A Rewriting Logic Approach to Type Inference
Ellison, Chucky; Şerbănuţă, Traian Florin; Roşu, Grigore
Meseguer and Roşu proposed rewriting logic semantics (RLS) as a programing language definitional framework that unifies operational and algebraic denotational semantics. RLS has already been used to define a series of didactic and real languages, but its benefits in connection with defining and reasoning about type systems have not been fully investigated. This paper shows how the same RLS style employed for giving formal definitions of languages can be used to define type systems. The same term-rewriting mechanism used to execute RLS language definitions can now be used to execute type systems, giving type checkers or type inferencers. The proposed approach is exemplified by defining the Hindley-Milner polymorphic type inferencer mathcal{W} as a rewrite logic theory and using this definition to obtain a type inferencer by executing it in a rewriting logic engine. The inferencer obtained this way compares favorably with other definitions or implementations of mathcal{W}. The performance of the executable definition is within an order of magnitude of that of highly optimized implementations of type inferencers, such as that of OCaml.
Teaching to the Test: A Pragmatic Approach to Teaching Logic
Vannatta, Seth C.
2014-01-01
The proper goal of an introductory logic course, teaching critical thinking, is best achieved by maintaining the principle of continuity between student experiences and the curriculum. To demonstrate this I explain Dewey's naturalistic approach to logic and the process of inquiry, one which presents the elements of traditional logic in the…
Access control, security, and trust a logical approach
Chin, Shiu-Kai
2010-01-01
Access Control, Security, Trust, and Logic Deconstructing Access Control Decisions A Logical Approach to Access Control PRELIMINARIES A Language for Access ControlSets and Relations Syntax SemanticsReasoning about Access Control Logical RulesFormal Proofs and Theorems Soundness of Logical RulesBasic Concepts Reference Monitors Access Control Mechanisms: Tickets and Lists Authentication Security PoliciesConfidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Discretionary Security Policies Mandatory Security Policies Military Security Policies Commercial PoliciesDISTRIBUTED ACCESS CONTROL Digital Authenti
Taylorism and the Logic of Learning Outcomes
Stoller, Aaron
2015-01-01
This essay examines the shared philosophical foundations of Fredrick W. Taylor's scientific management principles and the contemporary learning outcomes movement (LOM). It analyses the shared philosophical ground between the focal point of Taylor's system--"the task"--and the conceptualization and deployment of "learning…
Simulation Approach for Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan
2017-01-01
in a manner similar to electronic logic circuits, but they are much more stochastic and hence much harder to characterize. In this article, we introduce an approach to analyze the threshold value and timing of genetic logic circuits. We show how this approach can be used to analyze the timing behavior...... of single and cascaded genetic logic circuits. We further analyze the timing sensitivity of circuits by varying the degradation rates and concentrations. Our approach can be used not only to characterize the timing behavior but also to analyze the timing constraints of cascaded genetic logic circuits...
Graphical approach for multiple values logic minimization
Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.
1999-03-01
Multiple valued logic (MVL) is sought for designing high complexity, highly compact, parallel digital circuits. However, the practical realization of an MVL-based system is dependent on optimization of cost, which directly affects the optical setup. We propose a minimization technique for MVL logic optimization based on graphical visualization, such as a Karnaugh map. The proposed method is utilized to solve signed-digit binary and trinary logic minimization problems. The usefulness of the minimization technique is demonstrated for the optical implementation of MVL circuits.
CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY – A LOGICAL APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
EMIL DINGA
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The paper aims to achieve a definition of the concept of sustainability and of sustainable system from a logical perspective. In this respect, it introduces and defines (through the sufficiency predicates the concept of logically vivid system and, on this basis, are discussed a logical concept of sustainability, respectively of a sustainable system in general are discussed and built up. Sustainability is considered in light of identity preservation of the systems, as a static anchor, on one hand, and of the concept of automatic stabilizers as a dynamic anchor on the other side. Finally, the two sufficiency conditions for a logically vivid system be sustainable are identified: the presence of hyper-cycles, respectively the absence of positive feed-back.
A logical approach to fuzzy truth hedges
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Esteva, F.; Godo, L.; Noguera, Carles
2013-01-01
Roč. 232, č. 1 (2013), s. 366-385 ISSN 0020-0255 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * Standard completeness * Truth hedges Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/noguera-0469148.pdf
Improvements to Earthquake Location with a Fuzzy Logic Approach
Gökalp, Hüseyin
2018-01-01
In this study, improvements to the earthquake location method were investigated using a fuzzy logic approach proposed by Lin and Sanford (Bull Seismol Soc Am 91:82-93, 2001). The method has certain advantages compared to the inverse methods in terms of eliminating the uncertainties of arrival times and reading errors. In this study, adopting this approach, epicentral locations were determined based on the results of a fuzzy logic space concerning the uncertainties in the velocity models. To map the uncertainties in arrival times into the fuzzy logic space, a trapezoidal membership function was constructed by directly using the travel time difference between the two stations for the P- and S-arrival times instead of the P- and S-wave models to eliminate the need for obtaining information concerning the velocity structure of the study area. The results showed that this method worked most effectively when earthquakes occurred away from a network or when the arrival time data contained phase reading errors. In this study, to resolve the problems related to determining the epicentral locations of the events, a forward modeling method like the grid search technique was used by applying different logical operations (i.e., intersection, union, and their combination) with a fuzzy logic approach. The locations of the events were depended on results of fuzzy logic outputs in fuzzy logic space by searching in a gridded region. The process of location determination with the defuzzification of only the grid points with the membership value of 1 obtained by normalizing all the maximum fuzzy output values of the highest values resulted in more reliable epicentral locations for the earthquakes than the other approaches. In addition, throughout the process, the center-of-gravity method was used as a defuzzification operation.
Quantum Logic: Approach a Child's Environment from "Inside."
Rhodes, William C.
1987-01-01
With the advent of quantum mechanics, physics has merged with psychology, and cognitive science has been revolutionized. Quantum logic supports the notion of influencing the environment by increasing the child's capacity for cognitive processing. This special educational approach is theoretically more effective than social and political…
A Logical Approach to the Statement of Cash Flows
Petro, Fred; Gean, Farrell
2014-01-01
Of the three financial statements in financial reporting, the Statement of Cash Flows (SCF) is perhaps the most challenging. The most difficult aspect of the SCF is in developing an understanding of how previous transactions are finalized in this document. The purpose of this paper is to logically explain the indirect approach of cash flow whereby…
Science, a Psychological versus a Logical Approach in Teaching
Ediger, Marlow
2015-01-01
Under which approach do pupils attain more optimally, a logical versus a psychological procedure of instruction? Pupils do need to achieve well in a world of science. Science is all around us and pupils need to understand various principles and laws of science. Thus, teachers in the school curriculum must choose carefully objectives for pupil…
A Logical Approach to Modal Verbs 3. “Must”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imre Attila
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The article aims at a logical approach to discussing must, organized around the core meaning of necessity, split into epistemic (logical necessity and deontic necessity (obligation. After discussing must as a central modal auxiliary, we present various meanings of must, relying on authoritative sources published for international (English, Hungarian, and Romanian students. Possible issues of teaching must are also dealt with, supported by data from a popular TV series containing modal verbs. The conclusion discusses the importance and relativity of a number of occurrences, trying to offer a possible teaching option for modals stemming from practice.
A logical approach to semantic interoperability in healthcare.
Bird, Linda; Brooks, Colleen; Cheong, Yu Chye; Tun, Nwe Ni
2011-01-01
Singapore is in the process of rolling out a number of national e-health initiatives, including the National Electronic Health Record (NEHR). A critical enabler in the journey towards semantic interoperability is a Logical Information Model (LIM) that harmonises the semantics of the information structure with the terminology. The Singapore LIM uses a combination of international standards, including ISO 13606-1 (a reference model for electronic health record communication), ISO 21090 (healthcare datatypes), and SNOMED CT (healthcare terminology). The LIM is accompanied by a logical design approach, used to generate interoperability artifacts, and incorporates mechanisms for achieving unidirectional and bidirectional semantic interoperability.
Some results from the combinatorial approach to quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greechie, R.J.
1976-01-01
The combinatorial approach to quantum logic focuses on certain interconnections between graphs, combinatorial designs, and convex sets as applied to a quantum logic. This article is concerned only with orthomodular lattices and associated structures. A class of complete atomic irreducible semimodular orthomodular lattices is derived which may not be represented as linear subspaces of a vector space over a division ring. Each of these lattices is a proposition system of dimension three. These proposition systems form orthocomplemented non-Desarguesian projective geometries. (B.R.H.)
A logic programming approach to medical errors in imaging.
Rodrigues, Susana; Brandão, Paulo; Nelas, Luís; Neves, José; Alves, Victor
2011-09-01
was developed based on the presented approach to medical errors in imaging. This system was deployed in two Portuguese healthcare institutions, with an appealing outcome. The system enabled to verify that the majority of occurrences were concentrated in a few events that could be avoided. The developed system allowed automatic knowledge extraction, enabling report generation with strategies for the improvement of quality-of-care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Constraint Logic Programming approach to protein structure prediction
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Fogolari Federico
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein structure prediction problem is one of the most challenging problems in biological sciences. Many approaches have been proposed using database information and/or simplified protein models. The protein structure prediction problem can be cast in the form of an optimization problem. Notwithstanding its importance, the problem has very seldom been tackled by Constraint Logic Programming, a declarative programming paradigm suitable for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Results Constraint Logic Programming techniques have been applied to the protein structure prediction problem on the face-centered cube lattice model. Molecular dynamics techniques, endowed with the notion of constraint, have been also exploited. Even using a very simplified model, Constraint Logic Programming on the face-centered cube lattice model allowed us to obtain acceptable results for a few small proteins. As a test implementation their (known secondary structure and the presence of disulfide bridges are used as constraints. Simplified structures obtained in this way have been converted to all atom models with plausible structure. Results have been compared with a similar approach using a well-established technique as molecular dynamics. Conclusions The results obtained on small proteins show that Constraint Logic Programming techniques can be employed for studying protein simplified models, which can be converted into realistic all atom models. The advantage of Constraint Logic Programming over other, much more explored, methodologies, resides in the rapid software prototyping, in the easy way of encoding heuristics, and in exploiting all the advances made in this research area, e.g. in constraint propagation and its use for pruning the huge search space.
Constraint Logic Programming approach to protein structure prediction.
Dal Palù, Alessandro; Dovier, Agostino; Fogolari, Federico
2004-11-30
The protein structure prediction problem is one of the most challenging problems in biological sciences. Many approaches have been proposed using database information and/or simplified protein models. The protein structure prediction problem can be cast in the form of an optimization problem. Notwithstanding its importance, the problem has very seldom been tackled by Constraint Logic Programming, a declarative programming paradigm suitable for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Constraint Logic Programming techniques have been applied to the protein structure prediction problem on the face-centered cube lattice model. Molecular dynamics techniques, endowed with the notion of constraint, have been also exploited. Even using a very simplified model, Constraint Logic Programming on the face-centered cube lattice model allowed us to obtain acceptable results for a few small proteins. As a test implementation their (known) secondary structure and the presence of disulfide bridges are used as constraints. Simplified structures obtained in this way have been converted to all atom models with plausible structure. Results have been compared with a similar approach using a well-established technique as molecular dynamics. The results obtained on small proteins show that Constraint Logic Programming techniques can be employed for studying protein simplified models, which can be converted into realistic all atom models. The advantage of Constraint Logic Programming over other, much more explored, methodologies, resides in the rapid software prototyping, in the easy way of encoding heuristics, and in exploiting all the advances made in this research area, e.g. in constraint propagation and its use for pruning the huge search space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin W. Y. Lo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. The novel clinical prediction approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences is created and applied to derive prognostic decision rules in cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. Methods. The approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences was applied to data from five trials of Tirilazad for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (3551 patients. Results. Bayesian meta-analyses of observational studies on aSAH prognostic factors gave generalizable posterior distributions of population mean log odd ratios (ORs. Similar trends were noted in Bayesian and linear regression ORs. Significant outcome predictors include normal motor response, cerebral infarction, history of myocardial infarction, cerebral edema, history of diabetes mellitus, fever on day 8, prior subarachnoid hemorrhage, admission angiographic vasospasm, neurological grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, ruptured aneurysm size, history of hypertension, vasospasm day, age and mean arterial pressure. Heteroscedasticity was present in the nontransformed dataset. Artificial neural networks found nonlinear relationships with 11 hidden variables in 1 layer, using the multilayer perceptron model. Fuzzy logic decision rules (centroid defuzzification technique denoted cut-off points for poor prognosis at greater than 2.5 clusters. Discussion. This aSAH prognostic system makes use of existing knowledge, recognizes unknown areas, incorporates one's clinical reasoning, and compensates for uncertainty in prognostication.
Development of erosion risk map using fuzzy logic approach
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Fauzi Manyuk
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Erosion-hazard assessment is an important aspect in the management of a river basin such as Siak River Basin, Riau Province, Indonesia. This study presents an application of fuzzy logic approach to develop erosion risk map based on geographic information system. Fuzzy logic is a computing approach based on “degrees of truth” rather than the usual “true or false” (1 or 0 Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based. The results of the erosion risk map were verified by using field measurements. The verification result shows that the parameter of soil-erodibility (K indicates a good agreement with field measurement data. The classification of soil-erodibility (K as the result of validation were: very low (0.0–0.1, medium (0.21-0.32, high (0.44-0.55 and very high (0.56-0.64. The results obtained from this study show that the erosion risk map of Siak River Basin were dominantly classified as medium level which cover about 68.54%. The other classifications were high and very low erosion level which cover about 28.84% and 2.61% respectively.
Logical Attractors: a Boolean Approach to the Dynamics of Psychosis
Kupper, Z.; Hoffmann, H.
A Boolean modeling approach to attractors in the dynamics of psychosis is presented: Kinetic Logic, originating from R. Thomas, describes systems on an intermediate level between a purely verbal, qualitative description and a description using nonlinear differential equations. With this method we may model impact, feedback and temporal evolution, as well as analyze the resulting attractors. In our previous research the method has been applied to general and more specific questions in the dynamics of psychotic disorders. In this paper a model is introduced that describes different dynamical patterns of chronic psychosis in the context of vocational rehabilitation. It also shows to be useful in formulating and exploring possible treatment strategies. Finally, some of the limitations and benefits of Kinetic Logic as a modeling tool for psychology and psychiatry are discussed.
A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection
Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati
2017-06-01
It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.
Fuzzy Logic Approach to Diagnosis of Feedwater Heater Performance Degradation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Yeon Kwan; Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young; Sang, Seok Yoon
2014-01-01
Since failure in, damage to, and performance degradation of power generation components in operation under harsh environment of high pressure and high temperature may cause both economic and human loss at power plants, highly reliable operation and control of these components are necessary. Therefore, a systematic method of diagnosing the condition of these components in its early stages is required. There have been many researches related to the diagnosis of these components, but our group developed an approach using a regression model and diagnosis table, specializing in diagnosis relating to thermal efficiency degradation of power plant. However, there was a difficulty in applying the method using the regression model to power plants with different operating conditions because the model was sensitive to value. In case of the method that uses diagnosis table, it was difficult to find the level at which each performance degradation factor had an effect on the components. Therefore, fuzzy logic was introduced in order to diagnose performance degradation using both qualitative and quantitative results obtained from the components' operation data. The model makes performance degradation assessment using various performance degradation variables according to the input rule constructed based on fuzzy logic. The purpose of the model is to help the operator diagnose performance degradation of components of power plants. This paper makes an analysis of power plant feedwater heater by using fuzzy logic. Feedwater heater is one of the core components that regulate life-cycle of a power plant. Performance degradation has a direct effect on power generation efficiency. It is not easy to observe performance degradation of feedwater heater. However, on the other hand, troubles such as tube leakage may bring simultaneous damage to the tube bundle and therefore it is the object of concern in economic aspect. This study explains the process of diagnosing and verifying typical
Fuzzy Logic Approach to Diagnosis of Feedwater Heater Performance Degradation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Yeon Kwan; Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Sang, Seok Yoon [Engineering and Technical Center, Korea Hydro, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-08-15
Since failure in, damage to, and performance degradation of power generation components in operation under harsh environment of high pressure and high temperature may cause both economic and human loss at power plants, highly reliable operation and control of these components are necessary. Therefore, a systematic method of diagnosing the condition of these components in its early stages is required. There have been many researches related to the diagnosis of these components, but our group developed an approach using a regression model and diagnosis table, specializing in diagnosis relating to thermal efficiency degradation of power plant. However, there was a difficulty in applying the method using the regression model to power plants with different operating conditions because the model was sensitive to value. In case of the method that uses diagnosis table, it was difficult to find the level at which each performance degradation factor had an effect on the components. Therefore, fuzzy logic was introduced in order to diagnose performance degradation using both qualitative and quantitative results obtained from the components' operation data. The model makes performance degradation assessment using various performance degradation variables according to the input rule constructed based on fuzzy logic. The purpose of the model is to help the operator diagnose performance degradation of components of power plants. This paper makes an analysis of power plant feedwater heater by using fuzzy logic. Feedwater heater is one of the core components that regulate life-cycle of a power plant. Performance degradation has a direct effect on power generation efficiency. It is not easy to observe performance degradation of feedwater heater. However, on the other hand, troubles such as tube leakage may bring simultaneous damage to the tube bundle and therefore it is the object of concern in economic aspect. This study explains the process of diagnosing and verifying typical
The logic of actual obligation. An alternative approach to deontic logic
Voorbraak, F.
In this paper we develop a system of deontic logic (LAO, the logic of actual obligation) with a rather limited scope: we are, only interested in obligations as far as they: are relevant for deciding what actions actually ought to be done in a particular situation, given some normative system N.
A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Marine Spatial Management
Teh, Lydia C. L.; Teh, Louise S. L.
2011-04-01
Marine spatial planning tends to prioritise biological conservation targets over socio-economic considerations, which may incur lower user compliance and ultimately compromise management success. We argue for more inclusion of human dimensions in spatial management, so that outcomes not only fulfill biodiversity and conservation objectives, but are also acceptable to resource users. We propose a fuzzy logic framework that will facilitate this task- The protected area suitability index (PASI) combines fishers' spatial preferences with biological criteria to assess site suitability for protection from fishing. We apply the PASI in a spatial evaluation of a small-scale reef fishery in Sabah, Malaysia. While our results pertain to fishers specifically, the PASI can also be customized to include the interests of other stakeholders and resource users, as well as incorporate varying levels of protection.
Stock and option portfolio using fuzzy logic approach
Sumarti, Novriana; Wahyudi, Nanang
2014-03-01
Fuzzy Logic in decision-making process has been widely implemented in various problems in industries. It is the theory of imprecision and uncertainty that was not based on probability theory. Fuzzy Logic adds values of degree between absolute true and absolute false. It starts with and builds on a set of human language rules supplied by the user. The fuzzy systems convert these rules to their mathematical equivalents. This could simplify the job of the system designer and the computer, and results in much more accurate representations of the way systems behave in the real world. In this paper we examine the decision making process of stock and option trading by the usage of MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence) technical analysis and Option Pricing with Fuzzy Logic approach. MACD technical analysis is for the prediction of the trends of underlying stock prices, such as bearish (going downward), bullish (going upward), and sideways. By using Fuzzy C-Means technique and Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System, we define the decision output where the value of MACD is high then decision is "Strong Sell", and the value of MACD is Low then the decision is "Strong Buy". We also implement the fuzzification of the Black-Scholes option-pricing formula. The stock and options methods are implemented on a portfolio of one stock and its options. Even though the values of input data, such as interest rates, stock price and its volatility, cannot be obtain accurately, these fuzzy methods can give a belief degree of the calculated the Black-Scholes formula so we can make the decision on option trading. The results show the good capability of the methods in the prediction of stock price trends. The performance of the simulated portfolio for a particular period of time also shows good return.
A Logical Approach to Modal Verbs 1 Can and Could
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imre Attila
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The article aims at a logical approach to discussing can, could, and be able to, organized around core meanings such as possibility, ability, and permission. We argue that the concept of “remoteness” proposed by Lewis in 1986 may simplify enough the explanation regarding the relationship between can and could, and their presentation relies on authoritative sources published for international (English, Hungarian, and Romanian students. The conclusion discusses both the importance and relativity of a number of occurrences (depending on different text types, trying to offer a possible teaching option for modals stemming from practice. The article is connected to the international conference in Miercurea Ciuc, entitled Idegen - Străinul - Stranger, focusing on English as a foreign language through the eyes of non-native speakers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Almeida
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Many clinical patients present to mental health clinics with depressive symptoms, anxiety, psychosomatic complaints, and sleeping problems. These symptoms which originated may originate from marital problems, conflictual interpersonal relationships, problems in securing work, and housing issues, among many others. These issues might interfere which underlie the difficulties that with the ability of the patients face in maintaining faultless logical reasoning (FLR and faultless logical functioning (FLF. FLR implies to assess correctly premises, rules, and conclusions. And FLF implies assessing not only FLR, but also the circumstances, life experience, personality, events that validate a conclusion. Almost always, the symptomatology is accompanied by intense emotional changes. Clinical experience shows that a logic-based psychotherapy (LBP approach is not practiced, and that therapists’ resort to psychopharmacotherapy or other types of psychotherapeutic approaches that are not focused on logical reasoning and, especially, logical functioning. Because of this, patients do not learn to overcome their reasoning and functioning errors. The aim of this work was to investigate how LBP works to improve the patients’ ability to think and function in a faultless logical way. This work describes the case studies of three patients. For this purpose we described the treatment of three patients. With this psychotherapeutic approach, patients gain knowledge that can then be applied not only to the issues that led them to the consultation, but also to other problems they have experienced, thus creating a learning experience and helping to prevent such patients from becoming involved in similar problematic situations. This highlights that LBP is a way of treating symptoms that interfere on some level with daily functioning. This psychotherapeutic approach is relevant for improving patients’ quality of life, and it fills a gap in the literature by describing
Ahmad, Peer Zahoor; Quadri, S M K; Ahmad, Firdous; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Wani, Ghulam Mohammad; Tantary, Shafiq Maqbool
2017-12-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata, is an extremely small size and a powerless nanotechnology. It is the possible alternative to current CMOS technology. Reversible QCA logic is the most important issue at present time to reduce power losses. This paper presents a novel reversible logic gate called the F-Gate. It is simplest in design and a powerful technique to implement reversible logic. A systematic approach has been used to implement a novel single layer reversible Full-Adder, Full-Subtractor and a Full Adder-Subtractor using the F-Gate. The proposed Full Adder-Subtractor has achieved significant improvements in terms of overall circuit parameters among the most previously cost-efficient designs that exploit the inevitable nano-level issues to perform arithmetic computing. The proposed designs have been authenticated and simulated using QCADesigner tool ver. 2.0.3.
A Pure Logic-Based Approach to Natural Reasoning
Abzianidze, Lasha
2015-01-01
The paper presents a model for natural reasoning that combines theorem proving techniques with natural logic. The model is a tableau system for a higher-order logic the formulas of which resemble linguistic expressions. A textual entailment system LangPro, an implementation of the model, represents
A logical approach to security in the context of Ambient Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado
2004-01-01
A logical approach to security in the context of Ambient Calculus. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, N 99:3-29, 2004......A logical approach to security in the context of Ambient Calculus. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, N 99:3-29, 2004...
Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach
Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent
2014-06-01
In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.
Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Based on Improved Logic Threshold Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhumu Fu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We design an improved logic threshold approach of energy management for a power-split HEV assisted by an integrated starter generator (ISG. By combining the efficiency map and the optimum torque curve of internal combustion engine (ICE with the state of charge (SOC of batteries, the improved logic threshold controller manages the ICE within its peak efficiency region at first. Then the electrical power demand is established based on the ICE energy output. On that premise, a variable logic threshold value K is defined to achieve the power distribution between the ISG and the electric motor/generator (EMG. Finally, simulation models for the power-split HEV with improved logic threshold controller are established in ADVISOR. Compared to the equally power-split HEV with the logic threshold controller, when using the improved logic threshold controller, the battery power consumption, the ICE efficiency, the fuel consumption, and the motor driving system efficiency are improved.
Normal Forms for Fuzzy Logics: A Proof-Theoretic Approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.
2007-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 5-6 (2007), s. 347-363 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fuzzy logic * normal form * proof theory * hypersequents Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2007
A defeasible reasoning approach for description logic ontologies
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Moodley, K
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Classical reasoning for logic-based KR (Knowledge Representation) systems is in general, monotonic. That is, there is an assumption in these systems that there is complete information about a domain. This means that they generally cannot deal...
Bi-directional approach for logical traffic isolation forensic model
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dlamini, I
2009-08-01
Full Text Available -it-as-you-can" system, which seizes all packets passing through a certain traffic point, captures and writes them to the storage. The main aim of this paper is to address some of the challenges faced by the Logical Traffic Isolation (LTI) model, more specifically...
A Fuzzy-Logic Generalization of a Data Mining Approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Holeňa, Martin
2001-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 595-610 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2001 Workshop on Soft Computing. Piešťany, 29.11.2001-30.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : data analysis * vague hypotheses * vague significante level * fuzzy prediacate calculus * basic fuzzy logic * generalized quantifiers * method GUHA Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Evaluating the Potential Business Benefits of Ecodesign Implementation: A Logic Model Approach
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Vinícius P. Rodrigues
2018-06-01
Full Text Available The business benefits attained from ecodesign programs in manufacturing companies have been regularly documented by several studies from both the academic and corporate spheres. However, there are still significant challenges for adopting ecodesign, especially regarding the evaluation of these potential business benefits prior to the actual ecodesign implementation. To address such gap, this study proposes an exploratory and theory-driven framework based on logic models to support the development of business cases for ecodesign implementation. The objective is to offer an outlook into how ecodesign implementation can potentially affect key corporate performance outcomes. This paper is based on a three-stage research methodology with six steps. Two full systematic literature reviews were performed, along with two thematic analyses and a grounded theory approach with the aim of developing the business case framework, which was then evaluated by seven industry experts. This research contributes to the literature of ecodesign especially by laying out an ecodesign-instantiated logic model, which is readily available to be adapted and customized for further test and use in practice. Discussions on the usefulness and applicability of the framework and directions for future research are presented.
A Decision Logic Approach to Mill’s Eliminative Induction
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Piętka Dariusz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The subject of the paper is a contemporary interpretation of J.S. Mill’s elimination method using selected concepts of Zdzisław Pawlak’s decision logic. The aim of the interpretation is to reformulate the original rules (canons of Mill’s induction so that they correspond more precisely to his concept of cause as a complex sufficient condition. In the first part of the paper, we turn to Mill’s writings and justify the thesis that in his understanding the cause is an aggregation of circumstances, and not a single circumstance; next, we point out that Mill’s original canons (for example the canon of agreement and the canon of difference do not allow causes-aggregations to be singled out from empirical data. In the second part of this paper, we present such aspects of Z. Pawlak’s decision logic that serve as the basis for the formalisation of the method of eliminative induction. We describe exhaustively the schema of induction that involves a gradual - divided into three stages - simplification of a set of implications corresponding to the observed dependencies [system of potential causes, effect]. The simplification is deductive because it maintains consistency within the set of implications. We show that such schema is ideal for isolating complex causes (aggregations of circumstances, ultimately described using complex conditional formulas of decision logic.
Smullyan, Raymond
2008-01-01
This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T
A new approach of active compliance control via fuzzy logic control for multifingered robot hand
Jamil, M. F. A.; Jalani, J.; Ahmad, A.
2016-07-01
Safety is a vital issue in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). In order to guarantee safety in HRI, a model reference impedance control can be a very useful approach introducing a compliant control. In particular, this paper establishes a fuzzy logic compliance control (i.e. active compliance control) to reduce impact and forces during physical interaction between humans/objects and robots. Exploiting a virtual mass-spring-damper system allows us to determine a desired compliant level by understanding the behavior of the model reference impedance control. The performance of fuzzy logic compliant control is tested in simulation for a robotic hand known as the RED Hand. The results show that the fuzzy logic is a feasible control approach, particularly to control position and to provide compliant control. In addition, the fuzzy logic control allows us to simplify the controller design process (i.e. avoid complex computation) when dealing with nonlinearities and uncertainties.
Meyer, J.J.Ch.; Broersen, J.M.; Herzig, A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an overview of so-called BDI logics, logics where the notion of Beliefs, Desires and Intentions play a central role. Starting out from the basic ideas about BDI by Bratman, we consider various formalizations in logic, such as the approach of Cohen and Levesque, slightly
A fuzzy logic approach to control anaerobic digestion.
Domnanovich, A M; Strik, D P; Zani, L; Pfeiffer, B; Karlovits, M; Braun, R; Holubar, P
2003-01-01
One of the goals of the EU-Project AMONCO (Advanced Prediction, Monitoring and Controlling of Anaerobic Digestion Process Behaviour towards Biogas Usage in Fuel Cells) is to create a control tool for the anaerobic digestion process, which predicts the volumetric organic loading rate (Bv) for the next day, to obtain a high biogas quality and production. The biogas should contain a high methane concentration (over 50%) and a low concentration of components toxic for fuel cells, e.g. hydrogen sulphide, siloxanes, ammonia and mercaptanes. For producing data to test the control tool, four 20 l anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR) are operated. For controlling two systems were investigated: a pure fuzzy logic system and a hybrid-system which contains a fuzzy based reactor condition calculation and a hierachial neural net in a cascade of optimisation algorithms.
Towards electromechanical computation: An alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
Electromechanical computing based on micro/nano resonators has recently attracted significant attention. However, full implementation of this technology has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex logic circuits. We report here an alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits based on multiple MEMS resonators. As case studies, we report the construction of a single-bit binary comparator, a single-bit 4-to-2 encoder, and parallel XOR/XNOR and AND/NOT logic gates. Toward this, several microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned through an electrothermal modulation scheme. The microresonators operating in the linear regime do not require large excitation forces, and work at room temperature and at modest air pressure. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, tunable resonator, several essential complex logic functions can be achieved.
Towards electromechanical computation: An alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits
Hafiz, M. A. A.
2016-08-18
Electromechanical computing based on micro/nano resonators has recently attracted significant attention. However, full implementation of this technology has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex logic circuits. We report here an alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits based on multiple MEMS resonators. As case studies, we report the construction of a single-bit binary comparator, a single-bit 4-to-2 encoder, and parallel XOR/XNOR and AND/NOT logic gates. Toward this, several microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned through an electrothermal modulation scheme. The microresonators operating in the linear regime do not require large excitation forces, and work at room temperature and at modest air pressure. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, tunable resonator, several essential complex logic functions can be achieved.
A Logical Approach to Supporting Professional Learning Communities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralph Seward
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Collaborative knowledge sharing requires that dialogues successfully cross organizational barriers and information silos. Successful communication in person or in a virtual community involves a willingness to share ideas and consider diverse viewpoints. This research examines a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM content management system called NASATalk, which offers public and private blog posts, file sharing, asynchronous discussion, and live chat services. The service is designed to provide a virtual environment where educators can share ideas, suggestions, successes, and innovations in STEM teaching and learning activities. This study features qualitative data from STEM education groups that helped extend the design of the NASATalk Web 2.0 collaborative tools and features. The analysis shows that the context, e-collaborative tools, integration strategies, and outcomes varied, but also contributed additional space, time, tools, integration strategies, and outcomes through the virtual collaborative learning environment. This study is designed to inform the STEM education community as well as those offering virtual community resources and tools of the added value of using virtual communities to help STEM educators work together in collaborative, virtual environments to discuss ways they can improve their instruction and student performance.
How to make friends: A logical approach to social group creation
Smets, S.; Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.; Baltag, A.; Seligman, J.; Yamada, T.
2017-01-01
This paper studies the logical features of social group creation. We focus on the mechanisms which indicate when agents can form a team based on the correspondence in their set of features (behavior, opinions, etc.). Our basic approach uses a semi-metric on the set of agents, which is used to
Evolutionary Data Mining Approach to Creating Digital Logic
2010-01-01
To deal with this problem a genetic program (GP) based data mining ( DM ) procedure has been invented (Smith 2005). A genetic program is an algorithm...that can operate on the variables. When a GP was used as a DM function in the past to automatically create fuzzy decision trees, the Report...rules represents an approach to the determining the effect of linguistic imprecision, i.e., the inability of experts to provide crisp rules. The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristina Marsic
2016-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donker, H.C.; Katsnelson, M.I.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
2016-01-01
The logical inference approach to quantum theory, proposed earlier De Raedt et al. (2014), is considered in a relativistic setting. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation for a massive, charged, and spinless particle derives from the combination of the requirements that the space–time data collected by probing the particle is obtained from the most robust experiment and that on average, the classical relativistic equation of motion of a particle holds. - Highlights: • Logical inference applied to relativistic, massive, charged, and spinless particle experiments leads to the Klein–Gordon equation. • The relativistic Hamilton–Jacobi is scrutinized by employing a field description for the four-velocity. • Logical inference allows analysis of experiments with uncertainty in detection events and experimental conditions.
Critical safety parameters: The logical approach to refresher training
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, A.R.; Pilkington, W.; Turner, S.
1991-01-01
Nuclear power plant managers must ensure that control room staff are able to perform effectively. This is of particular importance through the longer term after initial authorization. Traditionally refresher training has been based on delivery of fragmented training packages typically derived from the initial authorization training programs. Various approaches have been taken to provide a more integrated refresher training program. However, methods such as job and task analysis and subject matter expert derived training have tended to develop without a focused clear overall training objective. The primary objective of all control room staff training is to ensure a proper and safe response to all plant transients. At the Point Lepreau Nuclear Plant, this has defined the Critical Safety Parameter based refresher training program. The overall objective of the Critical Safety Parameter training program is to ensure that control room staff can monitor and control a discrete set of plant parameters. Maintenance of the selected parameters within defined boundaries assures adequate cooling of the fuel and containment of radioactivity. Control room staff need to be able to reliably respond correctly to plant transients under potentially high stress conditions,. utilizing the essential knowledge and skills to deal with such transients. The inference is that the knowledge and skills must be limited to that which can be reliably recalled. This paper describes how the Point Lepreau Nuclear Plant has developed a refresher training program on the basis of a limited number of Critical Safety Parameters. Through this approach, it has been possible to define the essential set of knowledge and skills which ensures a correct response to plant transients
Uncovering transcriptional interactions via an adaptive fuzzy logic approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Chung-Ming
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, only a limited number of transcriptional regulatory interactions have been uncovered. In a pilot study integrating sequence data with microarray data, a position weight matrix (PWM performed poorly in inferring transcriptional interactions (TIs, which represent physical interactions between transcription factors (TF and upstream sequences of target genes. Inferring a TI means that the promoter sequence of a target is inferred to match the consensus sequence motifs of a potential TF, and their interaction type such as AT or RT is also predicted. Thus, a robust PWM (rPWM was developed to search for consensus sequence motifs. In addition to rPWM, one feature extracted from ChIP-chip data was incorporated to identify potential TIs under specific conditions. An interaction type classifier was assembled to predict activation/repression of potential TIs using microarray data. This approach, combining an adaptive (learning fuzzy inference system and an interaction type classifier to predict transcriptional regulatory networks, was named AdaFuzzy. Results AdaFuzzy was applied to predict TIs using real genomics data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following one of the latest advances in predicting TIs, constrained probabilistic sparse matrix factorization (cPSMF, and using 19 transcription factors (TFs, we compared AdaFuzzy to four well-known approaches using over-representation analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. AdaFuzzy outperformed these four algorithms. Furthermore, AdaFuzzy was shown to perform comparably to 'ChIP-experimental method' in inferring TIs identified by two sets of large scale ChIP-chip data, respectively. AdaFuzzy was also able to classify all predicted TIs into one or more of the four promoter architectures. The results coincided with known promoter architectures in yeast and provided insights into transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion AdaFuzzy successfully integrates multiple types of
Burnett, E; Curran, E; Loveday, H P; Kiernan, M A; Tannahill, M
2014-01-01
Healthcare is delivered in a dynamic environment with frequent changes in populations, methods, equipment and settings. Infection prevention and control practitioners (IPCPs) must ensure that they are competent in addressing the challenges they face and are equipped to develop infection prevention and control (IPC) services in line with a changing world of healthcare provision. A multifaceted Framework was developed to assist IPCPs to enhance competence at an individual, team and organisational level to enable quality performance and improved quality of care. However, if these aspirations are to be met, it is vital that competency frameworks are fit for purpose or they risk being ignored. The aim of this unique study was to evaluate short and medium term outcomes as set out in the Outcome Logic Model to assist with the evaluation of the impact and success of the Framework. This study found that while the Framework is being used effectively in some areas, it is not being used as much or in the ways that were anticipated. The findings will enable future work on revision, communication and dissemination, and will provide intelligence to those initiating education and training in the utilisation of the competences.
A fuzzy-logic-based approach to qualitative safety modelling for marine systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sii, H.S.; Ruxton, Tom; Wang Jin
2001-01-01
Safety assessment based on conventional tools (e.g. probability risk assessment (PRA)) may not be well suited for dealing with systems having a high level of uncertainty, particularly in the feasibility and concept design stages of a maritime or offshore system. By contrast, a safety model using fuzzy logic approach employing fuzzy IF-THEN rules can model the qualitative aspects of human knowledge and reasoning processes without employing precise quantitative analyses. A fuzzy-logic-based approach may be more appropriately used to carry out risk analysis in the initial design stages. This provides a tool for working directly with the linguistic terms commonly used in carrying out safety assessment. This research focuses on the development and representation of linguistic variables to model risk levels subjectively. These variables are then quantified using fuzzy sets. In this paper, the development of a safety model using fuzzy logic approach for modelling various design variables for maritime and offshore safety based decision making in the concept design stage is presented. An example is used to illustrate the proposed approach
A fuzzy logic approach to modeling the underground economy in Taiwan
Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang; Wang, David Han-Min; Chen, Su-Jane
2006-04-01
The size of the ‘underground economy’ (UE) is valuable information in the formulation of macroeconomic and fiscal policy. This study applies fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic to model Taiwan's UE over the period from 1960 to 2003. Two major factors affecting the size of the UE, the effective tax rate and the degree of government regulation, are used. The size of Taiwan's UE is scaled and compared with those of other models. Although our approach yields different estimates, similar patterns and leading are exhibited throughout the period. The advantage of applying fuzzy logic is twofold. First, it can avoid the complex calculations in conventional econometric models. Second, fuzzy rules with linguistic terms are easy for human to understand.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-11-01
This Integrated Evaluation Framework (IEF) was developed by TC Evaluation with the aim of presenting in a comprehensive manner the logic of thinking used when evaluating projects and programmes. Thus, in the first place, the intended audience for this report are evaluation officers, so that when applying the evaluation procedures and check lists, data can be organized following a systematic and logical scheme and conclusions can be derived ''objectively''. The value of such a framework for reporting on performance and in providing a quality reference for disbursements represents one of its major advantages. However, when developing and applying the IEF, it was realized that a Logical Framework Approach (LFA), like the one upon which the IEF is based, needs to be followed throughout the project life cycle, from the Country Programme Framework planning stage, through project design and implementation. Then, the helpful consequences flow into project design quality and smooth implementation. It is only in such an environment that meaningful and consistent evaluation can take place. Therefore the main audience for this report are Agency staff involved in planning, designing and implementing TC projects as well as their counterparts in Member States. In this understanding, the IEF was subjected to review by a consultants meeting, which included both external consultants and Agency staff. This Consultants Review Meeting encouraged the Secretariat to further adopt the LFA into the TC management process
Trigueros, José Antonio; Piñero, David P; Ismail, Mahmoud M
2016-01-01
To define the financial and management conditions required to introduce a femtosecond laser system for cataract surgery in a clinic using a fuzzy logic approach. In the simulation performed in the current study, the costs associated to the acquisition and use of a commercially available femtosecond laser platform for cataract surgery (VICTUS, TECHNOLAS Perfect Vision GmbH, Bausch & Lomb, Munich, Germany) during a period of 5y were considered. A sensitivity analysis was performed considering such costs and the countable amortization of the system during this 5y period. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic analysis was used to obtain an estimation of the money income associated to each femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (G). According to the sensitivity analysis, the femtosecond laser system under evaluation can be profitable if 1400 cataract surgeries are performed per year and if each surgery can be invoiced more than $500. In contrast, the fuzzy logic analysis confirmed that the patient had to pay more per surgery, between $661.8 and $667.4 per surgery, without considering the cost of the intraocular lens (IOL). A profitability of femtosecond laser systems for cataract surgery can be obtained after a detailed financial analysis, especially in those centers with large volumes of patients. The cost of the surgery for patients should be adapted to the real flow of patients with the ability of paying a reasonable range of cost.
The superposition of the states and the logic approach to quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zecca, A.
1981-01-01
An axiomatic approach to quantum mechanics is proposed in terms of a 'logic' scheme satisfying a suitable set of axioms. In this context the notion of pure, maximal, and characteristic state as well as the superposition relation and the superposition principle for the states are studied. The role the superposition relation plays in the reversible and in the irreversible dynamics is investigated and its connection with the tensor product is studied. Throughout the paper, the W*-algebra model, is used to exemplify results and properties of the general scheme. (author)
A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.
Dehghani Soufi, Mahsa; Samad-Soltani, Taha; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman
2018-06-01
Fast and accurate patient triage for the response process is a critical first step in emergency situations. This process is often performed using a paper-based mode, which intensifies workload and difficulty, wastes time, and is at risk of human errors. This study aims to design and evaluate a decision support system (DSS) to determine the triage level. A combination of the Rule-Based Reasoning (RBR) and Fuzzy Logic Classifier (FLC) approaches were used to predict the triage level of patients according to the triage specialist's opinions and Emergency Severity Index (ESI) guidelines. RBR was applied for modeling the first to fourth decision points of the ESI algorithm. The data relating to vital signs were used as input variables and modeled using fuzzy logic. Narrative knowledge was converted to If-Then rules using XML. The extracted rules were then used to create the rule-based engine and predict the triage levels. Fourteen RBR and 27 fuzzy rules were extracted and used in the rule-based engine. The performance of the system was evaluated using three methods with real triage data. The accuracy of the clinical decision support systems (CDSSs; in the test data) was 99.44%. The evaluation of the error rate revealed that, when using the traditional method, 13.4% of the patients were miss-triaged, which is statically significant. The completeness of the documentation also improved from 76.72% to 98.5%. Designed system was effective in determining the triage level of patients and it proved helpful for nurses as they made decisions, generated nursing diagnoses based on triage guidelines. The hybrid approach can reduce triage misdiagnosis in a highly accurate manner and improve the triage outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Master Logic Diagram: An Approach to Identify Initiating Events of HTGRs
Purba, J. H.
2018-02-01
Initiating events of a nuclear power plant being evaluated need to be firstly identified prior to applying probabilistic safety assessment on that plant. Various types of master logic diagrams (MLDs) have been proposedforsearching initiating events of the next generation of nuclear power plants, which have limited data and operating experiences. Those MLDs are different in the number of steps or levels and different in the basis for developing them. This study proposed another type of MLD approach to find high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) initiating events. It consists of five functional steps starting from the top event representing the final objective of the safety functions to the basic event representing the goal of the MLD development, which is an initiating event. The application of the proposed approach to search for two HTGR initiating events, i.e. power turbine generator trip and loss of offsite power, is provided. The results confirmed that the proposed MLD is feasiblefor finding HTGR initiating events.
Logic regression and its extensions.
Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo
2010-01-01
Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Redesigning and reforming European regional policy : The reasons, the logic and the outcomes
McCann, P.; Ortega-Argilés, R.
This article discusses the reforms to European Union (EU) regional development policy, or more precisely EU Cohesion Policy, which have been taking place over recent years. Following a discussion of the evolution of the policy, the changes in the rationale, the logic, the architecture, and the
Intelligent control a hybrid approach based on fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms
Siddique, Nazmul
2014-01-01
Intelligent Control considers non-traditional modelling and control approaches to nonlinear systems. Fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing techniques are the main tools used. The book presents a modular switching fuzzy logic controller where a PD-type fuzzy controller is executed first followed by a PI-type fuzzy controller thus improving the performance of the controller compared with a PID-type fuzzy controller. The advantage of the switching-type fuzzy controller is that it uses one rule-base thus minimises the rule-base during execution. A single rule-base is developed by merging the membership functions for change of error of the PD-type controller and sum of error of the PI-type controller. Membership functions are then optimized using evolutionary algorithms. Since the two fuzzy controllers were executed in series, necessary further tuning of the differential and integral scaling factors of the controller is then performed. Neural-network-based tuning for the scaling parameters of t...
Fuzzy Logic Controller Stability Analysis Using a Satisfiability Modulo Theories Approach
Arnett, Timothy; Cook, Brandon; Clark, Matthew A.; Rattan, Kuldip
2017-01-01
While many widely accepted methods and techniques exist for validation and verification of traditional controllers, at this time no solutions have been accepted for Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs). Due to the highly nonlinear nature of such systems, and the fact that developing a valid FLC does not require a mathematical model of the system, it is quite difficult to use conventional techniques to prove controller stability. Since safety-critical systems must be tested and verified to work as expected for all possible circumstances, the fact that FLC controllers cannot be tested to achieve such requirements poses limitations on the applications for such technology. Therefore, alternative methods for verification and validation of FLCs needs to be explored. In this study, a novel approach using formal verification methods to ensure the stability of a FLC is proposed. Main research challenges include specification of requirements for a complex system, conversion of a traditional FLC to a piecewise polynomial representation, and using a formal verification tool in a nonlinear solution space. Using the proposed architecture, the Fuzzy Logic Controller was found to always generate negative feedback, but inconclusive for Lyapunov stability.
Logical foundations of the Jauch-Piron approach to quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cattaneo, G.; Pozza, C.D.; Garola, C.; Nistico, G.
1988-01-01
We make a critical analysis of the basic concepts of the Jauch-Piron (JP) approach to quantum physics. Then, we exhibit a formalized presentation of the mathematical structure of the JP theory by introducing it as a completely formalized syntactic system, i.e., we construct a formalized language L/sub e/ and formally state the logical-deductive structure of the JP theory by means of L/sub e/. Finally, we show that the JP syntactic system can be endowed with an intended interpretation, which yields a physical model of the system. A mathematical model endowed with a physical interpretation is given which establishes (in the usual sense of the model theory) the coherence of the JP syntactic system
On the Logical Foundations of the Jauch-Piron Approach to Quantum Physics
Cattaneo, Gianpiero; Pozza, Carlo Dalla; Garola, Claudio; Nisticò, Giuseppe
1988-11-01
We make a critical analysis of the basic concepts of the Jauch-Piron (JP) approach to quantum physics. Then, we exhibit a formalized presentation of the mathematical structure of the JP theory by introducing it as a completely formalized syntactic system, i.e., we construct a formalized language L e and formally state the logical-deductive structure of the JP theory by means of L e . Finally, we show that the JP syntactic system can be endowed with an intended interpretation, which yields a physical model of the system. A mathematical model endowed with a physical interpretation is given which establishes (in the usual sense of the model theory) the coherence of the JP syntactic system.
Construction safety monitoring based on the project's characteristic with fuzzy logic approach
Winanda, Lila Ayu Ratna; Adi, Trijoko Wahyu; Anwar, Nadjadji; Wahyuni, Febriana Santi
2017-11-01
Construction workers accident is the highest number compared with other industries and falls are the main cause of fatal and serious injuries in high rise projects. Generally, construction workers accidents are caused by unsafe act and unsafe condition that can occur separately or together, thus a safety monitoring system based on influencing factors is needed to achieve zero accident in construction industry. The dynamic characteristic in construction causes high mobility for workers while doing the task, so it requires a continuously monitoring system to detect unsafe condition and to protect workers from potential hazards. In accordance with the unique nature of project, fuzzy logic approach is one of the appropriate methods for workers safety monitoring on site. In this study, the focus of discussion is based on the characteristic of construction projects in analyzing "potential hazard" and the "protection planning" to be used in accident prevention. The data have been collected from literature review, expert opinion and institution of safety and health. This data used to determine hazard identification. Then, an application model is created using Delphi programming. The process in fuzzy is divided into fuzzification, inference and defuzzification, according to the data collection. Then, the input and final output data are given back to the expert for assessment as a validation of application model. The result of the study showed that the potential hazard of construction workers accident could be analysed based on characteristic of project and protection system on site and fuzzy logic approach can be used for construction workers accident analysis. Based on case study and the feedback assessment from expert, it showed that the application model can be used as one of the safety monitoring tools.
Minding the gap between logic and intuition: an interpretative approach to ethical analysis.
Kirklin, D
2007-07-01
In an attempt to be rational and objective, and, possibly, to avoid the charge of moral relativism, ethicists seek to categorise and characterise ethical dilemmas. This approach is intended to minimise the effect of the confusing individuality of the context within which ethically challenging problems exist. Despite and I argue partly as a result of this attempt to be rational and objective, even when the logic of the argument is accepted--for example, by healthcare professionals--those same professionals might well respond by stating that the conclusions are unacceptable to them. In this paper, I argue that an interpretative approach to ethical analysis, involving an examination of the ways in which ethical arguments are constructed and shared, can help ethicists to understand the origins of this gap between logic and intuition. I suggest that an argument will be persuasive either if the values underpinning the proposed argument accord with the reader's values and worldview, or if the argument succeeds in persuading the reader to alter these. A failure either to appreciate or to acknowledge those things that give meaning to the lives of all the interested parties will make this objective far harder, if not impossible, to achieve. If, as a consequence, the narratives ethicists use to make their arguments seem to be about people living in different circumstances, and faced with different choices and challenges, from those the readers or listeners consider important or have to face in their own lives, then the argument is unlikely to seem either relevant or applicable to those people. The conclusion offered by the ethicist will be, for that individual, counterintuitive. Abortion, euthanasia and cadaveric organ donation are used as examples to support my argument.
Chaotic logic gate: A new approach in set and design by genetic algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyki, Mahmood; Yaghoobi, Mahdi
2015-01-01
How to reconfigure a logic gate is an attractive subject for different applications. Chaotic systems can yield a wide variety of patterns and here we use this feature to produce a logic gate. This feature forms the basis for designing a dynamical computing device that can be rapidly reconfigured to become any wanted logical operator. This logic gate that can reconfigure to any logical operator when placed in its chaotic state is called chaotic logic gate. The reconfiguration realize by setting the parameter values of chaotic logic gate. In this paper we present mechanisms about how to produce a logic gate based on the logistic map in its chaotic state and genetic algorithm is used to set the parameter values. We use three well-known selection methods used in genetic algorithm: tournament selection, Roulette wheel selection and random selection. The results show the tournament selection method is the best method for set the parameter values. Further, genetic algorithm is a powerful tool to set the parameter values of chaotic logic gate
Environmental impact assessment procedure: A new approach based on fuzzy logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peche, Roberto; Rodriguez, Esther
2009-01-01
The information related to the different environmental impacts produced by the execution of activities and projects is often limited, described by semantic variables and, affected by a high degree of inaccuracy and uncertainty, thereby making fuzzy logic a suitable tool with which to express and treat this information. The present study proposes a new approach based on fuzzy logic to carry out the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of these activities and projects. Firstly, a set of impact properties is stated and two nondimensional parameters - ranging from 0 to 100 -are assigned, (p i ) to assess the value of the property and (v i ) to assess its contribution to each environmental impact. Next, the impact properties are described by means of fuzzy numbers p i - using generalised confidence intervals. Then, a procedure based on fuzzy arithmetic is developed to define the assessment functions v-bar = f(p-bar) - conventional mathematical functions, which incorporate the knowledge of these impact properties and give the fuzzy values v i - corresponding to each p i - . Subsequently, the fuzzy value of each environmental impact V-bar is estimated by aggregation of the values v i - , in order to obtain the total positive and negative environmental impacts V +- and V -- and, later - from them - the total environmental impact of the activity or project TV - . Finally, the defuzzyfication of TV - leads to a punctual impact estimator TV (1) - a conventional EI estimation - and its corresponding uncertainty interval estimator {(δ l (TV - ),δ r (TV - )}, which represent the total value of the environmental impact caused by the execution of the considered activity or project.
Coastal vulnerability assessment using Fuzzy Logic and Bayesian Belief Network approaches
Valentini, Emiliana; Nguyen Xuan, Alessandra; Filipponi, Federico; Taramelli, Andrea
2017-04-01
Natural hazards such as sea surge are threatening low-lying coastal plains. In order to deal with disturbances a deeper understanding of benefits deriving from ecosystem services assessment, management and planning can contribute to enhance the resilience of coastal systems. In this frame assessing current and future vulnerability is a key concern of many Systems Of Systems SOS (social, ecological, institutional) that deals with several challenges like the definition of Essential Variables (EVs) able to synthesize the required information, the assignment of different weight to be attributed to each considered variable, the selection of method for combining the relevant variables. It is widely recognized that ecosystems contribute to human wellbeing and then their conservation increases the resilience capacities and could play a key role in reducing climate related risk and thus physical and economic losses. A way to fully exploit ecosystems potential, i.e. their so called ecopotential (see H2020 EU funded project "ECOPOTENTIAL"), is the Ecosystem based Adaptation (EbA): the use of ecosystem services as part of an adaptation strategy. In order to provide insight in understanding regulating ecosystem services to surge and which variables influence them and to make the best use of available data and information (EO products, in situ data and modelling), we propose a multi-component surge vulnerability assessment, focusing on coastal sandy dunes as natural barriers. The aim is to combine together eco-geomorphological and socio-economic variables with the hazard component on the base of different approaches: 1) Fuzzy Logic; 2) Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). The Fuzzy Logic approach is very useful to get a spatialized information and it can easily combine variables coming from different sources. It provides information on vulnerability moving along-shore and across-shore (beach-dune transect), highlighting the variability of vulnerability conditions in the spatial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, G.C.; Dudewicz, E.J.; Harner, T.J.
1989-01-01
The main research goal has been to evalute significant factors affecting the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters R 1 , T 2 , and 1 H density. This approach differs significantly from other such projects in that the experimental data analysis is being performed while concurrently developing automated, computer-aided analysis software for such MRI tissue parameters. In the experimental portion of the project, statistical analyses, and a heuristic minimum/maximum discriminant analysis algorithm have been explored. Both methods have been used to classify tissue types from 1.5 Tesla transaxial MR images of the human brain. The developing program, written in the logic programming language Prolog, similar in a number of ways to many existing expert systems now in use for other medical applications; inclusion of the underlying statistical data base and advanced statistical analyses is the main differentiating feature of the current approach. First results indicate promising classification accuracy of various brain tissues such as gray and white matter, as well as differentiation of different types of gray matter and white matter (e.g.: caudate-nucleus vs. thalamus, both representatives of gray matter; and, cortical white matter vs. internal capsule as representative of white matter). Taking all four tissue types together, the percentage of correct classifications ranges from 73 to 87%. (author)
Fuzzy logic approach to SWOT analysis for economics tasks and example of its computer realization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir CHERNOV
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the widely used classic method of analysis, forecasting and decision-making in the various economic problems, called SWOT analysis. As known, it is a qualitative comparison of multicriteria degree of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat for different kinds of risks, forecasting the development in the markets, status and prospects of development of enterprises, regions and economic sectors, territorials etc. It can also be successfully applied to the evaluation and analysis of different project management tasks - investment, innovation, marketing, development, design and bring products to market and so on. However, in practical competitive market and economic conditions, there are various uncertainties, ambiguities, vagueness. Its making usage of SWOT analysis in the classical sense not enough reasonable and ineffective. In this case, the authors propose to use fuzzy logic approach and the theory of fuzzy sets for a more adequate representation and posttreatment assessments in the SWOT analysis. In particular, has been short showed the mathematical formulation of respective task and the main approaches to its solution. Also are given examples of suitable computer calculations in specialized software Fuzicalc for processing and operations with fuzzy input data. Finally, are presented considerations for interpretation of the results.
Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny
2015-05-18
Reversible logic gates, such as the double Feynman gate, Toffoli gate and Peres gate, with 3-input/3-output channels are realized using reactions biocatalyzed with enzymes and performed in flow systems. The flow devices are constructed using a modular approach, where each flow cell is modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzes one chemical reaction. The multi-step processes mimicking the reversible logic gates are organized by combining the biocatalytic cells in different networks. This work emphasizes logical but not physical reversibility of the constructed systems. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and potential use in biosensing systems, rather than in computing devices, is suggested. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heather Allen
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.
Bergstra, J.A.
2011-01-01
Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL
Induction and Confirmation Theory: An Approach based on a Paraconsistent Nonmonotonic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Sousa Silvestre
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is an effort to realize and explore the connections that exist between nonmonotonic logic and confirmation theory. We pick up one of the most wide-spread nonmonotonic formalisms – default logic – and analyze to what extent and under what adjustments it could work as a logic of induction in the philosophical sense. By making use of this analysis, we extend default logic so as to make it able to minimally perform the task of a logic of induction, having as a result a system which we believe has interesting properties from the standpoint of theory of confirmation. It is for instance able to represent chains of inductive rules as well as to reason paraconsistently on the conclusions obtained from them. We then use this logic to represent some traditional ideas concerning confirmation theory, in particular the ones proposed by Carl Hempel in his classical paper “Studies in the Logic of Confirmation” of 1945 and the ones incorporated in the so-called abductive and hy-pothetico-deductive models.
Induction and Confirmation Theory: An Approach based on a Paraconsistent Nonmonotonic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Sousa Silvestre
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper is an effort to realize and explore the connections that exist between nonmonotonic logic and confirmation theory. We pick up one of the most wide-spread nonmonotonic formalisms – default logic – and analyze to what extent and under what adjustments it could work as a logic of induction in the philosophical sense. By making use of this analysis, we extend default logic so as to make it able to minimally perform the task of a logic of induction, having as a result a system which we believe has interesting properties from the standpoint of theory of confirmation. It is for instance able to represent chains of inductive rules as well as to reason paraconsistently on the conclusions obtained from them. We then use this logic to represent some traditional ideas concerning confirmation theory, in particular the ones proposed by Carl Hempel in his classical paper "Studies in the Logic of Confirmation" of 1945 and the ones incorporated in the so-called abductive and hy-pothetico-deductive models.
Nair, Ajay K; Sasidharan, Arun; John, John P; Mehrotra, Seema; Kutty, Bindu M
2016-01-01
The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: "Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic" (ANGEL), for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs)-the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300, and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of 10 neurocognitive variables over the course of three "game" levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs. response-inhibition; responses to easy vs. difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs. ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools) that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Himmatul Afthina
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The aims of this research to determine the effect of Think Talk Write (TTW and Think Pair Share (TPS model with Realistic Mathematics Education (RME approach viewed from mathematical-logical intelligence. This research employed the quasi experimental research. The population of research was all students of the eight graders of junior high school in Karangamyar Regency in academic year 2016/2017. The result of this research shows that (1 TTW with RME approach gave better mathematics achievement than TPS with RME approach, (2 Students with high mathematical-logical intelligence can reach a better mathematics achievement than those with average and low, whereas students with average mathematical-logical intelligence can reach a better achievement than those with low one, (3 In TTW model with RME approach, students with high mathematical-logical intelligence can reach a better mathematics achievement than those with average and low, whereas students with average and low mathematical-logical intelligence gave same mathematics achievement, and in TPS model with RME approach students with high mathematical-logical intelligence can reach a better mathematics achievement than those with average and low, whereas students with average mathematical-logical intelligence can reach a better achievement than those with low one (4 In each category of mathematical-logical intelligence, TTW with RME approach and TPS with RME approach gave same mathematics achievement.
Al-Mousa, Amjed A.
Thin films are essential constituents of modern electronic devices and have a multitude of applications in such devices. The impact of the surface morphology of thin films on the device characteristics where these films are used has generated substantial attention to advanced film characterization techniques. In this work, we present a new approach to characterize surface nanostructures of thin films by focusing on isolating nanostructures and extracting quantitative information, such as the shape and size of the structures. This methodology is applicable to any Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) data, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data which we are presenting here. The methodology starts by compensating the AFM data for some specific classes of measurement artifacts. After that, the methodology employs two distinct techniques. The first, which we call the overlay technique, proceeds by systematically processing the raster data that constitute the scanning probe image in both vertical and horizontal directions. It then proceeds by classifying points in each direction separately. Finally, the results from both the horizontal and the vertical subsets are overlaid, where a final decision on each surface point is made. The second technique, based on fuzzy logic, relies on a Fuzzy Inference Engine (FIE) to classify the surface points. Once classified, these points are clustered into surface structures. The latter technique also includes a mechanism which can consistently distinguish crowded surfaces from those with sparsely distributed structures and then tune the fuzzy technique system uniquely for that surface. Both techniques have been applied to characterize organic semiconductor thin films of pentacene on different substrates. Also, we present a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of our methodology to identify quantitatively particle sizes of two specimens of gold nanoparticles of different nominal dimensions dispersed on a mica surface. A comparison
a fuzzy logic approach to non-linearity problem of load frequency
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
2016-07-03
Jul 3, 2016 ... reduction in settling time, percent overshoot and steady state error. Keywords: fuzzy logic ... power system to regain a state of operating equilibrium given ... power system depends basically on the active (real) power balance ...
Fluid intelligence and psychosocial outcome: from logical problem solving to social adaptation.
Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín
2011-01-01
While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.
Fluid Intelligence and Psychosocial Outcome: From Logical Problem Solving to Social Adaptation
Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A.; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín
2011-01-01
Background While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Conclusions/Significance Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts. PMID:21957464
Fluid intelligence and psychosocial outcome: from logical problem solving to social adaptation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Huepe
Full Text Available While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized.A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire, domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale, drug intake (ONUDD, self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation. Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher.Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.
Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Bouzina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries - we only change the principle, then the system changes completely.
Fuzzy logic approach for energetic and economic evaluation of hydroelectric projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iliev, Atanas M.
2003-01-01
A mathematical model for energetic and economic evaluation of hydroelectric projects is developed. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is that the model considers uncertainty and vagueness which appears during the decision making process. Due to modeling of variables that are non statistical in their character, fuzzy logic approach is fully incorporated in the model. The first step in energetic evaluation of the hydro power projects is determination of the characteristic of the efficiency of the units to be installed in hydro power plants. For this purpose the model which uses the best characteristics of Artificial Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is applied. The method is tested on real systems: HPP Tikves- the power plant in operation and HPP Kozjak - the power plant in construction. The results obtained from practical implementation show that the proposed approach gives superior results than classical polynomial approximation. The model for determining the consumption characteristic of hydro power plant is developed by Sugeno Fuzzy Logic System with polynomials in the consequent part of the rules. Model takes into account the variable gross head of HPP, as well as, the number of units which will be in operation for given output. Modeling of the gross head and power output are performed by expert's design membership functions. This model is practically applied on HPP Tikves for determination of the consumption characteristic for several gross head. The plausible yearly production of electricity from hydro power project, which is important for estimation of the benefit from the project, is calculated by mixed fuzzy-statistical model. hi this approach fuzzy set of the inflow is constructed according to the statistical parameters. The calculation of the production of electricity is realized for a several hydrological conditions which are described by linguistic variables. Finally, Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System with fuzzy number in consequent part
Fuzzy Logic Approach for the Prediction of Dross Formation in CO2 Laser Cutting of Mild Steel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloš Madić
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dross free laser cutting is very important in the application of laser cutting technology. This paper focuses on the development of a fuzzy logic model to predict dross formation in CO2 laser oxygen cutting of mild steel. Laser cutting experiment, conducted according to Taguchi’s experimental design using L25 orthogonal array, provided a set of data for the development of a fuzzy rule base. The predicting fuzzy logic model is based on using Mamdani-type inference system. Developed fuzzy logic model considered the cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure as inputs. Using this model the effects of the selected laser cutting parameters on the dross formation were investigated. Additionally, 3-D surface plots were generated to study the interaction effects of the laser cutting parameters. The analysis revealed that the cutting speed has the most significant effect, followed by laser power and assist gas pressure. The results indicated that the fuzzy logic modeling approach can be effectively used for the dross formation prediction in CO2 laser cutting of mild steel.
Jafari, Mohieddin; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Azimzadeh, Sadegh; Mirzaie, Mehdi
It is nearly half a century past the age of the introduction of the Central Dogma (CD) of molecular biology. This biological axiom has been developed and currently appears to be all the more complex. In this study, we modified CD by adding further species to the CD information flow and mathematically expressed CD within a dynamic framework by using Boolean network based on its present-day and 1965 editions. We show that the enhancement of the Dogma not only now entails a higher level of complexity, but it also shows a higher level of robustness, thus far more consistent with the nature of biological systems. Using this mathematical modeling approach, we put forward a logic-based expression of our conceptual view of molecular biology. Finally, we show that such biological concepts can be converted into dynamic mathematical models using a logic-based approach and thus may be useful as a framework for improving static conceptual models in biology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Tsyganskaya
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper an algorithm designed to map flooded vegetation from synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery is introduced. The approach is based on fuzzy logic which enables to deal with the ambiguity of SAR data and to integrate multiple ancillary data containing topographical information, simple hydraulic considerations and land cover information. This allows the exclusion of image elements with a backscatter value similar to flooded vegetation, to significantly reduce misclassification errors. The flooded vegetation mapping procedure is tested on a flood event that occurred in Germany over parts of the Saale catchment on January 2011 using a time series of high resolution TerraSAR-X data covering the time interval from 2009 to 2015. The results show that the analysis of multi-temporal X-band data combined with ancillary data using a fuzzy logic-based approach permits the detection of flooded vegetation areas.
Fuzzy logic based control system for fresh water aquaculture: A MATLAB based simulation approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rana Dinesh Singh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Fuzzy control is regarded as the most widely used application of fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is an innovative technology to design solutions for multiparameter and non-linear control problems. One of the greatest advantages of fuzzy control is that it uses human experience and process information obtained from operator rather than a mathematical model for the definition of a control strategy. As a result, it often delivers solutions faster than conventional control design techniques. The proposed system is an attempt to apply fuzzy logic techniques to predict the stress factor on the fish, based on line data and rule base generated using domain expert. The proposed work includes a use of Data acquisition system, an interfacing device for on line parameter acquisition and analysis, fuzzy logic controller (FLC for inferring the stress factor. The system takes stress parameters on the fish as inputs, fuzzified by using FLC with knowledge base rules and finally provides single output. All the parameters are controlled and calibrated by the fuzzy logic toolbox and MATLAB programming.
Eriksson Lundström, Jenny S. Z.
2009-01-01
Argumentation is a highly dynamical and dialectical process drawing on human cognition. Successful argumentation is ubiquitous to human interaction. Comprehensive formal modeling and analysis of argumentation presupposes a dynamical approach to the following phenomena: the deductive logic notion, the dialectical notion and the cognitive notion of justified belief. For each step of an argumentation these phenomena form networks of rules which determine the propositions to be allowed to make se...
Transforming equality logic to propositional logic
Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.
2003-01-01
Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rao, C. Srinivasa [EEE Department, G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh (India); Nagaraju, S. Siva [EEE Department, J.N.T.U College of Engg., Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh (India); Raju, P. Sangameswara [EEE Department, S.V. University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh (India)
2009-09-15
This paper presents the analysis of automatic generation control of a two-area interconnected thyristor controlled phase shifter based hydrothermal system in the continuous mode using fuzzy logic controller under open market scenario. Open transmission access and the evolving of more socialized companies for generation, transmission and distribution affects the formulation of AGC problem. So the traditional AGC two-area system is modified to take into account the effect of bilateral contracts on the dynamics. It is possible to stabilize the system frequency and tie-power oscillations by controlling the phase angle of TCPS which is expected to provide a new ancillary service for the future power systems. A control strategy using TCPS is proposed to provide active control of system frequency. Further dynamic responses for small perturbation considering fuzzy logic controller and PI controller (dual mode controller) have been observed and the superior performance of fuzzy logic controller has been reported analytically and also through simulation. (author)
Oztekin, Halit; Temurtas, Feyzullah; Gulbag, Ali
The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) design is one of the important topics in Computer Architecture and Organization course in Computer and Electrical Engineering departments. There are ALU designs that have non-modular nature to be used as an educational tool. As the programmable logic technology has developed rapidly, it is feasible that ALU design based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is implemented in this course. In this paper, we have adopted the modular approach to ALU design based on FPGA. All the modules in the ALU design are realized using schematic structure on Altera's Cyclone II Development board. Under this model, the ALU content is divided into four distinct modules. These are arithmetic unit except for multiplication and division operations, logic unit, multiplication unit and division unit. User can easily design any size of ALU unit since this approach has the modular nature. Then, this approach was applied to microcomputer architecture design named BZK.SAU.FPGA10.0 instead of the current ALU unit.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Martin Mose
2014-01-01
A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...
A Bayesian Decision-Theoretic Approach to Logically-Consistent Hypothesis Testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo Miranda da Silva
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This work addresses an important issue regarding the performance of simultaneous test procedures: the construction of multiple tests that at the same time are optimal from a statistical perspective and that also yield logically-consistent results that are easy to communicate to practitioners of statistical methods. For instance, if hypothesis A implies hypothesis B, is it possible to create optimal testing procedures that reject A whenever they reject B? Unfortunately, several standard testing procedures fail in having such logical consistency. Although this has been deeply investigated under a frequentist perspective, the literature lacks analyses under a Bayesian paradigm. In this work, we contribute to the discussion by investigating three rational relationships under a Bayesian decision-theoretic standpoint: coherence, invertibility and union consonance. We characterize and illustrate through simple examples optimal Bayes tests that fulfill each of these requisites separately. We also explore how far one can go by putting these requirements together. We show that although fairly intuitive tests satisfy both coherence and invertibility, no Bayesian testing scheme meets the desiderata as a whole, strengthening the understanding that logical consistency cannot be combined with statistical optimality in general. Finally, we associate Bayesian hypothesis testing with Bayes point estimation procedures. We prove the performance of logically-consistent hypothesis testing by means of a Bayes point estimator to be optimal only under very restrictive conditions.
Some Practical Approaches to a Course on Paraconsistent Logic for Engineers
Lambert-Torres, Germano; de Moraes, Carlos Henrique Valerio; Coutinho, Maurilio Pereira; Martins, Helga Gonzaga; Borges da Silva, Luiz Eduardo
2017-01-01
This paper describes a non-classical logic course primarily indicated for graduate students in electrical engineering and energy engineering. The content of this course is based on the vision that it is not enough for a student to indefinitely accumulate knowledge; it is necessary to explore all the occasions to update, deepen, and enrich that…
A Project-Based Learning Approach to Programmable Logic Design and Computer Architecture
Kellett, C. M.
2012-01-01
This paper describes a course in programmable logic design and computer architecture as it is taught at the University of Newcastle, Australia. The course is designed around a major design project and has two supplemental assessment tasks that are also described. The context of the Computer Engineering degree program within which the course is…
Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
2015-01-01
In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanjiang Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The sensor nodes in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are prone to failures due to many reasons, for example, running out of battery or harsh environment deployment; therefore, the WSNs are expected to be able to maintain network connectivity and tolerate certain amount of node failures. By applying fuzzy-logic approach to control the network topology, this paper aims at improving the network connectivity and fault-tolerant capability in response to node failures, while taking into account that the control approach has to be localized and energy efficient. Two fuzzy controllers are proposed in this paper: one is Learning-based Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (LFTC, of which the fuzzy controller is learnt from a training data set; another one is Rules-based Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (RFTC, of which the fuzzy controller is obtained through designing if-then rules and membership functions. Both LFTC and RFTC do not rely on location information, and they are localized. Comparing them with other three representative algorithms (LTRT, List-based, and NONE through extensive simulations, our two proposed fuzzy controllers have been proved to be very energy efficient to achieve desired node degree and improve the network connectivity when sensor nodes run out of battery or are subject to random attacks.
A new approach to the statistical treatment of 2D-maps in proteomics using fuzzy logic.
Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Gianotti, Valentina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio
2003-01-01
A new approach to the statistical treatment of 2D-maps has been developed. This method is based on the use of fuzzy logic and allows to take into consideration the typical low reproducibility of 2D-maps. In this approach the signal corresponding to the presence of proteins on the 2D-maps is substituted with probability functions, centred on the signal itself. The standard deviation of the bidimensional gaussian probability function employed to blur the signal allows to assign different uncertainties to the two electrophoretic dimensions. The effect of changing the standard deviation and the digitalisation resolution are investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruan, Da
2004-01-01
As part of the special track on 'Lessons learned from computational intelligence in nuclear applications' at the forthcoming FLINS 2004 conference on Applied Computational Intelligence (Blankenberge, Belgium, September 1-3, 2004), research experiences on fuzzy logic techniques in applications of nuclear reactor control operation are critically reviewed in this presentation. Assessment of four real fuzzy control applications at the MIT research reactor in the US, the FUGEN heavy water reactor in Japan, the BR1 research reactor in Belgium, and a TRIGA Mark III reactor in Mexico will be examined thought a SWOT analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats). Special attention will be paid to the current cooperation between the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) and the Mexican Nuclear Centre (ININ) on the fuzzy logic control for nuclear reactor control project under the partial support of the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT). (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rastović Danilo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In earlier Rastovic's papers [1] and [2], the effort was given to analyze the stochastic control of tokamaks. In this paper, the deterministic control of tokamak turbulence is investigated via fractional variational calculus, particle in cell simulations, and fuzzy logic methods. Fractional integrals can be considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. The turbulent media could be of the fractal structure and the corresponding equations should be changed to include the fractal features of the media.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yuhu; Kumar, Madan; Shen, Tielong
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An in-cylinder pressure based measuring method for the RGF is derived. • A stochastic logical dynamical model is proposed to represent the transient behavior of the RGF. • The receding horizon controller is designed to reduce the variance of the RGF. • The effectiveness of the proposed model and control approach is validated by the experimental evidence. - Abstract: In four stroke internal combustion engines, residual gas from the previous cycle is an important factor influencing the combustion quality of the current cycle, and the residual gas fraction (RGF) is a popular index to monitor the influence of residual gas. This paper investigates the cycle-to-cycle transient behavior of the RGF in the view of systems theory and proposes a multi-valued logic-based control strategy for attenuation of RGF fluctuation. First, an in-cylinder pressure sensor-based method for measuring the RGF is provided by following the physics of the in-cylinder transient state of four-stroke internal combustion engines. Then, the stochastic property of the RGF is examined based on statistical data obtained by conducting experiments on a full-scale gasoline engine test bench. Based on the observation of the examination, a stochastic logical transient model is proposed to represent the cycle-to-cycle transient behavior of the RGF, and with the model an optimal feedback control law, which targets on rejection of the RGF fluctuation, is derived in the framework of stochastic logical system theory. Finally, experimental results are demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and the control strategy.
Embedding Logics into Product Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baaz, M.; Hájek, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Švejda, David
1998-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 1 (1998), s. 35-47 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Gödel logic * product logic * computational complexity * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall, M.J.W.
1992-01-01
The notion of open-quotes probabilityclose quotes is generalized to that of open-quotes likelihood,close quotes and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs
Logical database design principles
Garmany, John; Clark, Terry
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint
Pereyra, Nicolas A.
2018-06-01
This book gives a rigorous yet 'physics-focused' introduction to mathematical logic that is geared towards natural science majors. We present the science major with a robust introduction to logic, focusing on the specific knowledge and skills that will unavoidably be needed in calculus topics and natural science topics in general (rather than taking a philosophical-math-fundamental oriented approach that is commonly found in mathematical logic textbooks).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jarre, Astrid; Paterson, B.; Moloney, C.L.
2008-01-01
developing and using. Their strengths lie in (i) synthesis of the problem in a logical and transparent framework, (ii) helping scientists to deliberate how to apply their science to transdisciplinary issues that are not purely scientific, and (iii) representing vehicles for delivering state-of-the-art...... science to those who need to use it. Possible applications of this approach for ecosystems of the Humboldt Current are discussed....
Probabilistic logics and probabilistic networks
Haenni, Rolf; Wheeler, Gregory; Williamson, Jon; Andrews, Jill
2014-01-01
Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks presents a groundbreaking framework within which various approaches to probabilistic logic naturally fit. Additionally, the text shows how to develop computationally feasible methods to mesh with this framework.
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....
Evaluation Framework for Telemedicine Using the Logical Framework Approach and a Fishbone Diagram.
Chang, Hyejung
2015-10-01
Technological advances using telemedicine and telehealth are growing in healthcare fields, but the evaluation framework for them is inconsistent and limited. This paper suggests a comprehensive evaluation framework for telemedicine system implementation and will support related stakeholders' decision-making by promoting general understanding, and resolving arguments and controversies. This study focused on developing a comprehensive evaluation framework by summarizing themes across the range of evaluation techniques and organized foundational evaluation frameworks generally applicable through studies and cases of diverse telemedicine. Evaluation factors related to aspects of information technology; the evaluation of satisfaction of service providers and consumers, cost, quality, and information security are organized using the fishbone diagram. It was not easy to develop a monitoring and evaluation framework for telemedicine since evaluation frameworks for telemedicine are very complex with many potential inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes, and stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed that incorporates the key dimensions that need to be considered in the evaluation of telehealth implementation for a formal structured approach to the evaluation of a service. The suggested framework consists of six major dimensions and the subsequent branches for each dimension. To implement telemedicine and telehealth services, stakeholders should make decisions based on sufficient evidence in quality and safety measured by the comprehensive evaluation framework. Further work would be valuable in applying more comprehensive evaluations to verify and improve the comprehensive framework across a variety of contexts with more factors and participant group dimensions.
Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kucukali, Serhat; Baris, Kemal
2010-01-01
This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning.
Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kucukali, Serhat [Civil Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey); Baris, Kemal [Mining Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey)
2010-05-15
This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning. (author)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klarman, S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohieddin Jafari
Full Text Available It is nearly half a century past the age of the introduction of the Central Dogma (CD of molecular biology. This biological axiom has been developed and currently appears to be all the more complex. In this study, we modified CD by adding further species to the CD information flow and mathematically expressed CD within a dynamic framework by using Boolean network based on its present-day and 1965 editions. We show that the enhancement of the Dogma not only now entails a higher level of complexity, but it also shows a higher level of robustness, thus far more consistent with the nature of biological systems. Using this mathematical modeling approach, we put forward a logic-based expression of our conceptual view of molecular biology. Finally, we show that such biological concepts can be converted into dynamic mathematical models using a logic-based approach and thus may be useful as a framework for improving static conceptual models in biology.
Kleene, Stephen Cole
1967-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Nashiroh, Putri Khoirin; Kamdi, Waras; Elmunsyah, Hakkun
2017-09-01
Web programming is a basic subject in Computer and Informatics Engineering, a program study in a vocational high school. It requires logical thinking ability in its learning activities. The purposes of this research were (1) to develop a web programming module that implement scientific approach that can improve logical thinking ability for students in vocational high school; and (2) to test the effectiveness of web programming module based on scientific approach to train students' logical thinking ability. The results of this research was a web-programming module that apply scientific approach for learning activities to improve logical thinking ability of students in the vocational high school. The results of the effectiveness test of web-programming module give conclusion that it was very effective to train logical thinking ability and to improve learning result, this conclusion was supported by: (1) the average of posttest result of students exceeds the minimum criterion value, it was 79.91; (2) the average percentage of students' logical thinking score is 82,98; and (3) the average percentage of students' responses to the web programming module was 81.86%.
A Logic Programming Based Approach to Applying Abstract Interpretation to Embedded Software
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Kim Steen
anvendt til at analysere programmer udviklet til indlejrede systemer. Et givet indlejret system modelleres som en emulator skrevet i en variant af logikprogrammering kaldet constraint logic programming (CLP). Emulatoren specialiseres med hensyn til et givet program, hvilket resulterer i et nyt program i...... programmeringsparadigme der har et solidt matematisk fundament. Et af dets karakteristika er adskillelsen af logik (betydningen af et program) og kontrol (hvordan programmet udføres), hvilket gør logikprogrammering til et meget anvendeligt sprog hvad angår programanalyse. I denne afhandling bliver logikprogrammering...... skrevet i sproget CLP der samtidig er isomorft med programmet skrevet til det indlejrede system. Anvendes abstract interpretation baserede analysatorer på det specialiserede program, kan resultater fra denne analyse direkte overføres til den indlejrede program, da dette program og den specialiserede...
An Inductive Logic Programming Approach to Validate Hexose Binding Biochemical Knowledge.
Nassif, Houssam; Al-Ali, Hassan; Khuri, Sawsan; Keirouz, Walid; Page, David
2010-01-01
Hexoses are simple sugars that play a key role in many cellular pathways, and in the regulation of development and disease mechanisms. Current protein-sugar computational models are based, at least partially, on prior biochemical findings and knowledge. They incorporate different parts of these findings in predictive black-box models. We investigate the empirical support for biochemical findings by comparing Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) induced rules to actual biochemical results. We mine the Protein Data Bank for a representative data set of hexose binding sites, non-hexose binding sites and surface grooves. We build an ILP model of hexose-binding sites and evaluate our results against several baseline machine learning classifiers. Our method achieves an accuracy similar to that of other black-box classifiers while providing insight into the discriminating process. In addition, it confirms wet-lab findings and reveals a previously unreported Trp-Glu amino acids dependency.
SU-D-BRD-04: A Logical Organizational Approach to Clinical Information Management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shao, W; Kupelian, P; Wang, J; Low, D; Ruan, D [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To develop a clinical information management system (CIMS) that collects, organizes physician inputs logically and supports analysis functionality. Methods: In a conventional electronic medical record system (EMR), the document manager component stores data in a pool of standalone .docx or .pdf files. The lack of a content-based logical organization makes cross-checking, reference or automatic inheritance of information challenging. We have developed an information-oriented clinical record system that addresses this shortcoming. In CIMS, a parent library predefines a set of available questions along with the data types of their expected answers. The creation of a questionnaire template is achieved by selecting questions from this parent library to form a virtual group. Instances of the same data field in different documents are linked by their question identifier. This design allows for flexible data sharing and inheritance among various forms using a longitudinal lineage of data indexed according to the modification time stamps of the documents. CIMS is designed with a web portal to facilitate querying, data entry and modification, aggregate report generation, and data adjudication. The current implementation addresses diagnostic data, medical history, vital signs, and various quantities in consult note and treatment summaries. Results: CIMS is currently storing treatment summary information of over 1,000 patients who have received treatment at UCLA Radiation Oncology between March 1, 2013 and January 31, 2014. We are in the process of incorporating a DICOM-RT dosimetry parser and patient reporting applications into CIMS, as well as continuing to define document templates to support additional forms. Conclusion: We are able to devise an alternative storage paradigm which results in an improvement in the accuracy and organizational structure of clinical information.
SU-D-BRD-04: A Logical Organizational Approach to Clinical Information Management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao, W; Kupelian, P; Wang, J; Low, D; Ruan, D
2014-01-01
Purpose: To develop a clinical information management system (CIMS) that collects, organizes physician inputs logically and supports analysis functionality. Methods: In a conventional electronic medical record system (EMR), the document manager component stores data in a pool of standalone .docx or .pdf files. The lack of a content-based logical organization makes cross-checking, reference or automatic inheritance of information challenging. We have developed an information-oriented clinical record system that addresses this shortcoming. In CIMS, a parent library predefines a set of available questions along with the data types of their expected answers. The creation of a questionnaire template is achieved by selecting questions from this parent library to form a virtual group. Instances of the same data field in different documents are linked by their question identifier. This design allows for flexible data sharing and inheritance among various forms using a longitudinal lineage of data indexed according to the modification time stamps of the documents. CIMS is designed with a web portal to facilitate querying, data entry and modification, aggregate report generation, and data adjudication. The current implementation addresses diagnostic data, medical history, vital signs, and various quantities in consult note and treatment summaries. Results: CIMS is currently storing treatment summary information of over 1,000 patients who have received treatment at UCLA Radiation Oncology between March 1, 2013 and January 31, 2014. We are in the process of incorporating a DICOM-RT dosimetry parser and patient reporting applications into CIMS, as well as continuing to define document templates to support additional forms. Conclusion: We are able to devise an alternative storage paradigm which results in an improvement in the accuracy and organizational structure of clinical information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ALEJANDRO ESCOBAR
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation model of a complex system, in this case a financial market, using a MultiAgent Based Simulation approach. Such model takes into account microlevel aspects like the Continuous Double Auction mechanism, which is widely used within stock markets, as well as investor agents reasoning who participate looking for profits. To model such reasoning several variables were considered including general stocks information like profitability and volatility, but also some agent's aspects like their risk tendency. All these variables are incorporated throughout a fuzzy logic approach trying to represent in a faithful manner the kind of reasoning that nonexpert investors have, including a stochastic component in order to model human factors.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-01-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-03-29
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
A HEURISTIC CASCADING FUZZY LOGIC APPROACH TO REACTIVE NAVIGATION FOR UAV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yew-Chung Chak
2014-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The capability of navigating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs safely in unknown terrain offers huge potential for wider applications in non-segregated airspace. Flying in non-segregated airspace present a risk of collision with static obstacles (e.g., towers, power lines and moving obstacles (e.g., aircraft, balloons. In this work, we propose a heuristic cascading fuzzy logic control strategy to solve for the Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R problem, in which the control strategy is comprised of two cascading modules. The first one is Obstacle Avoidance control and the latter is Path Tracking control. Simulation results show that the proposed architecture effectively resolves the conflicts and achieve rapid movement towards the target waypoint.ABSTRAK: Keupayaan mengemudi Kenderaan Udara Tanpa Pemandu (UAV dengan selamat di kawasan yang tidak diketahui menawarkan potensi yang besar untuk aplikasi yang lebih luas dalam ruang udara yang tidak terasing. Terbang di ruang udara yang tidak terasing menimbulkan risiko perlanggaran dengan halangan statik (contohnya, menara, talian kuasa dan halangan bergerak (contohnya, pesawat udara, belon. Dalam kajian ini, kami mencadangkan satu strategi heuristik kawalan logik kabur yang melata untuk menyelesaikan masalah Pengesanan Konflik dan Penyelesaian (CD&R, di mana strategi kawalan yang terdiri daripada dua modul melata. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahawa seni bina yang dicadangkan berjaya menyelesaikan konflik dan mencapai penerbangan pesat ke arah titik laluan sasaran.KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic; motion planning; obstacle avoidance; path tracking; reactive navigation; UAV Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso
Guebel, Daniel V; Schmitz, Ulf; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio
2012-04-01
Cell adhesion in the normal colon is typically associated with differentiated cells, whereas in cancerous colon it is associated with advanced tumors. For advanced tumors growing evidence supports the existence of stem-like cells that have originated from transdifferentiation. Because stem cells can also be transformed in their own niche, at the base of the Lieberkühn's crypts, we conjectured that cell adhesion can also be critical in early tumorigenesis. To assess this hypothesis we built an annotated, multi-valued logic model addressing cell adhesion of normal and tumorigenic stem cells in the human colon. The model accounts for (i) events involving intercellular adhesion structures, (ii) interactions involving cytoskeleton-related structures, (iii) compartmental distribution of α/β/γ/δ-catenins, and (iv) variations in critical cell adhesion regulators (e.g., ILK, FAK, IQGAP, SNAIL, Caveolin). We developed a method that can deal with graded multiple inhibitions, something which is not possible with conventional logical approaches. The model comprises 315 species (including 26 genes), interconnected by 269 reactions. Simulations of the model covered six scenarios, which considered two types of colonic cells (stem vs. differentiated cells), under three conditions (normal, stressed and tumor). Each condition results from the combination of 92 inputs. We compared our multi-valued logic approach with the conventional Boolean approach for one specific example and validated the predictions against published data. Our analysis suggests that stem cells in their niche synthesize high levels of cytoplasmatic E-cadherin and CdhEP(Ser684,686,692), even under normal-mitogenic stimulus or tumorigenic conditions. Under these conditions, E-cadherin would be incorporated into the plasmatic membrane, but only as a non-adhesive CdhE_β-catenin_IQGAP complex. Under stress conditions, however, this complex could be displaced, yielding adhesive Cdh
A fuzzy logic approach toward solving the analytic enigma of health system financing.
Chernichovsky, Dov; Bolotin, Arkady; de Leeuw, David
2003-09-01
Improved health, equity, macroeconomic efficiency, efficient provision of care, and client satisfaction are the common goals of any health system. The relative significance of these goals varies, however, across nations, communities and with time. As for health care finance, the attainment of these goals under varying circumstances involves alternative policy options for each of the following elements: sources of finance, allocation of finance, payment to providers, and public-private mix. The intricate set of multiple goals, elements and policy options defies human reasoning, and, hence, hinders effective policymaking. Indeed, "health system finance" is not amenable to a clear set of structural relationships. Neither is there a universe that can be subject to statistical scrutiny: each health system is unique. "Fuzzy logic" models human reasoning by managing "expert knowledge" close to the way it is handled by human language. It is used here for guiding policy making by a systematic analysis of health system finance. Assuming equal welfare weights for alternative goals and mutually exclusive policy options under each health-financing element, the exploratory model we present here suggests that a German-type health system is best. Other solutions depend on the welfare weights for system goals and mixes of policy options.
Fuzzy logic-based approach to detecting a passive RFID tag in an outpatient clinic.
Min, Daiki; Yih, Yuehwern
2011-06-01
This study is motivated by the observations on the data collected by radio frequency identification (RFID) readers in a pilot study, which was used to investigate the feasibility of implementing an RFID-based monitoring system in an outpatient eye clinic. The raw RFID data collected from RFID readers contain noise and missing reads, which prevent us from determining the tag location. In this paper, fuzzy logic-based algorithms are proposed to interpret the raw RFID data to extract accurate information. The proposed algorithms determine the location of an RFID tag by evaluating its possibility of presence and absence. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms, numerical experiments are conducted using the data observed in the outpatient eye clinic. Experiments results showed that the proposed algorithms outperform existing static smoothing method in terms of minimizing both false positives and false negatives. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms are applied to a set of simulated data to show the robustness of the proposed algorithms at various levels of RFID reader reliability.
Fluidic Logic Used in a Systems Approach to Enable Integrated Single-cell Functional Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naveen Ramalingam
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The study of single cells has evolved over the past several years to include expression and genomic analysis of an increasing number of single cells. Several studies have demonstrated wide-spread variation and heterogeneity within cell populations of similar phenotype. While the characterization of these populations will likely set the foundation for our understanding of genomic- and expression-based diversity, it will not be able to link the functional differences of a single cell to its underlying genomic structure and activity. Currently, it is difficult to perturb single cells in a controlled environment, monitor and measure the response due to perturbation, and link these response measurements to downstream genomic and transcriptomic analysis. In order to address this challenge, we developed a platform to integrate and miniaturize many of the experimental steps required to study single-cell function. The heart of this platform is an elastomer-based Integrated Fluidic Circuit (IFC that uses fluidic logic to select and sequester specific single cells based on a phenotypic trait for downstream experimentation. Experiments with sequestered cells that have been performed include on-chip culture, exposure to a variety of stimulants, and post-exposure image-based response analysis, followed by preparation of the mRNA transcriptome for massively parallel sequencing analysis. The flexible system embodies experimental design and execution that enable routine functional studies of single cells.
Le Balleur, J. C.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L
2010-01-01
We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennig, Christine; Kneupner, Klaus; Kinna, David
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We describe 2 ways connecting PLCs to fusion control and data acquisition software. ► At W7-X standardization of the PLC type eases the maintenance of the software. ► At JET PLCs are interfaced with a daemon that hides the PLC specific part. ► There is potential to unify the approaches towards a common fusion PLC interface. - Abstract: The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for automation of electromechanical processes is an industrial control system technology. It is more and more in use within the fusion community. Traditionally PLC based systems are operated and maintained using proprietary SCADA systems (supervisory control and data acquisition). They are hardly ever integrated with the fusion control and data acquisition systems. An overview of the state of the art in fusion is given in the article. At JET an inhouse “black box protocol” approach has been developed to communicate with any external system via a dedicated http based protocol. However, a PLC usually cannot be modified to implement this special protocol. Hence, a software layer has been developed that interfaces a PLC by implementing the PLC specific communication part on one side and the black box protocol part on the other side. The software is completely data driven i.e. editing the data structure changes the logic accordingly. It can be tested using the web capability of the black box protocol. Multiple PLC types from different vendors are supported, thus multiple protocols to interface the PLC are in use. Depending on the PLC type and available tools it can be necessary to program the PLC accordingly. Wendelstein 7-X uses another approach. For every single PLC a dedicated communication from and to CoDaC is implemented. This communication is projected (programmed) in the PLC and configurable (data driven) on the CoDaC side. The protocol is UDP based and observed via timeout mechanisms. The use of PLCs for Wendelstein 7-X is standardized. Therefore a single
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hennig, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Hennig@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kneupner, Klaus; Kinna, David [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe 2 ways connecting PLCs to fusion control and data acquisition software. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At W7-X standardization of the PLC type eases the maintenance of the software. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At JET PLCs are interfaced with a daemon that hides the PLC specific part. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is potential to unify the approaches towards a common fusion PLC interface. - Abstract: The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for automation of electromechanical processes is an industrial control system technology. It is more and more in use within the fusion community. Traditionally PLC based systems are operated and maintained using proprietary SCADA systems (supervisory control and data acquisition). They are hardly ever integrated with the fusion control and data acquisition systems. An overview of the state of the art in fusion is given in the article. At JET an inhouse 'black box protocol' approach has been developed to communicate with any external system via a dedicated http based protocol. However, a PLC usually cannot be modified to implement this special protocol. Hence, a software layer has been developed that interfaces a PLC by implementing the PLC specific communication part on one side and the black box protocol part on the other side. The software is completely data driven i.e. editing the data structure changes the logic accordingly. It can be tested using the web capability of the black box protocol. Multiple PLC types from different vendors are supported, thus multiple protocols to interface the PLC are in use. Depending on the PLC type and available tools it can be necessary to program the PLC accordingly. Wendelstein 7-X uses another approach. For every single PLC a dedicated communication from and to CoDaC is implemented. This communication is projected (programmed) in the PLC and configurable (data driven) on the CoDaC side. The protocol is UDP based and
Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore
1989-01-01
These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.
Spinal intramedullary ependymoma: surgical approaches and outcome.
Borges, Lawrence F
2018-02-01
Intramedullary ependymomas are uncommon tumors that can occur within the medullary substance of the spinal cord. Despite this difficult location, they are typically benign tumors that can most often be removed completely with an acceptable surgical risk. Therefore, the recommended management approach is usually surgical excision. This review will consider the historical context in which surgeons began treating these tumors and then review the more recent literature that guides their current management.
Fific, Mario; Little, Daniel R.; Nosofsky, Robert M.
2010-01-01
We formalize and provide tests of a set of logical-rule models for predicting perceptual classification response times (RTs) and choice probabilities. The models are developed by synthesizing mental-architecture, random-walk, and decision-bound approaches. According to the models, people make independent decisions about the locations of stimuli…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Błaszczuk Artur
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The interrelation between fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approaches for heat transfer modeling in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB has been established based on a local furnace data. The furnace data have been measured in a 1296 t/h CFB boiler with low level of flue gas recirculation. In the present study, the bed temperature and suspension density were treated as experimental variables along the furnace height. The measured bed temperature and suspension density were varied in the range of 1131-1156 K and 1.93-6.32 kg/m3, respectively. Using the heat transfer coefficient for commercial CFB combustor, two empirical heat transfer correlation were developed in terms of important operating parameters including bed temperature and also suspension density. The fuzzy logic results were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental heat transfer data obtained based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient covered a range of 109-241 W/(m2K and 111-240 W/(m2K, for fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approach respectively. The divergence in calculated heat flux recovery along the furnace height between fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approach did not exceeded ±2%.
Characterization of quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahti, P.J.
1980-01-01
The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)
Land cover classification of Landsat 8 satellite data based on Fuzzy Logic approach
Taufik, Afirah; Sakinah Syed Ahmad, Sharifah
2016-06-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a method to classify the land covers of a satellite image based on fuzzy rule-based system approach. The study uses bands in Landsat 8 and other indices, such as Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as input for the fuzzy inference system. The selected three indices represent our main three classes called water, built- up land, and vegetation. The combination of the original multispectral bands and selected indices provide more information about the image. The parameter selection of fuzzy membership is performed by using a supervised method known as ANFIS (Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) training. The fuzzy system is tested for the classification on the land cover image that covers Klang Valley area. The results showed that the fuzzy system approach is effective and can be explored and implemented for other areas of Landsat data.
Breaking the fault tree circular logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lankin, M.
2000-01-01
Event tree - fault tree approach to model failures of nuclear plants as well as of other complex facilities is noticeably dominant now. This approach implies modeling an object in form of unidirectional logical graph - tree, i.e. graph without circular logic. However, genuine nuclear plants intrinsically demonstrate quite a few logical loops (circular logic), especially where electrical systems are involved. This paper shows the incorrectness of existing practice of circular logic breaking by elimination of part of logical dependencies and puts forward a formal algorithm, which enables the analyst to correctly model the failure of complex object, which involves logical dependencies between system and components, in form of fault tree. (author)
Glucose control and cardiovascular outcomes: reorienting approach.
Khardori, Romesh; Nguyen, Diep D
2012-01-01
Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 70% of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Strides made in diabetes care have indeed helped prevent or reduce the burden of microvascular complications in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the same cannot be said about macrovascular disease in diabetes. Several prospective trials so far have failed to provide conclusive evidence of the superiority of glycemic control in reducing macrovascular complications or death rates in people with advanced disease or those with long duration of diabetes. There are trends that suggest that benefits are restricted to those with lesser burden and shorter duration of disease. Furthermore, it is also suggested that benefits might accrue but it would take a longer time to manifest. Clinicians are faced with the challenge to decide how to triage patients for intensified care vs less intense care. This review focuses on evidence and attempts to provide a balanced view of the literature that has radically affected how physicians treat patients with macrovascular disease. It also takes cognizance of the fact that the natural course of the disease may be changing as well, possibly related to better overall awareness and possibly improved access to information about better individual healthcare. The review further takes note of some hard held notions about the pathobiology of the disease that must be interpreted with caution in light of new and emerging data. In light of recent developments ADA and EASD have taken step to provide some guidance to clinicians through a joint position statement. A lot more research would be required to figure out how best to manage macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Glucocentric stance would need to be reconsidered, and attention paid to concurrent multifactorial interventions that seem to be effective in reducing vascular outcomes.
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Landscapes with different logics: A physicalistic approach to semantic conflicts in spatial planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztofik Robert
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the ways of categorising landscapes as ‘urban’ and ‘rural’ using a physicalist approach, where these terms have special meaning. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the question whether such a division is still meaningful with regard to anthropogenic landscapes, not least in spatial planning. The concerns raised in this paper depart from the increasingly complicated structure of geographical space, including that of anthropogenic landscapes. Our standpoint is illustrated using cases of landscape ambiguities from Poland, Germany, Romania and Greece. Leaning on frameworks of physicalist (mechanicistic theory, this paper suggests an explanation to the outlined semantic conflicts. This is done by pointing to the relationality between the impact of centripetal and centrifugal forces, the specifics of socio-economic development, as well as the varying landscape forms that emerge from the differences within that development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajay Kumar eNair
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: ‘Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic’ (ANGEL, for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs - the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300 and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of ten neurocognitive variables over the course of three ‘game’ levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs response-inhibition; responses to easy vs difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.
Saadoud, Djouher; Hassani, Mohamed; Martin Peinado, Francisco José; Guettouche, Mohamed Saïd
2018-06-01
Wind erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in Algeria that threatens human activities and socio-economic development. The main goal of this study is to apply a fuzzy logic approach to wind erosion sensitivity mapping in the Laghouat region, Algeria. Six causative factors, obtained by applying fuzzy membership functions to each used parameter, are considered: soil, vegetation cover, wind factor, soil dryness, land topography and land cover sensitivity. Different fuzzy operators (AND, OR, SUM, PRODUCT, and GAMMA) are applied to generate wind-erosion hazard map. Success rate curves reveal that the fuzzy gamma (γ) operator, with γ equal to 0.9, gives the best prediction accuracy with an area under curve of 85.2%. The resulting wind-erosion sensitivity map delineates the area into different zones of five relative sensitivity classes: very high, high, moderate, low and very low. The estimated result was verified by field measurements and the high statistically significant value of a chi-square test.
Propositional Logics of Dependence
Yang, F.; Väänänen, J.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study logics of dependence on the propositional level. We prove that several interesting propositional logics of dependence, including propositional dependence logic, propositional intuitionistic dependence logic as well as propositional inquisitive logic, are expressively complete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....
Logical independence and quantum randomness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P
2010-01-01
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Smets, P
1995-01-01
We start by describing the nature of imperfect data, and giving an overview of the various models that have been proposed. Fuzzy sets theory is shown to be an extension of classical set theory, and as such has a proeminent role or modelling imperfect data. The mathematic of fuzzy sets theory is detailled, in particular the role of the triangular norms. The use of fuzzy sets theory in fuzzy logic and possibility theory,the nature of the generalized modus ponens and of the implication operator for approximate reasoning are analysed. The use of fuzzy logic is detailled for application oriented towards process control and database problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, John C.
2002-01-01
In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...... with the inductive definition of predicates on abstract data structures, this extension permits the concise and flexible description of structures with controlled sharing. In this paper, we will survey the current development of this program logic, including extensions that permit unrestricted address arithmetic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. M. Sokolinskaya
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article describes a logical-probabilistic approach to the definition of crisis situations that threaten economic security. The onset of risk events of any kind entails two types of damage - direct economic and social damage, and indirect damage, which can be much more significant. The main strategic goal of ensuring economic security is the stable and most efficient functioning of the enterprise at present and ensuring its high potential for future development. The lack of a unified management mechanism due to systemic threats imposed on the economy as a whole led to an exacerbation of the situation primarily in the basic sectors (infrastructure, health, education, law enforcement. This, in turn, is the destructor of the basis for development and ensuring national security of the regions and the country as a whole, contributing to a decrease in the standard of living and quality of life of the population. Methods and methods of risk and safety management require the use of analysis covering all types of possible threats, such as engineering, economic, social factors, etc. And they must also take into account not only existing, but also remote consequences of the decisions made. The choice of a strategy for responding to a risk situation relies on the results of a comprehensive risk assessment, additional analysis of the technological and economic potential of the Voronezh region and industrial enterprise, the projected external environment, the current legal and regulatory framework (taxes, inflation, increase in the number of competitors, marketing and other studies. The organization of a risk management system based on their integrated assessment allows tracking and timely signaling of undesirable events in business activities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beatriz Rodríguez-Herkt
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In the article the logical historical behavior of the impact assessment of institutional development plan in the Bolivarian Polytechnic Institute in Guayaquil, Ecuador, preceded by the assessment of the most relevant models that have marked the course of history of this process is addressed, on the basis of the key indicators fundamental stages that this process has gone characterized. The historical and logical analysis of the impact assessment of strategic planning requires a raid needed in the different models associated with this process, so as to allow the orientation contextualize the options made in this investigation.
Optimization methods for logical inference
Chandru, Vijay
2011-01-01
Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in
Flow Logic for Process Calculi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik
2012-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction......, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation...
Utilizing a disease management approach to improve ESRD patient outcomes.
Anand, Shaan; Nissenson, Allen R
2002-01-01
In this era of processes and systems to improve quality, disease management is one methodology to improve care delivery and outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In most disease management systems a senior renal nurse coordinates all aspects of the patient's care and ensures that the prescribed and necessary care is delivered for both CKD-related and comorbid conditions. The nurse also continually monitors outcomes on quality indicators and key performance measures. These outcome data are then aggregated and analyzed, are compared with local and national benchmarks, and drive the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process. Such a system attempts to centralize the currently fragmented care delivery system, continually improve patient outcomes, and conserve scarce economic resources. Early data suggest a disease management approach may improve both the morbidity and mortality of CKD patients.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus
2010-01-01
In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl...
LOGICAL SEMANTICS OF MODULARIZATION
DELAVALETTE, GRR
1992-01-01
An algebra of theories, signatures, renamings and the operations import and export is investigated. A normal form theorem for terms of this algebra is proved. Another algebraic approach and the relation with a fragment of second order logic are also considered.
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
Foundations of mathematical logic
Curry, Haskell B
2010-01-01
Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.
A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad
2017-01-01
logical assumptions whose discovery may lead us to a better understanding of ‘concept understanding’. The Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) model as an appropriate model of increasing complexity of humans’ understanding has supported the formal analysis.......In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in revealing...
A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad
2017-01-01
In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in reveali...... logical assumptions whose discovery may lead us to a better understanding of ‘concept understanding’. The Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) model as an appropriate model of increasing complexity of humans’ understanding has supported the formal analysis....
The standardized surgical approach improves outcome of gallbladder cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igna Dorian
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the extent of surgical procedures, pathological findings, complications and outcome of patients treated in the last 12 years for gallbladder cancer. Methods The impact of a standardized more aggressive approach compared with historical controls of our center with an individual approach was examined. Of 53 patients, 21 underwent resection for cure and 32 for palliation. Results Overall hospital mortality was 9% and procedure related mortality was 4%. The standardized approach in UICC stage IIa, IIb and III led to a significantly improved outcome compared to patients with an individual approach (Median survival: 14 vs. 7 months, mean+/-SEM: 26+/-7 vs. 17+/-5 months, p = 0.014. The main differences between the standardized and the individual approach were anatomical vs. atypical liver resection, performance of systematic lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament and the resection of the common bile duct. Conclusion Anatomical liver resection, proof for bile duct infiltration and, in case of tumor invasion, radical resection and lymph dissection of the hepaticoduodenal ligament are essential to improve outcome of locally advanced gallbladder cancer.
Jabeen, Sumera
2018-06-01
Social development programmes are deliberate attempts to bring about change and unintended outcomes can be considered as inherent to any such intervention. There is now a solid consensus among the international evaluation community regarding the need to consider unintended outcomes as a key aspect in any evaluative study. However, this concern often equates to nothing more than false piety. Exiting evaluation theory suffers from overlap of terminology, inadequate categorisation of unintended outcomes and lack of guidance on how to study them. To advance the knowledge of evaluation theory, methods and practice, the author has developed an evaluation approach to study unintended effects using a theory building, testing and refinement process. A comprehensive classification of unintended outcomes on the basis of knowability, value, distribution and temporality helped specify various type of unintended outcomes for programme evaluation. Corresponding to this classification, a three-step evaluation process was proposed including a) outlining programme intentions b) forecasting likely unintended effects c) mapping the anticipated and understanding unanticipated unintended outcomes. This unintended outcomes evaluation approach (UOEA) was then trialled by undertaking a multi-site and multi-method case study of a poverty alleviation programme in Pakistan and refinements were made to the approach.The case study revealed that this programme was producing a number of unintended effects, mostly negative, affecting those already disadvantaged such as the poorest, women and children. The trialling process demonstrated the effectiveness of the UOEA and suggests that this can serve as a useful guide for future evaluation practice. It also provides the discipline of evaluation with an empirically-based reference point for further theoretical developments in the study of unintended outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stoll, Robert R
1979-01-01
Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in
Conventions and Institutional Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westenholz, Ann
Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-10-20
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein
2016-01-01
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Rethinking logic logic in relation to mathematics, evolution, and method
Cellucci, Carlo
2014-01-01
This book examines the limitations of mathematical logic and proposes a new approach intended to overcome them. Formulates new rules of discovery, such as induction, analogy, generalization, specialization, metaphor, metonymy, definition and diagrams.
Mera, E.; Trigo, Teresa; López García, Pedro; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.
2010-01-01
Although several profiling techniques for identifying performance bottlenecks in logic programs have been developed, they are generally not automatic and in most cases they do not provide enough information for identifying the root causes of such bottlenecks. This complicates using their results for guiding performance improvement. We present a profiling method and tool that provides such explanations. Our profiler associates cost centers to certain program elements and can measure different ...
Long-term outcomes of nasopharyngectomy using partial maxillectomy approach.
Ng, Li Shia; Lim, Chwee Ming; Loh, Kwok Seng
2016-05-01
To determine the long-term outcomes of a prospective cohort of 20 patients who had nasopharyngectomy using an open partial-maxillectomy approach. A prospective cohort study of the surgical outcomes of patients with recurrent T1 (rT1) and rT2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence. There were 14 male and six female patients. The mean age was 49 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 60.4 months. All of the surgical margins were free of malignancy. Ten patients (50%) developed recurrences. The 5-year local control rate, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survivals were 70%, 48.9%, 70.2%, and 66.7%, respectively. There were no major intraoperative complications. The most common morbidity was pain. The median length of hospitalization was 4 days. Early local recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma can be treated surgically using a partial maxillectomy approach. The long-term outcomes are similar to nasopharyngectomy performed using the more common approaches. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1103-1107, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Quantum team logic and Bell's inequalities
Hyttinen, T.; Paolini, G.; Väänänen, J.
2015-01-01
A logical approach to Bell’s Inequalities of quantum mechanics has been introduced by Abramsky and Hardy (Abramsky & Hardy, 2012). We point out that the logical Bell’s Inequalities of Abramsky & Hardy (2012) are provable in the probability logic of Fagin, Halpern and Megiddo (Fagin et al., 1990).
Dialogues as a dynamic framework for logic
Rückert, Helge
2007-01-01
Dialogical logic is a game-theoretical approach to logic. Logic is studied with the help of certain games, which can be thought of as idealized argumentations. Two players, the Proponent, who puts forward the initial thesis and tries to defend it, and the Opponent, who tries to attack the
Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic
Gauthier, Yvon
2015-01-01
This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten
2014-01-01
In Choreographic Programming, a distributed system is programmed by giving a choreography, a global description of its interactions, instead of separately specifying the behaviour of each of its processes. Process implementations in terms of a distributed language can then be automatically...... projected from a choreography. We present Linear Compositional Choreographies (LCC), a proof theory for reasoning about programs that modularly combine choreographies with processes. Using LCC, we logically reconstruct a semantics and a projection procedure for programs. For the first time, we also obtain...... a procedure for extracting choreographies from process terms....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun; Jung, Jin Yong; Choi, Seong Soo
2004-01-01
This paper introduces the software design specification and analysis technique for the safety-critical system based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). During software development phases, the design phase should perform an important role to connect between requirements phase and implementation phase as a process of translating problem requirements into software structures. In this work, the Nuclear FBD-style Design Specification and analysis (NuFDS) approach was proposed. The NuFDS approach for nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) software are suggested in a straight forward manner. It consists of four major specifications as follows; Database, Software Architecture, System Behavior, and PLC Hardware Configuration. Additionally, correctness, completeness, consistency, and traceability check techniques are also suggested for the formal design analysis in NuFDS approach. In addition, for the tool supporting, we are developing NuSDS tool based on the NuFDS approach which is a tool, especially for the software design specification in nuclear fields
First-order modal logic theorem proving and standard PROLOG
Nonnengart, A.
1992-01-01
Many attempts have been started to combine logic programming and modal logics. Most of them however, do not use classical PROLOG, but extend the PROLOG idea in order to cope with modal logic formulae directly. These approaches have the disadvantage that for each logic new logic programming systems are to be developed and the knowledge and experience gathered from PROLOG can hardly be utilized. Modal logics based on Kripke-style relational semantics, however, allow a direct translation from mo...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1979-01-01
The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)
Non-logic devices in logic processes
Ma, Yanjun
2017-01-01
This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes. Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.
Dal Palù, Alessandro; Pontelli, Enrico; He, Jing; Lu, Yonggang
2007-01-01
The paper describes a novel framework, constructed using Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) and parallelism, to determine the association between parts of the primary sequence of a protein and alpha-helices extracted from 3D low-resolution descriptions of large protein complexes. The association is determined by extracting constraints from the 3D information, regarding length, relative position and connectivity of helices, and solving these constraints with the guidance of a secondary structure prediction algorithm. Parallelism is employed to enhance performance on large proteins. The framework provides a fast, inexpensive alternative to determine the exact tertiary structure of unknown proteins.
Henriques, David; Rocha, Miguel; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Banga, Julio R
2015-09-15
Systems biology models can be used to test new hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous knowledge or new experimental data, contradictory with a previously existing model. New hypotheses often come in the shape of a set of possible regulatory mechanisms. This search is usually not limited to finding a single regulation link, but rather a combination of links subject to great uncertainty or no information about the kinetic parameters. In this work, we combine a logic-based formalism, to describe all the possible regulatory structures for a given dynamic model of a pathway, with mixed-integer dynamic optimization (MIDO). This framework aims to simultaneously identify the regulatory structure (represented by binary parameters) and the real-valued parameters that are consistent with the available experimental data, resulting in a logic-based differential equation model. The alternative to this would be to perform real-valued parameter estimation for each possible model structure, which is not tractable for models of the size presented in this work. The performance of the method presented here is illustrated with several case studies: a synthetic pathway problem of signaling regulation, a two-component signal transduction pathway in bacterial homeostasis, and a signaling network in liver cancer cells. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. julio@iim.csic.es or saezrodriguez@ebi.ac.uk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
Magnetoresistive logic and biochip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckl, Hubert; Brzeska, Monika; Brinkmann, Dirk; Schotter, J.Joerg; Reiss, Guenter; Schepper, Willi; Kamp, P.-B.; Becker, Anke
2004-01-01
While some magnetoresistive devices based on giant magnetoresistance or spin-dependent tunneling are already commercialized, a new branch of development is evolving towards magnetoresistive logic with magnetic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the new magnetoelectronic effects show promising properties in magnetoresistive biochips, which are capable of detecting even single molecules (e.g. DNA) by functionalized magnetic markers. The unclear limits of this approach are discussed with two model systems
Using logic models in a community-based agricultural injury prevention project.
Helitzer, Deborah; Willging, Cathleen; Hathorn, Gary; Benally, Jeannie
2009-01-01
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has long promoted the logic model as a useful tool in an evaluator's portfolio. Because a logic model supports a systematic approach to designing interventions, it is equally useful for program planners. Undertaken with community stakeholders, a logic model process articulates the underlying foundations of a particular programmatic effort and enhances program design and evaluation. Most often presented as sequenced diagrams or flow charts, logic models demonstrate relationships among the following components: statement of a problem, various causal and mitigating factors related to that problem, available resources to address the problem, theoretical foundations of the selected intervention, intervention goals and planned activities, and anticipated short- and long-term outcomes. This article describes a case example of how a logic model process was used to help community stakeholders on the Navajo Nation conceive, design, implement, and evaluate agricultural injury prevention projects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....
Quantum supports and modal logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svetlichny, G.
1986-01-01
Recently Foulis, Piron, and Randall introduced a new interpretation of empirical and quantum logics which substitute for the notion of a probabilistic weight a combinatorial notion called a support. The informal use of the notion of ''possible outcomes of experiments'' suggests that this interpretation can be related to corresponding formal notions as treated by modal logic. The purpose of this paper is to prove that in fact supports are in one-to-one correspondence with the sets of possibly true elementary propositions in Kripke models of a set of modal formulas associated to the empirical or quantum logic. This hopefully provides a sufficiently detailed link between the two rather distinct logical systems to shed useful light on both
Management of acute bursitis: outcome study of a structured approach.
Stell, I M
1999-01-01
In patients with septic bursitis the indications for admission and surgical intervention remain unclear, and practice has varied widely. The effectiveness of a conservative outpatient based approach was assessed by an outcome study in a prospective case series. Consecutive patients attending an emergency department with acute swelling of the olecranon or prepatellar bursa were managed according to a structured approach, subjective and objective outcomes being assessed after two to three days, and subsequently as required until clinical discharge. Long-term outcomes were assessed by telephone follow-up for up to eighteen months. 47 patients were included in the study: 22 had septic bursitis, 15 of the olecranon bursa and 7 of the prepatellar bursa. The mean visual analogue pain scores of those with septic bursitis improved from 4.8 at presentation to 1.7 at first follow-up for olecranon bursitis, and from 3.8 to 2.7 for prepatellar bursitis. Symptoms improved more slowly for patients with non-septic bursitis. No patients were admitted initially, but 2 were admitted (two days each) after the first follow-up appointment. One patient had incision and drainage on the third attendance, and 3 patients developed discharging sinuses, which all healed spontaneously. All patients made a good long-term symptomatic recovery and all could lean on the elbow or kneel by the end of the follow-up period. The management protocol, with specific criteria for admission and surgical intervention, thus produced good results with little need for operation or admission. PMID:10692903
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan
2016-01-01
(approximately 35%). On the other side, this reduction of N2O was accompanied by an increase in the aeration costs. Moreover, a plant performance evaluation under dynamic disturbances shows that the effluent quality is compromised due to higher requirements of organic carbon by denitrifying heterotrophs....... The controller can therefore be considered effective for the reduction of N2O production by AOB but would need to be coupled with a secondary control strategy ensuring a complete oxidation of the nitrogen oxides by heterotrophs to have a good effluent quality.......In this work, a fuzzy-logic controller for minimization of the nitrous oxide emission from wastewater treatment plants is developed and tested in a simulation environment. The controller is designed in order to maintain a balance between production and consumption of nitrite by AOB and NOB...
Flow Logics and Operational Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
1998-01-01
Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analys...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Classical logic and logicism in human thought
Elqayam, Shira
2012-01-01
This chapter explores the role of classical logic as a theory of human reasoning. I distinguish between classical logic as a normative, computational and algorithmic system, and review its role is theories of human reasoning since the 1960s. The thesis I defend is that psychological theories have been moving further and further away from classical logic on all three levels. I examine some prominent example of logicist theories, which incorporate logic in their psychological account, includin...
Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron Sigal
1988-11-01
Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.
Three-valued logics in modal logic
Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard
2013-01-01
Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinhoneiro, Fernando Henrique Franchi
2015-01-01
The greatest challenge of this century is focused on sustainability, due to world population growth and consequently to the increased demand for resources such as water, food and energy. The main difficulty when discussing the issue of sustainable development is the evaluation methodology. Because of this, there is a need for a measurement tool that addresses these resources in a holistic manner and be able to translate data into results that can be interpreted. There are tools validated for this purpose like, 'Dashboard of Sustainability' and other developing like the CLEW Nexus by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. This study aims to develop a new model to analyze the correlation between variables, energy, water, land use and climate, using Artificial Intelligence through Fuzzy Logic, having as a data source, indicators that represent one or more resource, considering the relative and temporal distribution required to research results and behaviors. The result is a final index generated by mapping these input data. The results presented using this methodology are indicators of Brazil, but can be applied to any other country, allowing a comparison analysis of the behavior of indices between regions. The contribution of this project will be the availability of a tool with powerful computational resource, aimed at decision makers to assist in developing strategies and development policies. (author)
Ghadai, R. K.; Das, P. P.; Shivakoti, I.; Mondal, S. C.; Swain, B. P.
2017-07-01
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are widely used in medical, manufacturing and aerospace industries due to their excellent mechanical, biological, optical and tribological properties. The selection of optimal process parameters for efficient characteristics of DLC film is always a challenging issue for the materials science researchers. The optimal combination of the process parameters involved in the deposition of DLC films provide a better result, which subsequently help other researchers to choose the process parameters. In the present work Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) and Fuzzy-logic are being used for the optimization of process parameters in DLC film coating by using plasma assist chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) technique. The bias voltage, bias frequency, deposition pressure, gas composition are considered as input process parameters and hardness (GPa), Young's modulus (GPa), ratio between diamond to graphic fraction, (Id/Ig) ratio are considered as response parameters. The input parameters are optimized by grey fuzzy analysis. The contribution of individual input parameter is done by ANOVA. In this analysis found that bias voltage having the least influence and gas composition has highest influence in the PACVD deposited DLC films. The grey fuzzy analysis results indicated that optimum results for bias voltage, bias frequency, deposition pressure, gas composition for the DLC thin films are -50 V, 6 kHz, 4 μbar and 60:40 % respectively.
Kar, Siddhartha; Chakraborty, Sujoy; Dey, Vidyut; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar
2017-10-01
This paper investigates the application of Taguchi method with fuzzy logic for multi objective optimization of roughness parameters in electro discharge coating process of Al-6351 alloy with powder metallurgical compacted SiC/Cu tool. A Taguchi L16 orthogonal array was employed to investigate the roughness parameters by varying tool parameters like composition and compaction load and electro discharge machining parameters like pulse-on time and peak current. Crucial roughness parameters like Centre line average roughness, Average maximum height of the profile and Mean spacing of local peaks of the profile were measured on the coated specimen. The signal to noise ratios were fuzzified to optimize the roughness parameters through a single comprehensive output measure (COM). Best COM obtained with lower values of compaction load, pulse-on time and current and 30:70 (SiC:Cu) composition of tool. Analysis of variance is carried out and a significant COM model is observed with peak current yielding highest contribution followed by pulse-on time, compaction load and composition. The deposited layer is characterised by X-Ray Diffraction analysis which confirmed the presence of tool materials on the work piece surface.
Classical Limit and Quantum Logic
Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico
2018-02-01
The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.
Logical Theories for Agent Introspection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bolander, Thomas
2004-01-01
Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...
Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab
Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N
2006-01-01
Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.
Automated termination proofs for logic programs by term rewriting
Schneider-Kamp, P.; Giesl, J.; Serebrenik, A.; Thiemann, R.
2009-01-01
There are two kinds of approaches for termination analysis of logic programs: "transformational" and "direct" ones. Direct approaches prove termination directly on the basis of the logic program. Transformational approaches transform a logic program into a Term Rewrite System (TRS) and then analyze
Amini, Ata; Shrimpton, Paul J; Muggleton, Stephen H; Sternberg, Michael J E
2007-12-01
Despite the increased recent use of protein-ligand and protein-protein docking in the drug discovery process due to the increases in computational power, the difficulty of accurately ranking the binding affinities of a series of ligands or a series of proteins docked to a protein receptor remains largely unsolved. This problem is of major concern in lead optimization procedures and has lead to the development of scoring functions tailored to rank the binding affinities of a series of ligands to a specific system. However, such methods can take a long time to develop and their transferability to other systems remains open to question. Here we demonstrate that given a suitable amount of background information a new approach using support vector inductive logic programming (SVILP) can be used to produce system-specific scoring functions. Inductive logic programming (ILP) learns logic-based rules for a given dataset that can be used to describe properties of each member of the set in a qualitative manner. By combining ILP with support vector machine regression, a quantitative set of rules can be obtained. SVILP has previously been used in a biological context to examine datasets containing a series of singular molecular structures and properties. Here we describe the use of SVILP to produce binding affinity predictions of a series of ligands to a particular protein. We also for the first time examine the applicability of SVILP techniques to datasets consisting of protein-ligand complexes. Our results show that SVILP performs comparably with other state-of-the-art methods on five protein-ligand systems as judged by similar cross-validated squares of their correlation coefficients. A McNemar test comparing SVILP to CoMFA and CoMSIA across the five systems indicates our method to be significantly better on one occasion. The ability to graphically display and understand the SVILP-produced rules is demonstrated and this feature of ILP can be used to derive hypothesis for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Novriana Sumarti
2017-02-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of micro-finance investment using profit-loss sharing scheme are made and implemented to simulated data. Here profits from the venture will be shared in a portion between the investor and the entity running the business. The scheme can be classified as Musharaka type of investment in Sharia economy. The proposed model is theoretically implemented with data from small-scale traders at a local traditional market who have small turnover. They are common target of usurers who lend money with high interest rate and penalties. If the traders are in unfortunate conditions, they are potentially in poorer condition than before committing themselves to the usurer. In the conventional practices of the profit sharing scheme, the investor will get a fixed portion of the trader’s income, which is applied for all kind of small-scale traders. If the traders are diligent and hard worker and have very high turnover, then the investor will gain much more profit whether the contributed capital is small or large. In this paper, the scheme is implemented using Semi-Fuzzy Logic Approach so that the profit-loss sharing scheme can achieve its intended goal, which is to make a profitable investment not only for the investor but also for traders. The approach is not fully using Fuzzy Logic because some variables are still in crisp numbers and the optimization problem is regular in the form of crisp numbers. Based on the existing data, the results show that the optimal profit share is depended on the income of the traders. The higher the income coming from the venture, the lesser the profit share for the investor which is reasonable with the fixed initial contributed capital.
Heunen, Chris
2008-01-01
We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.
Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Williams, Heather; Sephton, Keith; Rose, Hilary; Harris, Sarah; Thu, Aung
2012-01-01
This article explores the rationale for choosing the instruments included within the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) data set. Using one specialist neuro-rehabilitation unit as an exemplar service, it describes an approach to engaging the hearts and minds of clinicians in recording the data. Measures included within a national data set for rehabilitation should be psychometrically robust and feasible to use in routine clinical practice; they should also support clinical decision-making so that clinicians actually want to use them. Learning from other international casemix models and benchmarking data sets, the UKROC team has developed a cluster of measures to inform the development of effective and cost-efficient rehabilitation services. These include measures of (1) "needs" for rehabilitation (complexity), (2) inputs provided to meet those needs (nursing and therapy intervention), and (3) outcome, including the attainment of personal goals as well as gains in functional independence. By integrating the use of the data set measures in everyday clinical practice, we have achieved a very high rate of compliance with data collection. However, staff training and ongoing commitment from senior staff and managers are critical to the maintenance of effort required to provide assurance of data quality in the longer term.
Metamathematics of fuzzy logic
Hájek, Petr
1998-01-01
This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...
How Objects Shape Logics in Construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tryggestad, Kjell; Georg, Susse
2011-01-01
The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study of the constr......The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study...... and identities as emergent and contingent outcomes of the material practices of building construction. The argument is concluded by considering the building construction as a materially mediated meaning structure....
Informatics approaches in the Biological Characterization of Adverse Outcome Pathways
Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are a conceptual framework to characterize toxicity pathways by a series of mechanistic steps from a molecular initiating event to population outcomes. This framework helps to direct risk assessment research, for example by aiding in computational ...
Formalization of Many-Valued Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders
2017-01-01
Partiality is a key challenge for computational approaches to artificial intelligence in general and natural language in particular. Various extensions of classical two-valued logic to many-valued logics have been investigated in order to meet this challenge. We use the proof assistant Isabelle...... to formalize the syntax and semantics of many-valued logics with determinate as well as indeterminate truth values. The formalization allows for a concise presentation and makes automated verification possible....
The Third Life of Quantum Logic: Quantum Logic Inspired by Quantum Computing
Dunn, J. Michael; Moss, Lawrence S.; Wang, Zhenghan
2013-01-01
We begin by discussing the history of quantum logic, dividing it into three eras or lives. The first life has to do with Birkhoff and von Neumann's algebraic approach in the 1930's. The second life has to do with attempt to understand quantum logic as logic that began in the late 1950's and blossomed in the 1970's. And the third life has to do with recent developments in quantum logic coming from its connections to quantum computation. We discuss our own work connecting quantum logic to quant...
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leleur, Steen
This paper presents systemic planning (SP) with emphasis on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Specifically, SP is presented as a “tetra-logical” methodology approach with MCDA as one out of four major method orientations. The Danish-Swedish Øresund Fixed Link is used as application example...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...
Indeterministic Temporal Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trzęsicki Kazimierz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iryna Khomenko
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The challenges of the global time require new solutions and up-to-date ways of thinking and communication. These challenges call for the ability to use critical thinking to face the ever-changing world and the ability to maintain a dialog based on the effective skills of communication. Studies in the fields of logic and argumentation theory are of particular importance in this regard. Nowadays they can be presented as a mix of theoretical and practical approaches. In this paper, I will present my reflections on informal logic, which was formed in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, in spite of numerous papers, books, and text-books published over the last forty years, consensus on many issues in this field has not been achieved so far. Therefore, it is difficult to treat informal logic as one of the well-defined approaches to argumentation. The goal of this paper is to take a look at the place of informal logic in state-of-the art study of argumentation by clarifying its subject matter and figuring out the realm to which informal logic belongs.
Logical Framework Analysis (LFA): An Essential Tool for Designing ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Logical Framework Analysis (LFA): An Essential Tool for Designing Agricultural Project ... overview of the process and the structure of the Logical Framework Matrix or Logframe, derivable from it, ..... System Approach to Managing The Project.
Quantum Logic as a Dynamic Logic
Baltag, A.; Smets, S.
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear “no”.
Quantum logic as a dynamic logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no".
All optical programmable logic array (PLA)
Hiluf, Dawit
2018-03-01
A programmable logic array (PLA) is an integrated circuit (IC) logic device that can be reconfigured to implement various kinds of combinational logic circuits. The device has a number of AND and OR gates which are linked together to give output or further combined with more gates or logic circuits. This work presents the realization of PLAs via the physics of a three level system interacting with light. A programmable logic array is designed such that a number of different logical functions can be combined as a sum-of-product or product-of-sum form. We present an all optical PLAs with the aid of laser light and observables of quantum systems, where encoded information can be considered as memory chip. The dynamics of the physical system is investigated using Lie algebra approach.
A Participative Approach to Evaluation of Graduates' Professional Outcomes
Clerici, Renata; Castiglioni, Maria; Grion, Valentina; Zago, Giuseppe; Da Re, Lorenza
2014-01-01
This work discusses the professional outcomes of University of Padova graduates in academic year 2007/08. Its aim was to carry out an overall assessment of higher education professional outcomes, involving all the main actors of the learning process, students, teachers and tutors, in a perspective of participatory evaluation, to improve teaching…
Bolc, Leonard
1992-01-01
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P N Johnson-Laird
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.
Newton-Smith, WH
2003-01-01
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
Anticoincidence logic using PALs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolanos, L.; Arista Romeu, E.
1997-01-01
This paper describes the functioning principle of an anticoincidence logic and a design of this based on programing logic. The circuit was included in a discriminator of an equipment for single-photon absorptiometry
Probabilistic Logic and Probabilistic Networks
Haenni, R.; Romeijn, J.-W.; Wheeler, G.; Williamson, J.
2009-01-01
While in principle probabilistic logics might be applied to solve a range of problems, in practice they are rarely applied at present. This is perhaps because they seem disparate, complicated, and computationally intractable. However, we shall argue in this programmatic paper that several approaches
Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen
2017-01-01
We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise resu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Kwang Seop; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Kang, Hyun Gook
2016-01-01
The Markov analysis is a technique for modeling system state transitions and calculating the probability of reaching various system states. While it is a proper tool for modeling complex system designs involving timing, sequencing, repair, redundancy, and fault tolerance, as the complexity or size of the system increases, so does the number of states of interest, leading to difficulty in constructing and solving the Markov model. This paper introduces a systematic approach of Markov modeling to analyze the dependability of a complex fault-tolerant system. This method is based on the decomposition of the system into independent subsystem sets, and the system-level failure rate and the unavailability rate for the decomposed subsystems. A Markov model for the target system is easily constructed using the system-level failure and unavailability rates for the subsystems, which can be treated separately. This approach can decrease the number of states to consider simultaneously in the target system by building Markov models of the independent subsystems stage by stage, and results in an exact solution for the Markov model of the whole target system. To apply this method we construct a Markov model for the reactor protection system found in nuclear power plants, a system configured with four identical channels and various fault-tolerant architectures. The results show that the proposed method in this study treats the complex architecture of the system in an efficient manner using the merits of the Markov model, such as a time dependent analysis and a sequential process analysis. - Highlights: • Systematic approach of Markov modeling for system dependability analysis is proposed based on the independent subsystem set, its failure rate and unavailability rate. • As an application example, we construct the Markov model for the digital reactor protection system configured with four identical and independent channels, and various fault-tolerant architectures. • The
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)
Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe
1990-01-01
Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2015-01-01
We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....
Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.
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Lourié Basil
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the most controversial - in the modern scholarly discussion - episode within the Byzantine polemics on the Filioque, Nicephorus Blemmydes‘ acknowledgement of proceeding of the Spirit through the Son providing that the Son be considered as generated through the Spirit. The logical intuition behind this theological idea is explicated in the terms of paraconsistent logic and especially of a kind of paraconsistent numbers called by the author “pseudo-natural numbers”. Such numbers could not be interpreted via the notion of ordered pair. Instead, they imply a known (first described by Emil Post in 1941 but still little studied logical connective ternary exclusive OR.
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Aksjonov Andrei
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The mathematical model of the three-dimensional crane using the Euler-Lagrange approach is derived. A state-space representation of the derived model is proposed and explored in the Simulink® environment and on the laboratory stand. The obtained control design was simulated, analyzed and compared with existing encoder-based system provided by the three-dimensional (3D Crane manufacturer Inteco®. As well, an anti-swing fuzzy logic control has been developed, simulated, and analyzed. Obtained control algorithm is compared with the existing anti-swing proportional-integral controller designed by the 3D crane manufacturer Inteco®. 5-degree of freedom (5DOF control schemes are designed, examined and compared with the various load masses. The topicality of the problem is due to the wide usage of gantry cranes in industry. The solution is proposed for the future research in sensorless and intelligent control of complex motor driven application.
Jantarasaengaram, Surasak; Vairojanavong, Kittipong
2010-09-15
Theoretically, a cross-sectional image of any cardiac planes can be obtained from a STIC fetal heart volume dataset. We described a method to display 11 fetal echocardiographic planes from STIC volumes. Fetal heart volume datasets were acquired by transverse acquisition from 200 normal fetuses at 15 to 40 weeks of gestation. Analysis of the volume datasets using the described technique to display 11 echocardiographic planes in the multiplanar display mode were performed offline. Volume datasets from 18 fetuses were excluded due to poor image resolution. The mean visualization rates for all echocardiographic planes at 15-17, 18-22, 23-27, 28-32 and 33-40 weeks of gestation fetuses were 85.6% (range 45.2-96.8%, N = 31), 92.9% (range 64.0-100%, N = 64), 93.4% (range 51.4-100%, N = 37), 88.7%(range 54.5-100%, N = 33) and 81.8% (range 23.5-100%, N = 17) respectively. Overall, the applied technique can favorably display the pertinent echocardiographic planes. Description of the presented method provides a logical approach to explore the fetal heart volumes.
Dal Palú, Alessandro; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro
2012-03-01
We describe the potential of a novel method, based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), developed for an exhaustive sampling of protein conformational space. The CLP framework proposed here has been tested and applied to the estrogen receptor, whose activity and function is strictly related to its intrinsic, and well known, dynamics. We have investigated in particular the flexibility of H12, focusing on the pathways followed by the helix when moving from one stable crystallographic conformation to the others. Millions of geometrically feasible conformations were generated, selected and the traces connecting the different forms were determined by using a shortest path algorithm. The preliminary analyses showed a marked agreement between the crystallographic agonist-like, antagonist-like and hypothetical apo forms, and the corresponding conformations identified by the CLP framework. These promising results, together with the short computational time required to perform the analyses, make this constraint-based approach a valuable tool for the study of protein folding prediction. The CLP framework enables one to consider various structural and energetic scenarious, without changing the core algorithm. To show the feasibility of the method, we intentionally choose a pure geometric setting, neglecting the energetic evaluation of the poses, in order to be independent from a specific force field and to provide the possibility of comparing different behaviours associated with various energy models. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2009-01-01
By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr
2004-01-01
Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004
Fredkin gates for finite-valued reversible and conservative logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cattaneo, G; Leporati, A; Leporini, R
2002-01-01
The basic principles and results of conservative logic introduced by Fredkin and Toffoli in 1982, on the basis of a seminal paper of Landauer, are extended to d-valued logics, with a special attention to three-valued logics. Different approaches to d-valued logics are examined in order to determine some possible universal sets of logic primitives. In particular, we consider the typical connectives of Lukasiewicz and Goedel logics, as well as Chang's MV-algebras. As a result, some possible three-valued and d-valued universal gates are described which realize a functionally complete set of fundamental connectives. Two no-go theorems are also proved
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria
2014-01-01
Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....
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Newton C. A. da Costa
2002-12-01
Full Text Available In view of the present state of development of non classical logic, especially of paraconsistent logic, a new stand regarding the relations between logic and ontology is defended In a parody of a dictum of Quine, my stand May be summarized as follows. To be is to be the value of a variable a specific language with a given underlying logic Yet my stand differs from Quine’s, because, among other reasons, I accept some first order heterodox logics as genuine alternatives to classical logic I also discuss some questions of non classical logic to substantiate my argument, and suggest that may position complements and extends some ideas advanced by L Apostel.
Institutional Logics in Action
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
2013-01-01
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
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Srikant Balasubramaniam
2016-01-01
Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients were operated for varying lesions of body of dorsal vertebra by the transthoracic approach. The study was for a period of 5 years from January 2011 to December 2015. Patients age ranged from 25 to 61 years with an average of 36.4 yrs. There were 7 males and 9 females. In our series 9 patients had Kochs spine, 4 patients were traumatic fracture spine and 3 had neoplastic lesion. Majority of patients had multiple symptoms with backache being present in all patients. Results: There was one post operative mortality which was unrelated to surgery. One patient had post operative delayed kyphosis. Remaining patients improved in their symptoms following surgery. Conclusion: With careful coordination by thoracic surgeons, neurospinal surgeons and anaesthetists, the anterior spine approach for dorsal spine is safe and effective. Adequate preoperative evaluation should stratify the risk and institute measures to reduce it. Accurate surgical planning and careful surgical technique are the key to yield a good outcome and to reduce the risk of complications.
Logic-programming language enriches design processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.
1984-03-22
With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.
Baxter, Susan K; Blank, Lindsay; Woods, Helen Buckley; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth
2014-05-10
There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037.
Food Environment and Weight Outcomes: A Stochastic Frontier Approach
Li, Xun; Lopez, Rigoberto A.
2013-01-01
Food environment includes the presence of supermarkets, restaurants, warehouse clubs and supercenters, and other food outlets. This paper evaluates weight outcomes from a food environment using a stochastic production frontier and an equation for the determinants of efficiency, where the explanatory variables of the efficiency term include food environment indicators. Using individual consumer data and food environment data from New England counties, empirical results indicate that fruit and ...
Novel Approach to Tourism Analysis with Multiple Outcome Capability Using Rough Set Theory
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Chun-Che Huang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available To explore the relationship between characteristics and decision-making outcomes of the tourist is critical to keep competitive tourism business. In investigation of tourism development, most of the existing studies lack of a systematic approach to analyze qualitative data. Although the traditional Rough Set (RS based approach is an excellent classification method in qualitative modeling, but it is canarsquo;t deal with the case of multiple outcomes, which is a common situation in tourism. Consequently, the Multiple Outcome Reduct Generation (MORG and Multiple Outcome Rule Extraction (MORE approaches based on RS to handle multiple outcomes are proposed. This study proposes a ranking based approach to induct meaningful reducts and ensure the strength and robustness of decision rules, which helps decision makers understand touristarsquo;s characteristics in a tourism case.
Dalen, Dirk
1983-01-01
A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...
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Schang Fabien
2017-03-01
Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peliš, Michal
2017-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2017), s. 357-381 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * erotetic implication * erotetic logic * logic of questions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/LLP/article/view/LLP.2017.007
Havelin, Leif I; Furnes, Ove; Baste, Valborg; Nordsletten, Lars; Hovik, Oystein; Dimmen, Sigbjorn
2014-01-01
Background The surgical approach in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is often based on surgeon preference and local traditions. The anterior muscle-sparing approach has recently gained popularity in Europe. We tested the hypothesis that patient satisfaction, pain, function, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after THA is not related to the surgical approach. Patients 1,476 patients identified through the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register were sent questionnaires 1–3 years after undergoing THA in the period from January 2008 to June 2010. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) included the hip disability osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-3L), visual analog scales (VAS) addressing pain and satisfaction, and questions about complications. 1,273 patients completed the questionnaires and were included in the analysis. Results Adjusted HOOS scores for pain, other symptoms, activities of daily living (ADL), sport/recreation, and quality of life were significantly worse (p < 0.001 to p = 0.03) for the lateral approach than for the anterior approach and the posterolateral approach (mean differences: 3.2–5.0). These results were related to more patient-reported limping with the lateral approach than with the anterior and posterolateral approaches (25% vs. 12% and 13%, respectively; p < 0.001). Interpretation Patients operated with the lateral approach reported worse outcomes 1–3 years after THA surgery. Self-reported limping occurred twice as often in patients who underwent THA with a lateral approach than in those who underwent THA with an anterior or posterolateral approach. There were no significant differences in patient-reported outcomes after THA between those who underwent THA with a posterolateral approach and those who underwent THA with an anterior approach. PMID:24954494
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service speciﬁcations. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a signiﬁcant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronov, A.A.; Kurin, V.V.; Levichev, M.Yu.; Ryndyk, D.A.; Vostokov, V.I.
1993-01-01
In recent years there has been much interest in superconductor logical devices. Our paper is devoted to the analysis of some new possibilities in this field. The main problems here are: minimization of time of logical operations and reducing of device scale. Josephson systems are quite appropriate for this purpose because of small size, short characteristic time and also small energy losses. Two different types of Josephson logic have been investigated during last years. The first type is based on hysteretic V-A characteristic of a single Josephson junction. Superconducting and resistive (with nonzero voltage) states are considered as logical zero and logical unit. The second one - rapid single flux quantum logic, has been developed recently and is based on SQUID-like bistability. Different logical states are the states with different number of magnetic flux quanta inside closed superconducting contour. Information is represented by voltage pulses with fixed ''area'' (∫ V(t)/dt). This pulses are generated when logical state of SQUID-like elementary cell changes. The fundamental role of magnetic flux quantization in this type of logic leads to the necessity of large enough self-inductance of superconductor contour and thus to limitations on minimal device dimensions. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Carbone
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2015-01-01
The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th
Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach
Somers, Cheryl L.
2006-01-01
This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…
Understanding Social Media Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José van Dijck
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, Robert L.
2001-01-01
Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we 'look' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors
Gulikers, J.T.M.; Bastiaens, Th.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Kester, L.
2006-01-01
This article examines the relationships between perceptions of authenticity and alignment on study approach and learning outcome. Senior students of a vocational training program performed an authentic assessment and filled in a questionnaire about the authenticity of various assessment
Probabilistic logic networks a comprehensive framework for uncertain inference
Goertzel, Ben; Goertzel, Izabela Freire; Heljakka, Ari
2008-01-01
This comprehensive book describes Probabilistic Logic Networks (PLN), a novel conceptual, mathematical and computational approach to uncertain inference. A broad scope of reasoning types are considered.
de Jager, H. J.; Nieuwenhuis, F. J.
2005-01-01
South Africa has embarked on a process of education renewal by adopting outcomes-based education (OBE). This paper focuses on the linkages between total quality management (TQM) and the outcomes-based approach in an education context. Quality assurance in academic programmes in higher education in South Africa is, in some instances, based on the…
An Outcome Evaluation of a Problem-Based Learning Approach with MSW Students
Westhues, Anne; Barsen, Chia; Freymond, Nancy; Train, Patricia
2014-01-01
In this article, we report the findings from a study exploring the effects of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching and learning on learning outcomes for master's of social work (MSW) students. Students who participated in a PBL pilot project were compared with students who did not participate in 5 outcome areas: social work…
Weakly Intuitionistic Quantum Logic
Hermens, Ronnie
2013-01-01
In this article von Neumann's proposal that in quantum mechanics projections can be seen as propositions is followed. However, the quantum logic derived by Birkhoff and von Neumann is rejected due to the failure of the law of distributivity. The options for constructing a distributive logic while
Kuusisto, Antti
2013-01-01
In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.
Cirstea, C.; Kurz, A.; Pattinson, D.; Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.
2011-01-01
Applications of modal logics are abundant in computer science, and a large number of structurally different modal logics have been successfully employed in a diverse spectrum of application contexts. Coalgebraic semantics, on the other hand, provides a uniform and encompassing view on the large
Criteria for logical formalization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír
2013-01-01
Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013
NEVEN, Frank
2002-01-01
We survey some recent developments in the broad area of automata and logic which are motivated by the advent of XML. In particular, we consider unranked tree automata, tree-walking automata, and automata over infinite alphabets. We focus on their connection with logic and on questions imposed by XML.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evandro Agazzi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.
A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag
2002-01-01
textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two
Uckelman, S.L.
2009-01-01
The origins of treating agency as a modal concept go back at least to the 11th century when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, provided a modal explication of the Latin facere ‘to do’, which can be formalized within the context of modern modal logic and neighborhood semantics. The agentive logic
Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic
van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.
2001-01-01
The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
1989-01-01
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse
1995-01-01
textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debra Maria Jones
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Early childhood is one of the most influential developmental life stages. Attainments at this stage will have implications for the quality of life children experience as they transition to adulthood. Children residing in remote Australia are exposed to socioeconomic disadvantage that can contribute to developmental delays and resultant poorer education and health outcomes. Complex contributing factors in far west New South Wales have resulted in children with speech and fine motor skill delays experiencing no to limited access to allied health services for a number of decades. More recently, growing awareness that no single policy, government agency, or program could effectively respond to these complexities or ensure appropriate allied health service access for children in these communities has led to the development of the Allied Health in Outback Schools Program, which has been operational since 2009. The program is underpinned by cross-sector partnerships and a shared aspirational aim to improve the developmental outcomes of children to enhance their later life opportunities. It was identified early that the initiative had the potential to deliver mutually beneficial outcomes for communities and participating partner organisations. Over the last five years the program has been the catalyst for partnership consolidation, expansion and diversification. The developmental evaluation approach to continuous program adaptation and refinement has provided valuable insights that have informed health and education policy and enabled the program to be responsive to changing community needs, emerging policy and funding reforms. This article explores the evolution of the program partnerships, their contribution to program success and longevity, and their capacity to respond to an emergent and dynamic environment. The authors propose that a community-centred and developmental approach to program innovation and implementation in remote locations is
Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert L.
The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive solutions has, however, shown to be highly intractable in logic programming. To avoid this intractability we present a new approach to logicbased abduction; through the geometrical view of data...... employed in array-based logic we embrace abduction in a simple structural operation. We argue that a theory of abduction on this form allows for an implementation which, at runtime, can perform abductive inference quite efficiently on arbitrary rules of logic representing knowledge of finite domains....
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Heterogeneous logics of competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...
FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION
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Z. Gonul BALKIR
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Predicting Refractive Surgery Outcome: Machine Learning Approach With Big Data.
Achiron, Asaf; Gur, Zvi; Aviv, Uri; Hilely, Assaf; Mimouni, Michael; Karmona, Lily; Rokach, Lior; Kaiserman, Igor
2017-09-01
To develop a decision forest for prediction of laser refractive surgery outcome. Data from consecutive cases of patients who underwent LASIK or photorefractive surgeries during a 12-year period in a single center were assembled into a single dataset. Training of machine-learning classifiers and testing were performed with a statistical classifier algorithm. The decision forest was created by feature vectors extracted from 17,592 cases and 38 clinical parameters for each patient. A 10-fold cross-validation procedure was applied to estimate the predictive value of the decision forest when applied to new patients. Analysis included patients younger than 40 years who were not treated for monovision. Efficacy of 0.7 or greater and 0.8 or greater was achieved in 16,198 (92.0%) and 14,945 (84.9%) eyes, respectively. Efficacy of less than 0.4 and less than 0.5 was achieved in 322 (1.8%) and 506 (2.9%) eyes, respectively. Patients in the low efficacy group (differences compared with the high efficacy group (≥ 0.8), yet were clinically similar (mean differences between groups of 0.7 years, of 0.43 mm in pupil size, of 0.11 D in cylinder, of 0.22 logMAR in preoperative CDVA, of 0.11 mm in optical zone size, of 1.03 D in actual sphere treatment, and of 0.64 D in actual cylinder treatment). The preoperative subjective CDVA had the highest gain (most important to the model). Correlations analysis revealed significantly decreased efficacy with increased age (r = -0.67, P big data from refractive surgeries may be of interest. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(9):592-597.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Surgical outcomes of early congenital cholesteatoma: minimally invasive transcanal approach.
Lee, Sang H; Jang, Jeong H; Lee, Dongjun; Lee, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Kyu-Yup
2014-03-01
To introduce a simple and alternative surgical technique, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), for early stage congenital cholesteatoma in children and to evaluate the feasibility and results of MITM for management of early stage congenital cholesteatoma with respect to its effectiveness and safety. Retrospective review. Between August 2008 and September 2012, a total of 36 patients with congenital cholesteatoma met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Patient medical records, including demographic characteristics, intraoperative findings, and follow-up records, were reviewed. Subjects consisted of 23 males (64%) and 13 females (36%), and the age at operation ranged from 12 months to 6 years (mean age = 3 years and 6 months). The number of congenital cholesteatoma was as follows: 26 patients at stage I and 10 patients at stage II. The follow-up duration was between 12 and 56 months, with an average of 30 months. There were no postoperative complications such as tympanic membrane perforation, dizziness, or secondary middle ear infection. Among 36 patients who had undergone the MITM approach for the treatment of congenital cholesteatoma, five (13.8%) showed recurrence and underwent a second-look operation. On the basis of our data, the MITM approach is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma in children. It has many advantages, in that there is no external wound and it is a simple surgical technique that involves easy postoperative care, a short operation time and hospitalization period, avoidance of serious complications, and easy repeatability for recurrence. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Commitment or Compliance? Institutional Logics of Work Environment Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt; Hasle, Peter
2017-01-01
and where it differs from the traditional organizational approach to work environment management. In this paper, we use the ‘institutional logics’ perspective to propose heuristic ideal types of two institutional logics of work environment management: The logic of compliance as the ideal type...... of the ‘traditional’ approach to work environment management and the logic of commitment as the human resource informed approach. Through a side-by-side comparison of key characteristics, we analyze the two ideal types as instantiations of institutional orders on the societal level with the compliance logic being...... rooted in the orders of the state and the corporation, and the commitment logic as based on the orders of the corporation. The paper ends with a discussion on the how the two logics can influence concrete work environment practices and approaches to management in organizations....
Christensen, Leif; Karle, Hans; Nystrup, Jørgen
2007-09-01
An outcome-based approach to medical education compared to a process/content orientation is currently being discussed intensively. In this article, the process and outcome interrelationship in medical education is discussed, with specific emphasis on the relation to the definition of standards in basic medical education. Perceptions of outcome have always been an integrated element of curricular planning. The present debate underlines the need for stronger focus on learning objectives and outcome assessment in many medical schools around the world. The need to maintain an integrated approach of process/content and outcome is underlined in this paper. A worry is expressed about the taxonomy of learning in pure outcome-based medical education, in which student assessment can be a major determinant for the learning process, leaving the control of the medical curriculum to medical examiners. Moreover, curricula which favour reductionism by stating everything in terms of instrumental outcomes or competences, do face a risk of lowering quality and do become a prey for political interference. Standards based on outcome alone rise unclarified problems in relationship to licensure requirements of medical doctors. It is argued that the alleged dichotomy between process/content and outcome seems artificial, and that formulation of standards in medical education must follow a comprehensive line in curricular planning.
Programming Games for Logical Thinking
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H. Tsalapatas
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.
THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, D.
1987-01-01
The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex
Logical inference and evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perey, F.G.
1981-01-01
Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2012-01-01
We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.
1981-01-01
The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)
Kral, M J
1994-01-01
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz
2009-07-01
This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)
Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham
2000-01-01
Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
Contribution of Warsaw Logicians to Computational Logic
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Damian Niwiński
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
1999-01-01
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
Computational logic: its origins and applications.
Paulson, Lawrence C
2018-02-01
Computational logic is the use of computers to establish facts in a logical formalism. Originating in nineteenth century attempts to understand the nature of mathematical reasoning, the subject now comprises a wide variety of formalisms, techniques and technologies. One strand of work follows the 'logic for computable functions (LCF) approach' pioneered by Robin Milner, where proofs can be constructed interactively or with the help of users' code (which does not compromise correctness). A refinement of LCF, called Isabelle, retains these advantages while providing flexibility in the choice of logical formalism and much stronger automation. The main application of these techniques has been to prove the correctness of hardware and software systems, but increasingly researchers have been applying them to mathematics itself.
Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic
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Miguel E. Litvin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.
Simultaneous G-Quadruplex DNA Logic.
Bader, Antoine; Cockroft, Scott L
2018-04-03
A fundamental principle of digital computer operation is Boolean logic, where inputs and outputs are described by binary integer voltages. Similarly, inputs and outputs may be processed on the molecular level as exemplified by synthetic circuits that exploit the programmability of DNA base-pairing. Unlike modern computers, which execute large numbers of logic gates in parallel, most implementations of molecular logic have been limited to single computing tasks, or sensing applications. This work reports three G-quadruplex-based logic gates that operate simultaneously in a single reaction vessel. The gates respond to unique Boolean DNA inputs by undergoing topological conversion from duplex to G-quadruplex states that were resolved using a thioflavin T dye and gel electrophoresis. The modular, addressable, and label-free approach could be incorporated into DNA-based sensors, or used for resolving and debugging parallel processes in DNA computing applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Poul Houman; Ritter, Thomas
2014-01-01
Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...
New data structures and algorithms for logic synthesis and verification
Amaru, Luca Gaetano
2017-01-01
This book introduces new logic primitives for electronic design automation tools. The author approaches fundamental EDA problems from a different, unconventional perspective, in order to demonstrate the key role of rethinking EDA solutions in overcoming technological limitations of present and future technologies. The author discusses techniques that improve the efficiency of logic representation, manipulation and optimization tasks by taking advantage of majority and biconditional logic primitives. Readers will be enabled to accelerate formal methods by studying core properties of logic circuits and developing new frameworks for logic reasoning engines. · Provides a comprehensive, theoretical study on majority and biconditional logic for logic synthesis; · Updates the current scenario in synthesis and verification – especially in light of emerging technologies; · Demonstrates applications to CMOS technology and emerging technologies.
Modern logic and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garden, R.W.
1984-01-01
The book applies the methods of modern logic and probabilities to ''interpreting'' quantum mechanics. The subject is described and discussed under the chapter headings: classical and quantum mechanics, modern logic, the propositional logic of mechanics, states and measurement in mechanics, the traditional analysis of probabilities, the probabilities of mechanics and the model logic of predictions. (U.K.)
Semantic theory for logic programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, F M
1981-01-01
The author axiomatizes a number of meta theoretic concepts which have been used in logic programming, including: meaning, logical truth, nonentailment, assertion and erasure, thus showing that these concepts are logical in nature and need not be defined as they have previously been defined in terms of the operations of any particular interpreter for logic programs. 10 references.
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic
Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine
Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.
The logic of relations and the logic of management.
Buntinx, W
2008-07-01
Increasing emphasis on financial and administrative control processes is affecting service culture in support organisations for persons with intellectual disability. This phenomenon is currently obvious in Dutch service organisations that find themselves in transition towards more community care and at the same time under pressure from new administrative and funding managerial bureaucracy. As a result, the logic of management is becoming more dominant in direct support settings and risk to overshadow the logic of relationships between staff and clients. The article presents a reflection on this phenomenon, starting from a description of service team characteristics as found in the literature. Next, findings about direct support staff (DSS) continuity are summarised from four Dutch studies. Following up these findings, the concept of 'microsystems' is explored as a possible answer to the organisational challenges demonstrated in the studies. Team characteristics, especially team size and membership continuity for DSS, appear relevant factors for assuring supportive relationships and service quality in direct support teams. The structure of the primary support team shows to be of special interest. The organisational concept of 'microsystems' is explored with respect to transcending the present conflict between bureaucratic managerial pressure and the need for supportive relationships. Service organisations need to create structural conditions for the efficacy of direct support teams in terms of client relationships and relevant client outcomes. At the same time, the need for administrative and control processes can not be denied. The concept of 'microsystems', application of a Quality of Life framework and the use of new instruments, such as the Supports Intensity Scale, can contribute to an organisational solution for the present conflicting logic of relations and management.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shailesh Dewangan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Surface integrity remains one of the major areas of concern in electric discharge machining (EDM. During the current study, grey-fuzzy logic-based hybrid optimization technique is utilized to determine the optimal settings of EDM process parameters with an aim to improve surface integrity aspects after EDM of AISI P20 tool steel. The experiment is designed using response surface methodology (RSM considering discharge current (Ip, pulse-on time (Ton, tool-work time (Tw and tool-lift time (Tup as process parameters. Various surface integrity characteristics such as white layer thickness (WLT, surface crack density (SCD and surface roughness (SR are considered during the current research work. Grey relational analysis (GRA combined with fuzzy-logic is used to determine grey fuzzy reasoning grade (GFRG. The optimal solution based on this analysis is found to be Ip = 1 A, Ton = 10 μs, Tw = 0.2 s, and Tup = 0.0 s. Analysis of variance (ANOVA results clearly indicate that Ton is the most contributing parameter followed by Ip, for multiple performance characteristics of surface integrity.
A logical treatment of secondary storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foster, I.T.; Kusalik, A.J.
1986-01-01
Existing logic programming environments usually rely on highly imperative primitives and side-effects to achieve I/O with peripheral devices such as disks. This paper describes an alternate approach where the concepts of information input and output are described declarativley. Using a model of a logic-based open system, independent logic systems communicate their beliefs by means of ground logic clauses. The interface to a physical disk is defined as a node in such a system. The contents of the disk are treated as a knowledge base. The model provides the disk with a simple inference mechanism that allows it to assimilate (or reject) assertions made to it by other nodes of the logic system. This disk can also process queries about its contents. An executable specification for such a storage model is given in the parallel logic programming language PARLOG, as well as an actual implementation that uses very low-level term I/O primitives. It is also shown how this model can be extended so that the disk records entity histories, rather than simple clauses. This enables file systems to be constructed very naturally, and allows garbage collection of ''old'' knowledge
Logic analysis and verification of n-input genetic logic circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan
2017-01-01
. In this paper, we present an approach to analyze and verify the Boolean logic of a genetic circuit from the data obtained through stochastic analog circuit simulations. The usefulness of this analysis is demonstrated through different case studies illustrating how our approach can be used to verify the expected......Nature is using genetic logic circuits to regulate the fundamental processes of life. These genetic logic circuits are triggered by a combination of external signals, such as chemicals, proteins, light and temperature, to emit signals to control other gene expressions or metabolic pathways...... accordingly. As compared to electronic circuits, genetic circuits exhibit stochastic behavior and do not always behave as intended. Therefore, there is a growing interest in being able to analyze and verify the logical behavior of a genetic circuit model, prior to its physical implementation in a laboratory...
Esmaily, Hamideh M; Savage, Carl; Vahidi, Rezagoli; Amini, Abolghasem; Dastgiri, Saeed; Hult, Hakan; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Wahlstrom, Rolf
2009-11-01
Continuing medical education (CME) is compulsory in Iran, and traditionally it is lecture-based, which is mostly not successful. Outcome-based education has been proposed for CME programs. To evaluate the effectiveness of an outcome-based educational intervention with a new approach based on outcomes and aligned teaching methods, on knowledge and skills of general physicians (GPs) working in primary care compared with a concurrent CME program in the field of "Rational prescribing". The method used was cluster randomized controlled design. All GPs working in six cities in one province in Iran were invited to participate. The cities were matched and randomly divided into an intervention arm for education on rational prescribing with an outcome-based approach, and a control arm for a traditional program on the same topic. Knowledge and skills were assessed using a pre- and post-test, including case scenarios. In total, 112 GPs participated. There were significant improvements in knowledge and prescribing skills after the training in the intervention arm as well as in comparison with the changes in the control arm. The overall intervention effect was 26 percentage units. The introduction of an outcome-based approach in CME appears to be effective when creating programs to improve GPs' knowledge and skills.
Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre
We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.
Diagnosable structured logic array
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Rushton, Andrew
2011-01-01
Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...
Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert
2004-01-01
Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...
The Cinematic Narrator: The Logic and Pragmatics of Impersonal Narration.
Burgoyne, Robert
1990-01-01
Describes "impersonal narration," an approach that defends the concept of the cinematic narrator as a logical and pragmatic necessity. Compares this approach with existing theories of the cinematic narrator, addressing disagreements in the field of film narrative theory. (MM)
Newton-Howes, Giles; Mulder, Roger; Ellis, Pete M; Boden, Joseph M; Joyce, Peter
2017-09-19
There is debate around the best model for diagnosing personality disorder, both in terms of its relationship to the empirical data and clinical utility. Four randomized controlled trials examining various treatments for depression were analyzed at an individual patient level. Three different approaches to the diagnosis of personality disorder were analyzed in these patients. A total of 578 depressed patients were included in the analysis. Personality disorder, however measured, was of little predictive utility in the short term but added significantly to predictive modelling of medium-term outcomes, accounting for more than twice as much of the variance in social functioning outcome as depression psychopathology. Personality disorder assessment is of predictive utility with longer timeframes and when considering social outcomes as opposed to symptom counts. This utility is sufficiently great that there appears to be value in assessing personality; however, no particular approach outperforms any other.
ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING APPROACHES IN IMPROVING LEARNING OUTCOMES IN ACID-BASE SUBJECT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rachmat Sahputra
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Learning in the understanding of acid-base chemistry in schools needs to be improved so research to determine differences in learning outcomes between students taught using environmental approaches and methods lectures in class XI SMA on acid-base subject needs to be done. In this study, using a quasi-experimental method using a data collection tool achievement test essay form. The test statistic results of the post-test learning has been obtained Asymp value. Sig (2-tailed 0,026 that showed the differences between students' learning outcomes with a control experimental class with effect size of 0.63 or much influence difference with the percentage 23.57% which indicated that the learning environment approach can improve learning outcomes of high school students.
Kusumaningrum, Indrati; Hidayat, Hendra; Ganefri; Anori, Sartika; Dewy, Mega Silfia
2016-01-01
This article describes the development of a business plan by using production-based learning approach. In addition, this development also aims to maximize learning outcomes in vocational education. Preliminary analysis of curriculum and learning and the needs of the market and society become the basic for business plan development. To produce a…
Claude Ziad Bayeh
2015-01-01
The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2009-01-01
The Propositional CalculusPropositional Connectives. Truth TablesTautologies Adequate Sets of Connectives An Axiom System for the Propositional Calculus Independence. Many-Valued LogicsOther AxiomatizationsFirst-Order Logic and Model TheoryQuantifiersFirst-Order Languages and Their Interpretations. Satisfiability and Truth. ModelsFirst-Order TheoriesProperties of First-Order Theories Additional Metatheorems and Derived Rules Rule C Completeness Theorems First-Order Theories with EqualityDefinitions of New Function Letters and Individual Constants Prenex Normal Forms Isomorphism of Interpretati
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young
2011-03-15
This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.
Gibson, J
2013-01-01
Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate
Evens, Aden
2015-01-01
Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo
Programmable Array Logic Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal
2007-01-01
Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)
Observational Research on Alcohol Use and Chronic Disease Outcome: New Approaches to Counter Biases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenbin Liang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background. The frequently reported protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption in observational studies may be due to unadjusted bias. Aim. To examine two new approaches that account for unknown confounding factors and allow the application of intention-to-treat analysis. Method. This study used data from the 2008, 2009, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys conducted in the United States. Unknown confounding effects were estimated through the association between parental alcohol use and health outcomes for children, because the presence of hypothetical physiological effects of alcohol can be ruled out for this association. In order to apply intention-to-treat analysis, previous alcohol use of former drinkers was obtained by using multiple imputations. Estimates with new adjustment approaches were compared with the traditional approach. Results. The traditional analytical approach; appears to be consistent with findings from previous observational studies; when two further adjustment approaches were used, the “protective” effects of moderate drinking almost disappeared. Conclusion. Use of a proxy outcome to estimate and control residual confounding effects of alcohol use and application of the intention-to-treat principle could provide a more realistic estimation of the true effects of alcohol use on health outcomes in observational epidemiological studies.
The Quantum Logical Challenge: Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to Logic and Philosophy of Science
Beltrametti, E.; Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.
2017-12-01
Peter Mittelstaedt's contributions to quantum logic and to the foundational problems of quantum theory have significantly realized the most authentic spirit of the International Quantum Structures Association: an original research about hard technical problems, which are often "entangled" with the emergence of important changes in our general world-conceptions. During a time where both the logical and the physical community often showed a skeptical attitude towards Birkhoff and von Neumann's quantum logic, Mittelstaedt brought into light the deeply innovating features of a quantum logical thinking that allows us to overcome some strong and unrealistic assumptions of classical logical arguments. Later on his intense research on the unsharp approach to quantum theory and to the measurement problem stimulated the increasing interest for unsharp forms of quantum logic, creating a fruitful interaction between the work of quantum logicians and of many-valued logicians. Mittelstaedt's general views about quantum logic and quantum theory seem to be inspired by a conjecture that is today more and more confirmed: there is something universal in the quantum theoretic formalism that goes beyond the limits of microphysics, giving rise to interesting applications to a number of different fields.
Quantum logics with existence property
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schindler, C.
1991-01-01
A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)
GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic
Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe
2008-01-01
It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...
Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker
2017-01-01
This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....
Goal setting in psychotherapy: the relevance of approach and avoidance goals for treatment outcome.
Wollburg, Eileen; Braukhaus, Christoph
2010-07-01
The present study is the first aimed at investigating the influence of goal definition on treatment outcome in a sample of depressed patients. Data from 657 inpatients admitted to a psychosomatic clinic in Germany being treated in a cognitive-behavioral therapy program were analyzed. Treatment goals were identified as either approach or avoidance, and the sample was classified accordingly. Patients who identified approach goals only were placed in the approach group, and those who identified at least one avoidance goal were placed in the avoidance group. Results showed that framing goals using avoidance terms was associated with less symptomatic improvement but did not affect goal attainment. Findings from this research should be utilized in practice not only for process management such as individual treatment planning but also to control outcome quality. Furthermore, goal definition should be considered as a control variable in research on depression.
Hayes, Holly; Parchman, Michael L.; Howard, Ray
2012-01-01
Evaluating effective growth and development of a Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN) can be challenging. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a logic model and how the framework has been used for planning and evaluation in a primary care PBRN. An evaluation team was formed consisting of the PBRN directors, staff and its board members. After the mission and the target audience were determined, facilitated meetings and discussions were held with stakeholders to identify the assumptions, inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and outcome indicators. The long-term outcomes outlined in the final logic model are two-fold: 1.) Improved health outcomes of patients served by PBRN community clinicians; and 2.) Community clinicians are recognized leaders of quality research projects. The Logic Model proved useful in identifying stakeholder interests and dissemination activities as an area that required more attention in the PBRN. The logic model approach is a useful planning tool and project management resource that increases the probability that the PBRN mission will be successfully implemented. PMID:21900441
2012-01-01
Purpose This article explores the rationale for choosing the instruments included within the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) data set. Using one specialist neuro-rehabilitation unit as an exemplar service, it describes an approach to engaging the hearts and minds of clinicians in recording the data. Key messages and implications Measures included within a national data set for rehabilitation should be psychometrically robust and feasible to use in routine clinical practice; they should also support clinical decision-making so that clinicians actually want to use them. Learning from other international casemix models and benchmarking data sets, the UKROC team has developed a cluster of measures to inform the development of effective and cost-efficient rehabilitation services. These include measures of (1) “needs” for rehabilitation (complexity), (2) inputs provided to meet those needs (nursing and therapy intervention), and (3) outcome, including the attainment of personal goals as well as gains in functional independence. Conclusions By integrating the use of the data set measures in everyday clinical practice, we have achieved a very high rate of compliance with data collection. However, staff training and ongoing commitment from senior staff and managers are critical to the maintenance of effort required to provide assurance of data quality in the longer term. PMID:22506959
Some relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rine, D.C.
1986-01-01
There have been suggestions in the artificial intelligence literature that investigations into relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic may be helpful. This paper presents some of these relationships through equivalent algebraic evaluations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2014-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML...
Klev, Ansten Morch
2014-01-01
The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics
Structures for Epistemic Logic
Bezhanishvili, N.; Hoek, W. van der
2013-01-01
Epistemic modal logic in a narrow sense studies and formalises reasoning about knowledge. In a wider sense, it gives a formal account of the informational attitude that agents may have, and covers notions like knowledge, belief, uncertainty, and hence incomplete or partial information. As is so
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter
2009-01-01
's notion of branching time is analysed. It is argued that Prior can be criticized for identifying 'plain future'. Finally, Prior's four grades of tense-logical involvement are introduced and discussed. It is argued that the third grade is the most attractive form a philosophical point of view....
Expressivist Perspective on Logicality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arazim, Pavel
2017-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 409-419 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical constant * expressivism * topic-neutrality * proof- theory * conservativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars
2012-01-01
, separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klev, Ansten
2017-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 341-368 ISSN 0031-8019 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philosophy of mathematics * logicism * Richard Dedekind Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 0.419, year: 2016
Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism
Symons, John
2008-01-01
Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Svoboda, Vladimír; Peregrin, Jaroslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 263-287 ISSN 0920-427X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : argumentation * logical form * incorrect argument * correct arguments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.689, year: 2016
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2010-01-01
Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of
Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Faymonville
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce Parametric Linear Dynamic Logic (PLDL, which extends Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL by temporal operators equipped with parameters that bound their scope. LDL was proposed as an extension of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL that is able to express all ω-regular specifications while still maintaining many of LTL's desirable properties like an intuitive syntax and a translation into non-deterministic Büchi automata of exponential size. But LDL lacks capabilities to express timing constraints. By adding parameterized operators to LDL, we obtain a logic that is able to express all ω-regular properties and that subsumes parameterized extensions of LTL like Parametric LTL and PROMPT-LTL. Our main technical contribution is a translation of PLDL formulas into non-deterministic Büchi word automata of exponential size via alternating automata. This yields a PSPACE model checking algorithm and a realizability algorithm with doubly-exponential running time. Furthermore, we give tight upper and lower bounds on optimal parameter values for both problems. These results show that PLDL model checking and realizability are not harder than LTL model checking and realizability.
Temporal logic motion planning
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Seotsanyana, M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...
Logic Programming for Linguistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning
2010-01-01
This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav
2010-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 207-223 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : logic * natural selection * modus potens * inferentialism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic
van der Hoek, Wiebe; Meyer, John Jules; Treur, Jan
1998-01-01
We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates
Logic Programming with Requests
De Schreye, Danny; Etalle, Sandro; van Raamsdonk, Femke
1999-01-01
We propose an extension of logic programming where the user can specify, together with the initial query, the information he is interested in by means of a request. This allows one to extract a result from an incomplete computation, such as the prefix of an infinite derivation. The classical
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....
Hayati, R. S.
2017-02-01
This research aim is develop the potential of Taka Bonerate National Park as learning resources through edutourism with scientific approach to improve student learning outcomes. Focus of student learning outcomes are students psychomotor abilities and comprehension on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The edutourism development products are teacher manual, edutourism worksheet, material booklet, guide’s manual, and Taka Bonerate National Park governor manual. The method to develop edutourism products is ADDIE research and development model that consist of analysis, design, development and production, implementation, and evaluation step. The subjects in the implementation step were given a pretest and posttest and observation sheet to see the effect of edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach to student learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The data were analyzed qualitative descriptively. The research result is edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach can improve students learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. Edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park can be an alternative of learning method on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics.
Greek, Indian and Arabic logic
Gabbay, Dov M
2004-01-01
Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poghossian, A., E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Malzahn, K. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Abouzar, M.H. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Mehndiratta, P. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Katz, E. [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, NanoBio Laboratory (NABLAB), Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2011-11-01
Highlights: > Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. > The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. > Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). > The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.
Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poghossian, A.; Malzahn, K.; Abouzar, M.H.; Mehndiratta, P.; Katz, E.; Schoening, M.J.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. → The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. → Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). → The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO 2 -Ta 2 O 5 structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta 2 O 5 ) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.
A Natural Logic for Natural-Language Knowledge Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Troels; Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov; Jensen, Per Anker
2017-01-01
We describe a natural logic for computational reasoning with a regimented fragment of natural language. The natural logic comes with intuitive inference rules enabling deductions and with an internal graph representation facilitating conceptual path finding between pairs of terms as an approach t...
A Natural Logic for Natural-language Knowledge Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker
2017-01-01
We describe a natural logic for computational reasoning with a regimented fragment of natural language. The natural logic comes with intuitive inference rules enabling deductions and with an internal graph representation facilitating conceptual path finding between pairs of terms as an approach t...
Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2010-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...
Logical Framework Analysis (LFA): An Essential Tool for Designing ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Evaluation of a project at any stage of its life cycle, especially at its planning stage, is necessary for its successful execution and completion. The Logical Framework Analysis or the Logical Framework Approach (LFA) is an essential tool in designing such evaluation because it is a process that serves as a reference guide in ...
Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction
Stairs, Allen
2015-01-01
Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...
Logical analysis of biological systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian
2005-01-01
R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....
Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic
2014-01-01
This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics. The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field. The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...
Preferential reasoning for modal logics
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Britz, K
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...
Possible use of fuzzy logic in database
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vaclav Bezdek
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The article deals with fuzzy logic and its possible use in database systems. At first fuzzy thinking style is shown on a simple example. Next the advantages of the fuzzy approach to database searching are considered on the database of used cars in the Czech Republic.
Learning Probabilistic Logic Models from Probabilistic Examples.
Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José
2008-10-01
We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples.
Eco-Logic: Logic-Based Approaches to Ecological Modelling
Daniel L. Schmoldt
1991-01-01
This paper summarizes the simulation research carried out during 1984-1989 at the University of Edinburgh. Two primary objectives of their research are 1) to provide tools for manipulating simulation models (i.e., implementation tools) and 2) to provide advice on conceptualizing real-world phenomena into an idealized representation for simulation (i.e., model design...
From Logical to Distributional Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Preller
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper relates two variants of semantic models for natural language, logical functional models and compositional distributional vector space models, by transferring the logic and reasoning from the logical to the distributional models. The geometrical operations of quantum logic are reformulated as algebraic operations on vectors. A map from functional models to vector space models makes it possible to compare the meaning of sentences word by word.
Probability and logical structure of statistical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, M.J.W.
1988-01-01
A characterization of statistical theories is given which incorporates both classical and quantum mechanics. It is shown that each statistical theory induces an associated logic and joint probability structure, and simple conditions are given for the structure to be of a classical or quantum type. This provides an alternative for the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics. The Bell inequalities may be derived for those statistical theories that have a classical structure and satisfy a locality condition weaker than factorizability. The relation of these inequalities to the issue of hidden variable theories for quantum mechanics is discussed and clarified
Representations of Multiple-Valued Logic Functions
Stankovic, Radomir S
2012-01-01
Compared to binary switching functions, multiple-valued functions offer more compact representations of the information content of signals modeled by logic functions and, therefore, their use fits very well in the general settings of data compression attempts and approaches. The first task in dealing with such signals is to provide mathematical methods for their representation in a way that will make their application in practice feasible.Representation of Multiple-Valued Logic Functions is aimed at providing an accessible introduction to these mathematical techniques that are necessary for ap
Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.
2002-01-01
We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...
Combining Paraconsistent Logic with Argumentation
Grooters, Diana; Prakken, Hendrik
2014-01-01
One tradition in the logical study of argumentation is to allow for arguments that combine strict and defeasible inference rules, and to derive the strict inference rules from a logic at least as strong as classical logic. An unsolved problem in this tradition is how the trivialising effect of the
Lectures on Logic and Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers fo...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash
2013-01-01
In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a log...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamal Abd Ali
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel lightning search algorithm (LSA using quantum mechanics theories to generate a quantum-inspired LSA (QLSA. The QLSA improves the searching of each step leader to obtain the best position for a projectile. To evaluate the reliability and efficiency of the proposed algorithm, the QLSA is tested using eighteen benchmark functions with various characteristics. The QLSA is applied to improve the design of the fuzzy logic controller (FLC for controlling the speed response of the induction motor drive. The proposed algorithm avoids the exhaustive conventional trial-and-error procedure for obtaining membership functions (MFs. The generated adaptive input and output MFs are implemented in the fuzzy speed controller design to formulate the objective functions. Mean absolute error (MAE of the rotor speed is the objective function of optimization controller. An optimal QLSA-based FLC (QLSAF optimization controller is employed to tune and minimize the MAE, thereby improving the performance of the induction motor with the change in speed and mechanical load. To validate the performance of the developed controller, the results obtained with the QLSAF are compared to the results obtained with LSA, the backtracking search algorithm (BSA, the gravitational search algorithm (GSA, the particle swarm optimization (PSO and the proportional integral derivative controllers (PID, respectively. Results show that the QLASF outperforms the other control methods in all of the tested cases in terms of damping capability and transient response under different mechanical loads and speeds.
Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B
2015-07-01
Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Adult asthma disease management: an analysis of studies, approaches, outcomes, and methods.
Maciejewski, Matthew L; Chen, Shih-Yin; Au, David H
2009-07-01
Disease management has been implemented for patients with asthma in various ways. We describe the approaches to and components of adult asthma disease-management interventions, examine the outcomes evaluated, and assess the quality of published studies. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Cochrane databases for studies published in 1986 through 2008, on adult asthma management. With the studies that met our inclusion criteria, we examined the clinical, process, medication, economic, and patient-reported outcomes reported, and the study designs, provider collaboration during the studies, and statistical methods. Twenty-nine articles describing 27 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. There was great variation in the content, extent of collaboration between physician and non-physician providers responsible for intervention delivery, and outcomes examined across the 27 studies. Because of limitations in the design of 22 of the 27 studies, the differences in outcomes assessed, and the lack of rigorous statistical adjustment, we could not draw definitive conclusions about the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the asthma disease-management programs or which approach was most effective. Few well-designed studies with rigorous evaluations have been conducted to evaluate disease-management interventions for adults with asthma. Current evidence is insufficient to recommend any particular intervention.
Fuzzy logic applications to control engineering
Langari, Reza
1993-12-01
This paper presents the results of a project presently under way at Texas A&M which focuses on the use of fuzzy logic in integrated control of manufacturing systems. The specific problems investigated here include diagnosis of critical tool wear in machining of metals via a neuro-fuzzy algorithm, as well as compensation of friction in mechanical positioning systems via an adaptive fuzzy logic algorithm. The results indicate that fuzzy logic in conjunction with conventional algorithmic based approaches or neural nets can prove useful in dealing with the intricacies of control/monitoring of manufacturing systems and can potentially play an active role in multi-modal integrated control systems of the future.
Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.
Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert
2009-05-01
We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.
Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunhua Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.
Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire B
2005-10-01
This review synthesized results of 26 outcomes research studies and two meta-analyses that evaluated abuse-focused psychotherapy techniques for survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Different therapeutic approaches delivered in individual, group, or combination formats were evaluated with pre/post test, quasi-experimental, or randomized control designs. Accumulated research findings suggest that abuse-focused psychotherapy for adults sexually abused as children is generally beneficial in reducing psychiatric distress, depression, and trauma-specific symptoms. No one therapeutic approach was demonstrated to be superior. There was little evidence about the effectiveness of individual versus group therapy or the optimal treatment duration.
Computational logic with square rings of nanomagnets
Arava, Hanu; Derlet, Peter M.; Vijayakumar, Jaianth; Cui, Jizhai; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Kleibert, Armin; Heyderman, Laura J.
2018-06-01
Nanomagnets are a promising low-power alternative to traditional computing. However, the successful implementation of nanomagnets in logic gates has been hindered so far by a lack of reliability. Here, we present a novel design with dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged on a square lattice to (i) support transfer of information and (ii) perform logic operations. We introduce a thermal protocol, using thermally active nanomagnets as a means to perform computation. Within this scheme, the nanomagnets are initialized by a global magnetic field and thermally relax on raising the temperature with a resistive heater. We demonstrate error-free transfer of information in chains of up to 19 square rings and we show a high level of reliability with successful gate operations of ∼94% across more than 2000 logic gates. Finally, we present a functionally complete prototype NAND/NOR logic gate that could be implemented for advanced logic operations. Here we support our experiments with simulations of the thermally averaged output and determine the optimal gate parameters. Our approach provides a new pathway to a long standing problem concerning reliability in the use of nanomagnets for computation.
Fibred Coalgebraic Logic and Quantum Protocols
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Marsden
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Motivated by applications in modelling quantum systems using coalgebraic techniques, we introduce a fibred coalgebraic logic. Our approach extends the conventional predicate lifting semantics with additional modalities relating conditions on different fibres. As this fibred setting will typically involve multiple signature functors, the logic incorporates a calculus of modalities enabling the construction of new modalities using various composition operations. We extend the semantics of coalgebraic logic to this setting, and prove that this extension respects behavioural equivalence. We show how properties of the semantics of modalities are preserved under composition operations, and then apply the calculational aspect of our logic to produce an expressive set of modalities for reasoning about quantum systems, building these modalities up from simpler components. We then demonstrate how these modalities can describe some standard quantum protocols. The novel features of our logic are shown to allow for a uniform description of unitary evolution, and support local reasoning such as "Alice's qubit satisfies condition" as is common when discussing quantum protocols.
Tadiparthi, S; Hartley, A; Alzweri, L; Mecci, M; Siddiqui, H
2016-07-01
Pressure sore treatment in spinal injury patients is challenging. A multidisciplinary approach with joint management by the plastic surgery and spinal injury teams was initiated at our institution in 2005 to improve patient care and surgical outcomes following reconstruction. This study assessed the surgical outcomes following reconstruction using the team approach and to compare inpatient stay and readmissions for complications before and after the multidisciplinary protocol was introduced. A retrospective review of consecutive patients in the multidisciplinary pressure sore clinic was performed. Data were collected on patient demographics, reconstructive techniques, surgical outcomes and readmission for any complications. In total, 45 patients with 60 pressure sores (grade 3 or 4) were reviewed in the joint clinic between 2005 and 2011. The majority of patients were paraplegic (78%), while the remaining 22% were tetraplegic. Ischial sores were the most common (45%) followed by trochanteric (23%) and sacral (20%) sores. Multiple sores were noted in 44% of patients. Flap reconstruction was required in 32 patients (71%); after a mean follow-up time of 33 months (range 25-72 months), there were three (9%) major complications (two recurrences of pressure sores and one sinus) and seven (22%) minor complications. After introduction of patient care pathways through the multidisciplinary approach, the rate of readmission for complications decreased from 14% to 5.5% and inpatient stay upon readmission reduced from 65 to 45 days. Implementation of a multidisciplinary approach was key to optimising surgical outcomes, achieving a low recurrence rate (6%) and reducing readmissions. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Investigating Outcomes of T-Government Using a Public Value Management Approach
Veenstra , Anne; Janssen , Marijn
2012-01-01
Part 5: Evaluation; International audience; A main objective of transformational government (t-government) is to realize public sector reform. Initiatives of public sector reform, commonly referred to as New Public Management (NPM), often failed to achieve the desired results and led to undesired outcomes. Hence, a new reform approach, referred to as Public Value Management (PVM), emerged to overcome these negative effects and to which the use of information technology (IT) is central. This p...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke
unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...
Modern Logical Frameworks Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murawska, Agata Anna
2017-01-01
lack support for reasoning about, or programming with, the mechanised systems. Our main motivation is to eventually make it possible to model and reason about complex concurrent systems and protocols. No matter the application, be it the development of a logic for multiparty session types...... or a cryptographic protocol used in a voting system, we need the ability to model and reason about both the building blocks of these systems and the intricate connections between them. To this end, this dissertation is an investigation into LF-based formalisms that might help address the aforementioned issues. We...... design and provide the meta-theory of two new frameworks, HyLF and Lincx. The former aims to extend the expressiveness of LF to include proof irrelevance and some user-defined behaviours, using ideas from hybrid logics. The latter is a showcase for an easier to implement framework, while also allowing...
Competing Logics and Healthcare
Saks, Mike
2018-01-01
This paper offers a short commentary on the editorial by Mannion and Exworthy. The paper highlights the positive insights offered by their analysis into the tensions between the competing institutional logics of standardization and customization in healthcare, in part manifested in the conflict between managers and professionals, and endorses the plea of the authors for further research in this field. However, the editorial is criticized for its lack of a strong societal reference point, the comparative absence of focus on hybridization, and its failure to highlight structural factors impinging on the opposing logics in a broader neo-institutional framework. With reference to the Procrustean metaphor, it is argued that greater stress should be placed on the healthcare user in future health policy. Finally, the case of complementary and alternative medicine is set out which – while not explicitly mentioned in the editorial – most effectively concretizes the tensions at the heart of this analysis of healthcare. PMID:29626406
Constrained mathematics evaluation in probabilistic logic analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arlin Cooper, J
1998-06-01
A challenging problem in mathematically processing uncertain operands is that constraints inherent in the problem definition can require computations that are difficult to implement. Examples of possible constraints are that the sum of the probabilities of partitioned possible outcomes must be one, and repeated appearances of the same variable must all have the identical value. The latter, called the 'repeated variable problem', will be addressed in this paper in order to show how interval-based probabilistic evaluation of Boolean logic expressions, such as those describing the outcomes of fault trees and event trees, can be facilitated in a way that can be readily implemented in software. We will illustrate techniques that can be used to transform complex constrained problems into trivial problems in most tree logic expressions, and into tractable problems in most other cases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas Walton
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a formalization of informal logic using the Carneades Argumentation System (CAS, a formal, computational model of argument that consists of a formal model of argument graphs and audiences. Conflicts between pro and con arguments are resolved using proof standards, such as preponderance of the evidence. CAS also formalizes argumentation schemes. Schemes can be used to check whether a given argument instantiates the types of argument deemed normatively appropriate for the type of dialogue.
Probabilistic Logical Characterization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto
2011-01-01
Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....
Bisimulations, games, and logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian
1994-01-01
In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game-theoretically a......-theoretically and logically in a non-interleaving model. Our characterizations appear as surprisingly simple extensions of corresponding characterizations of interleaving bisimulation....
Stereotypical Reasoning: Logical Properties
Lehmann, Daniel
2002-01-01
Stereotypical reasoning assumes that the situation at hand is one of a kind and that it enjoys the properties generally associated with that kind of situation. It is one of the most basic forms of nonmonotonic reasoning. A formal model for stereotypical reasoning is proposed and the logical properties of this form of reasoning are studied. Stereotypical reasoning is shown to be cumulative under weak assumptions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhanov, O.A.; Rylov, S.V.; Semenov, V.K.; Vyshenskii, S.V.
1989-01-01
Several ways of local timing of the Josephson-junction RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic elements are proposed, and their peculiarities are discussed. Several examples of serial and parallel pipelined arithmetic blocks using various types of timing are suggested and their possible performance is discussed. Serial devices enable one to perform n-bit functions relatively slowly but using integrated circuits of a moderate integration scale, while parallel pipelined devices are more hardware-wasteful but promise extremely high productivity
1981-01-01
Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...
Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Lavy, Muriel; Amanzio, Gianpiero; De Maio, Marina; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar
2017-12-01
The West Bokaro coalfield is a richest coal-mining belt in the Damodar Valley, India. The extensive mining of the area has resulted in disruption of the groundwater availability in terms of both quantity and quality. This has led to a drinking water crisis, especially during the pre-monsoon period in the West Bokaro coalfield area. The characterization of the hydrogeological system and the artificial recharging of the aquifers might help to better manage the problem of the groundwater-level depletion. For this purpose, seven important hydrogeological factors (water depth, slope, drainage, soil, infiltration, lithology, and landuse) have been considered to define the most suitable locations for artificial groundwater recharging in the mining area. Different thematic maps were prepared from existing maps and data sets, remote-sensing images, and field investigations for identification of the most suitable locations for artificial recharge. Thematic layers for these parameters were prepared, classified, weighted, and integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) environment by means of fuzzy logic. The results of the study indicate that about 29 and 31% of the area are very suitable and suitable for recharging purposes in the West Bokaro coalfield. However, the rest of the area is moderate to unsuitable for recharging due to the ongoing mining and related activities in the study area. The groundwater recharging map of the study area was validated with measured electrical conductivity (EC) values in the groundwater, and it indicated that validation can be accepted for the identification of groundwater recharging sites. These findings are providing useful information for the proper planning and sustainable management of the groundwater resources in the study area.
Hu, Shuhua; Dunlavey, Michael; Guzy, Serge; Teuscher, Nathan
2018-04-01
A distributed delay approach was proposed in this paper to model delayed outcomes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies. This approach was shown to be general enough to incorporate a wide array of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models as special cases including transit compartment models, effect compartment models, typical absorption models (either zero-order or first-order absorption), and a number of atypical (or irregular) absorption models (e.g., parallel first-order, mixed first-order and zero-order, inverse Gaussian, and Weibull absorption models). Real-life examples were given to demonstrate how to implement distributed delays in Phoenix ® NLME™ 8.0, and to numerically show the advantages of the distributed delay approach over the traditional methods.
Design of reconfigurable logic controllers
Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek
2016-01-01
This book presents the original concepts and modern techniques for specification, synthesis, optimisation and implementation of parallel logical control devices. It deals with essential problems of reconfigurable control systems like dependability, modularity and portability. Reconfigurable systems require a wider variety of design and verification options than the application-specific integrated circuits. The book presents a comprehensive selection of possible design techniques. The diversity of the modelling approaches covers Petri nets, state machines and activity diagrams. The preferences of the presented optimization and synthesis methods are not limited to increasing of the efficiency of resource use. One of the biggest advantages of the presented methods is the platform independence, the FPGA devices and single board computers are some of the examples of possible platforms. These issues and problems are illustrated with practical cases of complete control systems. If you expect a new look at the recon...
Superposition as a logical glue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Asperti
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The typical mathematical language systematically exploits notational and logical abuses whose resolution requires not just the knowledge of domain specific notation and conventions, but not trivial skills in the given mathematical discipline. A large part of this background knowledge is expressed in form of equalities and isomorphisms, allowing mathematicians to freely move between different incarnations of the same entity without even mentioning the transformation. Providing ITP-systems with similar capabilities seems to be a major way to improve their intelligence, and to ease the communication between the user and the machine. The present paper discusses our experience of integration of a superposition calculus within the Matita interactive prover, providing in particular a very flexible, "smart" application tactic, and a simple, innovative approach to automation.
Spektor, Sergey; Valarezo, Javier; Fliss, Dan M; Gil, Ziv; Cohen, Jose; Goldman, Jose; Umansky, Felix
2005-10-01
To review the surgical approaches, techniques, outcomes, and recurrence rates in a series of 80 olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) patients operated on between 1990 and 2003. Eighty patients underwent 81 OGM surgeries. Tumor diameter varied from 2 to 9 cm (average, 4.6 cm). In 35 surgeries (43.2%), the tumor was removed through bifrontal craniotomy; nine operations (11.1%) were performed through a unilateral subfrontal approach; 18 surgeries (22.2%) were performed through a pterional approach; seven surgeries (8.6%) were carried out using a fronto-orbital craniotomy; and 12 procedures (14.8%) were accomplished via a subcranial approach. Nine patients (11.3%) had undergone surgery previously and had recurrent tumor. Total removal was obtained in 72 patients (90.0%); subtotal removal was achieved in 8 patients (10.0%). Two patients, one with total and one with subtotal removal, had atypical (World Health Organization Grade II) meningiomas, whereas 78 patients had World Health Organization Grade I tumors. There was no operative mortality and no new permanent focal neurological deficit besides anosmia. Twenty-five patients (31.3%) experienced surgery-related complications. There were no recurrences in 75 patients (93.8%) 6 to 164 months (mean, 70.8 mo) after surgery. Three patients (3.8%) were lost to follow-up. In two patients (2.5%) with subtotal removal, the residual evidenced growth on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging 1 year after surgery. One of them had an atypical meningioma. The second, a multiple meningiomata patient, was operated on twice in this series. A variety of surgical approaches are used for OGM resection. An approach tailored to the tumor's size, location, and extension, combined with modern microsurgical cranial base techniques, allows full OGM removal with minimal permanent morbidity, excellent neurological outcome, and very low recurrence rates.
Impact of timing and surgical approach on outcomes after mitral valve regurgitation operations.
Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Rodriguez, Evelio; Lehr, Eric J; Kindell, Linda C; Nifong, L Wiley; Ferguson, T Bruce; Chitwood, W Randolph
2012-05-01
This study investigated whether the timing of mitral valve (MV) repair or surgical approach affects outcomes in patients with MV regurgitation. Between 1992 and 2009, 2,255 patients underwent MV operations, including 1,305 with isolated MV regurgitation operations (1,054 repairs, 251 replacements). Surgical approaches were sternotomy in 377, video-assisted right minithoracotomy in 481, or robot-assisted in 447. Mean follow-up was 6.4±4.5 years (maximum, 19 years). Sternotomy MV repairs decreased during the study while minimally invasive MV repairs increased. Robotic MV repair patients were younger, with fewer women, had better left ventricular ejection fractions, and were more likely to have myxomatous degeneration (all p<0.001). The robotic approach led to a higher MV repair rate and increased use of leaflet/chordal procedures but had longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times (all p<0.001). The 30-day mortality for isolated MV repair was similar for all approaches (p=0.409). Fewer neurological events were observed in the videoscopic and robotic groups (p=0.013). Adjusted survival was similar for all approaches (p=0.357). Survival in patients in New York Heart Association class I to II with myxomatous degeneration or annular dilatation was similar to a matched population but was worse for patients in class III to IV or undergoing MV replacement. MV repair in patients with severe MV regurgitation should be performed before New York Heart Association class III to IV symptoms develop. Minimally invasive MV repair techniques render similar outcomes as the sternotomy approach. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Filippone, Francesco Romeo; Alfò, Marco; Muni, Roberta; Cavalieri, Elena; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Annechini, Giorgia; Valeriani, Maurizio; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Minniti, Giuseppe; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi
2012-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in women with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosis, treated between 1972 and 1999 at Department of Radiotherapy and Hematology of University “Sapienza” of Roma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 99 female patients that conceived after treatment for HL. Fifty-nine (59%) were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 32 (32%) with radiotherapy alone as supradiaphragmatic or as infradiaphragmatic and 8 (8%) patients with chemotherapy alone. Results: Ninety-nine patients reported 145 pregnancies. We observed 132 deliveries (2 of them twin births) after a median of 55 months (range, 14–278 months) from the end of therapy. Twelve women (12%) experienced 13 miscarriages after a median of 50 months (range, 13–120) from the end of therapy. We recorded 9/132 (7%) premature births and 3/134 babies (2%) were underweight at the time of birth. We recorded 2 cases of congenital malformations. No statistical differences were recorded when adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed with respect to chemotherapy alone, radiotherapy alone, or combined therapy. Conclusions: No significant associations between pregnancy outcomes and therapeutic approaches were found. In particular, the infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy showed no statistical association with miscarriages, premature birth, and low birth weight at term when compared with other therapeutic approaches.
Machine learning approach for the outcome prediction of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rubén Armañanzas
Full Text Available Epilepsy surgery is effective in reducing both the number and frequency of seizures, particularly in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of these patients continue suffering seizures after surgery. Here we used a machine learning approach to predict the outcome of epilepsy surgery based on supervised classification data mining taking into account not only the common clinical variables, but also pathological and neuropsychological evaluations. We have generated models capable of predicting whether a patient with TLE secondary to hippocampal sclerosis will fully recover from epilepsy or not. The machine learning analysis revealed that outcome could be predicted with an estimated accuracy of almost 90% using some clinical and neuropsychological features. Importantly, not all the features were needed to perform the prediction; some of them proved to be irrelevant to the prognosis. Personality style was found to be one of the key features to predict the outcome. Although we examined relatively few cases, findings were verified across all data, showing that the machine learning approach described in the present study may be a powerful method. Since neuropsychological assessment of epileptic patients is a standard protocol in the pre-surgical evaluation, we propose to include these specific psychological tests and machine learning tools to improve the selection of candidates for epilepsy surgery.
Geometrical considerations in the transient ionization testing of digital logic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnston, A.
1982-01-01
Mechanisms are identified that can cause the transient response of digital logic circuits to depend on the logic state in which they are irradiated. Several of these mechanisms depend on surface topology, and for these cases the sensitive logic states can be determined by examining the topology. General approaches for transient radiation testing are also discussed for several MSI and LSI device technologies
Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammuller, Florian
2014-01-01
it to the sociological process of logical explanation. As a case study on modeling human behaviour, we present the modeling and analysis of insider threats as a Higher Order Logic theory in Isabelle/HOL. We show how each of the three step process of sociological explanation can be seen in our modeling of insider’s state......, its context within an organisation and the effects on security as outcomes of a theorem proving analysis....
Computability, complexity, logic
Börger, Egon
1989-01-01
The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an
T Atanassov, Krassimir
2017-01-01
The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.
Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh
2014-01-01
Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker
2012-01-01
We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-eﬀect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....
Krötzsch, M
2010-01-01
Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary
Bright, Liam Kofi
2017-10-01
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Outcomes and Complications of the Midline Anterior Approach 3 Years after Lumbar Spine Surgery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charla R. Fischer
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new questionnaire to assess outcomes related to the midline anterior lumbar approach and to identify risk factors for negative patient responses. Methods. A retrospective review of 58 patients who underwent anterior lumbar surgery at a single institution for either degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis in 2009 was performed. The outcome measures included our newly developed Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire (ALSQ, ODI, and EQ-5D. Results. There were 58 patients available for followup, 27 women and 31 men. The average age at surgery was 50.8 years, with an average followup of 2.92 years. The average change in ODI was 34.94 (22.7 and EQ-5D was 0.28 (0.29. The rate of complications with the anterior approach was 10.3% and there was one male patient (3.2% with retrograde ejaculation. Determination of the effectiveness of the new ALSQ revealed that it significantly correlated to the EQ-5D and ODI (P<0.05. Smoking was associated with a negative response on thirteen questions. BMP use was not associated with a negative response on any sexual function questions. Conclusions. Our new Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire determines patient perceived complications related to the midline anterior lumbar surgical approach.
Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic
Epstein, Richard L
2011-01-01
In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo
The scientific learning approach using multimedia-based maze game to improve learning outcomes
Setiawan, Wawan; Hafitriani, Sarah; Prabawa, Harsa Wara
2016-02-01
The objective of curriculum 2013 is to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, which leads to improving the quality of learning. The scientific approach and supported empowerment media is one approach as massaged of curriculum 2013. This research aims to design a labyrinth game based multimedia and apply in the scientific learning approach. This study was conducted in one of the Vocational School in Subjects of Computer Network on 2 (two) classes of experimental and control. The method used Mix Method Research (MMR) which combines qualitative in multimedia design, and quantitative in the study of learning impact. The results of a survey showed that the general of vocational students like of network topology material (68%), like multimedia (74%), and in particular, like interactive multimedia games and flash (84%). Multimediabased maze game developed good eligibility based on media and material aspects of each value 840% and 82%. Student learning outcomes as a result of using a scientific approach to learning with a multimediabased labyrinth game increase with an average of gain index about (58%) and higher than conventional multimedia with index average gain of 0.41 (41%). Based on these results the scientific approach to learning by using multimediabased labyrinth game can improve the quality of learning and increase understanding of students. Multimedia of learning based labyrinth game, which developed, got a positive response from the students with a good qualification level (75%).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wong, Charlene A; Saraiya, Mona; Hariri, Susan
2011-01-01
In this review, we describe plans to monitor the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on biologic outcomes in selected international areas (Australia, Canada, Mexico, the Nordic countries, Scotland, and the United States) that have adopted this vaccine. This summary of monitoring plans...... provides a background for discussing the challenges of vaccine monitoring in settings where resources and capacity may vary. A variety of approaches that depend on existing infrastructure and resources are planned or underway for monitoring HPV vaccine impact. Monitoring HPV vaccine impact on biologic...
Low swing differential logic for mixed signal applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, P.; Kraft, E.
2004-01-01
Low swing differential logic operated at a constant bias current is a promising approach to reduce the switching noise in sensitive mixed mode circuits. Most differential logic families do not allow a significant change in bias current between cells so that it is difficult to optimize the power consumption for a required speed. A nonlinear load circuit for differential current-steering logic consisting of a current source in parallel with a diode connected FET is therefore proposed. The logic levels can be easily adjusted with an external supply voltage so that the circuit design is significantly simplified. As an example application a counter for the use in pixel readout chips is presented. The layout area using radiation hard design rules is not significantly larger than CMOS. The logic can be operated at very low power
Silicon photonic crystal all-optical logic gates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Yulan [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2013-01-03
All-optical logic gates, including OR, XOR, NOT, XNOR, and NAND gates, are realized theoretically in a two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal using the light beam interference effect. The ingenious photonic crystal waveguide component design, the precisely controlled optical path difference, and the elaborate device configuration ensure the simultaneous realization of five types of logic gate with low-power and a contrast ratio between the logic states of “1” and “0” as high as 20 dB. High power is not necessary for operation of these logic gate devices. This offers a simple and effective approach for the realization of integrated all-optical logic devices.
Logical studies of paraconsistent reasoning in science and mathematics
Verdée, Peter
2016-01-01
This book covers work written by leading scholars from different schools within the research area of paraconsistency. The authors critically investigate how contemporary paraconsistent logics can be used to better understand human reasoning in science and mathematics. Offering a variety of perspectives, they shed a new light on the question of whether paraconsistent logics can function as the underlying logics of inconsistent but useful scientific and mathematical theories. The great variety of paraconsistent logics gives rise to various, interrelated questions, such as what are the desiderata a paraconsistent logic should satisfy, is there prospect of a universal approach to paraconsistent reasoning with axiomatic theories, and to what extent is reasoning about sets structurally analogous to reasoning about truth. Furthermore, the authors consider paraconsistent logic’s status as either a normative or descriptive discipline (or one which falls in between) and which inconsistent but non-trivial axiomatic th...
Superconducting digital logic amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przybysz, J.X.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions
Quantum logics and convex geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunce, L.J.; Wright, J.D.M.
1985-01-01
The main result is a representation theorem which shows that, for a large class of quantum logics, a quantum logic, Q, is isomorphic to the lattice of projective faces in a suitable convex set K. As an application we extend our earlier results, which, subject to countability conditions, gave a geometric characterization of those quantum logics which are isomorphic to the projection lattice of a von Neumann algebra or a JBW-algebra. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sambasivan, S. Ilango
2004-01-01
Full text : PFBR is provided with two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems to detect any abnormalities and to initiate safety action. Each system consists of sensors, signal processing systems, logics, drive mechanisms and absorber rods. The absorber rods of the first system are Control and Safety Rods (CSR) and that of the second are called as Diverse Safety Rods (DSR). There are nine CSR and three DSR. While CSR are used for startup, control of reactor power, controlled shutdown and SCRAM, the DSR are used only for SCRAM. The respective drive mechanisms are called as CSRDM and DSRDM. Each of these two systems is capable of executing the shutdown satisfactorily with single failure criteria. Two independent safety logic systems based on diverse principles have been designed for the two shut down systems. The analog outputs of the sensors of Core Monitoring Systems comprising of reactor flux monitoring, core temperature monitoring, failed fuel detection and core flow monitoring systems are processed and converted into binary signals depending on their instantaneous values. Safety logic systems receive the binary signals from these core-monitoring systems and process them logically to protect the reactor against postulated initiating events. Neutronic and power to flow (P/Q) signals form the inputs to safety logic system-I and temperature signals are inputs to the safety logic system II. Failed fuel detection signals are processed by both the shut down systems. The two logic systems to actuate the safety rods are also based on two diverse designs and implemented with solid-state devices to meet all the requirements of safety systems. Safety logic system I that caters to neutronic and P/Q signals is designed around combinational logic and has an on-line test facility to detect struck at faults. The second logic system is based on dynamic logic and hence is inherently safe. This paper gives an overview of the two logic systems that have been
PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer
A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.
Tomlinson, Alan; Hair, Mario; McFadyen, Angus
2013-10-01
Dry eye is a multifactorial disease which would require a broad spectrum of test measures in the monitoring of its treatment and diagnosis. However, studies have typically reported improvements in individual measures with treatment. Alternative approaches involve multiple, combined outcomes being assessed by different statistical analyses. In order to assess the effect of various statistical approaches to the use of single and combined test measures in dry eye, this review reanalyzed measures from two previous studies (osmolarity, evaporation, tear turnover rate, and lipid film quality). These analyses assessed the measures as single variables within groups, pre- and post-intervention with a lubricant supplement, by creating combinations of these variables and by validating these combinations with the combined sample of data from all groups of dry eye subjects. The effectiveness of single measures and combinations in diagnosis of dry eye was also considered. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kirks, Russell C; Lorimer, Patrick D; Fruscione, Michael; Cochran, Allyson; Baker, Erin H; Iannitti, David A; Vrochides, Dionisios; Martinie, John B
2017-09-01
This study compares clinical and cost outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) and open longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ) for chronic pancreatitis. Clinical and cost data were retrospectively compared between open and RAL LPJ performed at a single center from 2008-2015. Twenty-six patients underwent LPJ: 19 open and 7 RAL. Two robot-assisted cases converted to open were included in the open group for analysis. Patients undergoing RAL LPJ had less intraoperative blood loss, a shorter surgical length of stay, and lower medication costs. Operation supply cost was higher in the RAL group. No difference in hospitalization cost was found. Versus the open approach, RAL LPJ performed for chronic pancreatitis shortens hospitalization and reduces medication costs; hospitalization costs are equivalent. A higher operative cost for RAL LPJ is mitigated by a shorter hospitalization. Decreased morbidity and healthcare resource economy support use of the robotic approach for LPJ when appropriate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Popular lectures on mathematical logic
Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete
Contextual logic for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector
2005-01-01
In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction
Tensor product of quantum logics
Pulmannová, Sylvia
1985-01-01
A quantum logic is the couple (L,M) where L is an orthomodular σ-lattice and M is a strong set of states on L. The Jauch-Piron property in the σ-form is also supposed for any state of M. A ``tensor product'' of quantum logics is defined. This definition is compared with the definition of a free orthodistributive product of orthomodular σ-lattices. The existence and uniqueness of the tensor product in special cases of Hilbert space quantum logics and one quantum and one classical logic are studied.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about h...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s).......By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....
Value Creation Logics and Internationalization of Service Firms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent
2014-01-01
be based on a thorough understanding of the fundamental nature of these firms. Design/methodology/approach - Theoretical study. Findings - We put forward propositions concerning the pace of internationalization and the default foreign operation modes in service firms. Research limitations...... implications - We suggest that managers in service firms should consider primarily the nature of the value creation logic(s) in their firms when deciding and designing an internationalization strategy. Originality/value - The study presents a novel theoretical approach and a set of propositions on service firm....../implications - The use of value creation logics can be a useful complement to the conventional approaches to the study of service firms’ internationalization. However, the fact that most firms encompass more than one value creation logic complicates the use of firm databases and industry statistics. Practical...
Heuristic Synthesis of Reversible Logic – A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chua Shin Cheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reversible logic circuits have been historically motivated by theoretical research in low-power, and recently attracted interest as components of the quantum algorithm, optical computing and nanotechnology. However due to the intrinsic property of reversible logic, traditional irreversible logic design and synthesis methods cannot be carried out. Thus a new set of algorithms are developed correctly to synthesize reversible logic circuit. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review with comparative study on heuristic based reversible logic synthesis. It reviews a range of heuristic based reversible logic synthesis techniques reported by researchers (BDD-based, cycle-based, search-based, non-search-based, rule-based, transformation-based, and ESOP-based. All techniques are described in detail and summarized in a table based on their features, limitation, library used and their consideration metric. Benchmark comparison of gate count and quantum cost are analysed for each synthesis technique. Comparing the synthesis algorithm outputs over the years, it can be observed that different approach has been used for the synthesis of reversible circuit. However, the improvements are not significant. Quantum cost and gate count has improved over the years, but arguments and debates are still on certain issues such as the issue of garbage outputs that remain the same. This paper provides the information of all heuristic based synthesis of reversible logic method proposed over the years. All techniques are explained in detail and thus informative for new reversible logic researchers and bridging the knowledge gap in this area.
Evidence that logical reasoning depends on conscious processing.
DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Masicampo, E J
2008-09-01
Humans, unlike other animals, are equipped with a powerful brain that permits conscious awareness and reflection. A growing trend in psychological science has questioned the benefits of consciousness, however. Testing a hypothesis advanced by [Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflection and reflexion: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 199-249], four studies suggested that the conscious, reflective processing system is vital for logical reasoning. Substantial decrements in logical reasoning were found when a cognitive load manipulation preoccupied conscious processing, while hampering the nonconscious system with consciously suppressed thoughts failed to impair reasoning (Experiment 1). Nonconscious activation (priming) of the idea of logical reasoning increased the activation of logic-relevant concepts, but failed to improve logical reasoning performance (Experiments 2a-2c) unless the logical conclusions were largely intuitive and thus not reliant on logical reasoning (Experiment 3). Meanwhile, stimulating the conscious goal of reasoning well led to improvements in reasoning performance (Experiment 4). These findings offer evidence that logical reasoning is aided by the conscious, reflective processing system.
The National Children's Study: Recruitment Outcomes Using an Enhanced Household-Based Approach.
Blaisdell, Laura L; Zellner, Jennifer A; King, Alison A; Faustman, Elaine; Wilhelm, Mari; Hudak, Mark L; Annett, Robert D
2016-06-01
Ten National Children's Study (NCS) study locations with diverse demographic characteristics used an enhanced household-based recruitment (EHBR) approach to enroll preconceptional and pregnant women. Study centers used different types and dosages of community outreach and engagement (COE) activities and supplemental strategies. The goal of the study was to determine whether variability in enumeration and recruitment outcomes correlated with study location characteristics or types and dosages of COE activities (number of COE events, number of advance household mailings, total media expenditures, and total COE expenditures). Each of the sites provided data on COE activities, protocol implementation, supplemental recruitment activities, location demographic characteristics, and enumeration/recruitment outcomes. COE activities varied across sites in breadth and scope. Numerous strategies were used, including media advertising, social media, participation in community-wide events, presentations to stakeholders, and creation of advisory boards. Some sites included supplemental recruitment efforts. EHBR sites enrolled 1404 women at the initial pregnancy screening. No significant relationships were found between study location demographic characteristics or between the types and dosages of COE activities and recruitment outcomes. Probability sampling for a long-term study requires a positive image with stakeholders and within communities; this requirement may be especially true for door-to-door recruitment. EHBR sites successfully recruited a representative sample of preconceptional and pregnant women. Sites reported implementing similar COE activities but with varying dosage and cost; however, analyses did not support a benefit of COE strategies on study recruitment. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The Logic of the Physics of Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph E. Brenner
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A consensus is emerging that the multiple forms, functions and properties of information cannot be captured by a simple categorization into classical and quantum information. Similarly, it is unlikely that the applicable physics of information is a single classical discipline, completely expressible in mathematical terms, but rather a complex, multi- and trans-disciplinary field involving deep philosophical questions about the underlying structure of the universe. This paper is an initial attempt to present the fundamental physics of non-quantum information in terms of a novel non-linguistic logic. Originally proposed by the Franco-Romanian thinker Stéphane Lupasco (1900–1988, this logic, grounded in quantum mechanics, can reflect the dual aspects of real processes and their evolution at biological, cognitive and social levels of reality. In my update of this logical system—Logic in Reality (LIR—a change in perspective is required on the familiar notions in science and philosophy of causality, continuity and discontinuity, time and space. I apply LIR as a critique of current approaches to the physical grounding of information, focusing on its qualitative dualistic aspects at non-quantum levels as a set of physical processes embedded in a physical world.
Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor
The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid...
Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Scholz, Stefan; Cronin, Mark T; Edwards, Stephen W; de Knecht, Joop; Crofton, Kevin; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Hartung, Thomas; Worth, Andrew; Patlewicz, Grace
2014-12-01
Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing testing resources; focusing on chemicals of highest concern, limiting testing to the most probable hazards, or targeting the most vulnerable species. Hypothesis driven Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been proposed as practical solutions to such strategic testing. In parallel, the development of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, which provides information on the causal links between a molecular initiating event (MIE), intermediate key events (KEs) and an adverse outcome (AO) of regulatory concern, offers the biological context to facilitate development of IATA for regulatory decision making. This manuscript summarizes discussions at the Workshop entitled "Advancing AOPs for Integrated Toxicology and Regulatory Applications" with particular focus on the role AOPs play in informing the development of IATA for different regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Zhao; Yu, Mu-Chuan; Zhao, Rui; Liu, Yan-Feng; Zeng, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xian-Qiang; Tan, Jing-Wang
2015-02-07
To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) using a reverse-"V" approach with four ports. This is a retrospective study of selected patients who underwent LPD at our center between April 2011 and April 2012. The following data were collected and reviewed: patient characteristics, tumor histology, surgical outcome, resection margins, morbidity, and mortality. All patients were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively by complete hematologic investigations, triple-phase helical computed tomography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and biopsy of ampullary lesions (when present). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was performed for doubtful cases of lower common bile duct lesions. There was no perioperative mortality. LPD was performed with tumor-free margins in all patients, including patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 6), ampullary carcinoma (n = 6), intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (n = 2), pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma (n = 2), pancreatic head adenocarcinoma (n = 3), and bile duct cancer (n = 2). The mean patient age was 65 years (range, 42-75 years). The median blood loss was 240 mL, and the mean operative time was 368 min. LPD using a reverse-"V" approach can be performed safely and yields good results in elective patients. Our preliminary experience showed that LDP can be performed via a reverse-"V" approach. This approach can be used to treat localized malignant lesions irrespective of histopathology.
Scott, Jonathan M; Penaluna, Andy; Thompson, John L
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical appraisal of how experiential approaches can more effectively enhance the achievement of desired learning outcomes in entrepreneurship education. In particular, the authors critique whether actual learning outcomes can be profitably used to measure effectiveness; and consider how student…
Rovlias, Aristedis; Theodoropoulos, Spyridon; Papoutsakis, Dimitrios
2015-01-01
Background: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common clinical entities in daily neurosurgical practice which carries a most favorable prognosis. However, because of the advanced age and medical problems of patients, surgical therapy is frequently associated with various complications. This study evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings, and neurological outcome in a large series of patients with CSDH. Methods: A classification and regression tree (CART) technique was employed in the analysis of data from 986 patients who were operated at Asclepeion General Hospital of Athens from January 1986 to December 2011. Burr holes evacuation with closed system drainage has been the operative technique of first choice at our institution for 29 consecutive years. A total of 27 prognostic factors were examined to predict the outcome at 3-month postoperatively. Results: Our results indicated that neurological status on admission was the best predictor of outcome. With regard to the other data, age, brain atrophy, thickness and density of hematoma, subdural accumulation of air, and antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy were found to correlate significantly with prognosis. The overall cross-validated predictive accuracy of CART model was 85.34%, with a cross-validated relative error of 0.326. Conclusions: Methodologically, CART technique is quite different from the more commonly used methods, with the primary benefit of illustrating the important prognostic variables as related to outcome. Since, the ideal therapy for the treatment of CSDH is still under debate, this technique may prove useful in developing new therapeutic strategies and approaches for patients with CSDH. PMID:26257985
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian
2018-01-01
Longitudinal studies with multiple outcomes often pose challenges for the statistical analysis. A joint model including all outcomes has the advantage of incorporating the simultaneous behavior but is often difficult to fit due to computational challenges. We consider 2 alternative approaches to ......, pairwise fitting shows a larger loss in efficiency than the marginal models approach. Using an alternative to the joint modelling strategy will lead to some but not necessarily a large loss of efficiency for small sample sizes....
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Fuzzy logic controller to improve powerline communication
Tirrito, Salvatore
2015-12-01
The Power Line Communications (PLC) technology allows the use of the power grid in order to ensure the exchange of data information among devices. This work proposes an approach, based on Fuzzy Logic, that dynamically manages the amplitude of the signal, with which each node transmits, by processing the master-slave link quality measured and the master-slave distance. The main objective of this is to reduce both the impact of communication interferences induced and power consumption.
Blanchin, Myriam; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Le Neel, Tanguy; Kubis, Gildas; Blanchard, Claire; Mirallié, Eric; Sébille, Véronique
2011-04-15
Health sciences frequently deal with Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) data for the evaluation of concepts, in particular health-related quality of life, which cannot be directly measured and are often called latent variables. Two approaches are commonly used for the analysis of such data: Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT). Longitudinal data are often collected to analyze the evolution of an outcome over time. The most adequate strategy to analyze longitudinal latent variables, which can be either based on CTT or IRT models, remains to be identified. This strategy must take into account the latent characteristic of what PROs are intended to measure as well as the specificity of longitudinal designs. A simple and widely used IRT model is the Rasch model. The purpose of our study was to compare CTT and Rasch-based approaches to analyze longitudinal PRO data regarding type I error, power, and time effect estimation bias. Four methods were compared: the Score and Mixed models (SM) method based on the CTT approach, the Rasch and Mixed models (RM), the Plausible Values (PV), and the Longitudinal Rasch model (LRM) methods all based on the Rasch model. All methods have shown comparable results in terms of type I error, all close to 5 per cent. LRM and SM methods presented comparable power and unbiased time effect estimations, whereas RM and PV methods showed low power and biased time effect estimations. This suggests that RM and PV methods should be avoided to analyze longitudinal latent variables. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic
Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan
2017-01-01
In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schumann, Andrew
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum
A beginner's guide to mathematical logic
Smullyan, Raymond M
2014-01-01
Combining stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic, this new textbook for first courses in mathematical logic was written by the subject's creative master. Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts with creative explanations and unique problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, recursion theory, and other topics.
Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.
2009-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
A tristate optical logic system
Basuray, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar Ghosh, Hirak; Datta, A. K.
1991-09-01
A method is described to represent data in a tristate logic system which are subsequently replaced by Modified Trinary Numbers (MTN). This system is advantagegeous in parallel processing as carry and borrow free operations in arithmatic computation is possible. The logical operations are also modified according to the three states available. A possible practical application of the same using polarized light is also suggested.
Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior
Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.
1989-01-01
This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning.
Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics
Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde
Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.
Evidence logics with relational evidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés
2017-01-01
We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...
Methods in Logic Based Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
Epistemic logics for sceptical agents
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bílková, M.; Majer, Ondrej; Peliš, Michal
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 6 (2016), s. 1815-1841 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * substructural logic * frame semantics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zapatrin, R.R.
1992-01-01
Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs
Relating Reasoning Methodologies in Linear Logic and Process Algebra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuxin Deng
2012-11-01
Full Text Available We show that the proof-theoretic notion of logical preorder coincides with the process-theoretic notion of contextual preorder for a CCS-like calculus obtained from the formula-as-process interpretation of a fragment of linear logic. The argument makes use of other standard notions in process algebra, namely a labeled transition system and a coinductively defined simulation relation. This result establishes a connection between an approach to reason about process specifications and a method to reason about logic specifications.
Denotational World-indexed Logical Relations and Friends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thamsborg, Jacob Junker
and solve the fundamental type-worlds circularity by metric-space theory. This approach scales to state-of-theart step-indexed techniques and permits unrestricted relational reasoning by the use of so-called Bohr relations. Along the way, we develop auxiliary theory; most notably a generalized version...... of separation logic with assertion variables. In particular, we give criteria for when standard, unary separation logic proofs lift to the binary setting. Phrased dierently, given a module-dependent client and a standard separation logic proof of its correctness, we ponder the default question of representation...
Generator of combined logical signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laviron, Andre; Berard, Claude.
1982-01-01
The invention concerns a generator of combined logical signals to form combinations of two outputs at logical level 1 and N-2 outputs at logical level 0, among N generator outputs. This generator is characterized in that it includes a set of N means for storing combinations. Means enable the N storage means to be loaded with the logical levels corresponding to a pre-set starting combination, to control the operations for shifting the contents of the storage means and to control, by transfer facilities, the transfers of contents between these storage means. Controls enable the storage means to be actuated in order to obtain combinations of logical levels 1 and 0. The generation of combinations can be stopped after another pre-set combination. Application is for testing of safety circuits for nuclear power stations [fr
Reliability evaluation programmable logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivani, L.; Murali, N.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.
2014-01-01
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) are widely used as basic building modules in high integrity systems, considering their robust features such as gate density, performance, speed etc. PLDs are used to implement digital design such as bus interface logic, control logic, sequencing logic, glue logic etc. Due to semiconductor evolution, new PLDs with state-of-the-art features are arriving to the market. Since these devices are reliable as per the manufacturer's specification, they were used in the design of safety systems. But due to their reduced market life, the availability of performance data is limited. So evaluating the PLD before deploying in a safety system is very important. This paper presents a survey on the use of PLDs in the nuclear domain and the steps involved in the evaluation of PLD using Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing. (author)
Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus
2012-01-01
in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics......The duties of companies' chief marketing officers (CMOs) seem incompatible. They are expected to ensure that their company's market assets are properly exploited and recorded, while simultaneously enacting a proactive role in the company's business development. This study shows that about one...
Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2011-11-10
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jitumoni Baishya
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Minimally invasive (MI cardiac surgery is a rapidly gaining popularity, globally as well as in India. We aimed to compare the outcome of MI to the conventional approach for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Methods: This prospective, comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care cardiac surgical center. All patients who underwent CABG surgery via MI approach (MI group from July 2015 to December 2015 were enrolled and were compared against same number of EuroSCORE II matched patients undergoing CABG through conventional mid-sternotomy approach (CON group. Demographic, intra- and post-operative variables were collected. Results: In MI group, duration of the surgery was significantly longer (P = 0.029. Intraoperative blood loss lesser (P = 0.002, shorter duration of ventilation (P = 0.002, shorter Intensive Care Unit stay (P = 0.004, shorter hospital stay (P = 0.003, lesser postoperative analgesic requirements (P = 0.027, and lower visual analog scale scores on day of surgery (P = 0.032 and 1 st postoperative day (P = 0.025. No significant difference in postoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, or duration of inotrope requirement observed. There was no conversion to mid-sternotomy in any patients, 8% of patients had desaturation intraoperatively. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion: MI surgery is associated with lesser intraoperative blood loss, better analgesia, and faster recovery.
Information in Reality: Logic and Metaphysics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph E. Brenner
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The recent history of information theory and science shows a trend in emphasis from quantitative measures to qualitative characterizations. In parallel, aspects of information are being developed, for example by Pedro Marijuan, Wolfgang Hofkirchner and others that are extending the notion of qualitative, non-computational information in the biological and cognitive domain to include meaning and function. However, there is as yet no consensus on whether a single acceptable definition or theory of the concept of information is possible, leading to many attempts to view it as a complex, a notion with varied meanings or a group of different entities. In my opinion, the difficulties in developing a Unified Theory of Information (UTI that would include its qualitative and quantita-tive aspects and their relation to meaning are a consequence of implicit or explicit reliance on the principles of standard, truth-functional bivalent or multivalent logics. In reality, information processes, like those of time, change and human con-sciousness, are contradictory: they are regular and irregular; consistent and inconsistent; continuous and discontinuous. Since the indicated logics cannot accept real contradictions, they have been incapable of describing the multiple but interre-lated characteristics of information. The framework for the discussion of information in this paper will be the new extension of logic to real complex processes that I have made, Logic in Reality (LIR, which is grounded in the dualities and self-dualities of quantum physics and cos-mology. LIR provides, among other things, new interpretations of the most fundamental metaphysical questions present in discussions of information at physical, biological and cognitive levels of reality including, especially, those of time, continuity vs. discontinuity, and change, both physical and epistemological. I show that LIR can constitute a novel and general ap-proach to the non-binary properties of
Perrot, Nathalie; Baudrit, Cédric; Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel
2015-01-01
Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system.
Chambers, Timothy
This dissertation presents the results of an experiment that measured the learning outcomes associated with three different pedagogical approaches to introductory physics labs. These three pedagogical approaches presented students with the same apparatus and covered the same physics content, but used different lab manuals to guide students through distinct cognitive processes in conducting their laboratory investigations. We administered post-tests containing multiple-choice conceptual questions and free-response quantitative problems one week after students completed these laboratory investigations. In addition, we collected data from the laboratory practical exam taken by students at the end of the semester. Using these data sets, we compared the learning outcomes for the three curricula in three dimensions of ability: conceptual understanding, quantitative problem-solving skill, and laboratory skills. Our three pedagogical approaches are as follows. Guided labs lead students through their investigations via a combination of Socratic-style questioning and direct instruction, while students record their data and answers to written questions in the manual during the experiment. Traditional labs provide detailed written instructions, which students follow to complete the lab objectives. Open labs provide students with a set of apparatus and a question to be answered, and leave students to devise and execute an experiment to answer the question. In general, we find that students performing Guided labs perform better on some conceptual assessment items, and that students performing Open labs perform significantly better on experimental tasks. Combining a classical test theory analysis of post-test results with in-lab classroom observations allows us to identify individual components of the laboratory manuals and investigations that are likely to have influenced the observed differences in learning outcomes associated with the different pedagogical approaches. Due to
The Logic of Practice in the Practice of Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raviola, Elena; Dubini, Paola
2016-01-01
of logics through a six months full-time ethnographic study at Il Sole-24 Ore, the largest Italian financial newspaper, between 2007 and 2008. An original conceptual framework is developed to analyse how the logic of journalism is enacted vis-à-vis that of advertising in a setting in which an old technology...... for news production – print newspaper – coexists with a new one – website – and thus encounters between new and old technological possibilities make workings of institutional logics particularly visible. The findings point out different mechanisms of institutional work dealing with actions that, made...
A NTCP approach for estimating the outcome in radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strigari, L.; Sciuto, R.; Benassi, M.; Bergomi, S.; Nocentini, S.; Maini, C. L.
2008-01-01
Radioiodine has been in use for over 60 years as a treatment for hyperthyroidism. Major changes in clinical practice have led to accurate dosimetry capable of avoiding the risks of adverse effects and the optimization of the treatment. The aim of this study was to test the capability of a radiobiological model, based on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), to predict the outcome after oral therapeutic 131 I administration. Following dosimetric study, 79 patients underwent treatment for hyperthyroidism using radioiodine and then 67 had at least a one-year follow up. The delivered dose was calculated using the MIRD formula, taking into account the measured maximum uptake of administered iodine transferred to the thyroid, U0, and the effective clearance rate, T eff and target mass. The dose was converted to normalized total dose delivered at 2 Gy per fraction (NTD 2 ). Furthermore, the method to take into account the reduction of the mass of the gland during radioiodine therapy was also applied. The clinical outcome and dosimetric parameters were analyzed in order to study the dose-response relationship for hypothyroidism. The TD 50 and m parameters of the NTCP model approach were then estimated using the likelihood method. The TD 50 , expressed as NTD 2 , resulted in 60 Gy (95% C.I.: 45-75 Gy) and 96 Gy (95% C.I.: 86-109 Gy) for patients affected by Graves or autonomous/multinodular disease, respectively. This supports the clinical evidence that Graves' disease should be characterized by more radiosensitive cells compared to autonomous nodules. The m parameter for all patients was 0.27 (95% C.I.: 0.22-0.36). These parameters were compared with those reported in the literature for hypothyroidism induced after external beam radiotherapy. The NTCP model correctly predicted the clinical outcome after the therapeutic administration of radioiodine in our series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beth S. Russell
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Family intervention literature on adolescent parenting describes the pathways between outcomes for adolescent mothers and their children and the contexts of the pregnancy itself (e.g., poverty, low or no prenatal care, lower educational attainment. The aim of these descriptions is often to inform intervention designs that promote adaptive functioning for the child, the mother, and the dyad. Mental health services are an important component of many of these interventions; these services may be delivered by a clinician within the organization providing the intervention, or the organization may connect mothers with external mental health services in their communities. Using in-house clinicians rather than external providers may be beneficial by decreasing the high attrition rates common to this population. Although this service delivery approach is theoretically appealing, it has not been subject to rigorous empirical evaluation. In the current randomized study, we examine outcomes for teenage mothers based on two service delivery methods: Integrated Mental Health Services (IMHS and the Standard of Care (SoC which outsources clients’ mental health needs through community referrals. Information about the effectiveness of service delivery strategies can help program providers make decisions about how best to allocate limited funds to provide effective services.
Zhan, Rucai; Li, Xueen; Li, Xingang
2016-02-01
Objective To assess the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for apoplectic pituitary adenoma. Design A retrospective study. Setting Qilu Hospital of Shandong University; Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University. Participants Patients admitted to Qilu Hospital of Shandong University who were diagnosed with an apoplectic pituitary tumor and underwent EETA for resection of the tumor. Main Outcome Measures In total 45 patients were included in a retrospective chart review. Data regarding patient age, sex, presentation, lesion size, surgical procedure, extent of resection, clinical outcome, and surgical complications were obtained from the chart review. Results In total, 38 (92.7%) of 41 patients with loss of vision obtained visual remission postoperatively. In addition, 16 patients reported a secreting adenoma, and postsurgical hormonal levels were normal or decreased in 14 patients. All other symptoms, such as headache and alteration of mental status, recovered rapidly after surgery. Two patients (4.4%) incurred cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six patients (13.3%) experienced transient diabetes insipidus (DI) postoperatively, but none of these patients developed permanent DI. Five patients (11.1%) developed hypopituitarism and were treated with replacement of hormonal medicine. No cases of meningitis, carotid artery injury, or death related to surgery were reported. Conclusion EETA offers a safe and effective surgical option for apoplectic pituitary tumors and is associated with low morbidity and mortality.
Pepper, Jon-Paul; Hecht, Sarah L; Gebarski, Stephen S; Lin, Erin M; Sullivan, Stephen E; Marentette, Lawrence J
2011-11-01
To describe surgical outcomes and radiographic features of olfactory groove meningiomas treated by excision through the subcranial approach. Special emphasis is placed on paranasal sinus and orbit involvement. Retrospective review of a series of patients. Nineteen patients underwent excision of olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) via the transglabellar/subcranial approach between December 1995 and November 2009. Nine patients had previously undergone prior resection at outside institutions, and four had prior radiotherapy in addition to a prior excision. Transglabellar/subcranial surgical approach to the anterior skull base was performed. Tumor histology included three World Health Organization (WHO) grade III lesions, one WHO grade II lesion, and 15 WHO grade I lesions. Fourteen patients had evidence of extension into the paranasal sinuses, with the ethmoid sinus being most commonly involved. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mean overall and disease-free survival were 121.45 months and 93.03 months, respectively. The mean follow-up interval was 41.0 months, and at the time of data analysis three patients had recurrent tumors. Seven (36.8%) patients experienced a major complication in the perioperative period; there were no perioperative mortalities. Orbit invasion was observed in four patients, with optic nerve impingement in 11 patients. Of these, three patients had long-term diplopia. No patients experienced worsening of preoperative visual acuity. Olfactory groove meningiomas demonstrate a propensity to spread into the paranasal sinuses, particularly in recurrent cases. Given a tendency for infiltrative recurrence along the skull base, this disease represents an important area of collaboration between neurosurgery and otolaryngology. The subcranial approach offers excellent surgical access for excision, particularly for recurrences that involve the paranasal sinuses and optic apparatus. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society
Commitment or Compliance?—Institutional logics of work environment management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt; Hasle, Peter
2017-01-01
and where it differs from the traditional organizational approach to work environment management. In this paper, we use the ‘institutional logics’ perspective to propose heuristic ideal types of two institutional logics of work environment management: The logic of compliance as the ideal type...... of the ‘traditional’ approach to work environment management and the logic of commitment as the human resource informed approach. Through a side-by-side comparison of key characteristics, we analyze the two ideal types as instantiations of institutional orders on the societal level with the compliance logic being...... rooted in the orders of the state and the corporation, and the commitment logic as based on the orders of the corporation. The paper ends with a discussion on the how the two logics can influence concrete work environment practices and approaches to management in organizations....
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zizzi, P A
2007-01-01
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zizzi, P A [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy)
2007-05-15
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing.
Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic
1993-01-01
The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...
Integrated development environment for fuzzy logic applications
Pagni, Andrea; Poluzzi, Rinaldo; Rizzotto, GianGuido; Lo Presti, Matteo
1993-12-01
During the last five years, Fuzzy Logic has gained enormous popularity, both in the academic and industrial worlds, breaking up the traditional resistance against changes thanks to its innovative approach to problems formalization. The success of this new methodology is pushing the creation of a brand new class of devices, called Fuzzy Machines, to overcome the limitations of traditional computing systems when acting as Fuzzy Systems and adequate Software Tools to efficiently develop new applications. This paper aims to present a complete development environment for the definition of fuzzy logic based applications. The environment is also coupled with a sophisticated software tool for semiautomatic synthesis and optimization of the rules with stability verifications. Later it is presented the architecture of WARP, a dedicate VLSI programmable chip allowing to compute in real time a fuzzy control process. The article is completed with two application examples, which have been carried out exploiting the aforementioned tools and devices.
UTP and Temporal Logic Model Checking
Anderson, Hugh; Ciobanu, Gabriel; Freitas, Leo
In this paper we give an additional perspective to the formal verification of programs through temporal logic model checking, which uses Hoare and He Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP). Our perspective emphasizes the use of UTP designs, an alphabetised relational calculus expressed as a pre/post condition pair of relations, to verify state or temporal assertions about programs. The temporal model checking relation is derived from a satisfaction relation between the model and its properties. The contribution of this paper is that it shows a UTP perspective to temporal logic model checking. The approach includes the notion of efficiency found in traditional model checkers, which reduced a state explosion problem through the use of efficient data structures
Indoor signal attenuation assessment via fuzzy logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre de Assis Mota
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This work focuses on the analysis of signal´s attenuation in indoor environments using a fuzzy logic approach based on the Shadowing Signal Propagation Model (SSPM. The SSPM allows the characterization of the attenuation caused by the environment through the ? parameter present in this model. In addition to this, the Fuzzy Logic provides a form of approximate reasoning that allows the treatment of problems with incomplete, vague and imprecise information. Also, it offers a simple way to obtain a possible solution for a problem using the heuristic knowledge about a particular situation. The results show that the methodology produced satisfactory results, close to the ones yielded by experimental methods.
Looking for Oriental fundamentals Fuzzy Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2013-10-01
Full Text Available For quite some time we have been trying to trace the river of Non-ClassicalLogics, and especially, Fuzzy Logic, trying to find the sources of this today flowing quite mighty river. Following from Lotfi A. Zadeh, we have traced his inspiring, the Polish logician Jan Lukasiewicz, who in turn was inspired by Aristotle's Peri Hermeneias (De Interpretatione. Also, Lukasiewicz occupies a central position in the Lvov-Warsaw School, who founded Kazimierz Twardowski, a student of Franz Brentano, and this in turn disciple of Bernard Bolzano. The connection with Leibniz and Bolzano come through medieval scholastic thinkers, especially John Duns Scotus and William of Ockham and the problem of future contingents, they had collected from the Aristotelian tradition. But there was to trace the “eastern (oriental track, which leads to the ancient Chinese and Indian philosophy. Here we will treat it as a first and necessary approach.
Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.
Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang
2014-05-28
Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.
The conditional in quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardegree, G.M.
1976-01-01
In this article it is argued that orthodox quantum logic, which is represented by the lattice of projections on Hilbert space, does in fact admit an operation which possesses the essential properties of a material conditional. It is proposed that this connective can be interpreted as a Stalnaker (counter factual) conditional, where the nearness ordering among 'worlds' (in this case, QM pure states) derives in a natural way from the Hilbert space inner-product metric. It is a characteristic of the quantum logic conditional that the law of modus ponens is equivalent to the orthomodular law of conventional quantum logic. (B.R.H.)
Handling Pressures of Community Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral
2013-01-01
The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...... with an experimental vignette study of the effects of clan and kinship ties on recruitment and selection decisions in Kazakhstan, followed by qualitative interviews....
Miniaturization of Josephson logic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, H.; Van Duzer, T.
1985-01-01
The performances of Current Injection Logic (CIL) and Resistor Coupled Josephson Logic (RCJL) have been evaluated for minimum features sizes ranging from 5 μm to 0.2 μm. The logic delay is limited to about 10 ps for both the CIL AND gate and the RCJL OR gate biased at 70% of maximum bias current. The maximum circuit count on an 6.35 x 6.35 chip is 13,000 for CIL gates and 20,000 for RCJL gates. Some suggestions are given for further improvements
Nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic operations
Kazmi, Syed N. R.
2017-08-29
We report an electro-thermally tunable in-plane doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical resonator capable of dynamically performing NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND logic operations. Toward this, a silicon based resonator is fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The performance of this logic device is examined at elevated temperatures, ranging from 25 °C to 85 °C, demonstrating its resilience for most of the logic operations; thereby paving the way towards nano-elements-based mechanical computing.
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Thinking skills in the context of Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking19
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pieter van Veuren
1995-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to explore the concept of thinking skills in three different contexts, i.e. Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. The essay traces some contemporary historical connections between these approaches and illustrates differences and overlap between them by referring to the content pages of textbooks which are representative of the different approaches. In evaluating the historical developments sketched in the essay, the conclusion is reached that the open and pragmatic way in which Critical Thinking handles the topic of thinking skills has advantages for interdisciplinary contact and cooperation. However, this pragmatic approach also has a possible downside: the concept of thinking skills can become so vague as to be of no use.