element Josephson parametric amplifier designed to operate with strong coupling to the environment. In this regime, we observe broadband frequency dependent amplification with multi-peaked gain profiles. We account for this behavior using the “pumpistor” model which allows for frequency dependent variation of the external impedance. Using this understanding, we demonstrate control over the complexity of gain profiles through added variation in the environment impedance at a given frequency. With strong coupling to a suitable external impedance, we observe a significant increase in dynamic range, and large amplification bandwidth up to 700 MHz giving near quantum-limited performance.

    • Path Dependency

      OpenAIRE

      Mark Setterfield

      2015-01-01

      Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

    • The Effects of as-Needed Nalmefene on Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life in Relation to a Reduction in Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Clément François

      Full Text Available The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of as-needed nalmefene on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with alcohol dependence, and to relate changes in drinking behavior and status to HRQoL outcomes.This post hoc analysis was conducted on a pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day who participated in one of two randomized controlled 6-month studies, ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2. Patients received nalmefene 18 mg or placebo on an as-needed basis, in addition to a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA. At baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks questionnaires for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, European Quality of life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R were completed.The pooled population consisted of 667 patients (nalmefene: 335; placebo: 332, with no notable between-group differences in baseline patient demographics/characteristics. At week 24, nalmefene had a superior effect compared to placebo in improving SF-36 mental component summary scores (mean difference [95% CI], p-value: 3.09 [1.29, 4.89]; p=0.0008, SF-36 physical component summary scores (1.23 [0.15, 2.31]; p=0.026, EQ-5D utility index scores (0.03 [0.00, 0.06]; p=0.045, EQ-5D health state scores (3.46 [0.75, 6.17]; p=0.012, and DrInC-2R scores (-3.22 [-6.12, 0.33]; p=0.029. The improvements in SF-36 mental component summary scores at week 24, and the DrInC-2R total score change from baseline to week 24, were significantly correlated to reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption at week 24.As-needed nalmefene significantly improved almost all patient-reported HRQoL measures included in SF-36 and EQ-5D compared with placebo. These HRQoL gains were significantly correlated to reduced drinking behavior, as determined by reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption.

    • Semicalssical quantization of interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Levit, S.; Sivan, N.

      1992-01-01

      We represent a semiclassical theory of charged interacting anyons in strong magnetic fields. We apply this theory to a number of few anyons systems including two interacting anyons in the presence of an impurity and three interacting anyons. We discuss the dependence of their energy levels on the statistical parameter and find regions in which this dependence follows very different patterns. The semiclassical arguments allow to correlate these patterns with the change in the character of the classical motion of the system. (author)

    • Bubble, weak and strong hyperinflation: Theory and empirical evidence

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fernando de Holanda Barbosa

      2015-05-01

      Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical framework that allows a taxonomy of hyperinflation, namely: (i bubble, (ii weak and (iii strong hyperinflation. The inflation tax revenue curve is used to characterize each type of hyperinflation and we use this curve to test them. The bubble and strong hyperinflation hypotheses are rejected using Brazilian data. The weak hyperinflation hypothesis is not rejected and the economy could have been on the ‘wrong’ side of the Laffer curve during hyperinflation. This outcome, contrary to conventional wisdom, is predicted by this hypothesis, which presents a solution to an old puzzle of the hyperinflation literature.

    • Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

      1995-01-01

      Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers

    • A Note on Weak vs. Strong Generation in Human Language

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fukui Naoki

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available This paper argues that various important results of formal language theory (e.g., the so-called Chomsky Hierarchy may in fact be illusory as far as the human language faculty is concerned, as has been repeatedly emphasized by Chomsky himself. The paper takes up nested dependencies and cross-serial dependencies, the two important dependencies that typically show up in the discussion of the central classes of grammars and languages, and specifically shows that the fact that nested dependencies abound in human language while cross-serial dependencies are rather limited in human language can be naturally explained if we shift our attention from dependencies defined on terminal strings to abstract structures behind them. The paper then shows that nested dependencies are readily obtained by Merge, applying phase-by-phase, whereas cross-serial dependencies are available only as a result of copying Merge, which requires a constituency of the relevant strings. These results strongly suggest that dependencies are possible in human language only to the extent that they are the results from the structures that can be generated by Merge, leading to the conclusion that it is Merge-generability that determines various dependencies in human language, and that dependencies defined on the terminal strings are indeed illusory. A possible brain science experiment to demonstrate this point is also suggested.

    • Interaction between Electron Holes in a Strongly Magnetized Plasma

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans

      1980-01-01

      The interaction between electron holes in a strongly magnetized, plasma-filled waveguide is investigated by means of computer simulation. Two holes may or may not coalesce, depending on their amplitudes and velocities. The interaction between holes and Trivelpiece-Gould solitons is demonstrated...

  1. Computational strong-field quantum dynamics. Intense light-matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Dieter (ed.) [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2017-09-01

    This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time dependent Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.

  2. Computational strong-field quantum dynamics. Intense light-matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time dependent Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.

  3. Computational strong-field quantum dynamics intense light-matter interactions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time-dependent Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.

  4. Strong and Electromagnetic Interactions at SPS Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ribicki, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Particle production in peripheral Pb+Pb collisions has been measured at a beam energy of 158 GeV per nucleon, corresponding to psNN 17.3 GeV. The measurements provide full double differential coverage in a wide range of longitudinal and transverse momenta, including the central (“mid-rapidity”) area and extending far into the projectile fragmentation region. The resulting analysis shows the heavy ion reaction as a mixture of different processes. In particular, surprising phenomena, like the presence of large and strongly varying structures in the shape of the double differential cross section d2s /dxFd pT , are induced by the final state electromagnetic interaction between produced particles and the charged spectator system. This effect is largest at low transverse momenta, where it results in a deep valley in the xF -dependence of the produced p+/p− ratio. The basic characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomenon described above agree with the results of a theoretical analysis, performed by means of ...

  5. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  6. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  7. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  8. Macaques can predict social outcomes from facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Whitehouse, Jamie; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    There is widespread acceptance that facial expressions are useful in social interactions, but empirical demonstration of their adaptive function has remained elusive. Here, we investigated whether macaques can use the facial expressions of others to predict the future outcomes of social interaction. Crested macaques (Macaca nigra) were shown an approach between two unknown individuals on a touchscreen and were required to choose between one of two potential social outcomes. The facial expressions of the actors were manipulated in the last frame of the video. One subject reached the experimental stage and accurately predicted different social outcomes depending on which facial expressions the actors displayed. The bared-teeth display (homologue of the human smile) was most strongly associated with predicted friendly outcomes. Contrary to our predictions, screams and threat faces were not associated more with conflict outcomes. Overall, therefore, the presence of any facial expression (compared to neutral) caused the subject to choose friendly outcomes more than negative outcomes. Facial expression in general, therefore, indicated a reduced likelihood of social conflict. The findings dispute traditional theories that view expressions only as indicators of present emotion and instead suggest that expressions form part of complex social interactions where individuals think beyond the present.

  9. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  10. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  11. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  13. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  14. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  15. Atomic excitation and acceleration in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, H; Eichmann, U

    2016-01-01

    Atomic excitation in the tunneling regime of a strong-field laser–matter interaction has been recently observed. It is conveniently explained by the concept of frustrated tunneling ionization (FTI), which naturally evolves from the well-established tunneling picture followed by classical dynamics of the electron in the combined laser field and Coulomb field of the ionic core. Important predictions of the FTI model such as the n distribution of Rydberg states after strong-field excitation and the dependence on the laser polarization have been confirmed in experiments. The model also establishes a sound basis to understand strong-field acceleration of neutral atoms in strong laser fields. The experimental observation has become possible recently and initiated a variety of experiments such as atomic acceleration in an intense standing wave and the survival of Rydberg states in strong laser fields. Furthermore, the experimental investigations on strong-field dissociation of molecules, where neutral excited fragments after the Coulomb explosion of simple molecules have been observed, can be explained. In this review, we introduce the subject and give an overview over relevant experiments supplemented by new results. (paper)

  16. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  17. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  18. [Caffeine dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2010-08-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. The potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Although in recent studies, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence. It is valuable for psychiatrists and primary care physicians to recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical syndrome, since some people are distressed by their caffeine use and feel they can not control or stop their problematic use.

  19. Spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of appearance of spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with the Skyrme effective interaction. The zero temperature dependence of the neutron and proton spin polarization parameters as functions of density is found for SLy4 and SLy5 effective forces. It is shown that at some critical density strongly asymmetric nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the state with the oppositely directed spins of neutrons and protons while the state with the same direction of spins does not appear. In comparison with neutron matter, even small admixture of protons strongly decreases the threshold density of spin instability. It is clarified that protons become totally polarized within a very narrow density domain while the density profile of the neutron spin polarization parameter is characterized by the appearance of long tails near the transition density

  20. Some strong limit theorems for nonhomogeneous Markov chains indexed by controlled trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicai Peng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a kind of infinite, local finite tree T, named a controlled tree, is introduced. Some strong limit properties, such as the strong law of large numbers and the asymptotic equipartition property, for nonhomogeneous Markov chains indexed by T, are established. The outcomes are the generalizations of some well-known results.

  1. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  2. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  3. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  4. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  5. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  6. The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.

  7. Strong Nash Equilibria and the Potential Maimizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Megen, F.J.C.; Facchini, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; Tijs, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    A class of non cooperative games characterized by a `congestion e ect' is studied, in which there exists a strong Nash equilibrium, and the set of Nash equilibria, the set of strong Nash equilibria and the set of strategy pro les maximizing the potential function coincide.The structure of the class

  8. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  9. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science...'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or...

  10. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  11. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  12. Disability and multi-state labour force choices with state dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzoglu, Umut

    2010-01-01

    I use a dynamic mixed multinomial logit model with unobserved heterogeneity to study the impact of work limiting disabilities on disaggregated labour choices. The first seven waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey are used to investigate this relationship. Findings point out to strong state dependence in employment choices. Further, the impact of disability on employment outcomes is highly significant. Model simulations suggest that high cross and own state depe...

  13. Holding molecular dications together in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chunlei

    2006-01-01

    Metastable channel of doubly ionized carbon monoxide, CO 2+ , was scantly seen in previous strong-field experiments at the visible wavelength region, but was commonly observed using single high-energy photon or electron excitation. For the first time with near-IR ultrashort-pulse radiation, we observe an abundance of CO 2+ . We show that CO 2+ results from nonsequential double ionization, while its dissociation counterpart, C + +O + , results from sequential processes, and CO 2+ can be obtained through either single high-energy photon or electron excitation or multiphoton ionization with ultrashort pulses before a critical internuclear distance is reached. Our study demonstrates the experimental conditions to converge the outcomes from two vastly different regimes, namely, multiphoton excitation and ionization in strong fields and single high-energy photon or electron excitation and ionization in weak fields

  14. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  15. Dual field theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dual field theory of strong interactions is derived from a Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. The existence of a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e is incorporated into the theory. Unification of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces is shown to converge at the mass of the intermediate vector boson W/sup +/-/. The coupling constants of the strong and weak interactions are derived in terms of the fine-structure constant α = 1/137

  16. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  17. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  18. Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.

  19. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  20. Strong-coupling theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, D.; Sauls, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The electronic properties of correlated metals with a strong electron-phonon coupling may be understood in terms of a combination of Landau''s Fermi liquid theory and the strong-coupling theory of Migdal and Eliashberg. In these lecture notes we discuss the microscopic foundations of this phenomenological Fermi-liquid model of correlated, strong-coupling metals. We formulate the basic equations of the model, which are quasiclassical transport equations that describe both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena for the normal and superconducting states of a metal. Our emphasis is on superconductors close to equilibrium, for which we derive the general linear response theory. As an application we calculate the dynamical conductivity of strong-coupling superconductors. (author)

  1. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  2. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There have been many developments in modeling techniques, and ... damage life and property in a city or region. How- ... quake of 26 January 2001 as a case study. 2. ...... quake derived from a dense strong-motion network; Bull. Seismol.

  3. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  4. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders

  5. Strong interaction effects in hadronic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The WKB method is applied to the calculation of strong interaction-induced level widths and shifts of hadronic atoms. The calculation, while elementary enough for undergraduate quantum mechanics students, gives a good account of kaonic and antiprotonic atom data

  6. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  7. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  8. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  9. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  10. Symptomatic, MRI Confirmed, Lumbar Disc Herniations: A Comparison of Outcomes Depending on the Type and Anatomical Axial Location of the Hernia in Patients Treated With High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Spinal Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, Marco; Peterson, Cynthia; Leemann, Serafin; Schmid, Christof; Anklin, Bernard; Humphreys, B Kim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether specific MRI features, such as axial location and type of herniation, are associated with outcomes of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation patients treated with spinal manipulation therapy (SMT). MRI and treatment outcome data from 68 patients were included in this prospective outcomes study. Pain numerical rating scale (NRS) and Oswestry physical disability questionnaire (OPDQ) levels were measured at baseline. The Patients Global Impression of Change scale, the NRS and the OPDQ were collected at 2 weeks, 1, 3, 6 months and 1 year. One radiologist and 2 chiropractic medicine master's degree students analyzed the MRI scans blinded to treatment outcomes. κ statistics assessed inter-rater reliability of MRI diagnosis. The proportion of patients reporting relevant improvement at each time point was compared based on MRI findings using the chi-square test. The t test and ANOVA compared the NRS and OPDQ change scores between patients with various MRI abnormalities. A higher proportion of patients with disc sequestration reported relevant improvement at each time point but this did not quite reach statistical significance. Patients with disc sequestration had significantly higher reduction in leg pain at 1 month compared to those with extrusion (P = .02). Reliability of MRI diagnosis ranged from substantial to perfect (K = .733-1.0). Patients with sequestered herniations treated with SMT to the level of herniation reported significantly higher levels of leg pain reduction at 1 month and a higher proportion reported improvement at all data collection time points but this did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2016 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1982-06-01

    Several non-linear processes involvoing the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields are discussed, with particular emphasis on the ionization problem. Non-perturbative methods which have been proposed to tackle this problem are analysed, and shown to correspond to an expansion in the intra-atomic potential. The relation between tunneling and multiphoton absorption as ionization mechanisms, and the generalization of Einstein's photoelectric equation to the strong-field case are discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  13. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  14. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  15. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  17. Self-esteem and outcome fairness judgments: Differential use of procedural and outcome information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, R; van Knippenberg, D.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; Blaauw, E.

    2001-01-01

    Results of a survey of 222 detainees in Dutch jails and police stations showed that outcome-fairness judgments of individuals with high self-esteem were more strongly related to outcome considerations than to procedural considerations, whereas outcome-fairness judgments of individuals with low

  18. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  19. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  20. Geiger-Nuttall Law for Nuclei in Strong Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delion, D. S.; Ghinescu, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the influence of a strong laser electromagnetic field on the α -decay rate by using the Hennenberger frame of reference. We introduce an adimensional parameter D =S0/R0, where R0 is the geometrical nuclear radius and S0˜√{I }/ω2 is a length parameter depending on the laser intensity I and frequency ω . We show that the barrier penetrability has a strong increase for intensities corresponding to D >Dcrit=1 , due to the fact that the resulting Coulomb potential becomes strongly anisotropic even for spherical nuclei. As a consequence, the contribution of the monopole term increases the barrier penetrability by 2 orders of magnitude, while the total contribution has an effect of 6 orders of magnitude at D ˜3 Dcrit. In the case of deformed nuclei, the electromagnetic field increases the penetrability by an additional order of magnitude for a quadrupole deformation β2˜0.3 . The influence of the electromagnetic field can be expressed in terms of a shifted Geiger-Nuttal law by a term depending on S0 and deformation.

  1. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON PULSAR ARRIVAL TIMES: GENERAL ORIENTATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Creighton, Teviet; Price, Richard H.; Jenet, Frederick A.

    2009-01-01

    A pulsar beam passing close to a black hole can provide a probe of very strong gravitational fields even if the pulsar itself is not in a strong field region. In the case that the spin of the hole can be ignored, we have previously shown that all strong field effects on the beam can be understood in terms of two 'universal' functions: F(φ in ) and T(φ in ) of the angle of beam emission φ in ; these functions are universal in that they depend only on a single parameter, the pulsar/black hole distance from which the beam is emitted. Here we apply this formalism to general pulsar-hole-observer geometries, with arbitrary alignment of the pulsar spin axis and arbitrary pulsar beam direction and angular width. We show that the analysis of the observational problem has two distinct elements: (1) the computation of the location and trajectory of an observer-dependent 'keyhole' direction of emission in which a signal can be received by the observer; and (2) the determination of an annulus that represents the set of directions containing beam energy. Examples of each are given along with an example of a specific observational scenario.

  2. The neural basis of risky choice with affective outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S Suter

    Full Text Available Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes' emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain

  3. The neural basis of risky choice with affective outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Renata S; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective) expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus) correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes' emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain of the decision to

  4. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  5. Family Structure and Youths' Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Gary; Levine, David I.

    2000-01-01

    National Education Longitudinal Study data were used to examine whether parents' divorce/remarriage or existing family disadvantages caused such outcomes as teens' lower educational attainment or higher rates of parenthood. Neither divorce nor remarriage during a youth's high school years was strongly correlated with preexisting characteristics of…

  6. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  7. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using ''first principles'' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  8. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-04-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  9. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  10. Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Ott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals, (b the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism, and (c the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability. These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability.

  11. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  12. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  13. Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2013-01-01

    The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...

  14. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  15. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...

  16. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  17. Strong WW scattering at photon linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing strong interactions of longitudinally polarized weak vector bosons in the process γγ → ZZ at a photon linear collider. We make use of polarization of the photon beams and cuts on the decay products of the Z bosons to enhance the signal relative to the background of transversely polarized ZZ pairs. We find that the background overwhelms the signal unless there are strong resonant effects, as for instance from a technicolor analogue of the hadronic f 2 (1270) meson

  18. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  19. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.

  2. Strong cosmic censorship in de Sitter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Eperon, Felicity C.; Reall, Harvey S.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2018-05-01

    Recent work indicates that the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis is violated by nearly extremal Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. It was argued that perturbations of such a black hole decay sufficiently rapidly that the perturbed spacetime can be extended across the Cauchy horizon as a weak solution of the equations of motion. In this paper we consider the case of Kerr-de Sitter black holes. We find that, for any nonextremal value of the black hole parameters, there are quasinormal modes which decay sufficiently slowly to ensure that strong cosmic censorship is respected. Our analysis covers both scalar field and linearized gravitational perturbations.

  3. Subcycle dynamics of Coulomb asymmetry in strong elliptical laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Liu, Hong; Ning, Qicheng; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Peng, Liang-You; Peng, Liangyou; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-12

    We measure photoelectron angular distributions of noble gases in intense elliptically polarized laser fields, which indicate strong structure-dependent Coulomb asymmetry. Using a dedicated semiclassical model, we have disentangled the contribution of direct ionization and multiple forward scattering on Coulomb asymmetry in elliptical laser fields. Our theory quantifies the roles of the ionic potential and initial transverse momentum on Coulomb asymmetry, proving that the small lobes of asymmetry are induced by direct ionization and the strong asymmetry is induced by multiple forward scattering in the ionic potential. Both processes are distorted by the Coulomb force acting on the electrons after tunneling. Lowering the ionization potential, the relative contribution of direct ionization on Coulomb asymmetry substantially decreases and Coulomb focusing on multiple rescattering is more important. We do not observe evident initial longitudinal momentum spread at the tunnel exit according to our simulation.

  4. Joint statistics of strongly correlated neurons via dimensionality reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Taşkın; Rotter, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The relative timing of action potentials in neurons recorded from local cortical networks often shows a non-trivial dependence, which is then quantified by cross-correlation functions. Theoretical models emphasize that such spike train correlations are an inevitable consequence of two neurons being part of the same network and sharing some synaptic input. For non-linear neuron models, however, explicit correlation functions are difficult to compute analytically, and perturbative methods work only for weak shared input. In order to treat strong correlations, we suggest here an alternative non-perturbative method. Specifically, we study the case of two leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with strong shared input. Correlation functions derived from simulated spike trains fit our theoretical predictions very accurately. Using our method, we computed the non-linear correlation transfer as well as correlation functions that are asymmetric due to inhomogeneous intrinsic parameters or unequal input. (paper)

  5. An experimental study of strong reciprocity in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, R Fredrik; West, Stuart; Buckling, Angus

    2014-02-01

    Strong reciprocity, whereby cooperators punish non-cooperators, may help to explain the evolutionary success of cooperative behaviours. However, theory suggests that selection for strong reciprocity can depend upon tight genetic linkage between cooperation and punishment, to avoid the strategy being outcompeted by non-punishing cooperators. We tested this hypothesis using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cooperate by producing iron-scavenging siderophores and, in this context, punish non-cooperators with toxins. Consistent with theory, we show that cooperative punishers can indeed invade cheats, but only when the traits are tightly linked. These results emphasize that punishment is only likely to be favoured when the punishment itself leads to a direct or indirect fitness benefit to the actor.

  6. Atom-Pair Kinetics with Strong Electric-Dipole Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaicharoen, N; Gonçalves, L F; Raithel, G

    2016-05-27

    Rydberg-atom ensembles are switched from a weakly to a strongly interacting regime via adiabatic transformation of the atoms from an approximately nonpolar into a highly dipolar quantum state. The resultant electric dipole-dipole forces are probed using a device akin to a field ion microscope. Ion imaging and pair-correlation analysis reveal the kinetics of the interacting atoms. Dumbbell-shaped pair-correlation images demonstrate the anisotropy of the binary dipolar force. The dipolar C_{3} coefficient, derived from the time dependence of the images, agrees with the value calculated from the permanent electric-dipole moment of the atoms. The results indicate many-body dynamics akin to disorder-induced heating in strongly coupled particle systems.

  7. Combined incomplete LU and strongly implicit procedure preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meese, E.A. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    For the solution of large sparse linear systems of equations, the Krylov-subspace methods have gained great merit. Their efficiency are, however, largely dependent upon preconditioning of the equation-system. A family of matrix factorisations often used for preconditioning, is obtained from a truncated Gaussian elimination, ILU(p). Less common, supposedly due to it`s restriction to certain sparsity patterns, is factorisations generated by the strongly implicit procedure (SIP). The ideas from ILU(p) and SIP are used in this paper to construct a generalized strongly implicit procedure, applicable to matrices with any sparsity pattern. The new algorithm has been run on some test equations, and efficiency improvements over ILU(p) was found.

  8. Natural strong CP conservation in flipped physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, P.H. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1990-08-13

    A natural axion-free solution of the strong {ital CP} problem {ital at} {ital tree} {ital level} is noted within an E(6) grand unified theory. Using this as a springboard, it is shown that several flipped SU(5) theories which occur in superstring phenomenology contain within them a mechanism which enforces {bar {theta}}=0 at high accuracy.

  9. Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.

    Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.

  10. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  11. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...

  12. Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1993-05-01

    Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs

  13. Phase transition from strong-coupling expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Szlachanyi, K.

    1982-01-01

    Starting with quarkless SU(2) lattice gauge theory and using the strong-coupling expansion we calculate the action of the effective field theory which corresponds to the thermal Wilson loop. This effective action makes evident that the quark liberating phase transition traces back to the spontaneous breaking of a global Z(2) symmetry group. It furthermore describes both phases qualitatively. (orig.)

  14. The stability of the strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The perturbation of the classical solution to a strong gravity model given by Salam and Strathdee is investigated. Using the Hamiltonian formalism it is shown that this static and spherically symmetric solution is stable under the odd parity perturbations provided some parameters in the solution are suitably restricted

  15. Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed

  16. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  17. Strong imploding shock, the representative curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1981-01-01

    The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)

  18. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  19. Physics challenges in the strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.

  20. Strongly \\'etale difference algebras and Babbitt's decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašić, Ivan; Wibmer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of strongly \\'{e}tale difference algebras, whose role in the study of difference equations is analogous to the role of \\'{e}tale algebras in the study of algebraic equations. We deduce an improved version of Babbitt's decomposition theorem and we present applications to difference algebraic groups and the compatibility problem.

  1. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  2. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  3. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence....

  4. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  5. Strong field control of predissociation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, María E; Balerdi, Garikoitz; Loriot, Vincent; de Nalda, Rebeca; Bañares, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Strong field control scenarios are investigated in the CH3I predissociation dynamics at the origin of the second absorption B-band, in which state-selective electronic predissociation occurs through the crossing with a valence dissociative state. Dynamic Stark control (DSC) and pump-dump strategies are shown capable of altering both the predissociation lifetime and the product branching ratio.

  6. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  7. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  8. Steering neutral atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilzer, S; Eichmann, U

    2014-01-01

    The seminal strong-field tunnelling theory introduced by L V Keldysh plays a pivotal role. It has shaped our understanding of atomic strong-field processes, where it represents the first step in complex ionisation dynamics and provides reliable tunnelling rates. Tunnelling rates, however, cannot be necessarily equated with ionisation rates. Taking into account the electron dynamics in the Coulomb potential following the tunnelling process, the process of frustrated tunnelling ionisation has been found to lead to excited Rydberg atoms. Here, we excite He atoms in the strong-field tunnelling regime into Rydberg states. A high percentage of these Rydberg atoms survive in high intensity laser fields. We exploit this fact together with their high polarisability to kinematically manipulate the Rydberg atoms with a second elliptically polarised focused strong laser field. By varying the spatial overlap of the two laser foci, we are able to selectively control the deflection of the Rydberg atoms. The results of semi-classical calculations, which are based on the frustrated tunnelling model and on the ponderomotive acceleration, are in accord with our experimental data. (paper)

  9. Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#

  10. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...

  11. Black holes and the strong cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of black holes developed by Hawking in asymptotically flat space-times is generalized so that black holes in the cosmological situations are included. It is assumed that the strong version of the Penrose cosmic censorship hypothesis holds. (author)

  12. Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Da [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of (China); Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pomarol, Alex [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dept. de Física and IFAE-BIST,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or WW scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.

  13. Strong drifts effects on neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, M.; Gregoratto, D.; White, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that strong drifts play an important role in plasma equilibrium, stability and confinement A significant example concerns, in particular for tokamak plasmas, the case of strong toroidal differential rotation produced by E x B drift which is currently regarded as potentially important for its influence in equilibrium, stability and transport. In fact, theoretically, it has been found that shear flow can substantially affect the stability of microinstabilities as well modify substantially transport. Recent experimental observations of enhanced confinement and transport regimes in Tokamaks, show, however, evidence of the existence of strong drifts in the plasma core. These are produced not only by the radial electric field [which gives rise to the E x B drift], but also by density [N s ], temperature [T s ] and mass flow [V = ωRe var-phi , with e var-phi the toroidal unit vector, R the distance for the symmetry axis of the torus and ω being the toroidal angular rotation velocity] profiles which are suitably steep. This implies that, in a significant part of the plasma core, the relevant scale lengths of the gradients [of N s , T s , ω], i.e., respectively L N , L T and L ω can be as large as the radial scale length characterizing the banana orbits, L b . Interestingly enough, the transport estimates obtained appear close or even lower than the predictions based on the simplest neoclassical model. However, as is well known, the latter applies, in a strict sense only in the case of weak drifts and also ignoring even the contribution of shear flow related to strong E x B drift. Thus a fundamental problem appears the extension of neoclassical transport theory to include the effect of strong drifts in Tokamak confinement systems. The goal of this investigation is to develop a general formulation of neoclassical transport embodying such important feature

  14. Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)

  15. Dynamics of long-period irregular pulsations in high latitudes during strong magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurazhkovskaya, N.A.; Klajn, B.I.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of strong magnetic storms within np type high-latitudinal long-period irregular pulsations at Mirny studied using data obtained at observatory of the magnetosphere south hemisphere. Variation of long-period irregular pulsation amplitude is shown to depend essentially on duration of storm initial phase and on the nature of solar wind heterogeneity enabling growth of strong storm. 14 refs

  16. Hydrodynamics in a Degenerate, Strongly Attractive Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E.; Kinast, Joseph; Hemmer, Staci; Turlapov, Andrey; O'Hara, Ken; Gehm, Mike; Granade, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    In summary, we use all-optical methods with evaporative cooling near a Feshbach resonance to produce a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas. We observe hydrodynamic behavior in the expansion dynamics. At low temperatures, collisions may not explain the expansion dynamics. We observe hydrodynamics in the trapped gas. Our observations include collisionally-damped excitation spectra at high temperature which were not discussed above. In addition, we observe weakly damped breathing modes at low temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the damping time and hydrodynamic frequency are not consistent with collisional dynamics nor with collisionless mean field interactions. These observations constitute the first evidence for superfluid hydrodynamics in a Fermi gas.

  17. Multiphoton above threshold effects in strong-field fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Madsen, C; Anis, F; B Madsen, L

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of multiphoton dissociative ionization from molecules. By solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for H2+ and projecting the solution onto double continuum scattering states, we observe the correlated electron-nuclear ionization dynamics in detail. We show—for the first...... time—how multiphoton structure prevails as long as one accounts for the energies of all the fragments. Our current work provides a new avenue to analyze strong-field fragmentation that leads to a deeper understanding of the correlated molecular dynamics....

  18. Plasma production and thermalisation in a strong field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnik, D.V.; Schmidt, S.M.; Prozorkevich, A.V.; Smolyansky, S.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Hecht, M.B.; Roberts, C.D.

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of the formation and equilibration of a quark-gluon plasma are explored using a quantum kinetic equation, which involves a non-Markovian, Abelian source term for quark and antiquark production and, for the collision term, a relaxation time approximation that defines a time-dependent quasi-equilibrium temperature and collective velocity. The strong Abelian field is determined via the simultaneous solution of Maxwell's equation. A particular feature of this approach is the appearance of plasma oscillations in all thermodynamic observables. Their presence can lead to a sharp increase in the time-integrated dilepton yield, although a rapid expansion of the plasma may eliminate this signal. (orig.)

  19. Drag force in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2012-08-01

    We calculate the drag force experienced by an infinitely massive quark propagating at constant velocity through an anisotropic, strongly coupled {N} = 4 plasma by means of its gravity dual. We find that the gluon cloud trailing behind the quark is generally misaligned with the quark velocity, and that the latter is also misaligned with the force. The drag coefficient μ can be larger or smaller than the corresponding isotropic value depending on the velocity and the direction of motion. In the ultra-relativistic limit we find that generically μ ∝ p. We discuss the conditions under which this behaviour may extend to more general situations.

  20. Inelastic electron scattering influence on the strong coupling oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabovich, A.M.; Voitenko, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    The superconducting order parameters Δ and energy gap Δ g are calculated taking into account the pair-breaking inelastic quasiparticle scattering by thermal Bose-excitations, e.g., phonons. The treatment is self-consistent because the scattering amplitude depends on Δ. The superconducting transition for any strength of the inelastic scattering is the phase transition of the first kind and the dependences Δ (T) and Δ g (T) tend to rectangular curve that agrees well with the experiment for high-Tc oxides. On the basis of the developed theory the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate R s in the superconducting state is calculated. The Hebel-Slichter peak in R s (T) is shown to disappear for strong enough inelastic scattering

  1. Jet quenching in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2012-08-01

    The jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic plasma depends on the relative orientation between the anisotropic direction, the direction of motion of the parton, and the direction along which the momentum broadening is measured. We calculate the jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic, strongly coupled {N} = 4 plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary orientations and arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic value can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. We compare our results to analogous calculations for the real-world quark-gluon plasma and find agreement in some cases and disagreement in others.

  2. Large linear magnetoresistivity in strongly inhomogeneous planar and layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgadaev, S.A.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2005-01-01

    Explicit expressions for magnetoresistance R of planar and layered strongly inhomogeneous two-phase systems are obtained, using exact dual transformation, connecting effective conductivities of in-plane isotropic two-phase systems with and without magnetic field. These expressions allow to describe the magnetoresistance of various inhomogeneous media at arbitrary concentrations x and magnetic fields H. All expressions show large linear magnetoresistance effect with different dependencies on the phase concentrations. The corresponding plots of the x- and H-dependencies of R(x,H) are represented for various values, respectively, of magnetic field and concentrations at some values of inhomogeneity parameter. The obtained results show a remarkable similarity with the existing experimental data on linear magnetoresistance in silver chalcogenides Ag 2+δ Se. A possible physical explanation of this similarity is proposed. It is shown that the random, stripe type, structures of inhomogeneities are the most suitable for a fabrication of magnetic sensors and a storage of information at room temperatures

  3. Universal structure of a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnle, Eva; Dyke, Paul; Hoinka, Sascha; Mark, Michael; Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter; Hannaford, Peter; Vale, Chris, E-mail: cvale@swin.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum Atom Optics, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn 3122 (Australia)

    2011-01-10

    This paper presents studies of the universal properties of strongly interacting Fermi gases using Bragg spectroscopy. We focus on pair-correlations, their relationship to the contact C introduced by Tan, and their dependence on both the momentum and temperature. We show that short-range pair correlations obey a universal law, first derived by Tan through measurements of the static structure factor, which displays a universal scaling with the ratio of the contact to the momentum C/q. Bragg spectroscopy of ultracold {sup 6}Li atoms is employed to measure the structure factor for a wide range of momenta and interaction strengths, providing broad confirmation of this universal law. We show that calibrating our Bragg spectra using the f-sum rule leads to a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of the structure factor measurement. We also measure the temperature dependence of the contact in a unitary gas and compare our results to calculations based on a virial expansion.

  4. Dependent failures of diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1982-01-01

    This survey of dependent failures (common-cause failures) is based on the data of diesel generator failures in U. S. nuclear power plants as reported in Licensee Event Reports. Failures were classified into random and potentially dependent failures. All failures due to design errors, manufacturing or installation errors, maintenance errors, or deviations in the operational environment were classified as potentially dependent failures.The statistical dependence between failures was estimated from the relative portion of multiple failures. Results confirm the earlier view of the significance of statistical dependence, a strong dependence on the age of the diesel generator was found in each failure class excluding random failures and maintenance errors, which had a nearly constant frequency independent of diesel generator age

  5. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  6. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  7. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.

    1975-07-01

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  8. Strongly not relatives Kähler manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedda Michela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study Kähler manifolds that are strongly not relative to any projective Kähler manifold, i.e. those Kähler manifolds that do not share a Kähler submanifold with any projective Kähler manifold even when their metric is rescaled by the multiplication by a positive constant. We prove two results which highlight some relations between this property and the existence of a full Kähler immersion into the infinite dimensional complex projective space. As application we get that the 1-parameter families of Bergman-Hartogs and Fock-Bargmann-Hartogs domains are strongly not relative to projective Kähler manifolds.

  9. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  10. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  11. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  12. New strong interactions above the electroweak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical arguments for a new higher-color quark sector, based on Pomeron physics in QCD, are briefly described. The electroweak symmetry-breaking, Strong CP conservation, and electroweak scale CP violation, that is naturally produced by this sector is also outlined. A further consequence is that above the electroweak scale there will be a radical change in the strong interaction. Electroweak states, in particular multiple W's and Z's, and new, semi-stable, very massive, baryons, will be commonly produced. The possible correlation of expected phenomena with a wide range of observed Cosmic Ray effects at and above the primary spectrum knee is described. Related phenomena that might be seen in the highest energy hard scattering events at the Fermilab Tevatron, some of which could be confused with top production, are also briefly discussed

  13. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  14. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...

  15. Equilibrium and stability in strongly inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1978-10-01

    The equilibrium of strongly inhomogeneous, collisionless, slab plasmas, is studied using a generalized version of a formalism previously developed, which permits the generation of self-consistent equilibria, for plasmas with arbitrary magnetic shear, and variation of magnetic field strength. A systematic procedure is developed for deriving the form of the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, for finite eta, in an axisymmetric geometry. In the process of obtaining K, an expression for the first adiabatic invariant (the gyroaction) is obtained, which generalizes the usual expression 1/2 mv/sub perpendicular/ 2 /Ω/sub c/ (Ω/sub c/ = eB/mc), to finite eta and magnetic shear. A formalism is developed for the study of the stability of strongly-inhomogeneous, magnetized slab plasmas; it is then applied to the ion-drift-cyclotron instability

  16. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  17. Marital Expectations in Strong African American Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra

    2017-12-01

    The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  18. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N.; Zheng, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Sammak, A.; Mendes, U. C.; Blais, A.; Scappucci, G.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2018-03-01

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot–based spin qubit registers.

  19. Electrons in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzykson, C.

    1985-05-01

    We first describe the average one-particle spectrum in the presence of a strong magnetic field together with random impurities for a Gaussian distribution, and generalized using a supersymmetric method. We then study the effect of Coulomb interactions on an electron gas in a strong field, within the approximation of a projection on the lowest Landau level. At maximal density (or filling fraction ν equal to unity) the quantum mechanical problem is equivalent to a soluble classical model for a two-dimensional plasma. As ν decreases, more states come into play. Laughlin has guessed the structure of the ground state and its low lying excitations for certain rational values of the filling fraction. A complete proof is however missing, nor is it clear what happens as ν becomes so small that a ''crystalline'' structure becomes favoured. Our presentation shows a link with functions occurring in combinatorics and analytic number theory, which seems not to have been fully exploited

  20. Block of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by philanthotoxins is strongly dependent on their subunit composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kachel, Hamid S; Patel, Rohit N; Franzyk, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    -fold selectivity of PhTX-12 over PhTX-343 for embryonic muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in TE671 cells. We investigated their inhibition of different neuronal nAChR subunit combinations as well as of embryonic muscle receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell currents...

  1. Strong association between corticosterone levels and temperature-dependent metabolic rate in individual zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimeno Revilla, Blanca; Hau, Michaela; Verhulst, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) are often assumed to be indicators of stress. At the same time, one of their fundamental roles is to facilitate metabolic processes to accommodate changes in energetic demands. Although the metabolic function of GCs is thought to be ubiquitous across vertebrates, we are

  2. Size-dependent avoidance of a strong magnetic anomaly in Caribbean spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2018-03-01

    On a global scale, the geomagnetic field varies predictably across the Earth's surface, providing animals that migrate long distances with a reliable source of directional and positional information that can be used to guide their movements. In some locations, however, magnetic minerals in the Earth's crust generate an additional field that enhances or diminishes the overall field, resulting in unusually steep gradients of field intensity within a limited area. How animals respond to such magnetic anomalies is unclear. The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus , is a benthic marine invertebrate that possesses a magnetic sense and is likely to encounter magnetic anomalies during migratory movements and homing. As a first step toward investigating whether such anomalies affect the behavior of lobsters, a two-choice preference experiment was conducted in which lobsters were allowed to select one of two artificial dens, one beneath a neodymium magnet and the other beneath a non-magnetic weight of similar size and mass (control). Significantly more lobsters selected the control den, demonstrating avoidance of the magnetic anomaly. In addition, lobster size was found to be a significant predictor of den choice: lobsters that selected the anomaly den were significantly smaller as a group than those that chose the control den. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence for magnetoreception in spiny lobsters, raise the possibility of an ontogenetic shift in how lobsters respond to magnetic fields, and suggest that magnetic anomalies might influence lobster movement in the natural environment. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Candidate Genes Detected in Transcriptome Studies are Strongly Dependent on Genetic Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2011-01-01

    identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same...

  4. How Does HTLV-1 Undergo Oncogene-Dependent Replication Despite a Strong Immune Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Gazon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, Mitsuaki Yoshida proposed the following model (Yoshida and Seiki, 1987: “... T-cells activated through the endogenous p40x would express viral antigens including the envelope glycoproteins which are exposed on the cell surface. These glycoproteins are targets of host immune surveillance, as is evidenced by the cytotoxic effects of anti-envelope antibodies or patient sera. Eventually all cells expressing the viral antigens, that is, all cells driven by the p40x would be rejected by the host. Only those cells that did not express the viral antigens would survive. Later, these antigen-negative infected cells would begin again to express viral antigens, including p40x, thus entering into the second cycle of cell propagation. These cycles would be repeated in so-called healthy virus carriers for 20 or 30 years or longer....” Three decades later, accumulated experimental facts particularly on intermittent viral transcription and regulation by the host immune response appear to prove that Yoshida was right. This Hypothesis and Theory summarizes the evidences that support this paradigm.

  5. TGFβ affects collagen cross-linking independent of chondrocyte phenotype but strongly depending on physical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Koevoet, W.; Bart, A.C.W. de; Zuurmond, A.-M.; Bank, R.A.; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Groot, J. de; Osch, G.J.V.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is often used in cartilage tissue engineering to increase matrix formation by cells with various phenotypes. However, adverse effects of TGFβ, such as extensive cross-linking in cultured fibroblasts, have also been reported. Our goal was to study effects of

  6. Strong charge state dependence of H+ and H2+ sputtering induced by slow highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakutani, N.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Komaki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion emission has been studied for very slow ( similar 0.01ν B ) highly charged Ar and N ions bombarding C 60 containing hydrogen as an impurity. It is found that the fragmentations of C 60 are very rare even for Ar 16+ bombardments. On the other hand, the sputtering of H + and H 2 + has been observed to increase drastically as a function of incident charge q like q γ (e.g., γ similar 4.6 for H + sputtering by 500 eV Ar q+ ). (orig.)

  7. Extended parametric gain range in photonic crystal fibers with strongly frequency-dependent field distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    The parametric gain range of a degenerate four-wave mixing process is determined in the undepleted pump regime. The gain range is considered with and without taking the mode field distributions of the four-wave mixing components into account. It is found that the mode field distributions have...

  8. Candidate genes detected in transcriptome studies are strongly dependent on genetic background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Sarup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome transcriptomic studies can point to potential candidate genes for organismal traits. However, the importance of potential candidates is rarely followed up through functional studies and/or by comparing results across independent studies. We have analysed the overlap of candidate genes identified from studies of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster using similar technical platforms. We found little overlap across studies between putative candidate genes for the same traits in the same sex. Instead there was a high degree of overlap between different traits and sexes within the same genetic backgrounds. Putative candidates found using transcriptomics therefore appear very sensitive to genetic background and this can mask or override effects of treatments. The functional importance of putative candidate genes emerging from transcriptome studies needs to be validated through additional experiments and in future studies we suggest a focus on the genes, networks and pathways affecting traits in a consistent manner across backgrounds.

  9. Efficacy of melody-based aphasia therapy may strongly depend on rhythm and conversational speech formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Left-hemisphere stroke patients suffering from language and speech disorders are often able to sing entire pieces of text fluently. This finding has inspired a number of melody-based rehabilitation programs – most notable among them a treatment known as Melodic Intonation Therapy – as well as two fundamental research questions. When the experimental design focuses on one point in time (cross section, one may determine whether or not singing has an immediate effect on syllable production in patients with language and speech disorders. When the design focuses on changes over several points in time (longitudinal section, one may gain insight as to whether or not singing has a long-term effect on language and speech recovery. The current work addresses both of these questions with two separate experiments that investigate the interplay of melody, rhythm and lyric type in 32 patients with non-fluent aphasia and apraxia of speech (Stahl et al., 2011; Stahl et al., 2013. Taken together, the experiments deliver three main results. First, singing and rhythmic pacing proved to be equally effective in facilitating immediate syllable production and long-term language and speech recovery. Controlling for various influences such as prosody, syllable duration and phonetic complexity, the data did not reveal any advantage of singing over rhythmic speech. This result was independent of lesion size and lesion location in the patients. Second, patients with extensive left-sided basal ganglia lesions produced more correct syllables when their speech was paced by rhythmic drumbeats. This observation is consistent with the idea that regular auditory cues may partially compensate for corticostriatal damage and thereby improve speech-motor planning (Grahn & Watson, 2013. Third, conversational speech formulas and well-known song lyrics yielded higher rates of correct syllable production than novel word sequences – whether patients were singing or speaking rhythmically. Moreover, the training of conversational speech formulas led to long-term progress in the production of formulaic language. The patients were able to establish their own individual formulaic repertoire in order to communicate some basic needs in daily life. This finding may result from the fact that, according to present knowledge, the production of formulaic language engages bilateral neural networks including right frontotemporal areas, the right basal ganglia and, possibly, the right cerebellum (Hughlings-Jackson, 1878; Speedie et al., 1993; Ackermann et al., 1998; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Sidtis et al., 2009. In other words, left-hemisphere stroke patients may use right-hemisphere language resources to produce conversational speech formulas, whether they are sung or rhythmically spoken. In conclusion, the current experiments highlight the critical role of rhythm and conversational speech formulas in melody-based aphasia therapy.

  10. Extended parametric gain range in photonic crystal fibers with strongly frequency-dependent field distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sidsel R; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Olausson, Christina B; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-08-15

    The parametric gain range of a degenerate four-wave mixing process is determined in the undepleted pump regime. The gain range is considered with and without taking the mode field distributions of the four-wave mixing components into account. It is found that the mode field distributions have to be included to evaluate the parametric gain correctly in dispersion-tailored speciality fibers and that mode profile engineering can provide a way to increase the parametric gain range.

  11. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Wine Anthocyanins Is Strongly pH-Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borowski, T.; Tyrakowska, B.; Oszmianski, J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The radical scavenging capacity of red wine anthocyanins was quantified by the so-called TEAC assay with special emphasis on the influence of pH and conjugation on this activity. The pH appears to be a dominant factor in the radical scavenging capacity of wine anthocyanins, with higher pH values

  12. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  13. Strong coupling analogue of the Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1989-10-01

    In a given partial wave, the strength of the centrifugal term to be incorporated into the WKBA solutions in different spatial regions can be adjusted so as to make the first order wave functions everywhere smooth and, in strong coupling, exactly reproduce Quantum Mechanics throughout the space. The relevant higher order approximations supply an absolute convergent series expansion of the exact scattering state. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Strong disorder RG approach of random systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igloi, Ferenc; Monthus, Cecile

    2005-01-01

    There is a large variety of quantum and classical systems in which the quenched disorder plays a dominant ro-circumflex le over quantum, thermal, or stochastic fluctuations: these systems display strong spatial heterogeneities, and many averaged observables are actually governed by rare regions. A unifying approach to treat the dynamical and/or static singularities of these systems has emerged recently, following the pioneering RG idea by Ma and Dasgupta and the detailed analysis by Fisher who showed that the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yield asymptotic exact results if the broadness of the disorder grows indefinitely at large scales. Here we report these new developments by starting with an introduction of the main ingredients of the strong disorder RG method. We describe the basic properties of infinite disorder fixed points, which are realized at critical points, and of strong disorder fixed points, which control the singular behaviors in the Griffiths-phases. We then review in detail applications of the RG method to various disordered models, either (i) quantum models, such as random spin chains, ladders and higher dimensional spin systems, or (ii) classical models, such as diffusion in a random potential, equilibrium at low temperature and coarsening dynamics of classical random spin chains, trap models, delocalization transition of a random polymer from an interface, driven lattice gases and reaction diffusion models in the presence of quenched disorder. For several one-dimensional systems, the Ma-Dasgupta RG rules yields very detailed analytical results, whereas for other, mainly higher dimensional problems, the RG rules have to be implemented numerically. If available, the strong disorder RG results are compared with another, exact or numerical calculations

  15. Strong, Ductile Rotor For Cryogenic Flowmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royals, W. T.

    1993-01-01

    Improved magnetic flowmeter rotor resists cracking at cryogenic temperatures, yet provides adequate signal to magnetic pickup outside flowmeter housing. Consists mostly of stainless-steel alloy 347, which is ductile and strong at low temperatures. Small bead of stainless-steel alloy 410 welded in groove around circumference of round bar of stainless-steel alloy 347; then rotor machined from bar. Tips of rotor blades contain small amounts of magnetic alloy, and passage of tips detected.

  16. Hemingway's Scar and His Strong Will

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖

    2009-01-01

    Hemingway's inner world is not balanced He had a strong will,and on the other hand,he is hurt severely.Based on the analysis of Hemingway's experience and his works,the paper aims to study Hemingway's life attitude:Men,all sooner or later,go down to defeat:it is how they face the ordeal that determines their status.

  17. Strongly stable real infinitesimally symplectic mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushman, R.; Kelley, A.

    We prove that a mapA εsp(σ,R), the set of infinitesimally symplectic maps, is strongly stable if and only if its centralizerC(A) insp(σ,R) contains only semisimple elements. Using the theorem that everyB insp(σ,R) close toA is conjugate by a real symplectic map to an element ofC(A), we give a new

  18. Strong beam production for some elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplan, J.; Chaumont, J.; Meunier, R.

    1974-01-01

    Three electromagnetic isotope separators are installed in Rene Bernas Laboratory, one being especially adapted to ion implantation. The three apparatus use the same type of ion source and system of beam extraction. The special ion source is distinguishable from the others only by its smaller dimensions. These sources allow strong currents to be obtained for almost every element. The source and its extraction system are briefly described, examples of beams obtained are given [fr

  19. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  20. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.