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Sample records for outbred albino mice

  1. Comparison of the acute ultraviolet photoresponse in congenic albino hairless C57BL/6J mice relative to outbred SKH1 hairless mice

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    Konger, Raymond L.; Derr-Yellin, Ethel; Hojati, Delaram; Lutz, Cathleen; Sundberg, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Hairless albino Crl:SKH1-Hrhr mice are commonly utilized for studies in which hair or pigmentation would introduce an impediment to observational studies. Being an outbred strain, the SKH1 model suffers from key limitations that are not seen with congenic mouse strains. Inbred and congenic C57BL/6J mice are commonly utilized for modified genetic mouse models. We compare the acute UV-induced photoresponse between outbred SKH1 mice and an immune competent, hairless, albino C57BL/6J congenic mouse line [B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J]. Histologically, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J skin is indistinguishable from that of SKH1 mice. The skin of both SKH1 and B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice exhibited a reduction in hypodermal adipose tissue, the presence of utricles and dermal cystic structures, the presence of dermal granulomas, and epidermal thickening. In response to a single 1500 J/m2 UVB dose, the edema and apoptotic response was equivalent in both mouse strains. However, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice exhibited a more robust delayed sunburn reaction, with an increase in epidermal erosion, scab formation, and myeloperoxidase activity relative to SKH1 mice. Compared with SKH1 mice, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J also exhibited an aberrant proliferative response to this single UV exposure. Epidermal Ki67 immunopositivity was significantly suppressed in B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice at 24 hours post-UV. A smaller non-significant reduction in Ki67 labeling was observed in SKH1 mice. Finally, at 72 hours post-UV, SKH1 mice, but not B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice, exhibited a significant increase in Ki67 immunolabeling relative to non-irradiated controls. Thus, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice are suitable for photobiology experiments. PMID:27095432

  2. Outbred CD1 mice are as suitable as inbred C57BL/6J mice in performing social tasks.

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    Hsieh, Lawrence S; Wen, John H; Miyares, Laura; Lombroso, Paul J; Bordey, Angélique

    2017-01-10

    Inbred mouse strains have been used preferentially for behavioral testing over outbred counterparts, even though outbred mice reflect the genetic diversity in the human population better. Here, we compare the sociability of widely available outbred CD1 mice with the commonly used inbred C57BL/6J (C57) mice in the one-chamber social interaction test and the three-chamber sociability test. In the one-chamber task, intra-strain pairs of juvenile, non-littermate, male CD1 or C57 mice display a series of social and aggressive behaviors. While CD1 and C57 pairs spend equal amount of time socializing, CD1 pairs spend significantly more time engaged in aggressive behaviors than C57 mice. In the three-chamber task, sociability of C57 mice was less dependent on acclimation paradigms than CD1 mice. Following acclimation to all three chambers, both groups of age-matched male mice spent more time in the chamber containing a stranger mouse than in the empty chamber, suggesting that CD1 mice are sociable like C57 mice. However, the observed power suggests that it is easier to achieve statistical significance with C57 than CD1 mice. Because the stranger mouse could be considered as a novel object, we assessed for a novelty effect by adding an object. CD1 mice spend more time in the chamber with a stranger mouse than that a novel object, suggesting that their preference is social in nature. Thus, outbred CD1 mice are as appropriate as inbred C57 mice for studying social behavior using either the single or the three-chamber test using a specific acclimation paradigm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consequences of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus (Pocock, 1900 envenomation in albino mice

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    MK Chaubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock (Buthidae venom on albino mice (NIH strain. Whole venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The venom LD50 was 2.5 mg kg-1 of mouse body weight. Toxic effects on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and other tissues of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sublethal doses of M. tamulus gangeticus venom. Increased levels of glucose, uric acid and cholesterol, as well as decreased serum total proteins, were observed at 2 and 4 hours after the envenomation. In the liver and muscles, glycogen content dropped after venom injection. Moreover, M. tamulus gangeticus venom elevated the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (ACP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the serum of albino mice. In conclusion, M. tamulus gangeticus can be considered a lethal scorpion species.

  4. THERAPEUTIC DRUG TRIAL IN ALBINO MICE AGAINST TRYPANOSOMIASIS

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    S. Ahmad, A. A. Nasir and A.H. Awan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the trypanocidal efficacy of Antrycide, Fatrybanil and Trypamedium in albino mice experimentally infected sub-cutaneously with Trypanosoma evansi. For this purpose, 25 albino mice were randomly divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E. Groups A, B and C were infected and then treated with Antrycide, Fatrybanil and Trypamedium, respectively. Group D was kept as infected and group E non-infected control. On the basis of blood smear examination, the efficacy of Antrycide and Fatrybanil was found 100% when used in single dose as compared to Trypamedium which was 100% effective with second dose.

  5. Histomorphological effects of isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in male albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humayun, F.; Zareen, N.

    2017-01-01

    To observe the histomorphological changes of isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in male albino mice. Methodology: This experimental study was carried out at University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan from January to December 2013. Forty male albino mice selected by simple random technique, were divided into two groups; A-Control, and B-experimental. Group A comprised of 15, while Group B comprised 25 mice. Both the groups were kept under identical conditions and diet. However, experimental group was treated with an additional oral hepatotoxic dose of isoniazid i.e. 100mg/kg bodyweight daily for 30 days. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and livers were dissected out. Gross comparison of the organ and stained sections were histologically compared for morphological differences between the groups. Fischer Exact test was used to analyze the qualitative data and a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Group A animals showed the normal liver architecture. Whereas, those of Group B showed deranged hepatic histomorphology. Conclusion: Hepatotoxic dose of Isoniazid caused histomorphological alterations in the liver of male albino mice. (author)

  6. Differential effects of MK-801 on cerebrocortical neuronal injury in C57BL/6J, NSA, and ICR mice.

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    Brosnan-Watters, G; Ogimi, T; Ford, D; Tatekawa, L; Gilliam, D; Bilsky, E J; Nash, D

    2000-08-01

    1. Antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate (Glu) receptor, including [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate], dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), injure pyramidal neurons in the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial (PC/RS) cortex when administered systemically to adult rats and mice. 2. These results have, to our knowledge, only been reported previously in Harlan Sprague Dawley albino rats and International Cancer Research (ICR) mice, an outbred albino strain. 3. Male Non-Swiss Albino (NSA) mice, an albino outbred strain, and male C57BL/6J (B6) mice, a pigmented inbred strain, were injected systemically with 1 mg/kg of MK-801 in the first experiment. This dose of MK-801 reliably produces cytoplasmic vacuoles in neurons in layers III and IV of the PC/RS cortex in 100% of ICR mice treated 4. There was a significant difference in the number of vacuolated neurons in B6 and NSA mice, as assessed by ANOVA. The NSA were not significantly different than previously examined ICR mice, but the B6 had fewer vacuolated neurons than either of the two outbred strains. 5. In the second experiment, male NSA, ICR, and B6 mice were injected systemically with a high dose, 10 mg/kg, of MK-801. This dose has been demonstrated to result in necrosis in the same population of neurons injured by lower doses of MK-801. 6. An ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference among the three strains of mice, and a Fisher's protected t revealed that the B6 mice were significantly different from both the NSA and ICR, but that, with our test, those two strains were indistinguishable. 7. Male ICR, NSA, and B6 mice were tested in the holeboard food search task 5 hours after 1 mg/kg of MK-801. There were significant differences between the strains in performance both pre and posttreatment. The effect of the drug was not statistically significant. 8. These results suggest that there may be a genetically mediated difference in the reaction to NMDA

  7. Genetic variation within and between strains of outbred Swiss mice.

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    Cui, S; Chesson, C; Hope, R

    1993-04-01

    The aim of this survey was to measure levels of genetic variation within and between 5 different strains of outbred Swiss mice. Ten to 15 animals from each strain (NIH, Q(S), ARC, IMVS and STUD) were typed, using allozyme electrophoresis, at 10 gene loci: Mod-1, Idh-1, Gpi-I, Es-1, Es-3, Hbb, Pep-3, Gr-1, Got-2 and Pgm-1. Polymorphic variation in at least one of the 5 strains was detected at all 10 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci ranged from 0.3 (NIH) to 0.8 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.52. Average expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 (NIH) to 0.37 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.21. The inbred strain SWR was, as expected, homozygous at all 10 loci. The amount of allelic substitution between pairs of strains was quantified using Nei's genetic distance, and a dendrogram based on these genetic distances showed a close overall similarity in its branching pattern to the known genealogy of the strains. This survey showed that a considerable degree of genetic variation persists in the 5 strains examined, a level of variation similar to that previously detected by Rice and O'Brien (1980) in 3 other outbred Swiss strains.

  8. Generating Chimeric Mice by Using Embryos from Nonsuperovulated BALB/c Mice Compared with Superovulated BALB/c and Albino C57BL/6 Mice.

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    Esmail, Michael Y; Qi, Peimin; Connor, Aurora Burds; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of high-percentage chimeras from gene-targeted C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells has proven challenging, despite optimization of cell culture and microinjection techniques. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, we compared the generation of chimeras by using 3 different inbred, albino host, embryo-generating protocols: BALB/cAnNTac (BALB/c) donor mice superovulated at 4 wk of age, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor mice without superovulation, and C57BL/6NTac-Tyr(tm1Arte) (albino B6) mice superovulated at 4 wk of age. Key parameters measured included the average number of injectable embryos per donor, the percentage of live pups born from the total number of embryos transferred to recipients, and the number of chimeric pups with high embryonic-stem-cell contribution by coat color. Although albino B6 donors produced significantly more injectable embryos than did BALB/c donors, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor produced high-percentage (at least 70%) chimeras more than 2.5 times as often as did albino B6 mice and 20 times more efficiently than did 4-wk-old BALB/c donors. These findings clearly suggest that 12-wk-old BALB/c mice be used as blastocyst donors to reduce the number of mice used to generate each chimera, reduce the production of low-percentage chimeras, and maximize the generation of high-percentage chimeras from C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells.

  9. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

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    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-fat diet-induced adiposity, adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia in outbred CD-1 mice.

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    Gao, Mingming; Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population.

  11. High-fat diet-induced adiposity, adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperinsulinemia in outbred CD-1 mice.

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    Mingming Gao

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD has been applied to a variety of inbred mouse strains to induce obesity and obesity related metabolic complications. In this study, we determined HFD induced development of metabolic disorders on outbred female CD-1 mice in a time dependent manner. Compared to mice on regular chow, HFD-fed CD-1 mice gradually gained more fat mass and consequently exhibited accelerated body weight gain, which was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and up-regulated expression of adipose inflammatory chemokines and cytokines such as Mcp-1 and Tnf-α. Increased fat accumulation in white adipose tissue subsequently led to ectopic fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, giving rise to whitening of brown adipose tissue without altering plasma level of triglyceride. Ectopic fat deposition was also observed in the liver, which was associated with elevated expression of key genes involved in hepatic lipid sequestration, including Ppar-γ2, Cd36 and Mgat1. Notably, adipose chronic inflammation and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and brown fat were accompanied by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, which was correlated with hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic islet hypertrophy. Collectively, these results demonstrate sequentially the events that HFD induces physiological changes leading to metabolic disorders in an outbred mouse model more closely resembling heterogeneity of the human population.

  12. Gamma radiation-induced heritable mutations at repetitive DNA loci in out-bred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, C.M.; Sharma, R.; Quinn, J.S.; Boreham, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that expanded-simple-tandem-repeat (ESTR) DNA loci are efficient genetic markers for detecting radiation-induced germ line mutations in mice. Dose responses following irradiation, however, have only been characterized in a small number of inbred mouse strains, and no studies have applied Esters to examine potential modifiers of radiation risk, such as adaptive response. We gamma-irradiated groups of male out-bred Swiss-Webster mice with single acute doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, and compared germ line mutation rates at ESTR loci to a sham-irradiated control. To test for evidence of adaptive response we treated a third group with a total dose of 1.1 Gy that was fractionated into a 0.1 Gy adapting dose, followed by a challenge dose of 1.0 Gy 24 h later. Paternal mutation rates were significantly elevated above the control in the 0.5 Gy (2.8-fold) and 1.0 Gy (3.0-fold) groups, but were similar to each other despite the difference in radiation dose. The doubling dose for paternal mutation induction was 0.26 Gy (95% CI = 0.14-0.51 Gy). Males adapted with a 0.1 Gy dose prior to a 1.0 Gy challenge dose had mutation rates that were not significantly elevated above the control, and were 43% reduced compared to those receiving single doses. We conclude that pre-meiotic male germ cells in out-bred Swiss-Webster mice are sensitive to ESTR mutations induced by acute doses of ionizing radiation, but mutation induction may become saturated at a lower dose than in some strains of inbred mice. Reduced mutation rates in the adapted group provide intriguing evidence for suppression of ESTR mutations in the male germline through adaptive response. Repetitive DNA markers may be useful tools for exploration of biological factors affecting the probability of heritable mutations caused by low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The biological significance of ESTR mutations in terms of radiation risk assessment, however, is still undetermined

  13. In vitro maturation of cumulus-oocyte complexes for efficient isolation of oocytes from outbred deer mice.

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    Jung Kyu Choi

    Full Text Available The outbred (as with humans deer mice have been a useful animal model of research on human behavior and biology including that of the reproductive system. One of the major challenges in using this species is that the yield of oocyte isolation via superovulation is dismal according to the literature to date less than ∼5 oocytes per animal can be obtained so far.The goal of this study is to improve the yield of oocyte isolation from outbred deer mice close to that of most laboratory mice by in vitro maturation (IVM of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs.Oocytes were isolated by both superovulation and IVM. For the latter, COCs were obtained by follicular puncture of antral follicles in both the surface and inner cortical layers of ovaries. Immature oocytes in the COCs were then cultured in vitro under optimized conditions to obtain metaphase II (MII oocytes. Quality of the oocytes from IVM and superovulation was tested by in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryo development.Less than ∼5 oocytes per animal could be isolated by superovulation only. However, we successfully obtained 20.3±2.9 oocytes per animal by IVM (16.0±2.5 and superovulation (4.3±1.3 in this study. Moreover, IVF and embryo development studies suggest that IVM oocytes have even better quality than that from superovulation The latter never developed to beyond 2-cell stage as usual while 9% of the former developed to 4-cells.We have successfully established the protocol for isolating oocytes from deer mice with high yield by IVM. Moreover, this is the first ever success to develop in vitro fertilized deer mice oocytes beyond the 2-cell stage in vitro. Therefore, this study is of significance to the use of deer mice for reproductive biology research.

  14. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of costus speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice.

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    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Nagaich, Upendra

    2010-01-01

    Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE) in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA) significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE) produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE) showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  15. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of Costus Speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice

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    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  16. Dexamethasone treatment induces susceptibility of outbred Webster mice to experimental infection with Besnoitia darlingi isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Elsheikha, Hany M; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-04-01

    The Sarcocystidae comprise a diverse, monophyletic apicomplexan parasite family, most of whose members form intracellular cysts in their intermediate hosts. The extent of pathology associated with such cyst formation can range widely. We currently lack experimental animal models for many of these infections. Here we explored dexamethasone treatment as a means to render outbred mice susceptible to Besnoitia darlingi infection and demonstrated that this approach allows viable parasites to be subsequently isolated from these mice and maintained in tissue culture. Besnoitia bradyzoites recovered from crushed cysts derived from naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana) replicated and reproduced the development of besnoitiosis in mice treated with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 days post infection (DPI). Isolates recovered from the peritoneal exudates of these mice were viable and were maintained in long-term tissue cultures. In contrast, control mice given saline without dexamethasone and challenged with similar bradyzoites remained clinically normal for up to 70 DPI. An additional group of mice challenged with the same inoculum of bradyzoites and given dexamethasone at the same concentration and treated with sulfadiazine (1 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 DPI also remained normal for up to 70 DPI. Severe disease developed more rapidly in dexamethasone-treated mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites than in those inoculated with cyst-derived bradyzoites. B. darlingi tachyzoite-infected, untreated control mice developed signs of illness at 18 DPI. In contrast, mice treated with sulfadiazine showed no clinical signs up to 50 DPI. Although dexamethasone treatment was required to establish B. darlingi infection in outbred mice inoculated with opossum-derived B. darlingi bradyzoites, no such treatment was required for mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites. Finally, sulfadiazine was highly

  17. Basal and induced granulopoiesis in outbred, F1 hybrid and inbred mice: can inbreeding depression influence the experimental practice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Holá, Jiřina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 235, č. 8 (2010), s. 928-931 ISSN 1535-3702 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : hematopoiesis * outbred mice * inbreeding depression Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.954, year: 2010

  18. Effects of L-cysteine on lead acetate induced neurotoxicity in albino mice.

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    Mahmoud, Y I; Sayed, S S

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal that adversely affects nervous tissues; it often occurs as an environmental pollutant. We investigated histological changes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of adult albino mice following exposure to lead acetate. We also studied the possible ameliorative effect of the chelating agent, L-cysteine, on lead-induced neurotoxicity. We divided albino mice into six groups: 1) vehicle-only control, 2) L-cysteine control, 3 and 4) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, and 5 and 6) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, followed by 50 mg/kg L-cysteine for 7 days. Lead acetate administration caused disorganization of cell layers, neuronal loss and degeneration, and neuropil vacuolization. Brain sections from lead-intoxicated mice treated with L-cysteine showed fewer pathological changes; the neuropil showed less vacuolization and the neurons appeared less damaged. L-cysteine at the dose we used only marginally alleviated lead-induced toxicity.

  19. Attenuation of N-nitrosodimethylamine induced hepatotoxicity by Operculina turpethum in Swiss Albino mice

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    Sharma, Veena; Singh, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To appraise the antihepatotoxic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Operculum turpethum root on the liver of Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in adult male albino mice through intraperitoneal administrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at the concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. The liver toxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant ethanolic extract was assessed by the analysis of liver marker enzymes and antioxidant enzymes and liver histopathological studies. Results: Hepatotoxicity was manifested by significantly decreased (PNDMA induced toxicity which was also supported by histopathological studies of the liver. Conclusion: O. turpethum manifested therapeutic effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the hepatic damage in mice. This work intends to aid researchers in the study of natural products which could be useful in the treatment of liver diseases including cancer. PMID:24592311

  20. Effect of Variable Doses of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Male Albino Mice Behavior.

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    Zahra, Javeria; Iqbal, Shahid; Zahra, Kiran; Javed, Zulha; Shad, Muhammad Aslam; Akbar, Atif; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Furhan

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have diverse utility these days ranging from being part of nanosensors to be ingredient of cosmetics. Present study was designed to report the effect of variable doses of ZnO NPs on selected aspects of male albino mice behavior. Nano particles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method (Data not shown here). 10 week old male albino mice were divided into four experimental groups; group A, B and C were orally supplemented with 50 (low dose), 300 (medium dose) and 600 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight (high dose) of ZnO NPs for 4 days. Group D (control) orally received 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (solvent for ZnO NPs) for the same duration. A series of neurological tests (Rota rod, open field, novel object and light-dark box test) were conducted in all groups and performance was compared between ZnO NPs treated and control group. Muscular functioning during rota rod test was significantly improved in all ZnO NPs treated mice as compared to control group. While no significant differences in open field, novel object and light-dark box test performance were observed when data from studied parameters of specific ZnO NPs treatment were compared with the control group indicating that applied doses of ZnO NPs did not affect the exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and object recognition capability of adult male albino mice.

  1. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on spermatogenesis in adult albino mice

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    Ameer, M.K.; Tahrir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis in male albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy University of Health Sciences, Lahore from Apr, 2012 to Dec, 2012. Material and Methods: Thirty nine male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 - 5 gm, were used; these were randomly divided into three groups having thirteen mice in each using random numbers table. Group A served as a control and was given distilled water orally via oral gavage 10 ml per kg for 30 days. Group B was given acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Group C was given acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg/kg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose and the testes were removed, fixed in Bouin's fixative for 48 hours. Five microns thick sections of processed tissue were stained with H and E and PAS for calculation of Johnsen score and diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum testosterone level was measured by testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kits. Results: Microscopic examination demonstrated that ASA treatment lead to statistically significant increase in the mean Johnsen score and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: It was concluded from the current study that ASA treatment enhances spermatogenesis. (author)

  2. Neutropenia induced in outbred mice by a simplified low-dose cyclophosphamide regimen: characterization and applicability to diverse experimental models of infectious diseases

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    Zapata Ana X

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For its low cost and ease of handling, the mouse remains the preferred experimental animal for preclinical tests. To avoid the interaction of the animal immune system, in vivo antibiotic pharmacodynamic studies often employ cyclophosphamide (CPM to induce neutropenia. Although high doses (350–450 mg/kg are still used and their effects on mouse leukocytes have been described, a lower dose (250 mg/kg is widely preferred today, but the characteristics and applicability of this approach in outbred mice have not been determined. Methods Fifteen female ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 150 and 100 mg/kg of CPM on days 1 and 4, respectively. Blood samples (~160 μL were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of each mouse on days 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 11. Leukocytes were counted manually and the number of granulocytes was based on microscopic examination of Wright-stained smears. The impact of neutropenia induced by this method was then determined with a variety of pathogens in three different murine models of human infections: pneumonia (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, meningoencephalitis (S. pneumoniae, and the thigh model (S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis. Results The basal count of leukocytes was within the normal range for outbred mice. On day 4, there was an 84% reduction in total white blood cells, and by day 5 the leukopenia reached its nadir (370 ± 84 cells/mm3. Profound neutropenia (≤10 neutrophils/mm3 was demonstrated at day 4 and persisted through days 5 and 6. Lymphocytes and monocytes had a 92% and 96% decline between days 1 and 5, respectively. Leukocytes recovered completely by day 11. Mice immunosupressed under this protocol displayed clinical and microbiological patterns of progressive and lethal infectious diseases after inoculation in different organs with diverse human pathogens. Conclusion A CPM total dose of 250 mg/kg is sufficient to induce

  3. Effect of GABAB Receptor Antagonist (CGP35348 on Learning and Memory in Albino Mice

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    Quratulane Gillani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential effect of CGP 35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist on the learning, memory formation, and neuromuscular coordination in albino mouse. Mice were intrapertoneally injected with 1 mg CGP 35348/mL of distilled water/Kg body weight, while the control animals were injected with equal volume of saline solution. A battery of neurological tests was applied following the intrapertoneal injections. Results of rota rod indicated that CGP 35348 had no effect on neuromuscular coordination in both male (P=0.528 and female (P=0.125 albino mice. CGP 35348 treated females demonstrated poor exploratory behavior during open filed for several parameters (time mobile (P=0.04, time immobile (P=0.04, rotations (P=0.04, and anticlockwise rotations (P=0.038. The results for Morris water maze (MWM retention phase indicated that CGP 35348 treated male mice took shorter latency to reach the hidden platform (P=0.04 than control indicating improved memory. This observation was complemented by the swim strategies used by mice during training days in MWM as CGP 35348 treated males used more direct and focal approach to reach the platform as the training proceeded.

  4. Evidence should trump intuition by preferring inbred strains to outbred stocks in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice such as C57BL and BALB/c are more widely used in published work than outbred stocks of mice such as ICR and CD-1. In contrast, outbred stocks of rats such as Wistar and Sprague-Dawley are more widely used than inbred strains such as F344 and LEW. The properties of inbred and outbred mice and rats are briefly reviewed, and it is concluded that, with some exceptions, there is a strong case for using inbred strains in most controlled experiments. This is because they are usually more uniform, so that fewer animals are usually needed to detect a specified response and they are more repeatable, because they are genetically defined (i.e., the strain can be identified using genetic markers) and less liable to genetic change. Yet many scientists continue to use outbred animals. In Daniel Kahneman's book "Thinking Fast and Slow" he explains that we can answer questions in 2 ways: "fast" by intuition or "slow" by analytical reasoning. The former method is instantaneous, requires no thought but is not evidence based. Analytical reasoning is evidence based but requires hard work, which we all avoid. He has found that "… when faced with a difficult question, we often answer an easier one instead, usually without noticing the substitution." The target question of whether to choose outbred or inbred strains in controlled experiments is a difficult one requiring knowledge of the characteristics of these strains and the principles of experimental design. A substitute question, "are humans and outbred stocks both genetically heterogeneous," is easily answered in the affirmative. It is likely that many scientists are intuitively answering the substitute question and are assuming that they have answered the target question. If so they may be using the wrong animals in their research. Nor is the fact that humans and outbred stocks are alike in being genetically heterogeneous a reason for using them. The whole concept of a "model" is that it is similar to the

  5. Anticonvulsant activity of Granisetron in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathisha Aithal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of  5-HT3 antagonist, granisetron in albino mice. In this study granisetron (0.5mg/kg, i.p. was administered 30 minutes prior to application of electroshock (60mA, 02.seconds or administration of pentylenetetrazole. Granisetron significantly reduced the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximum electroshock seizure (MES test. In pentylenetetrazole (PTZ test, granisetron delayed the onset and the decreased the duration of convulsions compared to control group. The percentage of animals protected in MES and PTZ  models were 66 and 83 respectively. The results showed that granisetron at dose of 0.5mg possess anticonvulsant activity in both MES and PTZ models.

  6. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  7. StreptInCor: a candidate vaccine epitope against S. pyogenes infections induces protection in outbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Postol

    Full Text Available Infection with Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes can result in several diseases, particularly in children. S. pyogenes M protein is the major virulence factor, and certain regions of its N-terminus can trigger autoimmune sequelae such as rheumatic fever in susceptible individuals with untreated group A streptococcal pharyngitis. In a previous study, we utilized a large panel of human peripheral blood cells to define the C-terminal protective epitope StreptInCor (medical identity, which does not induce autoimmune reactions. We recently confirmed the results in HLA-transgenic mice. In the present study, we extended the experimental assays to outbred animals (Swiss mice. Herein, we demonstrate high titers of StreptInCor-specific antibodies, as well as appropriate T-cell immune responses. No cross-reaction to cardiac myosin was detected. Additionally, immunized Swiss mice exhibited 87% survival one month after challenge with S. pyogenes. In conclusion, the data presented herein reinforce previous results in humans and animals and further emphasize that StreptInCor could be an effective and safe vaccine for the prevention of S. pyogenes infections.

  8. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Zoology, Radiation and Cancer Biology Lab.

    2008-07-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  9. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, Ravindra M.; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg -1 day -1 ) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  10. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  11. In vitro culture of early secondary preantral follicles in hanging drop of ovarian cell-conditioned medium to obtain MII oocytes from outbred deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Agarwal, Pranay; He, Xiaoming

    2013-12-01

    The ovarian follicle (each contains a single oocyte) is the fundamental functional tissue unit of mammalian ovaries. In humans, it has been long held true that females are born with a maximum number of follicles (or oocytes) that are not only nonrenewable, but also undergoing degeneration with time with a sharply decreased oocyte quality after the age of ∼35. Therefore, it is of importance to isolate and bank ovarian follicles for in vitro culture to obtain fertilizable oocytes later, to preserve the fertility of professional women who may want to delay childbearing, young and unmarried women who may lose gonadal function because of exposure to environmental/occupational hazards or aggressive medical treatments, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and even endangered species and breeds. Although they contributed significantly to the understanding of follicle science and biology, most studies reported to date on this topic were done using the man-made, unnatural inbred animal species. It was found in this study that the conventional two-dimensional microliter drop and three-dimensional hanging drop (HD) methods, reported to be effective for in vitro culture of preantral follicles from inbred mice, are not directly transferrable to outbred deer mice. Therefore, a modified HD method was developed in this study to achieve a much higher (>5 times compared to the best conventional methods) percentage of developing early secondary preantral follicles from the outbred mice to the antral stage, for which, the use of an ovarian cell-conditioned medium and multiple follicles per HD were identified to be crucial. It was further found that the method for in vitro maturation of oocytes in antral follicles obtained by in vitro culture of preantral follicles could be very different from that for oocytes in antral follicles obtained by hormone stimulation in vivo. Therefore, this study should provide important guidance for establishing effective protocols of in vitro follicle

  12. Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice. Micronucleus assay was performed in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice according to the method of Hosseinimehr et al., 2003. The experimental animals were orally administered 200 mg/kg body weight of ARE once daily for 15 consecutive days. At the end of experimental period, the animals were euthanized and the bone marrow was collected from the femur. Control (C), Radiation control (RC) and drug control (DC) group was also maintained. The number of radiation induced Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCE) and Micronucleated Normochromatic Erythrocytes were decreased in the ARE treated mice which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to radiation control group. Present findings demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of ARE against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation which may be attributed to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals

  13. Immunological aspects of Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris infections in inbred and outbred strains of laboratory mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, S J; Cox, F E

    1982-08-01

    The intestinal flagellates, Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris, cause similar infections in CBA mice as determined by trophozoite and cyst counts. Both parasites occur all along the small intestine with G. muris, being mainly present in the anterior part and S. muris towards the posterior. The early stages of infection are similar in all strains of mice examined and peak levels of both trophozoites and cysts occur 1-2 weeks after infection. All strains of mice overcome the infection but the rate of recovery varies considerably between strains, being most rapid in BALB/c and slowest in A and C57BL.B10. Outbred mice are more variable in their recovery than inbred mice. After recovery, mice are partially resistant to reinfection with the homologous but not the heterologous parasite. Resistance to reinfection with S. muris is greatest in those strains that eliminate the primary infection most rapidly. Giardia muris and S. muris cause similar changes in the mucosa of the small intestine of BALB/c mice with increased intra-epithelial lymphocyte counts from 3 weeks onwards corresponding with the start of the elimination of the parasites from the gut. A reduction in villus height and increase in crypt depth is also characteristic of these infections.

  14. Aggression and increased glutamate in the mPFC during withdrawal from intermittent alcohol in outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Lara S; Nathanson, Anna J; Shimamoto, Akiko; Tayeh, Jillian K; Wilens, Allison R; Holly, Elizabeth N; Newman, Emily L; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2015-08-01

    Disrupted social behavior, including occasional aggressive outbursts, is characteristic of withdrawal from long-term alcohol (EtOH) use. Heavy EtOH use and exaggerated responses during withdrawal may be treated using glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. The current experiments explore aggression and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate as consequences of withdrawal from intermittent access to EtOH and changes in aggression and mPFC glutamate caused by NMDAR antagonists memantine and ketamine. Swiss male mice underwent withdrawal following 1-8 weeks of intermittent access to 20 % EtOH. Aggressive and nonaggressive behaviors with a conspecific were measured 6-8 h into EtOH withdrawal after memantine or ketamine (0-30 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In separate mice, extracellular mPFC glutamate after memantine was measured during withdrawal using in vivo microdialysis. At 6-8 h withdrawal from EtOH, mice exhibited more convulsions and aggression and decreased social contact compared to age-matched water controls. Memantine, but not ketamine, increased withdrawal aggression at the 5-mg/kg dose in mice with a history of 8 weeks of EtOH but not 1 or 4 weeks of EtOH or in water drinkers. Tonic mPFC glutamate was higher during withdrawal after 8 weeks of EtOH compared to 1 week of EtOH or 8 weeks of water. Five milligrams per kilogram of memantine increased glutamate in 8-week EtOH mice, but also in 1-week EtOH and water drinkers. These studies reveal aggressive behavior as a novel symptom of EtOH withdrawal in outbred mice and confirm a role of NMDARs during withdrawal aggression and for disrupted social behavior.

  15. Histological and Physiological Alterations Induced by Thermal Neutron Fluxes in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzergy, A.A.; Emara, N.M.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.; El-Saady, S.M.M.; Emara, N.M.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x10 8 , 0.52X10 8 , 1.089X10 8 , 2.16X10 8 and 4.32X10 8 ) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(α,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.

  16. Glycogen metabolism in radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.; Kumar, Ashok

    1988-01-01

    Glycogen content and the activities of phosphorylase, glycogen sythetase (GS), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphohexose isomerase (PHI), glucose 6-phosphodehydrogenase were biochemically determined in the heparocellular carcinoma induced in swiss albino mice following radiocalcium internal irradiation. The content glycogen and the activities of phosphorylase, glycogen synthetase, G6Pase, PHI, GPT and GOT are considerably reduced in the hepatocellular carcinoma compared to that in control liver. However, the activity of G6PDH shows an increased activity. Results indicate that the decreas ed glycogen content in the hepatocellular carcinoma is due to the reduced glycogen synthetase activity and utilization of glucose by HMP pathway. (author). 2 tabs., 24 refs

  17. Protective effect of lycopene on whole body irradiation induced liver damage of Swiss albino mice: pathological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid on whole body radiation-induced liver damage of Swiss albino mice. The first phase of the study was carried out to fix the effective concentration of Iycopene by performing a 30 days survival studies using different graded doses (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of lycopene administered orally to mice via intragastric intubations for seven consecutive days prior to exposure of whole body radiation (10 Gy). Based on the results of survival studies, the effective dose of Iycopene was fixed which was then administered to mice orally via intragastric intubations for seven consecutive days prior to exposure of whole body radiation (4 Gy) to evaluate its radioprotective efficacy by performing various biochemical assays in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The results indicated that radiation-induced decrease in the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidative index, DNA damage and comet assays were altered by pre-administration with the effective dose of Iycopene (20 mg/kg body weight) which restored the antioxidant status to near normal and decreased the levels of lipid peroxidative index, DNA damage and comet assays.These results were further confirmed by histopathological examinations which indicated that pre-administration with the effective dose of Iycopene reduced the hepatic damage induced by radiation. (author)

  18. Response of peripheral blood to 131I treatment in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, G.C.; Gupta, S.M.; Kumar, S.; Devi, P.U.

    1982-01-01

    Adult Swiss albino mice were treated with 333 kBq/g body weight (approximately 10.22 Gy/day) intraperitoneally and sacrificed at different post-treatment intervals. It was observed that erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values decreased gradually, while the depletion in leukocyte count was abrupt at early intervals after treatment. The early decline in the leukocytes followed by more gradual may be due to the direct cell killing by the isotope. The indirect effect on the hematopoietic tissues may be responsible for the continued low levels of the different blood constituents during the later intervals. (author)

  19. Tartrazine induced changes in physiological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus

    OpenAIRE

    Arefin, Sayema; Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Akter Neshe, Shamme; Rashid, Md. Mamun Or; Amin, Mohammad Tohidul; Hussain, Md. Saddam

    2017-01-01

    Now-a-days synthetic food dyes are being used most commonly as food colorant in confectionaries, drugs and cosmetics. Present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of tartrazine, a widely used azo dye, on Swiss Albino mice. Experimental animals were treated with tested dye at a dose level 200mg/kg & 400mg/kg body weight along with normal diet. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were assessed to study the toxic effect of tartrazine. Our study rev...

  20. Differences in the duration of sedative and anxiolytic effects of desmethyldiazepam in two outbred Wistar strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, J W; de Boer, S.F.; van der Gugten, J; de Groot, G

    Different sensitivities to benzodiazepines have been described for various strains of both rats and mice suggesting that variations in biological features of the animals are responsible for these differences. Since all reports concern inbred strains, we studied two outbred Wistar strains which are

  1. Modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsha, Radha; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The major objectives in radiobiology has been the development of agents that can mitigate the damage produced by ionizing radiation to normal tissues and thus reduces the side effects caused by radiation and improvement of cancer radiotherapy. The various agents have drawn attention of researchers as they provide wider acceptability and least side effects. The current study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice. For the study healthy male Swiss albino mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were selected from an inbred colony and kept in polypropylene cages. They were provided with standard mice feed and tap water ad libitum. The animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Aloe vera juice seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of each group were autopsied at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The various biochemical parameters estimated were total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA. After routine procedure, histopathological changes were also observed. The changes in various biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase of decrease in values. The histopathological changes observed on day-1 after exposure to 3.0 Gy were distortion of hepatic architecture, intracellular oedema, narrower sinusoids, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei. The changes were more marked on day-4 and continued up to day-14. But on day-28 the sign of recovery was observed. After exposure to a higher dose (6.0 Gy) similar changes were noticed but they were more pronounced and there was late manifestation of recovery. In the combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The liver of Aloe vera treated

  2. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after...

  3. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  4. Radio -Protective Role of Zinc Administration Pre-Exposure to Gamma-Irradiation in Male Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dawy, H.A.; Aly El-Sayed, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potency of zinc chloride injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg b.w.) in male albino mice as a radio-protective agent pre exposure to gamma-irradiation. The investigation of the radio-protective role of zinc chloride was accomplished through measuring the levels of sex hormones, and observation of the chromosomal aberrations and sperm-head abnormalities after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The average of abnormal cells with chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperm % on the 7 th and 21 th days were 32% and 40%, and 14% and 22% respectively in mice exposed to radiation alone compared to 12% and 16%, and 5% and 12% respectively in mice treated with zinc chloride pre-irradiation. Treatment of mice with zinc chloride pre-irradiation induced significant amelioration in FSH and LH hormone levels on the 7 th day only of experimentation period, and showed non-significant amelioration in testosterone level

  5. In utero exposure to radiation and mercury in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanan, K.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and heavy metals may interfere seriously with embryonic or fetal development. Embryotoxic effects of radiation as well as heavy metals comprising lethality, growth retardation and specific patterns of malformation have been presented in various reviews and symposia. Very few studies have been performed so far on the combined effects of radiation and metals on prenatal development, especially skeletal development. This study investigates interaction between ionizing radiation and methylmercury (heavy metal) in the embryo of swiss albino mice during the late organogenetic (9 or 11 d.p.c.) and early fetal period (14 d.p.c.) of development which stages represent a good model to examine the effects of various stresses at a minimum dose/concentration. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab

  6. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidi Herrera

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57, Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22 and human (strain EP. Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs.

  7. Tanacetum parthenium leaf extract mediated survival protection in lethally irradiated Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Prashanth; Pooja, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.

    2016-01-01

    Search for less-toxic radioprotectors has spurred interest in the development of natural products. In Ayurveda, the traditional medicine, Tanacetum species have been used to treat ailments since ancient times throughout the world. Effects of the administration of different concentrations of Tanacetum parthenium leaf aqueous extract (TPLA), Tanacetum parthenium leaf ethanolic extract (TPLE) were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Mice (20-25 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups of ten animals each. The control group and the radiation group were treated daily with oral administration of saline for 15 days. Each subgroups of TPLA and TPLE were treated with doses of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg daily for 15 days. On the 15th day, all were irradiated with 10 Gy whole body irradiation. Survival was observed daily up to 30th post-irradiation day. Data were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The significance difference in survival between control, radiation and treatment groups were observed (P < 0.001). Current studies revealed the protective effect of Tanacetum parthenium rendering high survivability in lethally irradiated mice. (author)

  8. Hepatoprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica fruit against oxidative stress in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K. V.; Sisodia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit which contains anthocyanin type cyanidin 3- glucoside, vitamin C, A, minerals, carotenes and dietary fibers etc was studied. Materials and Methods: For study Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups-1. Control (vehicle treated) 2. Grewia asiatica fruit treated (700 mg / Kg. b.wt / day for fifteen days), 3. Irradiated (5 Gy), 4. Grewia asiatica fruit + Irradiated and 5. Irradiated + Grewia asiatica fruit treated. Results: The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant depletion in the DNA and RNA level at all intervals studied viz 1-30 days in comparison to control group. Treatment of mice with Grewia asiatica fruit before and after irradiation caused a significant elevation in liver DNA and RNA level in comparison to irradiated mice. Photomicrograph of liver histology also showed that pre and post supplementation of Grewia asiatica fruit provides protection against radiation. Similarly counting of different type hepatocytes also showed that Grewia asiatica fruit protect the liver against radiation. Conclusion: Thus biochemical and histopathological results proves that Grewia asiatica fruit has the potential against radiation.

  9. Endogenous CNS Expression of Neurotensin and Neurotensin Receptors Is Altered during the Postpartum Period in Outbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Terri M.; Zhao, Changjiu; Whittlinger, Anna; Williams, Horecia; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide identical in mice and humans that is produced and released in many CNS regions associated with maternal behavior. NT has been linked to aspects of maternal care and previous studies have indirectly suggested that endogenous NT signaling is altered in the postpartum period. In the present study, we directly examine whether NT and its receptors exhibit altered gene expression in maternal relative to virgin outbred mice using real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) across multiple brain regions. We also examine NT protein levels using anti-NT antibodies and immunohistochemistry in specific brain regions. In the medial preoptic area (MPOA), which is critical for maternal behaviors, mRNA of NT and NT receptor 3 (Sort1) were significantly up-regulated in postpartum mice compared to virgins. NT mRNA was also elevated in postpartum females in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dorsal. However, in the lateral septum, NT mRNA was down-regulated in postpartum females. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), Ntsr1 expression was down-regulated in postpartum females. Neurotensin receptor 2 (Ntsr2) expression was not altered in any brain region tested. In terms of protein expression, NT immunohistochemistry results indicated that NT labeling was elevated in the postpartum brain in the MPOA, lateral hypothalamus, and two subregions of PVN. Together, these findings indicate that endogenous changes occur in NT and its receptors across multiple brain regions, and these likely support the emergence of some maternal behaviors. PMID:24416154

  10. Radioprotective effects saffron and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced DNA damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Apurva; Abraham, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Protective effects of aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) alone and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Saffron (40 mg/kg bw) alone and in combination with green tea (40 mg/kg bw) were orally administered to mice for six consecutive days, followed by exposure to γ-radiation (2.25 Gy) on 6 th day after final feeding. Antigenotoxic effect of saffron was assayed using micronucleus test in bone marrow cells which showed a significant decrease in the number of micronucleated PCEs in saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant defense system enzymes, viz. acetylcholine esterase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Our results suggested that saffron in combination with green tea exhibits radioprotective effects against γ-radiation induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. (author)

  11. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) juice against cadmium neurotoxicity in albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maodaa, Saleh N; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A; Al-Basher, Gadah I; Wang, Zun Yao

    2016-02-04

    Parsley was employed as an experimental probe to prevent the behavioral, biochemical and morphological changes in the brain tissue of the albino mice following chronic cadmium (Cd) administration. Non-anesthetized adult male mice were given parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) daily by gastric intubation at doses of 10 and 20 g/kg/day. The animals were divided into six groups: Group A, mice were exposed to saline; Groups B and C, were given low and high doses of parsley juice, respectively; Group D, mice were exposed to Cd; Groups E and F, were exposed to Cd and concomitantly given low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Cd intoxication can cause behavioral abnormalities, biochemical and histopathological disturbances in treated mice. Parsley juice has significantly improved the Cd-associated behavioral changes, reduced the elevation of lipid peroxidation and normalized the Cd effect on reduced glutathione and peroxidase activities in the brain of treated mice. Histological data have supported these foundations whereas Cd treatment has induced neuronal degeneration, chromatolysis and pyknosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The low dose (5 g/kg/day) of parsley exhibited beneficial effects in reducing the deleterious changes associated with Cd treatment on the behavior, neurotransmitters level, oxidative stress and brain neurons of the Cd-treated mice.

  12. [Experimental model of activated Lamblia (Giardia) muris infection in albino mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irikov, O A; Kovalenko, F P

    2007-01-01

    Experimental L. muris infection was reproduced in 100% of the intact albino mice intragastrically given levomycin in an average total dose of 15.88-34.84 or 0.88-1.02 g/kg for 18-34 days. With levomycin administration, the intensity of giardiasis was 1121.6-8540.1 (mean 4830.9) thousand L. muris trophozoites per animal. The total number of trophozoites per animal decreased to 302.2-3481.4 (mean 1546.4) thousand and 28.1-324.0 (mean 109.4) thousand specimens 5-8 and 11-13 days after discontinuation of the antibiotic, respectively. The maximum number of L. muris trophozoites was observed in the proximal and middle portions of the murine small intestine during and after the administration oflevomycin. The highest isolation of cysts was seen 12-14 days after the initiation of administration of the antibiotic. Following 8-10 days of terminations of a course of levomycin therapy the native smear of animal feces showed no Lamblia cysts. In mice with activated infection, the isolation rate of Lamblia cysts was directly related to the intensity of intestinal infection with trophozoites of the parasite.

  13. Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Dextran Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Viswanathan; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles (DFNPs) of size immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress by in vitro and in vivo methods. Cytotoxicity was performed in vitro using splenocytes with different concentrations of DFNPs. Gene expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-10, and TNF β) secretion by splenocytes was evaluated. Also, 100 mg of DFNPs was injected intraperitoneally to 18 albino mice for immunological stimulations. Six animals each were sacrificed at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. Spleen was subjected to immunotoxic response and liver was analyzed for antioxidant parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase). The results indicated that DFNPs failed to induce any immunological reactions and no significant alternation in antioxidant defense mechanism. Also, mRNA expression of the cytokines revealed an increase in IL-10 expression and subsequent decreased expression of IL-1 and TNF β. Eventually, DNA sequencing of liver actin gene revealed base alteration in nonconserved regions (10–20 bases) of all the treated groups when compared to control samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the DFNPs were nontoxic at the cellular level and nonimmunotoxic when exposed intraperitoneally to mice. PMID:26576301

  14. Histological Study of the Effect of Aluminum in Testes of Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Hadi Abbas Hadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is widely distributed and constitutes approximately 8.8% of the earth's crust and considers as potential toxin in the environment, especially when present in high concentrations. This study sought to study the effects of subcutaneous injection of aluminum chloride on the histological structure of testes of the albino mice and comprises the effect at concentrations of 80, 160, 240, 320, and 400 mg/kg body weight. Increasing degree of damage of testicular tissue in correlation with the number and the amount of doses of aluminum chloride such as diffusion of oedematous fluid in the tissues, congestion of blood vessels, pyknosis of nuclei and an increase in the number of giant cells were the prominent histopathological changes.

  15. Modeling the Disease Course of Zaire ebolavirus Infection in the Outbred Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Fenton, Karla A; Geisbert, Joan B; Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models that accurately reflect human filovirus infection are needed as early screens for medical countermeasures. Prior work in rodents with the Zaire species of Ebola virus (ZEBOV) primarily used inbred mice and guinea pigs to model disease. However, these inbred species do not show some of the important features of primate ZEBOV infection, most notably, coagulation abnormalities. Thirty-six outbred guinea pigs were infected with guinea pig-adapted ZEBOV and examined sequentially over an 8-day period to investigate the pathologic events that lead to death. Features of disease in ZEBOV-infected outbred guinea pigs were largely consistent with disease in humans and nonhuman primates and included early infection of macrophages and dendritiform cells, apoptosis of bystander lymphocytes, and increases in levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, dysregulation of circulating levels of fibrinogen, protein C activity, and antifibrinolytic proteins and deposition of fibrin in tissues demonstrated both biochemical and microscopic evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. These findings suggest that the outbred guinea pig model recapitulates ZEBOV infection of primates better than inbred rodent models, is useful for dissecting key events in the pathogenesis of ZEBOV, and is useful for evaluating candidate interventions prior to assessment in primates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  17. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Sharma, M.K.; Saxena, P.S.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  18. Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the evolution of gamma-radiation cercariae at the skin, lungs and portal system, in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Cardoso, G. de; Coelho, P.M.Z.

    1989-01-01

    The migration of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains) has been studied in eight groups of outbred Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus), which were previously infected with ca 450 cercariae, trans-cutaneously. The infection of mice was performed with non irradiated cercariae (control groups), or with gamma-irradiated cercariae, at the schedule of 3, 20 and 40 Krad. Regarding the skin, a progressive decrease was detected for the recovery rates, related to the time of infection. As far as the lungs and portal system are concerned, a significant inverse correlation was observed between the total recovery rate and the irradiation dosages. The dose of 20 Krad practically hinders the migration of the parasites (in both strains) from the lungs to the portal system, whereas the dose of 40 Krad prevents the migration of most of the parasites from the skin to the lungs. (author)

  19. Influence of chewing behaviour on memory and spatial learning in albino BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Siancas, E E

    2017-05-01

    Since the relationship between chewing and cognitive functions has not been fully elucidated, this study aimed to determine the impact of chewing behaviour on spatial learning and memory in albino male BALB/c mice. Twenty mice aged 8 weeks were divided into 2 equal groups. The regular chewing group was fed with uncrushed grains (the same diet given to all 20 mice since they were weaned) and the limited chewing group was fed with crushed grains. At 16 weeks of age, the mice were evaluated over 5 days, including a 4-day acquisition phase prior to a probe test of spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze on the fifth day. A comparison of the regular chewing group and the limited chewing group found no significant differences in either the acquisition phase or the probe test. However, there were significant differences in the acquisition phase for just the regular chewing group when comparing results from the first day to those from the other 3 days. The results suggest that regular chewing affects spatial learning and memory since mice in the regular chewing group decreased their times to find the hidden platform during the acquisition phase. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of lutein in alleviating the effects of electron beam radiation induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya, V.; Krishna, A.P.; Patil, Shrikant; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Lutein is a naturally occurring xanthophyll pigment derived from α-carotene. It is abundantly present in Tagetes erecta L. (marigold) and also present in a few vegetables, fruits and in animal sources. Lutein was evaluated for its protective role in electron beam radiation induced damages in Swiss albino mice. The drug was optimized for its radioprotective activity

  1. Genotoxic and biochemical effects of Yohimbe after short-term treatment in somatic and germ cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A.

    2006-01-01

    Yohimbe was evaluated for its effects on cytological and biochemical toxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were mice were treated with different doses (750, 1500 and 3000 mg yohombe/kg., body weight/day) in form of an aqueous suspension for 7 consecutive days by gavage. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii) cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iii) Cytogentic analysis of meiotic chromosomes in the tests, (iv) quantification of proteins, ribose nucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) in hepatic and testicular cells and (v) estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment caused significant changes in the frequency of micronuclei in the femoral cells and induced spermatozoal abnormalities and testicular chromosomal aberrations. The study on biochemical parameters showed an increase of MDA and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in both hepatic and testicular cells. The data elucidated the role of free radical species in cytological and biochemical changes in both somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice. The exact mechanism of the genesis of lipid peroxides is not known, however, this might be related to the influence of yohimbine (the principal constituent of yohimbe) to enhance some catecholamines, including norepineprine which possess destructive stimuli on biological systems. It is suggested that, in view of the observed cytological and biochemical effects of yohimbe, it may be subjected to a thorough evaluation of toxicity before making it available for human use. (author)

  2. Reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Yohimbe in male Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Bekairi, A M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2006-07-01

    To study the effect of Corynanthe Yohimbe (Yohimbe) on germ cells in Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were orally (gavage) treated with different doses (188, 375 and 750 mg/[kg x day]) of aqueous suspension of Yohimbe for 90 days. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) reproductive organ weight, (ii) motility and count of sperm, (iii) study on rate of pregnancy and mean implants, (iv) spermatozoa morphology, (v) cytology of the testes chromosomes, and (vi) biochemical study on estimation of proteins, RNA, DNA, malondialdehyde, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and hormones. The treatment caused significant increase in the weight of seminal vesicles, motility and count of spermatozoa, pre- and post-implants. Male fertility was decreased. These results are confirmed by our data on spermatozoa abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations. The data on biochemical parameters showed increase of malondialdehyde and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in the testicular cells. Our results elucidated the role of free radical species in cytological and reproductive changes, possibly, under the influence of yohimbine (principal constituent of Yohimbe) on neurotransmitters, including norephinephrine. These data warrant careful use of Yohimbe.

  3. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  4. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  5. Radiation induced cerebellum impairments in Swiss albino mice and its modulation by dietary Prunus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Garima; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)

  6. Radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract in Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandini, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Ganesh Sanjeev; D'sa, Prima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract against radiation induced damage.The effect of 100 mg of hydroalcoholic extract of Tamarindus indica pod was studied in Swiss albino mice exposed to 6 Gy whole body electron beam radiation. Treatment of mice with extract for 15 days before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the untreated irradiated group. The irradiated animals showed an elevation in lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Radiation induced mice has shown micronucleus in the bone marrow cells. Treatment of mice with Tamarindus indica pod extract before irradiation caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. It also showed a reduction in the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicate that the radioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica pod extract may be due to free radical scavenging attributed as a result of increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  7. Protective efficacy of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss Albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Basu, Arindam; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice; 6-8 weeks old animals from each of the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment intervals of 1,2,4,7,14 and 28 day. After sacrificing the animals, the blood was collected by cardiac puncture in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. The values of RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin and PCV were found to decrease up to day-14 in non drug treated groups (II,III and IV), thereafter they increased on day-28. Whereas the values decreased upto day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups (V,VI,VlI) thereafter increased tip to day-28. On the other hand, the value of MCV increased upto day- 14 in non-drug treated groups (II, III, IV) and tip to day-7 in drug treated groups (V, VI, VII), thereafter it decreased tip to day-28. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The Aloe vera treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was noticed in Aloe vera pretreated animals. Thus, it appears that Aloe vera is potent enough to check cadmium and radiation induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. (author)

  8. Protective effects of acemannan against radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera is one of the well known medicinal plant and posses a large no. of beneficial bioactive components like Anthraquinone, C-glycosides, anthrones, emodin, acemannan etc. Acemannan (poly-acetylated mannose) is one of the active component present in aloe vera gel and has anticancerous and antimicrobial properties. It has also been reported to have wound healing properties and has role as immunomodulator. The objective of the present study was to evaluate protective efficacy of acemannan against radiation induced damage in in-vitro and in in-vivo using murine splenocytes and Swiss albino mice as a model system. In vitro studies were done using primary mouse splenocytes cultures and effect of radiation on cell proliferation, viability, ROS, DNA damage and apoptosis were studies using MTT, trypan blue, DCFDA, single cell gel electrophoresis and ladder assay respectively. For in-vivo studies mice were pretreated with different doses of drug for 7 days followed by irradiation (5 Gy). Twenty four hours post-irradiation mice was sacrificed to observe the activity of antioxidant enzymes and level of protein expression. Acemannan showed a significant induction of proliferation of splenocytes in radiation treated groups both in in-vitro and in in-vivo. Beside a decrease in radiation induced ROS and DNA damage was observed in in-vitro system. Acemannan treatment was able to reduce the radiation induced apoptosis by about 50% both in in-vitro and in in-vivo. In in-vivo acemannan helps in the restoration of the antioxidant enzyme level (catalase, SOD, DTD and GST) besides maintaining the proper redox status via GSH, in irradiated mice. In our studies a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt of acemannan showed the best protective effects. On the basis of the above results it could be concluded that acemannan may have radioprotective potential. (author)

  9. Effect of Curcumin on Blood Glucose Level and Some Neurobehavioral Responses in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    U. A. Garkuwa; A. W. Alhassan; Y. Tanko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on blood glucose level and neurobehavioral response in Alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss Albino mice. The animals were divided into five (5) groups of four each (n=4). Group I served as control and received distilled water, group II, III, IV and V were diabetic and received olive oil 1 ml/kg, glibenclamide 1 mg/kg, curcumin 50 mg/kg and curcumin 100 mg/kg respectively. Diabetes was induced using Alloxan (150 mg/kg). All administrations...

  10. Macroscopic description of the coronary arteries in Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yoldas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 (13 male, 12 female adult, healthy Swiss albino mice were used to investigate the origin, course and anastomoses of coronary arteries. Coloured latex was injected into the aortic arch to enable these arteries to be clearly discerned. A. coronaria sinistra was larger than A. coronaria dextra. It was divided into a Ramus interventricularis paraconalis and a Ramus circumflexus sinister. However, in 2 specimens, the septal ramus, was observed to stem directly from the left coronary artery, and only 1 ventricular branch arose from the left circumflex. The collateral branches of the paraconal interventricular ramus had a larger diameter and more extensive distribution was observed in these specimens. The A. coronaria dextra was divided into a Ramus septalis and Ramus circumflexus dexter. The Ramus interventricularis subsinuosis was not detected in this study. The ventricular branches of the left coronary artery run intramyocardially whereas the branches of the right coronary artery course subendocardially.

  11. Course of Sodium Iodate-Induced Retinal Degeneration in Albino and Pigmented Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowers, Guy; Cohen, Matan; Marks-Ohana, Devora; Stika, Shelly; Eijzenberg, Ayala; Banin, Eyal; Obolensky, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    To characterize the course of sodium iodate (SI)-induced retinal degeneration in young adult albino and pigmented mice. Single intraperitoneal (IP) injections of SI (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were performed in 7- to 8-week-old BALB/c and C57Bl/6J mice. Retinal function and structure was assessed at baseline, 24 hours, 3 days, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postinjection by optokinetic tracking response, ERG, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histologic and immunohistochemical techniques. The 50 mg/kg SI dosage was selected after dose ranging due to consistent retinal effects and lack of systemic toxicity. Time-dependent deterioration in retinal function and morphology was consistently observed between 1 and 4 weeks in all measured parameters. These include reduction of ERG responses, thinning of retinal layers as observed by OCT and histology, and loss of RPE nuclei. Immunohistochemistry revealed rapid RPE disorganization with loss of tight junctions and markedly reduced expression of RPE65 and rod opsin, accompanied by mislocalization of cone opsins. Earlier time points displayed variable results, including partial recovery of visual acuity at 1 week and supranormal ERG cone responses at 24 hours, suggesting possible limitations of early intervention and assessment in the SI model. A single IP injection of 50 mg/kg SI leads to severe RPE injury followed by vision impairment, dysfunction, and loss of photoreceptors in both BALB/c and C57Bl/6J mice. This easily induced and reproducible noninherited model may serve as a useful tool for seeking and evaluating novel therapeutic modalities for the treatment of retinal degenerations caused by primary failure of the RPE.

  12. Aloe vera gel provides protection to Swiss albino mice against radiation induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, D.K.; Chaudhary, G.; Saini, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aloe gel powder was administered orally to Swiss albino mice at the dose of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days with and without irradiation with 8 Gy to find out its maximum effective radioprotective dose. 30 days survivality and change in levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C were studied at 1 hour and 30 days for this purpose. In Aloe treated (750 mg/kg b. wt.) 8 Gy irradiated animals 30 days survivality, contents of GSH and vitamin C were higher and LPO level was lesser at 1 hour and 30 days in comparison to those treated with Aloe at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight and irradiated with 8 Gy. These results indicate that Aloe administration at the dose of 750 mg/kg body weight was found to be the most effective

  13. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  14. Impairment of blood lipids pattern in gamma irradiated albino mice and prophylactic role of thiols and W R-2721

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-dighidy, E A.M.; El-Kady, M H.R. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1987-12-31

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of shot doses of whole body gamma irradiation at the levels, 6, 7.5, 11, 25 and 15 Gy, on the blood lipids pattern in male swiss albino mice. This has been manifested by the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The radioprotective capacities of two sulfhydryl compounds: thiols and W R-2721, against impairment in blood lipids pattern, have been evaluated in mice received the higher shot radiation dose-level at 15 Gy. Significant increases in the levels of blood total lipid, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol have been recorded on the third day post exposure under the experiment conditions, the data indicated more efficient protection of blood lipid pattern exerted by W R-2721 than in case of thiols. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Impairment of blood lipids pattern in gamma irradiated albino mice and prophylactic role of thiols and W R-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of shot doses of whole body gamma irradiation at the levels, 6, 7.5, 11, 25 and 15 Gy, on the blood lipids pattern in male swiss albino mice. This has been manifested by the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The radioprotective capacities of two sulfhydryl compounds: thiols and W R-2721, against impairment in blood lipids pattern, have been evaluated in mice received the higher shot radiation dose-level at 15 Gy. Significant increases in the levels of blood total lipid, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol have been recorded on the third day post exposure under the experiment conditions, the data indicated more efficient protection of blood lipid pattern exerted by W R-2721 than in case of thiols. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Deficiency in plasma protein synthesis caused by x-ray-induced lethal albino alleles in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, R.C.; Satrustegui, J.; Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S.; Cori, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma protein synthesis was studied in mice bearing x-ray induced lethal mutations at the albino locus. Newborn albino mutants showed a decrease in each of the three principal plasma proteins, albumin, α-fetoprotein, and transferrin, when compared with colored littermate controls. Incorporation of [ 14 C] leucine into plasma proteins of the newborn albinos 30 min after injection was only 1 / 5 that of the controls, but incorporation into total liver protein was only slightly diminished. Incorporation of [ 14 C] leucine into an albumin fraction obtained by immunoprecipitation from livers incubated in vitro in an amino acid mixture was also strongly diminished. Thus, the liver of 18-day-old albino fetuses incorporated into this fraction 1 / 3 and that of newborn albinos 1 / 8 as much as the controls, but in both cases the incorporation into total liver protein was only 25 percent less than in the respective controls. These results indicate that the rather severe structural abnormalities observed in the mutants in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus are not associated with a general deficiency of hepatic protein synthesis. Instead the data from this and previous work show that the progressive deficiency from fetal life to birth involves certain specific proteins represented by several perinatally developing enzymes and by plasma proteins. It is suggested that the mutational effects observed in these mice are due to deletions involving regulatory rather than structural genes at or near the albino locus

  17. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Nickel in Swiss Albino Mice during Organogenetic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivi Saini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates potential hazardous of nickel (Ni+2 as NiCl2·6H2O to Swiss albino mice fetus. Ni was administered orally on body weight base from days 6 to 13 of gestation period. Based on LD50, Ni doses (46.125, 92.25, and 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. were used. On day 18 of gestation, uteri of the sacrificed dams were examined. A dose-dependent decrease ( in the body weight of the pregnant females and fetuses during the gestation period was observed. Number of implant sites and placental weight at all the three dose levels was lower compared with their respective control groups. Average number of live fetuses/dams reduced significantly ( at 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. with concomitant increase in the percentage of postimplantation death and percentage of resorbed, macerated, and dead fetuses, respectively. Exposure increased the fetal malformations, namely, hydrocephaly, open eyelids, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, club foot, umbilical hernia, and skeletal anomalies. Reduced ossification of nasal, frontal, parietal, intraparietal, and supraoccipital bones, absence/gap between the ribs, reduced/fused sternebrae, vertebral centra, and caudal vertebrae, reduced pelvic elements, absence of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges were distinct. This indicates vulnerability of the mice fetus to nickel during prenatal exposure.

  18. Antinociceptive Effect of Ondansetron in Albino Mice Using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Model

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    Abhay Purohit

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Pain is a protective mechanism. Pain occurs whenever any tissues are being damaged, and it causes the individual to react and to remove the pain stimulus. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ondansetron in comparison with the standard diclofenac. Material and Methods: The antinociceptive effect was tested by using the acetic acid induced writhing model in Swiss Albino mice. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. Animals were received distilled water (control, diclofenac (standard, ondansetron 0.5mg/kg (test I and ondansetron 1mg/kg (test II. After 30 minutes of drug administration, 0.1 ml of 1% acetic acid was injected. Mice were placed individually into glass beakers and five minutes were allowed to elapse. They were then observed for a period of ten minutes and the numbers of writhes were recorded in each animal. The results were expressed as mean ± SEM. One way ANOVA with post-test was used for statistical calculation. Results: The numbers of writhes were 1.33±0.494 for diclofenac; 6.33±1.872 and 9.33±1.706 for ondansetron 0.5 and 1mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: Ondansetron demonstrated statistical significant antinociceptive activity at both doses (0.5mg/kg and 1mg/kg and statistically similar effect as diclofenac

  19. Antiplasmodial Effect of Anthocleista vogelii on Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65

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    Lebari Barine Gboeloh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65. Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Five groups (B1–B3, D, and G were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls. Six days after infection, mice in groups B1, B2, and B3 were treated orally with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of Anthocleista vogelii, respectively, for six executive days. Group D was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine while Group G was given distilled water. Group H was not infected and was not treated. It served as the normal control. The extracts exhibited significant (P<0.05 dose-dependent chemosuppression of P. berghei. The extract exhibited average chemosuppressive effects of 48.5%, 78.5%, and 86.6% at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroid. The acute toxicity (LD50 of the plant was estimated to be 3162 mg/kg body weight. It showed that the stem bark of A. vogelii possesses antiplasmodial property.

  20. Radioprotective effects of Grewia asiatica in vivo: studies in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.V.; Ahaskar, Muktika; Singh, Smita; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Increasing use of nuclear radiation for human welfare necessitates a new, safe and cost effective radio protector not only for personnel's charged with responsibility of testing or with radiations in laboratories, but also for the general public. Keeping this view, this study has been undertaken to find out the possible radio protective potential of the Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE), Grewia asiatica has a high content of antioxidants like Vitamin C, anthocyanin and folate that may play a possible role in radioprotection. For experimental study, healthy Swiss Albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) did not receive any treatment. Group II was orally supplemented (GAE) once daily at the dose of 700 mg/Kg. b.wt/day for fifteen consecutive days. Group III (control) received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE for fifteen days than exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation. Group IV (experimental) was administered orally (GAE) for 15 consecutive days once daily after exposure to single dose of 5Gy of gamma radiation. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals viz. 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days and liver was removed for various biochemical estimations viz. glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO). Irradiation resulted an elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decline in glutathione (GSH) level in liver. On the other hand, treatment of animals with GAE extract after irradiation caused a significant decrease in LPO and a marked elevation in GSH. This finding showed that post treatment of GAE is more effective than its pretreatment

  1. Prevention of radiation and cadmium induced haematological alternations in the Swiss albino mice by Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Songara, Venkteshwar; Singariya, Seema; Meena, Dinesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Purohit, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective radio protectors and radio recovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (i.e., radiotherapy) and unplanned radiation exposure (i.e., in the nuclear industry and natural background radiation). The combined effect of radiation and cadmium further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Aloe vera has enjoyed a reputation as a healer for millennia, based primarily on anecdotal evidence. For the last 40 years concerted efforts by the scientific research community has brought Aloe vera out of the realm of folk medicine, providing it solid medical and scientific foundation. Haematopoietic organs are among the most radiosensitive cells in the living organisms. Therefore, present study was carried out to study the modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. For the study, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages.The animals were exposed 3.5 Gy and 7.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Aloe vera was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes to estimate various haematological parameters viz. RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV up to day-14 in peripheral blood, thereafter it increased up to day-28 without reaching to normal. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride the more severe changes were noticed showing synergistic or additive effect. An early and fast recovery was seen in Aloe vera pretreatment groups. Thus, it may be concluded from above observation that Aloe vera has the potential of combating the

  2. Inbred decorated crickets exhibit higher measures of macroparasitic immunity than outbred individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Barnett, C A; Pettinger, A M; Weddle, C B; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2010-09-01

    Inbreeding is assumed to have negative effects on fitness, including the reduced ability to withstand immune challenges. We examined the immunological consequences of inbreeding in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, by comparing lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and encapsulation ability of crickets from eight inbred lines with that of crickets from the outbred founder population. Surprisingly, crickets from inbred lines had a greater encapsulation ability compared with crickets from the outbred population. We suggest that because inbred crickets have reduced reproductive effort, they may, therefore, have the option of devoting more resources to this form of immunity than outbred individuals. We also found that both inbred and outbred females had higher immunity than males in PO activity and implant darkness. This result supports the hypothesis that females should devote more effort to somatic maintenance and immunity than males. PO activity and implant darkness were heritable in both males and females, but lytic activity was only heritable in females. Males and females differed in the heritability of, and genetic correlations among, immune traits, suggesting that differences in selective pressures on males and females may have resulted in a sexual conflict over optimal immune trait values.

  3. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  4. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  5. Large scale expression changes of genes related to neuronal signaling and developmental processes found in lateral septum of postpartum outbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Eisinger

    Full Text Available Coordinated gene expression changes across the CNS are required to produce the mammalian maternal phenotype. Lateral septum (LS is a brain region critically involved with aspects of maternal care, and we recently examined gene expression of whole septum (LS and medial septum in selectively bred maternal mice. Here, we expand on the prior study by 1 conducting microarray analysis solely on LS in virgin and postpartum mice, 2 using outbred mice, and 3 evaluating the role of sensory input on gene expression changes. Large scale changes in genes related to neuronal signaling were identified, including four GABAA receptor subunits. Subunits α4 and δ were downregulated in maternal LS, likely reflecting a reduction in the extrasynaptic, neurosteroid-sensitive α4/δ containing receptor subtype. Conversely, subunits ε and θ were increased in maternal LS. Fifteen K+ channel related genes showed altered expression, as did dopamine receptors Drd1a and Drd2 (both downregulated, hypocretin receptor 1 (Hcrtr1, kappa opioid receptor 1 (Oprk1, and transient receptor potential channel 4 (Trpc4. Expression of a large number of genes linked to developmental processes or cell differentiation were also altered in postpartum LS, including chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12, fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, plasma membrane proteolipid (Pllp, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2. Additional genes that are linked to anxiety, such as glutathione reductase (Gsr, exhibited altered expression. Pathway analysis also identified changes in genes related to cyclic nucleotide metabolism, chromatin structure, and the Ras gene family. The sensory presence of pups was found to contribute to the altered expression of a subset of genes across all categories. This study suggests that both large changes in neuronal signaling and the possible terminal differentiation of neuronal and/or glial cells play important roles in producing the maternal state.

  6. Radioprotective activity of Mentha piperita (Linn) against radiation induced alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, R.M.; Goyal, P.K.; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Mentha piperita (Linn.) (RUBL 19443) against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Mentha extract (ME) (1 gm/kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (10 Gy) without ME pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 10 days post-irradiation. Conversely, animals pre-treated with ME showed 58 percent survival until 30 days after exposure. A significant decline in hematological constituents was evident until day 5, at later period of observation (day 5 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in ME pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. The results from the present study suggest that Mentha piperita (Linn.) has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral blood of mice against lethal dose of gamma radiation. (author)

  7. Protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Purohit, R.K.; Basu, Arindam; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.0 and 4.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the brain of Swiss albino mice. The histopathological changes observed were pycnotic nuclei and crenated cells with condensation of nuclear material resulting into hyperchromatic cells. Hydrocephaly with enlarged lateral ventricles was also noted. Corpus callosum was seen malformed. Thickened meninges and venous congestion were also noticed. In the irradiated brains cytoarchitectonic layers were reduced in depth and showed some degree of intermixing of cells of various laminae. Hematoma was present between the cortex and medulla with numerous pycnotic and necrotic nuclei. Disarray of the cortical tissue with disorientation of cell processes was also evident. Damage in the cortex was noticed in the form of karyolysis, pycnosis and spongy degeneration of the connective tissue with the thickening of meninges. Dilation of blood vessels was also observed at certain places. Quality of these changes remaining the same, but their magnitude increased with dose. With an increase in the dose, time of the onset of recovery is delayed and the time required for complete recovery is longer. After the combined exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride, the histological changes were similar but showed higher magnitude than the individual exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride. The brain of Emblica treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pretreated animals. (author)

  8. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent γ-radiation induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Joseph, Jini; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-11-01

    The in vivo radio-protective effect of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst was evaluated using Swiss albino mice, by pre-treatment with total triterpenes for 14 days, followed by a whole body exposure to γ-radiation. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were analysed in liver and brain homogenates. The extent of lipid and protein peroxidation was also estimated in liver and brain homogenates after irradiation. Protection of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells was assessed using the comet assay. Total triterpenes were highly effective in reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation to near normal values in both liver and brain tissues. Total triterpenes, when administered in vivo, were also found to be successful in restoring the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level in liver and brain of irradiated mice. Administration of total triterpenes, prior to radiation exposure, significantly decreased the DNA strand breaks. The results of the present study thus revealed the potential therapeutic use of Ganoderma total triterpenes as an adjuvant in radiation therapy.

  9. Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad), in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Cardoso, G. de; Coelho, P.M.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus), experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains), by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a) non-irradiated (control groups), and b) irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60). From the 33 rd day on, some stability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90 th day), notedly in relation to the LE strain . Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad) is able to hinder the worm egg production in 98.1% of the infected mice. Further, it was observed that the few detected eggs were dead. Females were found to be more resistant to irradiation. The irradiation effect on the mortality of male worms was statistically significant scarcely from the 61 st day on. The long period of permanence of the sterile adult irradiated worms in the portal system of mice and their probable involvement in the development of immuno-protection (the so-called concomitant immunity, without the immuno-pathological involvements for the host) are here discussed. (author)

  10. Silicosis and Silica-Induced Autoimmunity in the Diversity Outbred Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Mayeux

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have confidently linked occupational crystalline silica exposure to autoimmunity, but pathogenic mechanisms and role of genetic predisposition remain poorly defined. Although studies of single inbred strains have yielded insights, understanding the relationships between lung pathology, silica-induced autoimmunity, and genetic predisposition will require examination of a broad spectrum of responses and susceptibilities. We defined the characteristics of silicosis and autoimmunity and their relationships using the genetically heterogeneous diversity outbred (DO mouse population and determined the suitability of this model for investigating silica-induced autoimmunity. Clinically relevant lung and autoimmune phenotypes were assessed 12 weeks after a transoral dose of 0, 5, or 10 mg crystalline silica in large cohorts of DO mice. Data were further analyzed for correlations, hierarchical clustering, and sex effects. DO mice exhibited a wide range of responses to silica, including mild to severe silicosis and importantly silica-induced systemic autoimmunity. Strikingly, about half of PBS controls were anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA positive, however, few had disease-associated specificities, whereas most ANAs in silica-exposed mice showed anti-ENA5 reactivity. Correlation and hierarchical clustering showed close association of silicosis, lung biomarkers, and anti-ENA5, while other autoimmune characteristics, such as ANA and glomerulonephritis, clustered separately. Silica-exposed males had more lung inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, IL-6, and autoantibodies. DO mice are susceptible to both silicosis and silica-induced autoimmunity and show substantial individual variations reflecting their genetic diverseness and the importance of predisposition particularly for autoimmunity. This model provides a new tool for deciphering the relationship between silica exposure, genes, and disease.

  11. Biochemical effects of commercial feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and its impact on Swiss albino mice as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Mita; Tumu, Khairun Nafiz; Hasan, Md Nazmul; Amin, Md Ziaul

    2018-01-01

    This study assesses the biochemical effects of commercially available fish feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch ( Anabas testudineus ). Subsequently, its impact on experimental animal, Swiss albino mice, is also examined. In order to access the impact of commercial fish feed and feed consumption fish on the experimental animal, the proximate, biochemical and histopathological analyses were done using standard methods. The proximate composition as well as the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Mn, As, Zn, and Cd in the fish feed, different parts of the A. testudineus fish and different parts of the A. testudineus fish-treated experimental mice liver, were all determined using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The highest levels of Cr, Pb and As were observed in the liver of Swiss albino mice treated with FFT2 and FFBB2 and their concentrations were 0.156, 0.491, 0.172 μg/g and 0.166, 0.771, 0.157 μg/g respectively. No significant changes of protein, fat, crude fiber, moisture and ash contents were observed after proximate composition analysis of fish feeds, A. testudineus and A. testudineus treated experimental mice. Significant amounts of heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Zn Cu, Ni) were found in fish feed, different parts of A. testudineus fish and in the experimental mice. However, remarkably high amounts were observed in the A. testudineus fish's head and bone with body parts. Biochemical analysis of blood samples of A. testudineus fish treated experimental mice indicated that the cholesterol, TG, LDL and glucose levels were significantly higher. Yet no significant alteration in the HDL level was observed when compared to the control. In histopathological analysis, a remarkable degeneration was observed in the liver and kidney of A. testudineus treated mice. It can therefore be concluded that although A. testudineus has nutritional benefits the quality of this fish may be compromised as a consequence of contamination through various anthropogenic

  12. Evaluation of antitumour activity of Calotropis gigantea L. root bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M Rowshahul; Karim, M Rezaul

    2011-10-01

    To investigate experimentally the possible antitumor effect of methanol extract (ME) of Calotropis gigantea L. (C. gigantean) root bark and its petroleum ether (PEF) and chloroform (CF) soluble fractions against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. The effects of ME (10 and 20 mg/kg), PEF (40 and 80 mg/kg) and CF (20 and 40 mg/kg) on the growth of EAC and life span of EAC bearing mice were studied. Hematological profile and biochemical parameters (SALP, SGPT and SGOT) were also estimated. Results of in vivo study showed a significant decrease in viable tumor cell count and a significant increase of life span in the ME and CF treated group compared to untreated one. The life span of ME and CF treated animals was significantly (PSALP) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). Methanol extract (ME) of C. gigantea root bark and its chloroform soluble fraction (CF) possesses significant antitumor activity. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective role of aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Agarwal, Manisha; Swami, Rajesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Meena, Dharmpal

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The extensive use of atomic energy now a days in various branches of natural economy, science and technology, radio diagnosis, radiotherapy, industries, agriculture, nuclear research etc. has made radiation injury an urgent problem attracting the attention not only of specialists in a variety of clinical disciplines but also of a vast army of theoretical scientists. Metals like cadmium have always been intrinsic components of earth crust with the continuing trends towards and increasing human activities involving man may become exposed to concentration of toxic metals presenting a potential threat for survival. The severity of the damage can be modulated by treating the animals with antioxidants. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radio protective activities. Among these, Aloe vera hold a great promise. Aloe vera juice was obtained from Millennium Agro Company, Goregaon (W) Mumbai. It is a herbal drug and known to contain well over 100 separate ingredients or constituents between those found in the leaf and mucilaginous gel inside the leaf. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, healthy adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups. Group I included sham-irradiated normal mice. Group II was administered CdCl 2 at the dose of 20ppm, while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. Animals of Group IV were treated with both CdCl 2 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. The animals of Group V and VI were treated with CdCl 2 + Aloe vera and 5.0Gy + Aloe vera respectively, whereas Group VII was treated with CdCl 2 +5.0Gy+ Aloe vera. In the groups V, VI and VII the Aloe vera was given seven days prior to the treatment of CdCl 2 or gamma rays. Three animals from all the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical

  14. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.; Srivastava, S.; Singh, M.; Shukla, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C 3 H 8 NO 5 P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p) to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(a)pyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only), whereas, animals of control (vehicle) group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL). Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P<.05). The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI). The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow.

  15. Genetic profiling of two phenotypically distinct outbred rats derived from a colony of the Zucker fatty rats maintained at Tokyo Medical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Yokoi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats. PMID:27795491

  16. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissa, Prashant; Purohit, Suresh; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. The concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the effect of cadmium and radiation alone or in combination, on the kidney of Swiss albino mice. In the present investigation, adult male mice were divided into four groups. Group I included Sham irradiated normal mice. Group II was treated with Cadmium Chloride at the dose of 20 ppm while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. Animals of Group IV were treated with both Cadmium Chloride and 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. The animals from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. In Cadmium Chloride treated group the values of total proteins and cholesterol declined up to day-14 thereafter the values increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal. The values of glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-14 then decreased up to day-28 without reaching to the norma. Mice exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays showed increased in the values of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-24 and declined thereafter up to day-28 . Whereas the value of cholesterol decreased up to day-14 and then increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal level. Combined exposure to Cadmium chloride and radiation registered similar pattern of decrease and increase but the changes were more pronounced in all the

  17. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ritu; Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak) on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA-) induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection) and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks) liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage). CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  18. Depletion by styrene of glutathione in plasma and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gary P

    2010-01-01

    Styrene is a widely used chemical, but it is known to produce lung and liver damage in mice. This may be related to oxidative stress associated with the decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the target tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of styrene and its primary metabolites R-styrene oxide (R-SO) and S-styrene oxide (S-SO) on GSH levels in the lung lumen, as determined by amounts of GSH in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in plasma. When non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice were administered styrene (600 mg/kg, ip), there was a significant fall in GSH levels in both BALF and plasma within 3 h. These returned to control levels by 12 h. The active metabolite R-SO (300 mg/kg, ip) also produced significant decreases in GSH in both BALF and plasma, but S-SO was without marked effect. Since GSH is a principal antioxidant in the lung epithelial lining fluid, this fall due to styrene may exert a significant influence on the ability of the lung to buffer oxidative damage.

  19. Effects of royal jelly on genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by valproic acid in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa R. Galaly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases affecting at least 50 million people worldwide. Valproic acid (VPA is a widely used antiepileptic medication for both generalized and partial seizures of epilepsy. The objective of the study was to investigate the anti-mutagenic and anti-histopathologic effects of royal jelly (RJ on VPA-induced genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male albino mice (Mus musculus. 80 Mice were used for 21 days; they were divided into eight groups, (G1 served as normal control group, G2 received VPA (100 mg/kg and (G3–G5 received RJ at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively. While (G6–G8 were administrated RJ simultaneously with VPA. In RJ treated mice at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the kidney sections showed normal histological structure with non significant changes in chromosomal aberrations (CA and mitotic index (MI, while RJ at dose of 200 mg/kg showed mild inflammatory cells infiltration and hyperemic glomeruli but not highly significant changes in CA and MI. The cortex of VPA treated mice revealed congested glomeruli with inflammatory cells infiltration, and marked degeneration of almost structures of the glomeruli including some vacuoles in mesangial cells with dark mesangial substances on the ultrastructure level. Some proximal tubules showed degeneration of microvilli on the apical parts of some cells. Cells of the distal tubules attained obliterated lumen and vacuolated lining epithelium. The results also revealed that valproic acid induced a high frequency of CA in bone marrow cells of mice and MI was significantly decreased indicating bone marrow cytotoxicity. The treatment of mice with RJ at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 days simultaneously with VPA resulted in abating the histological alterations in renal tissues with significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations, for doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and elevation in mitotic index (P < 0.05. RJ at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg appeared

  20. Evaluation of antidepressant like property of amisulpride per se and its comparison with fluoxetine and olanzapine using forced swimming test in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Ganesh R; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Phadnis, Pradeep; Paliwal, Abhay; Vyas, Savita; Solanki, Pooja

    2009-01-01

    Amisulpride, an atypical antipsychotic was evaluated for antidepressant like activity in forced swimming test in Swiss albino mice. The effect of amisulpride was compared with that of fluoxetine, the standard antidepressant and olanzapine, another atypical antipsychotic claimed to have antidepressant like activity. Both acute and chronic studies were carried out. In both the studies, animals were divided into four groups (n = 8 each) and subjected to oral drug interventions as follows -- Group 1- control (distilled water, 1 mL/kg); Group 2- fluoxetine in a dose of 10 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test; Group 3-amisulpride in a dose of 70 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test; Group 4- olanzapine in a dose of 2 mg/kg 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the study. In the chronic study, the treatment was given daily for 28 days with last dose being given 2 h prior to the test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. Results of both the studies indicated that animals given amisulpride displayed significant improvement in swimming behavior (p Fluoxetine also showed significant difference in activity as compared to amisulpride and olanzapine (p swimming phases in albino mice (p > 0.05). We conclude that amisulpride per se has an antidepressant like activity comparable to that of olanzapine though the activity was significantly less than that of fluoxetine.

  1. Protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Dev, Rahul; Rathore, Narendra Singh; Khatri, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation kills cells in the area being treated (the target tissue) as well as other surrounding healthy cells. The damaging effects of ionizing radiation on healthy tissue create a major barrier in effective treatment of common human cancers. Thus there is a need to find a safe and highly effective avenue to reduce normal cell damage during cancer therapy, plants have been used in the traditional healthcare system from time immemorial, and phyto products continue to play an essential role in medicine. Emblica, is reported to have an excellent radio protective activity, antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. In light of above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and lead induced biochemical alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Lead acetate treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or Lead Acetate treatment. The animals from all experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, pieces of the kidney were taken out and kept at - 20 deg C for different biochemical parameters. For the study the animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Lead acetate treatments. In the experimental groups the Emblica juice was given seven days prior to the radiation or lead acetate treatment. The various biochemical parameters viz, total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA were estimated. The values were observed in the form of increase or decrease. After combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate the changes were more severe showing synergistic effect of both the agent. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pre-treated animals. Thus it appears that Emblica is potent enough to check Lead and Radiation induced

  2. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  3. A study of chemopreventive effects of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halduniya, Hanish K.; Singariya, Seema; Bhatnagar, Shruti; Srivasrava, Deepti; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    The vast potential of radiant energy opens vistas of new horizons as its use in various fields of science, technology, therapeutics and diagnosis. However its also exposes the global population to the hazards of nuclear accidents and radiation injury. In this era of nuclear science it has become a prerequisite to know the effects of radiation on mankind and to develop effective countermeasures for minimizing the damages of radiation exposure. Heavy metals like lead can cause deleterious effects when its concentration goes beyond the limit in ecosystem. The combined effects of radiation and lead further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Amla is found to be a non toxic, inexpensive, easily available herbal drug. Therefore present study was pertain to evaluate the chemo preventive role of Amla against radiation and lead induced changes in blood of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays and with or without lead acetate which was given to them adlibitum. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or lead acetate treatment. Three animals were sacrificed from all the experimental group at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days by cervical dislocation . The blood was collected in heparinised tube for estimating various haematological parameters. The value of RBC, WBC, PCV, Hemoglobin, and MCV decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in drug treated groups, thereafter the value increased. When the animals treated with radiation and lead simultaneously synergistic effects were observed. The Amla treated groups showed early and fast recovery thus, it may deduce from above observation that Amla has potential to check the alteration produced by radiation and lead in the blood of Swiss albino mice. (author)

  4. Influence of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) on mice leukocytes increase

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Jony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beetroot is a flavonoid-containing Mediterranean plant used for food and medicinal purposes. Objectives: To determine the influence of Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract consumption in increasing albino mice leukocytes. Design: Experimental study. Setting: School N° 1182 bioterium. Biologic material: Twenty male Balb/c albino mice weighing 24 g average. Interventions: Two groups of ten mice each were formed; the experimental group received Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract at 250...

  5. Designing a New Nano-Plant Composite of Cucurbita pepo for Wound Repair of Skin in Male Albino Mice: A New Nano Approach for Skin Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice.   Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I – VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method.   Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ≤ 0.01.   Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.

  6. Influence of Alpha Tocopherol on Heat Stress-Induced Changes in the Reproductive Function of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlEnazi, Maher M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) on heat stress-induced changes in the reproduction of Swiss albino mice. The evaluated parameters include: the estrous cycle, fertility, post-implantation losses of fetuses and estimation of progesterone levels in the serum. Eight groups of experimental mice (10 each) were used. Groups 1-4 (24 degree C) consisted of a control and alpha-tocopherol (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups. Groups 5-8 (42 degree C) consisted of a positive control and alpha-tocopherol (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated group. Heat-stress reduced significantly (p > 0.001) the number of fetuses and corpora lutea. There was also a significant decrease in the mean weights of fetuses (p > 0.001) and placenta (p > 0.01) in the heat-stress group with a decrease in their serum progesterone levels (p > 0.01). Heat-stress groups treated with high doses of alpha-tocopherol 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed protection against heat-stress related abnormalities. The results showed that alpha-tocopherol plays a role in protection against hyperthermia induced changes in the estrous cycle length, infertility, post-implantation losses and depletion in the serum level of progesterone. (author)

  7. Cadmium cytotoxicity in albino mice hepatocytes and its possible implications on tropical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcano, Letty; Carruyo, Ingrid; Montiel, Xiomara; Faria, Clarisa de R.

    2006-01-01

    Analyzed phenotypic, structural and ultrastructural alterations induced by Cd +2 in hepatocytes extracted from Swiss Albino mice. Cadmium was given orally in watery solution of CdCl 2 during 100 days at concentrations of 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 150 ppm. In controls, distilled water alone was used. The samples were processed with the paraffin inclusion and hematoxylin-eosin coloration techniques for light microscopy. The conventional technique was used for transmission electron microscopy . Phenotypic (size and weight differences) and physiologic changes (muscular weakness, unrest) were found; at the structural level it was noticed loss of trabecular disposition and of lobular architecture, lymphocyte agglomeration, vacuolisation, dilatation of sinusoid and central vein, among others. The ultrastructural study evidenced alterations coincident with those seen with light microscopy, which were accentuated with the increase of metal concentration: nucleolus with a high number of fibrillar centers (50 ppm); voluminous lipidic drops in the cytoplasm, loose endoplasmic rough reticulum, cytoplasmic vacuolisation, altered lysosomes and peroxisomes (100 ppm); contracted nucleis with condensed chromatin, dilatation of intracellular space and mitochondria, and loss of fibrillar areas (150 ppm). Cadmium produces a toxic effect in the hepatic cells; the effect is more severe at higher concentration, leading to cellular necrosis. (author) [es

  8. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahirwal Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we performed a comparative phytochemical analysis of the immunomodulating activities of the methanol leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLEGS in Swiss albino mice. The phytochemical screening conducted on MLEGS revealed the presence of several phytoconstituents, including saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Immunomodulatory activities were determined by hemagglutination antibody (HA titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH tests for determining specific and non-specific immune responses. Flow cytometric techniques were performed for the estimation of B lymphocytes (CD3 and CD19 and Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited a significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody response and DTH response. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody and DTH responses, with maximum reduction observed at 200 mg/kg-body wt. The maximal reductions in the production of CD3, CD19, IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 were 31.59, 32.12, 29.51, 32.45 and 33.53%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg body weight. This study demonstrates that G. sylvestre exerts immunosuppressive effects on the components of the immune system of mice, and points to its significant immunomodulatory potential.

  9. Effects of split fast neutron doses on the liver cells of albino Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmeguid, N.; Ramadan, A.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neutron doses from a compact D-T neutron generator on the liver cells of adult male and female albino Swiss mice was investigated. Fast neutrons (14.5 MeV) were delivered to the whole body in a single dose or in two, four, six or eight equal doses separated by 3-day intervals. The lowest dose, 100 rem, was given over an exposure time of 6 hours and was then steadily raised to 912 rem over an exposure time of 48 hours. During exposure the neutron flux was controlled by the activation foil technique. The animals were killed for testing after each irradiation. Histological examination of the hepatocytes with a light microscope showed marked degenerative changes only after the longer irradiation periods (24, 36 and 48 h). Electron microscopy showed cytological (cytoplasmic and nuclear) changes in the hepatocytes after only 12 hours' irradiation. Densitometric scans of electron micrographs of control and 12 h-irradiated livers indicated that the control hepatocyte interphase nucleus contains approximately 72% heterochromatin, while the irradiated nucleus contains only 64% heterochromatin. (author). 13 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  10. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti; Jangir, Ashok; Ram, Purkha

    2013-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  11. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA- induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage. CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P<0.001 along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P<0.001, and catalase, P<0.001, nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P<0.001, and total proteins (P<0.001 when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  12. Prophylactic role of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced histological alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, A.; Prajapat, T.R.; Ojha, S.; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, K.; Ram, Purkha; Bhartiya, K.M.; Gupta, M.L.; Jangir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure of radiation. Thus, development of novel and effective approaches using non toxic radioprotectors is of considerable interest for not only in the protection of normal tissue during radio therapy of tumors but also for defence (nuclear wars), nuclear industries, radiation accidents, space flights etc. Adult male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 5.0 Gy gamma radiations in the presence or absence of the Aloe vera. For this purpose 6 to 8 week old male mice were divided into seven groups; group I (sham-irradiated), group II (cadmium chloride), group III (irradiated with 5Gy. Gamma rays), group IV (radiation and cadmium chloride), group V (cadmium chloride and Aloe vera), group VI (radiation and Aloe vera), group VII (radiation, cadmium chloride and Aloe vera). Animals from all the above groups were autopsied at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days post treatment intervals. For histopathological studies kidney was taken out and it's pieces were fixed in Bouins fixative for 24 hours. The tissue was washed in clean water to remove excess of the fixative, dehydrated in graded series of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were cut at 5 μm and stained in Harris haematoxyline and alcoholic eosine. In the present experiment histopathological changes were found in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. Severe changes seen in the renal architecture after exposure of 5 Gy of gamma rays were: blurred renal architecture, intracellular oedema, damaged tubules, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei in the cortical and medullary part. The changes were more marked on day 7, but on day 14 the signs of recovery were observed and on day 28 comparatively better renal architecture was observed. In cadmium chloride treated animals the changes observed were: cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, crenated and pycnotic nuclei. The

  13. Early behavioral changes and quantitative analysis of neuropathological features in murine prion disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Roseane; Bento-Torres, João; Souza, Diego RV; Sadala, Danyelle B; Trevia, Nonata; Farias, José Augusto; Lins, Nara; Passos, Aline; Quintairos, Amanda; Diniz, José Antônio; Perry, Victor Hugh; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Cunningham, Colm

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropathological changes have been widely investigated in murine prion disease but stereological based unbiased estimates of key neuropathological features have not been carried out. After injections of ME7 infected (ME7) or normal brain homogenates (NBH) into dorsal CA1 of albino Swiss mice and C57BL6, we assessed behavioral changes on hippocampal-dependent tasks. We also estimated by optical fractionator at 15 and 18 weeks post-injections (w.p.i.) the total number of neurons, reactive astrocytes, activated microglia and perineuronal nets (PN) in the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus (PolDG), CA1 and septum in albino Swiss mice. On average, early behavioral changes in albino Swiss mice start four weeks later than in C57BL6. Cluster and discriminant analysis of behavioral data in albino Swiss mice revealed that four of nine subjects start to change their behavior at 12 w.p.i. and reach terminal stage at 22 w.p.i and the remaining subjects start at 22 w.p.i. and reach terminal stage at 26 w.p.i. Biotinylated dextran-amine BDA-tracer experiments in mossy fiber pathway confirmed axonal degeneration and stereological data showed that early astrocytosis, microgliosis and reduction in the perineuronal nets are independent of a change in the number of neuronal cell bodies. Statistical analysis revealed that the septal region had greater levels of neuroinflammation and extracellular matrix damage than CA1. This stereological and multivariate analysis at early stages of disease in an outbred model of prion disease provided new insights connecting behavioral changes and neuroinflammation and seems to be important to understand the mechanisms of prion disease progression. PMID:21862877

  14. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Chakraborty, Biswajit

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  15. Radiomodification by Aloe vera leaf extract on skin of Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Soyal, Dhanraj; Goyal, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective radioprotectors and radiorecovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (e.g. radiotherapy) and unplanned (e.g. in nuclear industry, natural background radiation emanating from the earth or other sources) radiation exposure. Over the past 50 years, research in the development of radioprotectors has focused on screening a plethora of chemical and biological compounds. Several synthetic chemical compounds have been tested for protection against radiation. But they have limited use due to inherent toxicity. Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75-80 percent of the world population mainly in the developing nations for primary health care because of better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects. Thus, natural products offer an alternative to their synthetic counterparts due to low toxicity with no side effects. The present investigation has been an attempt to asses the radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract on biochemical alterations in skin of Swiss albino mice

  16. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-RAHMAN, M.; EL-KHADRAGY, M.F.; ABDEL-AZIZ, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  17. Protective potential of Emblica Officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced hepatic lesion in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Isran, Rakesh; Bhati, Sharwan; Pyarelal; Basu, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of living systems to ionizing radiation causes a variety of damages to DNA and membranes due to generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. So there is a need of hour is to search for an ideal radioprotector which could minimize the deleterious and damaging effects caused by ionizing radiation. Radioprotectors are agents which reduce the radiation effects on cell when applied prior to exposure of radiation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica officinalis in reducing radiation and lead induced changes in mice liver. For the present experiment, healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks) were selected and maintained under standard conditions of temperature and light. Fruit extract of Emblica was fed orally at the dose of 0.01 ml/animal/day.The animal were divided into seven groups according to the treatment i.e. lead acetate solution as drinking water (group-II) or exposed to 3.5 or 7.0 Gy gamma radiation (group-III) or combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate (group-IV). The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica extract seven days prior to radiation or lead acetate treatment (group V, VI and VII) respectively. The animals from all the groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals pieces of liver were taken out and some of them were kept at -20℃ for different biochemical parameters. The histopathological changes included cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, hyperaemia, pycnotic and crenated nuclei. The changes observed in the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day - 14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups, thereafter value declined up to day - 28 without reaching to normal. Whereas the value of

  18. Genotype-dependent participation of coat color gene loci in the behavioral traits of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Aya

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate if loci responsible for coat color phenotypes contribute to behavioral characteristics, we specified novel gene loci associated with social exploratory behavior and examined the effects of the frequency of each allele at distinct loci on behavioral expression. We used the F2 generation, which arose from the mating of F1 mice obtained by interbreeding DBA/2 and ICR mice. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the agouti and albino loci affect behavioral traits. A genotype-based analysis revealed that novel exploratory activity was suppressed in a manner dependent on the frequency of the dominant wild-type allele at the agouti, but not albino, locus. The allele-dependent suppression was restricted to colored mice and was not seen in albino mice. The present results suggest that the agouti locus contributes to a particular behavioral trait in the presence of a wild-type allele at the albino locus, which encodes a structural gene for tyrosinase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous ethanolic seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana is a fruit tree used traditionally since long back for wound healing, immunepotentiator, asthma, sedative, stomachic, styptic, as tonic etc. The present study determines the antiplasmodial effect of aqueous ethanolic seed extract against Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei nk65 infection in Swiss albino mice. Based upon the acute toxicity data three different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract was chosen to study the blood schizonticidal activity in early infection and in established infection and was compared with chloroquine. The Prophylactic activity was also assessed and compared with pyrimethamine. No mortality was observed in acute toxicity study however, above the dose of 1000 mg/kg animals showed the lethargic behaviour. In early infection, and in established infection the doses (100-400 mg/kg b.wt was found to cause significant (P<0.001 suppression of infection in a dose dependent manner as compared to control. Although, the activity was lower than standard chloroquine. Similarly, the extract at all the doses caused the suppression in repository activity but was lower than pyrimethamine. The mean survival time was also increased in mice by 14 and 17 days at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, whereas the control group sustained only for 7 days. Thus, the seed extract showed the effectiveness against plasmodium infection.

  20. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease.

  1. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced changes in the Jejunum of Swiss Albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Meena, Dinesh; Issran, Rakesh; Pyarelal; Jangir, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Recently, increased interest has developed on search for potential drugs of plant origin which can quench the radiation induced free radicals and eliminate oxygen with minimum side effects. In view of the fact, present study was planned to evaluate the protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced changes in jejunum of mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups on the basis of radiation, lead, combined treatment and drug treated. The values of total proteins, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA were estimated. The values of total proteins, cholesterol, DNA and RNA decreased whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity increased. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculatrue, hydropic degeneration in submucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in submucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis and chromatolysis were also observed in crypt cells. Shortening and breaking of villus tips, leucocytic infiltration in lamina propria and cell debris in intestinal lumen were also noted. The number of goblet cells per crypt section also decreased in all the experimental groups. The value of the experimental groups was significantly lower than that of the control group. The biochemical finding indicated the drug treated section of living tissue showed slightly/no degenerative changes. The drug treated groups demonstrating the ability of Aloe vera to inhibit oxidative stress thus preventing tissue injury. (author)

  3. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  4. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  5. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Kamal El-Dein, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  6. Rectification of radiation-induced damage in swiss albino mice by aloe vera leaf extracts (AVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, P.; Goyal, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    From the time immemorial man has been exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment in which he lives. Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. Materials and Methods: The radioprotective of effect of Aloe vera leaf extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 15 consecutive days) has been studied against 6 Gy of gamma radiation in the intestine of Swiss albino mice at various post irradiation intervals viz. 12 hours, 24 hours. and 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Results: Crypt survival, villus length, apoptic cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells in jejunum were studied after irradiation. Irradiation produced a significant decrease in crypt survival, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas goblet and apoptic cells showed a significant increase from sham irradiated animals. The major changes were observed on day 3 after irradiation. AVE pre-treated irradiated animals resulted in a significant increase in the number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas the counts of apoptic and goblet cells showed a significant decrease from respective control group at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiated animals resulted in the elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione activity. On contrary, AVE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione activity. Conclusion: The present study suggests the possible radioprotective ability of Aloe vera leaf extract

  7. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Saeed, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the oxidative stress induced by the electron beam radiation on various organs of Swiss Albino mice - in-vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishakh, R.; Moodithaya, Shailaja S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation is one of the important threats in the modern world. Though the radiation injuries by natural means is very less common, advancement in the nuclear warfare research had increased the threat of radiation induced damage to biological system. Since years researchers are in search of a novel radio-protector, but without complete success. The reason behind may be its toxicity in higher doses. All the above research challenges lead many researchers to investigate radiation induced damage. Most of the studies had been done to investigate radiation induced damage in the lethal dose of radiation. But less work had been done to study the effect of radiation on tissues at sublethal dose. Therefore this study aims to evaluate the effect of radiation on the various organs in mice model. Swiss albino mice of 6 to 8 weeks old were divided into 2 groups i.e., Control, Radiation control with 6 mice in each group. 6 Gy sub lethal dose of electron beam radiation was used as radiation source. The liver, kidney and brain were dissected and used for biochemical analysis. The significant decrease in total antioxidant levels were observed in Liver and Kidney of irradiated mice, Glutathione levels were found to be decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain, Glutathione S - transferase levels were found to be significantly decreased in Liver and Brain, Catalase activity was found to be decreased in Liver, Super oxide dismutase activity was found to be significantly decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain homogenates when compared with the tissue homogenates of control group. From the results we can conclude that the liver is the most sensitive organ for the electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress when compared with Kidney and Brain. (author)

  9. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  10. Embryonic/fetal mortality after exposure to tritiated water in pregnant Swiss albino mice during different gestation periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kalpana; Saini, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were given a priming injection(im) of tritiated water (HTO) at the dose rate of 2.3 and 5 μCi/ml body water (74, III or 185 K Bq/ml body water) at 0,6 and 14 day post conception (d.p.c) and were subsequently maintained on tritiated drinking water ad libitum during preimplantation (0-5 d.p.c), organogenetic (6-12 d.c.p.) or fetal (14-18 d.p.c) period, respectively. On day 18 of gestation the females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation to record the implant sites per dam and embryonic/fetal mortality. Significant reduction was observed in average implant sites per dam when the females were exposed to any of the three doses during the preimplantation period due to embryonic resorption before implantation. However, the same was found to be within the normal range when mothers were exposed during the organogenetic or fetal period. Prenatal mortality (embryonic resorption/fetal death) was higher after in utero exposure to different doses during preimplantation period as compared to organogenetic period, but mortality did not occur after exposure to any of the doses during the fetal period. Occurrence of mortality was found to be dose dependent. (author). 25 refs., 1 tab

  11. High-precision genetic mapping of behavioral traits in the diversity outbred mouse population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, R W; Robledo, R F; Recla, J M; Philip, V M; Bubier, J A; Jay, J J; Harwood, C; Wilcox, T; Gatti, D M; Bult, C J; Churchill, G A; Chesler, E J

    2013-01-01

    Historically our ability to identify genetic variants underlying complex behavioral traits in mice has been limited by low mapping resolution of conventional mouse crosses. The newly developed Diversity Outbred (DO) population promises to deliver improved resolution that will circumvent costly fine-mapping studies. The DO is derived from the same founder strains as the Collaborative Cross (CC), including three wild-derived strains. Thus the DO provides more allelic diversity and greater potential for discovery compared to crosses involving standard mouse strains. We have characterized 283 male and female DO mice using open-field, light–dark box, tail-suspension and visual-cliff avoidance tests to generate 38 behavioral measures. We identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits with support intervals ranging from 1 to 3 Mb in size. These intervals contain relatively few genes (ranging from 5 to 96). For a majority of QTL, using the founder allelic effects together with whole genome sequence data, we could further narrow the positional candidates. Several QTL replicate previously published loci. Novel loci were also identified for anxiety- and activity-related traits. Half of the QTLs are associated with wild-derived alleles, confirming the value to behavioral genetics of added genetic diversity in the DO. In the presence of wild-alleles we sometimes observe behaviors that are qualitatively different from the expected response. Our results demonstrate that high-precision mapping of behavioral traits can be achieved with moderate numbers of DO animals, representing a significant advance in our ability to leverage the mouse as a tool for behavioral genetics PMID:23433259

  12. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Ahmed Issa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50 for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p<0.005 and 56.9% (p<0.0004 in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p<0.0001 at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity.

  13. Cathinone, an active principle of Catha edulis, accelerates oxidative stress in the limbic area of swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safhi, Mohammed M; Alam, Mohammad Firoz; Hussain, Sohail; Hakeem Siddiqui, Mohammed Abdul; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Jubran Khardali, Ibrahim Abdu; Al-Sanosi, Rashad Mohammed; Islam, Fakhrul

    2014-10-28

    Cathinone hydrochloride is an active principle of the khat plant (Catha edulis) that produces pleasurable and stimulating effects in khat chewers. To the best of our knowledge no data of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of mice is available. This is the first study of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of the brain in Swiss albino male mice. The animals were divided into four groups. Group-I was the control group and received vehicle, while groups-II to IV received (-)-cathinone hydrochloride (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg body wt., i.p.) once daily for 15 days. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was elevated dose-dependently and was significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. In contrast, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly (p<0.01, p<0.001) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, GR, GST, CAT, and SOD) was also decreased dose-dependently: the decreased activity of GPx, GR, catalase and SOD was significant with doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg of cathinone as compared to control group, while the activity of GST was decreased dose-dependently and was significant with 0.5mg of cathinone as compared to control group. The results indicate that the cathinone generated oxidative stress hampered antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diversity Outbred Mice at 21: Maintaining Allelic Variation in the Face of Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa J. Chesler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parent populations (MPPs capture and maintain the genetic diversity from multiple inbred founder strains to provide a resource for high-resolution genetic mapping through the accumulation of recombination events over many generations. Breeding designs that maintain a large effective population size with randomized assignment of breeders at each generation can minimize the impact of selection, inbreeding, and genetic drift on allele frequencies. Small deviations from expected allele frequencies will have little effect on the power and precision of genetic analysis, but a major distortion could result in reduced power and loss of important functional alleles. We detected strong transmission ratio distortion in the Diversity Outbred (DO mouse population on chromosome 2, caused by meiotic drive favoring transmission of the WSB/EiJ allele at the R2d2 locus. The distorted region harbors thousands of polymorphisms derived from the seven non-WSB founder strains and many of these would be lost if the sweep was allowed to continue. To ensure the utility of the DO population to study genetic variation on chromosome 2, we performed an artificial selection against WSB/EiJ alleles at the R2d2 locus. Here, we report that we have purged the WSB/EiJ allele from the drive locus while preserving WSB/EiJ alleles in the flanking regions. We observed minimal disruption to allele frequencies across the rest of the autosomal genome. However, there was a shift in haplotype frequencies of the mitochondrial genome and an increase in the rate of an unusual sex chromosome aneuploidy. The DO population has been restored to genome-wide utility for genetic analysis, but our experience underscores that vigilant monitoring of similar genetic resource populations is needed to ensure their long-term utility.

  15. Assessment of the Toxicity of Sub-chronic Low and High Doses of the Bio-insecticide Spinosad on the Liver, Kidney and the Cerebellum in Male Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A El-Naggar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Spinosad (SPD is a highly selective insect control product. However, it was reported that SPD has toxicity toward other non-target organisms. This study was conducted to address the toxic effect of two sub-chronic low and high doses; 35 and 350 mg/kg SPD on some biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical parameters of the liver, kidney and cerebellum. Thirty-six male Swiss mice were divided into three groups of 12 mice each; first group (G1 served as a control, second group (G2 received a low sub-chronic dose of SPD that is equal to 35 mg/kg, and third group (G3 received a high sub-chronic dose of SPD that is equal to 350 mg/kg. The results showed that mice which were received 350 mg/kg SPD showed a significant decrease in the body weight and a significant increase in their relative kidney and spleen weights. They also showed a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, triglycerides and urea levels. Histopathological examination showed cytoplasmic degeneration and cell necrosis in the liver and kidney. Immunohistochemical examination showed that cerebellum illustrated several neurodegenerative changes and a down-regulation of synaptophysin-Syp. In conclusion, exposure to a high dose of SPD that is equal to 350 mg/kg could cause a marked toxicity on the liver, kidney and cerebellum in male albino mice.

  16. Microsatellite analysis in two populations of Kunming mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Haitao; Wei, Hong; Yue, Bingfei

    2009-01-01

    populations are unclear. Fifteen microsatellite markers were screened by a fluorescence-based semi-automated genotyping method for the two main populations of Kunming mice from Beijing (BJ) and Shanghai (SH) in China. The observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, observed heterozygosity......Kunming mice are the most widely used outbred colony in China. Differences in biological characters and drug reactions among different populations have been observed when using Kunming mice. But the molecular genetic profiles of Kunming mice and the extent of genetic differentiation among...... that there is abundant genetic variation in the populations of Kunming mice. Population differentiation was shown by shared alleles, F-statistics, Nei genetic distance and Nei genetic identity. In population BJ and population SH, respectively, only 35 of 61 and 35 of 63 alleles were shared by both. The Fst per locus...

  17. The protective effect of royal jelly on chronic lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity: serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxic and histopathological alterations in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yapar, Kürşad; Oruç, Ertan; Yalçın, Emine

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of royal jelly (RJ) against toxicity induced by a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT), in Swiss albino mice. Animals were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. The control group received distilled water alone, whereas mice in the treatment groups received RJ alone (100 or 250 mg/kg of body weight), LCT alone (668 ppm), or RJ+LCT for 21 days. All mice (100%) survived until the end of experiment and were sacrificed at the end of 24 hours. Blood, bone marrow, and liver and kidney tissues were analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and micronucleus (MN) frequency, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and pathological damages. Serum AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine levels were elevated in mice treated with LCT alone compared with the other tested groups (P<.05). LCT-induced oxidative damage caused a significant decrease in GSH levels and a significant rise in MDA levels of liver and kidney tissues. LCT alone-treated mice presented higher frequencies (P<.05) of MNs, CAs, and abnormal metaphases compared with the controls; moreover, the mitotic index was lower than in controls (P<.05). Oral treatment with RJ significantly ameliorated the indices of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxicity induced by LCT. Both doses of RJ tested provided significant protection against LCT-induced toxicity, and its strongest effect was observed at the dose level of 250 mg/kg of body weight. In vivo results suggest that RJ is a potent antioxidant against LCT-induced toxicity, and its protective effect is dose dependent.

  18. Microarray Analysis of Iris Gene Expression in Mice with Mutations Influencing Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantow, Colleen M.; Cuffy, Tryphena L.; Fingert, John H.; Kuehn, Markus H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Several ocular diseases involve the iris, notably including oculocutaneous albinism, pigment dispersion syndrome, and exfoliation syndrome. To screen for candidate genes that may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases, genome-wide iris gene expression patterns were comparatively analyzed from mouse models of these conditions. Methods. Iris samples from albino mice with a Tyr mutation, pigment dispersion–prone mice with Tyrp1 and Gpnmb mutations, and mice resembling exfoliation syndrome with a Lyst mutation were compared with samples from wild-type mice. All mice were strain (C57BL/6J), age (60 days old), and sex (female) matched. Microarrays were used to compare transcriptional profiles, and differentially expressed transcripts were described by functional annotation clustering using DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate a subset of identified changes. Results. Compared with wild-type C57BL/6J mice, each disease context exhibited a large number of statistically significant changes in gene expression, including 685 transcripts differentially expressed in albino irides, 403 in pigment dispersion–prone irides, and 460 in exfoliative-like irides. Conclusions. Functional annotation clusterings were particularly striking among the overrepresented genes, with albino and pigment dispersion–prone irides both exhibiting overall evidence of crystallin-mediated stress responses. Exfoliative-like irides from mice with a Lyst mutation showed overall evidence of involvement of genes that influence immune system processes, lytic vacuoles, and lysosomes. These findings have several biologically relevant implications, particularly with respect to secondary forms of glaucoma, and represent a useful resource as a hypothesis-generating dataset. PMID:20739468

  19. PENGARUH TRITERPEN TOTAL PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L Urban TERHADAP FUNGSI KOGNITIF BELAJAR DAN MENGINGAT PADA MENCIT JANTAN ALBINO (Mus musculus YANG DIHAMBAT DENGAN SKOPOLAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiatica (L Urban has been described to posses CNS effects such as improving cognitive function, learning and memory. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effects of total triterpen’s pegagan extract on cognitive functions as the learning and memory performance in male albino mice (Mus musculus inhibited by scopolamine. The research design was Complete Randomized Design (RAL – factorial on thirty six mice divided into 4 groups. One control group received only aquabidest (negative control. Three treatment groups received total triterpen 16 mg/kg BW, 32 mg/kg BW orally and piracetam 500 mg/kg BW by intra peritoneally (positive control for 21 days. Data indicating learning and memory process of all subjects were obtained from one-trial passive avoidance test. Data were analyzed by two way ANOVA and BNT (p0,05. In conclusion, total triterpen from pegagan (Centella asiatica (L Urban improved learning ability and memory of male albino mice (Mus musculus even though, it was inhibited by scopolamine.

  20. Migration Of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae Into Lungs Of Mice Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two randomly selected groups of Swiss Albino Wistar mice were therefore infected with 1000 infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum/mouse. Test mice received 250mg Allium sativum/kg body weight daily ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, lungs, Ancylostoma caninum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) ...

  1. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-04-30

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities.

  2. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da evolução de cercarias irradiadas a nível da pele, pulmões e sistema porta, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the evolution of gamma-irradiated cercariae at the skin, lungs, and portal system, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a migração do Schistosoma mansoni (cepas LE e SJ em oito grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos, infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercarias não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad, 20 Krad e 40 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, Na pele, observou-se uma diminuição progressiva das taxas de recuperação em função do tempo e, nos pulmões e sistema porta, verificou-se uma relação inversa significativa entre as taxas de recuperação total e as doses de irradiação. A dose de 20 Krad praticamente impede a migração dos parasites, de ambas as cepas, dos pulmões até o sistema porta, enquanto a de 40 Krad praticamente impede a migração dos mesmos da pele para os pulmões.The migration of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains has been studied in eight groups of outbred Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus, which were previously infected with ca 450 cercariae, transcutaneously. The infection of mice was performed with non irradiated cercariae (control groups, or with gamma-irradiated cercariae, at the schedule of 3, 20 and 40 Krad. Regarding the skin, a progressive decrease was detected for the recovery rates, related to the time of infection. As far as the lungs and portal system are concerned, a significant inverse correlation was observed between the total recovery rate and the irradiation dosages. The dose of 20 Krad practically hinders the migration of the parasites (in both strains from the lungs to the portal system, whereas the dose of 40 Krad prevents the migration of most of the parasites from the skin to the lungs.

  3. Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice: further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice was studied as an evidence for the influence of hormones on the development of muscle mass. Male albino mice were castrated at 28days of age by open castration method. The weights and the muscle mass indices (mg muscle weight per gram body weight) of the ...

  4. Effect of diuron on germ cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R C; Mehrota, N K

    1997-11-01

    Diuron in both, acute (340 and 170 mg/kg body wt) and chronic (3400 ppm) doses induced dominant lethal mutations in male Swiss albino mice. The results suggest that diuron is mutagenic in dominant lethal test system.

  5. Effect of extract of Hibiscus on the ultrastructure of the testis in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is a popular beverage in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although, Hibiscus tea is known for its medicinal effects for thousands of years, scientific evidence of its systemic safety is very limited. The current study aimed to assess the potential adverse effects of H. sabdariffa extract on sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure of albino mice. Thirty adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups and were given: (a) distilled water, (b) cold Hibiscus aqueous extract, and (c) boiled Hibiscus aqueous extract. Hibiscus extract was administered orally daily for 4 weeks in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/mouse. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, mice were decapitated and the testes and epididymides were excised and processed for transmission electron microscopy to assess ultrastructural and sperm abnormalities. The results clearly demonstrate that aqueous extracts from dried calyx of H. sabdariffa, either cold or boiled, alter normal sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure and adversely influence the male reproductive fertility in albino mice. The current data suggest that Hibiscus extract should be consumed with caution, and reasonable estimates of the human risk associated with its consumption should be provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci in a selectively genotyped outbred population using a mixture model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, David L.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Arendonk, Johan A.M. van

    1999-01-01

    A mixture model approach is employed for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the situation where individuals, in an outbred population, are selectively genotyped. Maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters is obtained from an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm facilitated by

  7. Cadmium cytotoxicity in albino mice hepatocytes and its possible implications on tropical environments; Citotoxicidad del cadmio en hepatocitos de raton albino y sus posibles implicaciones en ambientes tropicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcano, Letty; Carruyo, Ingrid; Montiel, Xiomara [Univ. del Zulia, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Dept. de Biologia (Venezuela); com, letty_marcano@hotmail; Faria, Clarisa de R [Univ. del Zulia, Facultad de Medicina, Catedra de Histologia, Maracaibo, Zulia (Venezuela)

    2006-06-15

    Analyzed phenotypic, structural and ultrastructural alterations induced by Cd{sup +2} in hepatocytes extracted from Swiss Albino mice. Cadmium was given orally in watery solution of CdCl{sub 2} during 100 days at concentrations of 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 150 ppm. In controls, distilled water alone was used. The samples were processed with the paraffin inclusion and hematoxylin-eosin coloration techniques for light microscopy. The conventional technique was used for transmission electron microscopy . Phenotypic (size and weight differences) and physiologic changes (muscular weakness, unrest) were found; at the structural level it was noticed loss of trabecular disposition and of lobular architecture, lymphocyte agglomeration, vacuolisation, dilatation of sinusoid and central vein, among others. The ultrastructural study evidenced alterations coincident with those seen with light microscopy, which were accentuated with the increase of metal concentration: nucleolus with a high number of fibrillar centers (50 ppm); voluminous lipidic drops in the cytoplasm, loose endoplasmic rough reticulum, cytoplasmic vacuolisation, altered lysosomes and peroxisomes (100 ppm); contracted nucleis with condensed chromatin, dilatation of intracellular space and mitochondria, and loss of fibrillar areas (150 ppm). Cadmium produces a toxic effect in the hepatic cells; the effect is more severe at higher concentration, leading to cellular necrosis. (author) [Spanish] Se realizo un analisis de las alteraciones fenotipicas, estructurales y ultraestructurales inducidas por Cd{sup +2} en hepatocitos de raton albino suizo. El Cadmio fue suministrado via oral en solucion acuosa de CdCl{sub 2} durante 100 dias a concentraciones de 50 ppm, 100 ppm y 150 ppm. En los controles la solucion de cadmio fue sustituida por agua destilada. Las muestras fueron procesadas utilizando la tecnica de inclusion en parafina y tenidas con hematoxilina-eosina para microscopia optica y por la tecnica convencional para

  8. Histopathological effects of Chromium (III Sulfate on Liver and Kidney of Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Fatima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (III sulfate has various industrial applications and is widely used in leather industry due to its high tanning properties. Cr (III is required for efficient metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in traces. Various studies have reported that its constant exposure may lead to severe health problems in both animals and humans. In this study, histopathological effect of dietary Cr (III was evaluated on liver and kidneys of rodents. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (n=25 were divided into different treatment and control groups (n=5/group after sufficient acclimatization. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and observations regarding histopathology of liver and kidneys were made in all treatment groups and compared to control. Microscopy and photography was performed after processing the tissues according to standard protocol of sectioning and staining. Liver cross sections of treated animals showed signs of fibrosis in portal area, and congestion of sinusoid and central vein. Whereas, more pronounced effects of Cr (III toxicity were observed in kidneys. These include mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis and contraction of glomerulus within Bowman’s capsule. However, No pathological changes were observed in control group. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced level of Cr (III contamination of food can induce both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. These basic findings prove that currently increasing levels of trivalent chromium in environment are hazardous to living organisms. Therefore, to avoid health risks to both animals and humans, conversion of toxic chromium waste to less toxic compounds is required. Moreover, exposure level through any route should also be minimized.

  9. Amelioration of radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations by Punica Granatum (L) extracts and synthetic ellagic acid in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, B.; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Vadisha Bhat, S.; Sherly, Sharmila; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used in cancer treatment for many decades; Although effective in killing tumor cells, ROS produced in radiotherapy threaten the integrity and survival of surrounding normal cells. ROS are scavenged by radioprotectors before they can interact with biochemical molecules, thus reducing harmful effects of radiation. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations in Swiss Albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and Ellagic acid for 15 days before exposure to 6 Gy of EBR. Radiation induced DNA damage was assessed by comet assay in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the serum and RBC lysate of the animals. The plant extracts and synthetic compound exhibited good radical scavenging and reducing properties.The pretreated animals before irradiation caused a reduction in the comet length, olive tail moment, % DNA in tail when compared to irradiated group. The biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation was significantly depleted in the treated groups when compared to irradiated group followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione. Our findings indicate the ameliorating effects of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant

  10. Chemo preventive action of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Sunita; Bhati, Sharwan; Isran, Rakesh; Ranga, Deepti; Meena, Dinesh; Pyarelal

    2012-01-01

    The present century has been an ever-increasing use of nuclear technologies in different fields raising the alarming problem of radiation hazards to living beings including man. An increasing body of evidence indicates that human activities are responsible for global climatic changes, which, in turn, may be directly or indirectly increasing human exposure to environmental hazards. On the other hand, all forms of cadmium are poisonous leading cadmium intoxication under appropriate circumstances. The interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of immense potential importance as their total environmental burden may have greater effects than expected from the sum of their individual impact. In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Liv.52 for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice. The changes included loosened sub-mucosa with hydropic degeneration. Lamina propria exhibited hydropic degeneration, abnormal mitotic figures, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic degranulation in crypt cells, loosened tips and shortened villi. Leucocytic infiltration appeared in lamina propria. Few mitotic figures were observed during the early intervals but were not normal and resulted in mitotic death. Recovery started on day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in Liv.52 treated groups. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculature, hydropic degeneration in sub-mucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in sub-mucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis

  11. Protective effects of Punica Granatum (L) and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, B.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Vadisha Bhat, S.; Sherly, Sharmila; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Radiotherapy, which is a chief modality to treat cancer, faces a major drawback because it produces severe side effects developed due to damage to normal tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have indicated that some commonly used medicinal plants may be good sources of potent but non-toxic radioprotectors. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron beam radiation(EBR) induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were exposed to sub-lethal dose (6 Gy) of Electron Beam Radiation and then treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid for 15 consecutive days. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the liver homogenate of the sacrificed animals. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were prevented significantly by EPWF, EPS and EA administration. Also there was significant reduction in the levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the treated groups compared to irradiated control. The findings of our study indicate the protective efficacy of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant levels. (author)

  12. Preventive action of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Haematopoietic organs are markedly sensitive to ionizing radiation due to its proliferate activity. The changes found in the circulating blood are primarily due to damage in the radio sensitive haematopoeitic organs. A very small dose of radiation to a blood forming organ causes an arrest of haematopoiesis with changes in peripheral blood count. Certain trace elements are essential for normal growth and development of organisms but their concentration beyond threshold may produce damage to blood forming organs and tissues thus affecting the peripheral blood. Aloe vera has been claimed to contain several important therapeutic properties including anti cancer effects. Various studies showed the prevention of radiation induced suppression of immunity by Aloe vera components. Having these unique properties, Aloe vera could be used in clinical field as a protector against radiation and heavy metal toxicity in human beings. For the study, six to eight weeks old Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages. The animals were fed with standard mice feed and water was provided to them ad libitum. Cadmium chloride was administered orally to the animals in drinking water at the dose rate of 20 ppm. The animals were exposed to sub lethal doses of 2.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 source. The Aloe vera was given seven days prior to irradiation and continued up to last autopsy day in experimental animals. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1,2,4,7,14 and 28 days. The differential leucocytes count was estimated by preparing smear of the blood. The value of lymphocyte decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups thereafter it increased up to day-28 whereas the count decreased up to day-7 in drug treated groups and showed an increasing trend at day-14 which continues up to day-28. The value of monocyte and granulocyte percentage increased up to day-7 in drug treated groups

  13. Heredity, physiology and malt quality analysis of albino-lemma barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ting; Wu Kuanran; Yang Jianming; Jia Qiaojun; Wang Junmei; Hua Wei; Chen He; Qiao Hailong

    2013-01-01

    The barley 0601 is a spontaneous albino-lemma mutant from beer barley cultivar Supi3. Genetic control of albino-lemma trait in the mutant 0601 and, the agronomic traits (thousand kernel weight, kernel plumpness), physiological traits (chlorophyll content, proanthocyanidin content) and major malt qualities (diastatic power, malt extract, Kolbach index) were investigated. The results showed that the albino-lemma trait is controlled by one recessive gene, and there were significant differences between the mutant and its wild-type in thousand kernel weight, kernel plumpness, chlorophyll content, diastatic power, and the malt extract, whereas no significant difference in proanthocyanidin content was found. These results provide the basis on mapping and cloning the albino-lemma gene and also provide good material for genetic research. (authors)

  14. Cutaneous Cancers in Nigerian Albinos: A Review of 22 Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... this protective pigment in albinos predisposed them to sunburns and subsequent ... The most common of the skin cancers documented among the albinos ..... hats, application of sunscreen creams and always using umbrella ...

  15. The Haematological Profile Of The Sprague-Dawley Outbred Albino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study were discussed in relation to climatic and geographical locational factors (especially temperature) as they affect the normal reference haematological values, and the relevance of haematology in model animal experimentation and biomedical research. Keywords: Haematology, Rat, Sprague-Dawley ...

  16. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D' Souza, Antony Sylvan [Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Guruprasad, E-mail: guru.kalthur@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  17. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  18. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  19. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  20. The effect of GABAmimetics on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zahaf, Najwa Ahmed; Salem Elhwuegi, Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    Studies regarding the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in depression are conflicting. Therefore, it was decided to examine the effect of different drugs that enhance the GABA system on the time of immobility induced by the forced swim test (FST). Adult albino mice were divided into several groups of six animals. Each group received an intraperitoneal injection of either imipramine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg), diazepam (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg), vigabatrin (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg), zolpidem (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg), or alprazolam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg). Control groups received the appropriate vehicle. One hour after injection, the duration of immobility was measured for 5 min in the FST. The percentage change in the duration of immobility from the control was calculated for each group. The statistical test of the difference between the treated and the control groups was calculated using unpaired Student's t-test. Imipramine produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility (78, 74, and 56%, respectively). Different doses of diazepam, vigabatrin, and zolpidem produced a significant increase in the duration of immobility (119, 126, and 128%), (116, 124, and 128%), and (108, 109, and 119%), respectively. The two low doses of alprazolam produced a significant increase (115 and 120%), while the high dose produced a significant decrease in the duration of immobility (74%). Increasing central GABAergic activity by different mechanisms has resulted in a depressant-like activity measured as an increase in the duration of immobility in the FST model of depression.

  1. A natural antioxidant, tannic acid mitigates iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice through ROS regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tapasree; Panja, Sourav; Shendge, Anil Khushalrao; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2018-05-01

    Tannic acid (TA), a water soluble natural polyphenol with 8 gallic acids groups, is abundantly present in various medicinal plants. Previously TA has been investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Being a large polyphenol, TA chelates more than 1 metal. Hence TA has been explored for potent antioxidant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and as iron chelator in vitro thereby mitigating iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice to induce iron-overload triggered hepatotoxicity, followed by oral administration of TA for remediation. After treatment, liver, spleen, and blood samples were processed from sacrificed animals. The liver iron, serum ferritin, serum markers, ROS, liver antioxidant status, and liver damage parameters were assessed, followed by histopathology and protein expression studies. Our results show that TA is a prominent ROS and RNS scavenger as well as iron chelator in vitro. It also reversed the ROS levels in vivo and restricted the liver damage parameters as compared to the standard drug, desirox. Moreover, this natural polyphenol exclusively ameliorates the histopathological and fibrotic changes in liver sections reducing the iron-overload, along with chelation of liver iron and normalization of serum ferritin. The protective role of TA against iron-overload induced apoptosis in liver was further supported by changed levels of caspase 3, PARP as well as Bax/BCl-2 ratio. Thus, TA can be envisaged as a better orally administrable iron chelator to reduce iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity through ROS regulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  3. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  4. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  5. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device.

  6. Effect of visfatin on lipid profile of obese and diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, R.; Hussain, M.M.; Aslam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of visfatin on blood lipid levels in balb/c strain of albino mice. Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at the department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad from April to December 2007. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty balb/c strain albino mice were procured from NIH, Islamabad. After taking base line blood samples, mice were divided randomly into four groups. Animals in groups I and II were made obese by feeding high fat / high carbohydrate diet whereas mice in Groups III and IV were induced diabetes mellitus by injecting streptozotocin. Groups I (obese) and III (diabetic) served as controls whereas groups II (obese treated) and IV (diabetic treated) were administered visfatin injection. Terminal intracardiac blood sample was used to measure the serum lipid and visfatin levels. Results: Serum lipid levels were found increased in obese and diabetic groups as compared to healthy mice. The administration of recombinant-histidine soluble (mice) visfatin significantly (p< 0.01) decreased the serum lipid levels with concomitant increase in HDL levels (p< 0.01) in obese and diabetic groups of mice and were comparable with baseline normal values of healthy controls. Conclusion: Visfatin is a potential antilipidemic adipocytokine that probably modulates insulin sensitivity and decreases atherogenic lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL and VLDL) with concomitant increase in HDL in obesity and diabetes mellitus. (author)

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism of the growth hormone (GH encoding gene in inbred and outbred domestic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyana Gencheva Hristova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the growth hormone (GH gene in rabbits is a candidate for meat production, understanding the genetic diversity and variation in this locus is of particular relevance. The present study comprised 86 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus divided into 3 groups: New Zealand White (NZW outbred rabbits; first-generation inbred rabbits (F1 and second-generation inbred rabbits (F2. They were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A 231 bp fragment of the polymorphic site of the GH gene was digested with Bsh1236 restriction enzyme. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for the studied GH locus corresponding to 3 genotypes were detected in the studied rabbit populations: CC, CT and TT. In the synthetic inbred F1 and F2 populations, the frequency of the heterozygous genotype CT was 0.696 and 0.609, respectively, while for the homozygous CC genotype the frequency was lower (0.043 and 0.000, and respective values for the homozygous TT genotype were 0.261 and 0.391. This presumed a preponderance of the T allele (0.609 and 0.696 over the C allele (0.391 and 0.304 in these groups. In outbred rabbits, the allele frequencies were 0.613 (allele C and 0.387 (allele Т; consequently, the frequency of the homozygous CC genotype was higher than that of the homozygous TT genotype (0.300 vs. 0.075. Observed heterozygosity for the GH gene was higher than expected, and the result was therefore a negative inbreeding coefficient (Fis=–0.317 for outbred NZW rabbits; –0.460 for inbred F1 and –0.438 for inbred F2, indicating a sufficient number of heterozygous forms in all studied groups of rabbits. The application of narrow inbreeding by breeding full sibs in the synthetic population did not cause a rapid increase in homozygosity.

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood specific gravity in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Groover; M. Devey; T. Fiddler; J. Lee; R. Megraw; T. Mitchel-Olds; B. Sherman; S. Vujcic; C. Williams; D. Neale

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) . QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (>2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among...

  9. Protective effect of Withania somnifera roots extract on hematoserological profiles against lead nitrate-induced toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Veena; Sharma, Sadhana; Pracheta

    2012-12-01

    The in vivo protective role of hydro-methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera (WS) was evaluated in alleviating lead nitrate (LN)-induced toxicity in male Swiss albino mice by measuring hematoserological profiles. The lead-treated (20 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) albino mice (25-30 g) concurrently received the root extract (200 and 500 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) once daily for the duration of six weeks. Animals exposed to LN showed significant (P < 0.001) decline in haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, packed cell volume and insignificant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, while mean corpuscular volume and platelet count were increased. A significant elevation (P < 0.001) in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and total cholesterol were also observed, when compared with control mice. Thus, the study demonstrated that the concurrent daily administration of root extract of WS protected the adverse effects of LN intoxication in mice.

  10. Mitigation of inbreeding while preserving genetic gain in genomic breeding programs for outbred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zibei; Shi, Fan; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D

    2017-05-01

    Heuristic genomic inbreeding controls reduce inbreeding in genomic breeding schemes without reducing genetic gain. Genomic selection is increasingly being implemented in plant breeding programs to accelerate genetic gain of economically important traits. However, it may cause significant loss of genetic diversity when compared with traditional schemes using phenotypic selection. We propose heuristic strategies to control the rate of inbreeding in outbred plants, which can be categorised into three types: controls during mate allocation, during selection, and simultaneous selection and mate allocation. The proposed mate allocation measure GminF allocates two or more parents for mating in mating groups that minimise coancestry using a genomic relationship matrix. Two types of relationship-adjusted genomic breeding values for parent selection candidates ([Formula: see text]) and potential offspring ([Formula: see text]) are devised to control inbreeding during selection and even enabling simultaneous selection and mate allocation. These strategies were tested in a case study using a simulated perennial ryegrass breeding scheme. As compared to the genomic selection scheme without controls, all proposed strategies could significantly decrease inbreeding while achieving comparable genetic gain. In particular, the scenario using [Formula: see text] in simultaneous selection and mate allocation reduced inbreeding to one-third of the original genomic selection scheme. The proposed strategies are readily applicable in any outbred plant breeding program.

  11. A model of acute renal allograft rejection in outbred Yorkshire piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Randi; Wang, Youli; Fang, Xuexiu; Winn, Matt; Ghaffari, Arina; Ho, Chak-Sum; Helman, Sandra; Jajosky, Ryan; Kleven, Daniel; Stanley Nahman, N; Merchen, Todd D

    2017-06-01

    Pigs represent a desirable animal model for the study of rejection in kidney transplantation with inbred Yucatan miniature swine (YMS) the most commonly studied strain due to well defined swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genotypes. However, limitations to YMS may include cost and availability. Outbred Yorkshire pigs are widely available and significantly cheaper than YMS. Recent advances in SLA genotyping have allowed its application to outbred strains. On this basis, we theorized that Yorkshire pigs would be a viable alternative to YMS for the study of rejection in kidney transplantation. To address this question, we performed auto (Auto) and allotransplants (Allo) in 24 Yorkshire pigs, and assessed SLA genotypes and acute rejection after 72h. At sacrifice, and when compared to autotransplants, allotransplants had significant elevations in serum creatinine (8.4±1.3 vs 2.8±2.0mg/dL for Allo vs autotransplants, respectively) and BUN (61±9 vs 19.2±15mg/dL for Allo vs autotransplants, respectively). Warm ischemia times between the two groups did not differ (24±2.3 vs 26.4±1.4min for Auto vs Allo, respectively). There were 16 distinct SLA haplotypes identified from pigs undergoing allotransplantion, no matched donor-recipient pairs, and all allografts demonstrated rejection. Type IIA cellular rejection (Banff) was the most common. One allograft demonstrated hyperacute rejection due a blood group incompatibility. Histologically, the expression of regulatory Tcells and dendritic cells was increased in allografts. These data suggest that Yorkshire pigs may be a useful model for the study of acute rejection in experimental kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Characteristic, inheritance and breeding application of rice mutants with greenable albino leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiantao; Ma Hongli; Zhao Fuyuan; Zhang Qingqi; Zhang Shubiao

    2009-01-01

    Inheritance and main agronomic traits of photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line with green-revertible albino leaf were investigated. The results indicated that the mutants might be divided into three types: albino regreening type (W2, W3, W4 and W10), albino to kelly type (W9) and abino-regreening-albino-regreening type (W1 and W7). Genetic study indicated that green-revertible albino leaf color trait of the mutants as controlled by a single recessive gene. These mutants had similar agronomic traits and fertility characteristics to the corresponding male sterile line 'Peiai 64S'. The hybrids of these mutants had similar characteristics with original-hybrids in plant type, developing of tillers and plant height. The yield components of the mutant hybrids were different depending on different mutants. The yield potential of hybrids of W1, W2 and W3 were similar to the original-hybrid. The results also indicated that W1, W2 and W3 had breeding application value. (authors)

  13. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on Haloperidol-induced Catalepsy in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nishchal, B. S.; Rai, S.; Prabhu, M. N.; Ullal, Sheetal D.; Rajeswari, S.; Gopalakrishna, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we have attempted to evaluate the anticataleptic effect of Tribulus terrestris on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice. Mice were allocated to four groups, each group containing six animals. Both, the test drug, Tribulus terrestris and the standard drug trihexyphenidyl were uniformly suspend...

  14. Semen characteristics and testicular biometry of Swiss albino mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Contamination of soil and underlying groundwater with spent engine oil from automobile workshops and garages has serious ecological problems affecting plants and animals. ... This same trend was observed for the morphologically abnormal sperm cells of mice in the treated groups compared to the control.

  15. Evaluation of Ratnaprash for its effect on strength, stamina and fatigue using swim endurance test and biochemical estimation in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Kumar, Satyendra; Rajput, Rashmi; Srivastava, Ruchi; Rai, Rajiv K; Sastry, J L N

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicines have been considered as important resources for postponing fatigue, accelerating elimination of fatigue related metabolites and improving physical ability. Rasāyanās or rejuvenative therapies are mentioned as one of the eight clinical specialties in Ayurveda for attaining longevity, healthy life and regulation of bodily balance. Eventhough more detailed studies are needed to confirm the claims of benefits in the light of evidence based research, Ratnaprash, a herbo-mineral rasāyana formulation, is proposed here to be an antifatigue supplement that is good in promoting strength and stamina. In the present study, anti fatigue, strength and stamina enhancing properties of Ratnaprash were examined based on swim endurance capacity and the change in biochemical parameters in Swiss Albino mice. Treatment groups were orally administered Ratnaprash at various test doses (500, 1000, 2000 mg/Kg per day), while the control group received distilled water at similar dose volumes. Effect of therapy was evaluated after 28 days of treatment. At the end of study period, the swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the treated groups than in the control group. Plasma lactate levels of treated groups were lower than those of the control group (P stamina and contributing anti-fatigue activity.

  16. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  17. sirt1-null mice develop an autoimmune-like condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, Jedon; Boily, Gino; Bazinet, Stephanie; Saliba, Sarah; He Xiaohong; Jardine, Karen; Kennedy, Christopher; Staines, William; Rousseaux, Colin; Mueller, Rudi; McBurney, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    The sirt1 gene encodes a protein deacetylase with a broad spectrum of reported substrates. Mice carrying null alleles for sirt1 are viable on outbred genetic backgrounds so we have examined them in detail to identify the biological processes that are dependent on SIRT1. Sera from adult sirt1-null mice contain antibodies that react with nuclear antigens and immune complexes become deposited in the livers and kidneys of these animals. Some of the sirt1-null animals develop a disease resembling diabetes insipidus when they approach 2 years of age although the relationship to the autoimmunity remains unclear. We interpret these observations as consistent with a role for SIRT1 in sustaining normal immune function and in this way delaying the onset of autoimmune disease

  18. Genotype modulates testosterone-dependent activity and reactivity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Svare, B

    1983-03-01

    Adult castration significantly reduced the homecage locomotor activity of both inbred C57BL/6J and DBA/2J and outbred Rockland-Swiss (R-S) male mice. Castrated C57BL animals exhibited greater reductions in this behavior than did the other genotypes. Locomotor activity in a novel environment (reactivity) was also reduced by castration but only for inbred males. In both test situations, postcastration reductions in ambulation were prevented by implants of testosterone (T)-containing Silastic capsules. Thus, testicular hormones promote activity and reactivity in the male mouse in a genotype-dependent fashion.

  19. Influence of Trypanosoma cruzi strain on the pathogenesis of chronic myocardiopathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The murine model of chronic Chaga's myocardiopathy was developed in 201 inbred and outbred mice. The experimental groups consisted of 1st: 73 inbred AKR and A/J mice inoculated with one of the following. Trypanosoma cruzi strains: Peruvian (Type I, 12 SF (Type II or Colombian (Type III; 2nd: 128 outbred Swiss mice, chronically infected either with Type II or Type III strains isolated from human patients from different geographical areas. All T. cruzi strains were previoulsly characterized by their morphobiological behaviour in mice and by isoenzymatic patterns. For the 1st group the inoculum was 5 x 10**4 for the Peruvian strain and 1 x 10**5 for the 12 SF and Colombian strains. In the 2nd group-Swiss mice the inoculum size varied from 2 x 10**4 to 2 x 10**5. The inbred animals were killed at a 3 time-point scale (90, 180 and 240 days post-infection. The Swiss mice were killed from 180 to 660 days after infection. The evaluation of parasitemia and serology (xeodiagnosis and indirect immunofluorescent test was performed. The incidence of macroscopic alterations of the heart and cardiac index were evaluated. Histopathological lesions of the myocardium were graded. The influence of T. cruzi strain on the intensity of cardiac lesions was evaluated by the Chi-square test; the incidence of inflammatory lesions and its relationship to the parasite strain was evaluated by the Fisher test. The influence of the duration of infection was evaluated by using the Gamma Coefficient of Kruskal and Goodman and its measure of significance. Slight to severe microscopic alterations occurred in 85% of the chronically infected nice. There were a clear predominance on the incidence and intensity of inflammatory and fibrotic alterations for the mice infected with Type III strains. Statistical analysis has shown significant differences among the infected groups, in the inflammatory and fibrotic lesions. Macroscopic alterations (right cavities dilatation and apex

  20. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, P.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  1.  Miners’ magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryceson, Deborah; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Sherrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    purchase the albino charms, the waganga healers renowned for their healing, divination and sorcery skills who prescribe and sell the charms, and the albino murder victims. The agrarian background, miners’ ambitions and a clash of values comprise our starting point for understanding the victimisation...

  2. Modification of hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after 45Ca internal irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of MPG has been studied on the hemoglobin level and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice against radiation-induced changes after injecting radiocalcium ( 45 Ca) at the dose level of 37 kBq/g body weight. MPG was injected 15-30 minutes before 45 Ca injection at dose of 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and also MPG was injected at various repeated doses. It has been observed that MPG in repeated doses is effective in reducing the radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice following 45 Ca internal irradiation. (author)

  3. : acquired resistance in mice by implantation of young irradiated worms into the portal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Z. Coelho

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available In two distinct experiments, immature S. mansoni worms (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, aged 20 days, obtained from the portal system of white outbred mice, were irradiated with 14 and 4 Krad, respectively. Afterwards, the worms were directly inoculated into the portal vein of normal mice. Inoculation was performed with 20 irradiated worms per animal. Fifty days after inoculation, the mice that received 4 and 14 Krad-irradiated worms and their respective controls were infected with S. mansoni cercariae (LE strain, by transcutaneous route. Twenty days after this challenge infection, the animals were sacrificed and perfused for mature irradiated (90-day-old and immature (20-day-old worm counts. Analysis of the results showed that statistically significant protection against cercariae occurred in both groups with irradiated worms.

  4. Effects of betamethasone on the course of experimentai. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico G.C. Abath

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effect of betamethasone administered in the early post- acute infection of mice by Trypanosoma cruzi was studied. This drug was administered during 30 days after the 42nd day of infection in a dose of 0.15 mg/day. The betamethasone treatment did not cause fresh outbreaks of parasitemia and the histopathological findings in the chronic phase were not different from those in the control group. The higher cumulative mortality after treatment in the experimental group was due to superimposed bacterial infections. Outbred albino mice infected with low numbers ofY strain Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes were not suitable models for Chagas' disease, since after 7 months of observation only mild histological lesions developed in all the animais. Prolonged betamethasone treatment of mice infected with low numbers o/Trypanosoma cruzi of the Y strain, during the post-acute phase did not aggravate the course of infection.Foram estudados os efeitos da betametasona administrada na fase pós-aguda imediata de uma infecção pelo T. cruzi em camundongos. O tratamento consistiu de 30 doses diárias de 0,15 mg de betametasona, a partir de 42° dia de infecção, não havendo aparecimento de novos surtos de parasitemia. No tempo de duração do experimento (7 meses não houve diferença entre as lesões histopatológicas dos animais tratados e dos não tratados. O grupo experimental apresentou uma maior mortalidade acumulada no 75º dia de infecção, o que pode ser atribuído a infecções bacterianas associadas. Por outro lado, camundongos albinos "outbred", infectados com baixo inóculo, não se apresentaram como bom modelo de doença de Chagas, já que não desenvolveram lesões importantes nem na fase aguda nem após 7 meses de infecção. Em conclusão, o tratamento imunosupressivo prolongado, após a fase aguda de uma infecção mínima com a cepa Ydo T. cruzi não tem influência sobre o curso da infecção, pelo menos no que tange

  5. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  6. Dosis letal 50 de lorazepam en ratón (Mus musculus Albino, cepa suizo-icr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alejandro Múnera G.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The lethal dose 50 (LD50 of  lorazepam in albino mice (Musmusculus, swiss ICR strain, was determined as a first step in the study of the conjoint toxicity of admixtures of scopolamine and benzodiazepines ("new burundanga". Method: Sixty adult male mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups and to a control one. The dose of lorazepam administered intraperitoneally to each group was: group 1,10 mg kg_1; group 11,20 mg kgI; group 111,40mg kgL; group IV,80mgkg'; group V,160mg kg-l.The control group received only the vehicle solution. Mortality was recorded during 15 days after injection. Necropsies were performed to all the mice dead during the assay and to the survivors. Data were processed using probit analysis and survival analysis. Results: Estimated LD50 were 90.71 mg kg- 1, with 95% confidence range of 65,02to 150,13mg kg- 1.Deaths occurred within the first six days after injection of doses higher than 80 mg kg:', mostly during the first 48 hours. Conclusions: The estimated LD50 of  lorazepam in this experiment almost doubles the reported one, this finding suggests a higher resistance of the mice strain used in this experiment The critic period for lorazepam poisoning spans the first 48 hours.

  7. Schistosoma mansoni: evolução de vermes oriundos de cercárias irradiadas a nível de sistema porta, no camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Oito grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus, não isogênicos, foram infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercárias (das cepas LE e SJ do S. mansoni, irradiadas com 3 Krad, 20 Krad e 40 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, e não irradiados (grupos-controle. Os vermes provenientes de cercárias irradiadas com 20 e 40 Krad só foram encontrados em quantidades insignificantes no sistema porta. Verificou-se que os vermes irradiados com 3 Krad, que alcançom o sistema porta, mostram nítido retardo no desenvolvimento evolutivo quando comparados com os grupos-controles não irradiados. Os vermes da cepa SJ (irradiados ou não têm evolução mais lenta do que os da cepa LE.Eight groups of outbred albino mice were infected transcutaneously with cercariae of S. mansoni (strains LE and SJ irradiated with either 3, 20 or 40Krad, of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 bomb and a control non irradiated group. Cercariae irradiated with 20 or 40 Kradfailed to develop in the portal system and3 Krad retarded development. Worms of the SJ strain developed more slowlt than the LE strain.

  8. The Role Of Sevoflurane And Ionising Radiation On THE Level Of Primary DNA Damage Measured In Blood And Different Organs Of Swiss Albino Mice By THE Alkaline Comet Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, V.; Milic, M.; Horvat Knezevic, A.; Halovanovic, S.; Borojevic, N.; Orsolic, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane is general anaesthetic suitable for short surgical procedures due to its quick induction of anaesthesia, maintaining spontaneous breathing frequency and hemodynamic stability of patients. However, it can directly trigger the formation of peroxynitrite, significantly increase intracellular levels of H2O2, peroxide, superoxide anion and nitric oxide in peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophils 1h after the treatment; lowering the levels of intracellular glutathione, and increase radiosensitivity of cells also exposed to ionising radiation (IR). We wanted to evaluate the level of sinergistic effect and possible radiosensitivity DNA damage in blood, and different organs of Swiss albino mice after exposure to both sevoflurane (2.4 percent, 50:50) and the 1Gy gamma-ray radiation generally used in diagnostic purposes after 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours from the combined treatment with alkaline comet assay. Combined exposure to sevoflurane and IR has demonstrated synergistic effect. Due to metabolising of the sevoflurane, there was different sensitivity between blood, liver, kidney and brain cells. (author).

  9. Dominant lethal mutations research in mice fed with irradiated black beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Z.P.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with conservation purpose, in germ cells of mice, dominant lethal assay were employed. Three groups of albino swiss male mice (S W-55) were fed with a normal ration, or unirradiated or irradiated (0,2; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15 e 20 KGy) test diets for eight weeks. After the feeding period the males were mated with groups of untreated females mice for four consecutive weeks. Numbers of pregnancy rates females were observed. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. (author)

  10. Effects of tritiated water on mice liver, in relation to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, A L [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Radiation Biology Lab.

    1978-06-01

    Tritiated water was administered intraperitoneally at the dose rate of about 20 ..mu..Ci/ml of body water to different six age groups of Swiss albino mice, ranging from 1 to 6 weeks old. They were autopsied at 48 hours post-injection. The liver of 5 weeks old mice is found most vulnerable and that of 4 weeks second but lesser than 5 weeks. Histopathologically, 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks old mice liver showed lesser degree of damage. The distinct histopathological lesions include oedema, cytoplasmic vacuolation and degranulation, hyperaemia, increase number of Kupffer's cells etc.

  11. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis, to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  12. Evaluation of Ratnaprash for its effect on strength, stamina and fatigue using swim endurance test and biochemical estimation in swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Kumar, Satyendra; Rajput, Rashmi; Srivastava, Ruchi; Rai, Rajiv K.; Sastry, J. L. N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicines have been considered as important resources for postponing fatigue, accelerating elimination of fatigue related metabolites and improving physical ability. Rasāyanās or rejuvenative therapies are mentioned as one of the eight clinical specialties in Ayurveda for attaining longevity, healthy life and regulation of bodily balance. Eventhough more detailed studies are needed to confirm the claims of benefits in the light of evidence based research, Ratnaprash, a herbo-mineral rasāyana formulation, is proposed here to be an antifatigue supplement that is good in promoting strength and stamina. Materials and Methods: In the present study, anti fatigue, strength and stamina enhancing properties of Ratnaprash were examined based on swim endurance capacity and the change in biochemical parameters in Swiss Albino mice. Treatment groups were orally administered Ratnaprash at various test doses (500, 1000, 2000 mg/Kg per day), while the control group received distilled water at similar dose volumes. Effect of therapy was evaluated after 28 days of treatment. Results: At the end of study period, the swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the treated groups than in the control group. Plasma lactate levels of treated groups were lower than those of the control group (P increased tissue ATP levels in preclinical models in comparison to vehicle control, exhibiting possible role in increasing strength and stamina and contributing anti-fatigue activity. PMID:26600664

  13. Protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ramakant; Purohit, Ramesh K.; Sharma, Sampat; Rao, R.; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    This study aim to evaluate protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss Albino Mice. The animals were exposed with 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Cadmium Chloride treatment. In the drug treated groups. The liv-52 was given seven days prior to irradiation or Cadmium Chloride treatment The animals from the entire experimental group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The value of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), different leucocytes counts (DLC), SGOT and SGPT were estimated. The values of RBC, WBC, Hb and PCV were found to decrease in all the groups as compared to normal group, but the decrease in these values was lesser in Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). The values of MCV were also found to decrease but the difference from normal value was significant at previous intervals and it was significant on later intervals. The values of MCH increased in all the groups as compared with normal group after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of post-treatment intervals. The increase in the values of MCH was lesser in Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). Besides this values of MCHC increased in all the groups at various intervals but the values were lower in the Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). The difference from the normal was non-significant in all the groups. The values of lymphocytes declined up to day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in the Liv.52 treated groups. Similarly the values of monocytes and granulocytes percentage increased up to day-14 in the non-drug treated animals and day-7 in the drug treated animals thereafter; a

  14. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  15. Acute endocrine correlates of attack by lactating females in male mice: effects on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Michael, S D; Svare, B

    1984-05-01

    Immediately following defeat inflicted by lactating Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mice, adult R-S male mice exhibited significant reductions in circulating prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH), but not corticosterone (CORT). These results suggest that acute neuroendocrine responses to intersex competition may be as dramatic as those previously reported for intermale encounters.

  16. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  17. Mice do not develop conditioned taste aversion because of immunity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to test the generation of conditioned taste aversion and conditioned immunodepression by daily paired administration of saccharin solution with cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/kg, for 4 days. One group of male mice of the outbred CD1 strain drank 0.15% saccharin and received 1 injection of cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/kg, for 4 days (paired group), another group (unpaired group) received the same doses of saccharin and cyclophosphamide noncontingently, the third group (cy60) received saccharin paired with cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, and the fourth group (placebo) received saccharin in the absence of cyclophosphamide. All mice were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), 0.2 mg, 1 day before the treatments. Mice of the paired, unpaired and cy60 groups displayed a similarly decreased antibody response to KLH, but mice of the paired group did not develop an aversion to saccharin while mice of the cy60 group did. Besides, repeat presentation of saccharin to mice of the paired group did not alter their antibody response to ovalbumin compared with mice of the unpaired or placebo group. Taste aversion was not elicited in response to impaired immunity and the conditioned stimulus (saccharin) did not impair the antibody response. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effect of rifampicin on the kidney of albino rats | Peters | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the kidney biomarkers and histopathology of kidney of albino rats. 42 albino rats were used and rifampicin was administered at 1.10mg/120gBW and 0.55mg/120gBW for intervals of 20, 40 and 60days.Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last day of ...

  19. The reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoke, C C; Nwobodo, E D; Unekwe, P; Odike, M; Chukwumai, S T; Amilo, G

    2005-01-01

    Daily exposure to fuel vapour may pose significant health risk to exposed individuals. Fifteen each of male and female albino rats weighing between 110-230g were divided into test (10) and control (5) groups each. The test animals; were exposed to inhalation gasoline for one hour daily for twenty-one consecutive days. All animals were then bled and the serum levels of the reproductive hormones determined. The results showed significant [P inhalation gasoline exposure significantly [P < 0.05] lowers the levels of reproductive hormones in albino rats and may thus interfere with reproduction.

  20. Reproductive activities of Heliotropium indicum isolate against Helopeltis theivora and toxicity evaluation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolui, A K; Debnath, Manabendra; De, B; Kumar, Atul

    2012-05-01

    A new compound E was isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum by chromatographic fractionation. In the present study, the effect of the compound E on reproduction of Helopeltis theivora has been evaluated. The acute toxicity study (LD50) and sub-acute toxicity studies (haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters) in albino Swiss mice were carried out to evaluate the safety aspect of the compound E. The compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the reproductive life of H. theivora. The oviposition period, fecundity and hatching percentage of H. theivora were found to be 15.67 days, 39.33 and 28.00% respectively after treatment with 2% compound E, whereas the control value were found to be 20.33 days, 77.67 and 77.33% respectively. The LD50 of the compound was found to be 780 mg kg(-1) in Swiss albino female mice. The compound did not show any toxicity in mice at sub-lethal dose treatment (78 mg kg(-1) b. wt., once daily) for 21 days as evident from different haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in compound E treated group when compared with control.

  1. Retroauricular Approach for Targeted Cochlear Therapy Experiments in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Mülazımoğlu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the idea of stem cell technology in the treatment of sensorial hearing loss has emerged over the past decades, the need for in vivo models for related experiments has become explicit. One of the most common experimental models for inner ear stem cell delivery experiments is the Wistar albino rat. Aims: To investigate the surgical anatomy of the temporal bone of the Wistar albino rat with respect to the dissection steps, operative techniques and potential pitfalls of surgery. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Adult Wistar albino rats were operated on via the retroauricular approach under an operation microscope. The anatomy of the temporal bone, the surgical route to the temporal bulla and the inner ear were investigated. Technical details of surgical steps, complications and potential pitfalls during the surgery were noted. Results: The study group consisted of 40 adult Wistar albino rats. The mean times to reach the bulla and to achieve cochleostomy were 4.3 (2-13 min and 7.5 min (3.5-22 min, respectively. The mean width of the facial nerve was 0.84 mm (0.42-1.25 mm. The stapedial artery lay nearly perpendicular to the course of the facial nerve (88-93 °C. There were three major complications: two large cochleostomies and one massive bleed from the stapedial artery. Conclusion: The facial nerve was the key anatomical landmark in locating the bulla. By retrograde tracing of the facial nerve, it was possible to find the bulla ventral (inferior to the main trunk. The facial nerve trunk was the upper limit when drilling the bulla. By dissecting the main trunk of the facial nerve and retracting cranially, a large drilling space could be achieved. Our results suggest that the retroauricular approach is an effective, feasible route for inner ear drug delivery experiments in Wistar albino rats

  2. Effect of rifampicin on the lipid profile of albino rats | Peters | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the lipid profile and histopathology of the heart of albino rats. Albino rats (42) were used and rifampicin was administered at 1.10mg/120g body weight (BW) and 0.55mg/120g BW for intervals of 20, 40 and 60days. Result from the study revealed that there was ...

  3. seed on haematological parameters of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ejere

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... and its indices (haemoglobin content, pack cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin ... demands in plant-based proteins for humans and livestock, ... hypogea) and animal based proteins (Siddhuraju et al.,. 1995 ..... difference in the packed cell volume (PCV) of albino rats.

  4. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-induced behavioral dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-12-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and behavioral dysfunction, whereas the mechanism underlying stress-mediated neurological complications is still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) mediated neurological alterations are associated with impaired hippocampal insulin signaling or not, and studied the effect of quercetin in this scenario. Male Swiss albino mice were subjected to 21day CUS, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. After 21days, behavioral functions were evaluated in terms of locomotor activity (Actophotometer), muscle coordination (Rota-rod), depression (Tail Suspension Test (TST), Forced Swim Test (FST)) and memory performance (Passive-avoidance step-down task (PASD)). Further, hippocampal insulin signaling was evaluated in terms of protein expression of insulin, insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) and neurogenesis was evaluated in terms of doublecortin (DCX) expression. 21day CUS significantly impaired locomotion and had no effect on muscle coordination. Stressed animals were depressed and showed markedly impaired memory functions. Quercetin treatment significantly improvement stress-mediated behavior dysfunction as indicated by improved locomotion, lesser immobility time and greater frequency of upward turning in TST and FST and increased transfer latency on the day 2 (short-term memory) and day 5 (long-term memory) in PASD test. We observed significantly higher IR expression and significantly lower GLUT-4 expression in the hippocampus of stressed animals, despite of nonsignificant difference in insulin levels. Further, chronic stress impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, as indicated by the significantly reduced levels of hippocampal DCX expression. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered insulin and IR expression and significantly enhanced GLUT-4 and DCX expression in the hippocampus, when compared to CUS. In

  5. Oxidative stress due to (R)-styrene oxide exposure and the role of antioxidants in non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszka-Jordan, Anna; Mahlapuu, Riina; Soomets, Ursel; Carlson, Gary P

    2009-01-01

    Styrene produces lung and liver damage that may be related to oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of (R)-styrene oxide (R-SO), the more active enantiomeric metabolite of styrene, and the protective properties of the antioxidants glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and 4-methoxy-L-tyrosinyl-gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (UPF1) against R-SO-induced toxicity in non-Swiss Albino (NSA) mice. UPF1 is a synthetic GSH analog that was shown to have 60 times the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in comparison to GSH. R-SO toxicity to the lung was measured by elevations in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein concentration, and number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Toxicity to the liver was measured by increases in serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Antioxidants were not able to decrease the adverse effects of R-SO on lung. However, NAC (200 mg/kg) ip and GSH (600 mg/kg), administered orally prior to R-SO (300 mg/kg) ip, showed significant protection against liver toxicity as measured by SDH activity. Unexpectedly, a synthetic GSH analog, UPF1 (0.8 mg/kg), administered intravenously (iv) prior to R-SO, produced a synergistic effect with regard to liver and lung toxicity. Treatment with UPF1 (0.8 mg/kg) iv every other day for 1 wk for preconditioning prior to R-SO ip did not result in any protection against liver and lung toxicity, but rather enhanced the toxicity when administered prior R-SO. The results of the present study demonstrated protection against R-SO toxicity in liver but not lung by the administration of the antioxidants NAC and GSH.

  6. Genomic growth curves of an outbred pig population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current post-genomic era, the genetic basis of pig growth can be understood by assessing SNP marker effects and genomic breeding values (GEBV based on estimates of these growth curve parameters as phenotypes. Although various statistical methods, such as random regression (RR-BLUP and Bayesian LASSO (BL, have been applied to genomic selection (GS, none of these has yet been used in a growth curve approach. In this work, we compared the accuracies of RR-BLUP and BL using empirical weight-age data from an outbred F2 (Brazilian Piau X commercial population. The phenotypes were determined by parameter estimates using a nonlinear logistic regression model and the halothane gene was considered as a marker for evaluating the assumptions of the GS methods in relation to the genetic variation explained by each locus. BL yielded more accurate values for all of the phenotypes evaluated and was used to estimate SNP effects and GEBV vectors. The latter allowed the construction of genomic growth curves, which showed substantial genetic discrimination among animals in the final growth phase. The SNP effect estimates allowed identification of the most relevant markers for each phenotype, the positions of which were coincident with reported QTL regions for growth traits.

  7. On the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi y strain in swiss mice Sobre o parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in Swiss mice was carried out. This strain parasitized preferentially smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers, with low transitory spleen and liver parasitism, as previously found by some Authors, although differing from other reports. These results can be related to the host genetical constitution and/or the degree of the strain virulence at the time of this study. Furthermore, we discuss that the high macrophagotropism reported for this strain in some instances could be an artificially induced condition resulting from its serial maintenance in mice, either for a longer time and/or by using young animals. The heavy parasitism and inflammation observed in the bladder, pancreas and spermatic duct of some inoculated mice, as well as the testis parasitization, were also noteworthy findings.Através deste trabalho fizemos uma revisão do parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster. Esta cepa parasitou preferencialmente as fibras musculares lisas, esqueléticas e cardíacas, sendo baixo e transitório seu parasitismo do baço e fígado, conforme já observado por alguns Autores, embora diferindo de outros achados. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados com o padrão genético do hospedeiro e/ou com o grau de virulência da cepa por ocasião deste estudo. Além do mais, discutimos a possibilidade de que o intenso macrofagotropismo descrito para esta cepa em algumas ocasiões possa ser uma condição artificialmente induzida através de sua manutenção seriada em camundongos por tempo prolongado e/ou pelo uso de animais jovens. Também são dignos de nota, o intenso parasitismo e inflamação da bexiga, pâncreas e canal espermático de alguns animais inoculados, assim como, o encontro de ninhos de amastigotas no testículo.

  8. Cutaneous Cancers in Nigerian Albinos: A Review of 22 Cases

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    Oluwafemi Olasupo Awe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Albinism is an inherited disorder of hypopigmentation involving the skin, eyes, and hair. This disorder results in the absence or reduction in melanin production. There are two main types of albinism which are ocular albinism and oculocutaneous albinism. It could also be classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic the melanin, which protects from the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation of the sun on the normal skin, is deficient in the albino, predisposing them more, to cutaneous malignancies. Aim: This study is to highlight the epidemiology of cutaneous cancers in albinos in sub-urban Nigeria. Methodology: This is a retrospective review of all albinos with histological diagnoses of cutaneous malignancies that presented to Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Edo State, Nigeria between September 2010 and August 2016. The following details were extracted from the patients' case-notes, operation register, and the histopathology register. These data include age, gender, site of the lesion, the diagnosis, no of lesions excised, and duration of the lesion (s. These were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: There were 22 albinos with histopathologically diagnosed cutaneous malignancies. There were 11 males and 11 females with male:female of 1. The age range is from 25 to 55 years with the mean of 34.68. Conclusion: Albinism is one of the most common causes of cutaneous malignancies, and majority of them present with locally advanced lesions that will need excision biopsy resulting in disfigurement. This problem can be prevented in many cases with proper community education, support, and free health care. There is also need for them to present early whenever they noticed any skin changes.

  9. Vigabatrin can enhance electroretinographic responses in pigmented and albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, James D; Noonan, Emily R; Di Nardo, Alessia; Favazza, Tara L; Zhang, Nan; Sahin, Mustafa; Hansen, Ronald M; Fulton, Anne B

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the antiepileptic medication vigabatrin (VGB) on the retina of pigmented rats. Scotopic and photopic electroretinograms were recorded from dark- and light-adapted Long-Evans (pigmented) and Sprague Dawley (albino) rats administered, daily, 52-55 injections of 250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) VGB or 25-26 injections of 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) VGB, or a corresponding number of sham injections. Sensitivity and saturated amplitude of the rod photoresponse (S, Rm(P3)) and postreceptor response (1/σ, Vm) were derived, as were sensitivity and amplitude of the cone-mediated postreceptor response (1/σ(cone), Vm(cone)). The oscillatory potentials and responses to a series of flickering lights (6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 Hz) were studied in the time and frequency domains. A subset of rats' eyes was harvested for Western blotting or histology. Of the parameters derived from dark-adapted ERG responses, in both pigmented and albino rats, VGB repeatedly and reliably enhanced electroretinographic parameters; no significant ERG deficits were noted. No significant alterations were observed in ER/oxidative stress or in the Akt cell death/survival pathway. There were migrations of photoreceptor nuclei toward the RPE and outgrowths of bipolar cell dendrites into the outer nuclear layer in VGB-treated rats; these were never observed in sham-treated animals. Although VGB is associated with retinal dysfunction in patients and VGB toxicity has been demonstrated by other laboratories in the albino rat, in our pigmented and albino rats, VGB did not induce deficits in, but rather enhanced, retinal function. Nonetheless, retinal neuronal dysplasia was observed.

  10. Protective role of vitamin C and E against sodium arsenate induced changes in developing kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, F.; Tahir, M.; Sami, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Arsenic is a teratogenic agent present in the environment as oxides and arsenate and humans are exposed to it through contaminated drinking water, food, soil and air. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate protective role of Vitamin C and E against teratogenic injury produced by sodium arsenate in developing kidney of the mouse. Methods: Twenty-four pregnant albino mice of BALB/c strain, were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 each: A1, A2, A3 and A4. Group A1 served as the control and received weight related distilled water by intra-peritoneal (I/P) injection, group A2 was given a single doses of 35 mg/kg on 8 GD whereas groups A3 and A4 were treated with Vitamin C and E by IP injection, 9 mg/kg/day and 15 mg/kg/day respectively, starting from 8 day and continued for the rest of the pregnancy period. The foetal kidneys were weighed and histological studies carried out including micrometry on different components of nephron. Results: Sodium arsenate toxicity manifested as an increase in weight of the kidneys, wider nephrogenic zone and significant reduction in the mean of number of mature renal corpuscles as compared to the control group (p<0.000). There were moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal and distal convoluted tubules; glomeruli were hyper cellular, the Bowman's spaces were obliterated. There was a statistically significant difference in mean diameter of renal corpuscles of group A2 when compared with groups A1, A3 and A4, (p<0.000). Conclusions: The findings implied that groups receiving Vitamin C and E along with sodium arsenate showed an overall improvement in all parameters, indicating the protective role of Vitamin C and E against arsenic induced teratogenicity in developing kidney and are safe to use during pregnancy without deleterious effect on human conspectuses in arsenic exposed areas. (author)

  11. Variation in the gut microbiota of laboratory mice is related to both genetic and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2010-01-01

    :NMRI stock. Comparing C57BL/6 mice from 2 vendors revealed significant differences in the microbial profile, whereas the profiles of C57BL/6Sca mice raised in separate rooms within the same breeding center were not significantly different. Furthermore, housing in individually ventilated cages did not lead......During recent years, the composition of the gut microbiota (GM) has received increasing attention as a factor in the development of experimental inflammatory disease in animal models. Because increased variation in the GM might lead to increased variation in disease parameters, determining...... microbiota in 8-wk-old NMRI and C57BL/6 mice by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to profile PCR-derived amplicons from bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Comparison of the cecal microbiotas revealed that the similarity index of the inbred C57BL/6Sca strain was 10% higher than that of the outbred Sca...

  12. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a public health problem in Nigeria accounting for more than 50% of ... weanly albino rats using nutritional, biochemical ... groundnut (16%), soy beans (16%), crayfish ... consumption was observed in rats on PC and.

  13. Chemical Composition of Pinus roxburghii Bark Volatile Oil and Validation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Using Molecular Modelling and Bleomycin-Induced Inflammation in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola M. Labib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Pinus roxburghii bark essential oil (PRO was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by evaluating the binding percentages on the cannabinoids and opioids receptors. Bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary inflammation in albino mice was adopted to assess PRO anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. In silico molecular modelling of its major components was performed on human glucocorticoids receptor (GR. Seventy-five components were identified in which longifolene (33.13% and palmitic acid (9.34% constituted the predominant components. No binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1, whereas mild binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2, delta, kappa, and mu receptors accounting for 2.9%, 6.9%, 10.9% and 22% binding. A significant in vivo activity was evidenced by reduction of the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels by 55.56%, 55.66%, 64.64%, 58.85% and 77.78% with concomitant elevation of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities comparable to BLM-treated group at 100 mg/kg body weight. In silico studies showed that palmitic acid exerted the fittest binding. PRO could serve as a potent anti-inflammatory natural candidate that should be supported by further clinical trials.

  14. Chemical Composition of Pinus roxburghii Bark Volatile Oil and Validation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Using Molecular Modelling and Bleomycin-Induced Inflammation in Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Rola M; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Ross, Samir A

    2017-08-29

    The chemical composition of Pinus roxburghii bark essential oil (PRO) was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by evaluating the binding percentages on the cannabinoids and opioids receptors. Bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary inflammation in albino mice was adopted to assess PRO anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. In silico molecular modelling of its major components was performed on human glucocorticoids receptor (GR). Seventy-five components were identified in which longifolene (33.13%) and palmitic acid (9.34%) constituted the predominant components. No binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), whereas mild binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), delta , kappa , and mu receptors accounting for 2.9%, 6.9%, 10.9% and 22% binding. A significant in vivo activity was evidenced by reduction of the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) levels by 55.56%, 55.66%, 64.64%, 58.85% and 77.78% with concomitant elevation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities comparable to BLM-treated group at 100 mg/kg body weight. In silico studies showed that palmitic acid exerted the fittest binding. PRO could serve as a potent anti-inflammatory natural candidate that should be supported by further clinical trials.

  15. The Pathophysiological Effects of Acrylamide in Albino Wister Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shler Akram Faqe Mahmood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the pathophysiological effects of suspected compounds are conducted in rodent species, especially rats and mice, to determine the potential toxic effects of a particular compound. In the assessment of acrylamide (ACR which is available as a dietary compound in daily food stuffs, the potential toxicity was determined following the method described earlier. In this study, Albino Wister rats were used and were observed for clinical abnormalities, changes in food consumption, a n d s y m p t o m s o f toxicity over a period of two months following the oral administration of ACR. Among the parameters used to assess the effect of ACR were include ovarian histopathology, blood sugar, haemogram and lipid profile. The most notable clinical abnormalities observed in a few rats were a rough coat and decreased activity. None of the rats died or howedbehavioural change resulting from treatment with ACR. The concentration of serum biochemical parameters and haemogram showed significant differences between normal and treated rats. Histological examination of the ovaries of the treated rats showed great abnormalities as well. In fact, oral ACR doses are practically toxic with regard to rats after exposure for two months at a dose rate of 30 mg/kg, suggesting the compound is quite non-innocuous.

  16. Schistosoma mansoni: aspectos quantitativos da fertilidade e sobrevida de vermes oriundos de cercárias irradiadas com 3 Krad, em camundongos Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno de Sá Cardoso

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de camundongos albinos (Mus musculus não isogênicos foram infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 450 cercárias (das cepas LE e SJ do S. mansoni não irradiadas (grupos controles e irradiadas com 3 Krad de radiação gama proveniente de cobalto-60, com a finalidade de observar o efeito da irradiação gama sobre a fertilidade das fêmeas e a sobrevida dos vermes no sistema porta. A partir do 33º dia ocorre uma certa estabilidade na população dos vermes sobreviventes, ficando esta população constante, notadamente em relação à cepa LE, até o final das observações (90º dia. Concluiu-se que esta dose de radiação gama impede a produção de ovos dos vermes em 98,1% dos camundongos infectados, sendo mortos todos os ovos detectados; as fêmeas são mais resistentes à irradiação e o efeito desta sobre a mortalidade dos machos somente se torna estatisticamente significativo a partir do 61º dia de infecção. O longo tempo de permanência de vermes adultos irradiados estéreis no sistema porta de camundongos e o seu provável envolvimento no desenvolvimento de imunoproteção, tipo imunidade concomitante sem as implicações imunopatológicas para o hospedeiro, são discutidos nesse trabalho.The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus, experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains, by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a non-irradiated (control groups, and b irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60. From the 33rd day on, some estability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90th day, notedly in relation to the LE strain. Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad is able to hinder the worm egg

  17. Swiss Albino Farelerde Fenpiroksimat (Akarisit’ın Teşvik Ettiği Biyokimyasal Değişime Karşı Fındığın Koruyucu Rolü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kültiğin ÇAVUŞOĞLU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Fenpiroksimat Tetranychidae, Eriophyiidae ve Tarsonemidae ailelerindeki önemli fitofag akarlarına karşı mücadelede kullanılan pirazol bir akarisittir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Swiss albino farelerde seçilen biyokimyasal parametreler üzerine Fenpiroksimat akarisitinin toksisitesini değerlendirmek ve bu biyokimyasal değişimlere karşı fındığın koruyucu rolünü araştırmaktır. Fareler rastgele bir (1 kontrol ve üç (3 uygulama olmak üzere toplam dört (4 gruba ayrılmıştır. Deneysel periyodun sonunda, tüm fareler hafif eter anestezisi altında bayıltılmış, biyokimyasal analiz ve ölçümler için kan örnekleri ile karaciğer ve böbrek dokuları elde edilmiştir. Serum Aspartat Aminotransferaz (AST, Alanin Aminotransferaz (ALT, Kan Üre Nitrojen (BUN ve kreatinin seviyeleri ölçülmüş, elde edilen dokularda ise Malondialdehit (MDA ve Glutatyon (GSH seviyeleri analiz edilmiştir. Sonuçta, kontrol grubu ile karşılaştırıldığında Fenpiroksimat uygulanan farelerde GSH seviyelerinde önemli bir azalma (p<0.05, AST, ALT, BUN, kreatinin ve MDA seviyelerinde ise önemli bir artış (p<0.05 görülmüştür. Fenpiroksimat uygulama grubu ile karşılaştırıldığında, Fenpiroksimat ile birlikte fındık uygulaması GSH seviyelerinde tekrar önemli bir artışa (p<0.05, AST, ALT, BUN, kreatinin ve MDA seviyelerinde ise önemli bir azalmaya (p<0.05 neden olmuştur. Sonuç olarak, fındık ile beslemenin Fenpiroksimat tarafından teşvik edilen biyokimyasal hasara karşı önemli bir koruma sağladığı söylenebilir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Albino fare, fenpiroksimat, oksidatif stres, serum parametresi Abstract. Fenpyroximate is a pyrazole acaricide with selective activity against important phytophagous mites in the families’ Tetranychidae, Eriophyiidae, and Tarsonemidae. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Fenpyroximate acaricide on selected biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice. And

  18. The Effect of Dietary Oil on the Growth and Intellectual Capacity of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea R. Aparato

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional values of three vegetable oils were evaluated on the basis of the growth response, the food efficiency ratio and the effect on mental activity. Avocado, sesame and coconut oil were the only sources of fat in the experimental diets fed to three groups of albino mice. Mice fed with avocado and sesame yielded higher body weight gains and food efficiency ratios than mice fed with coconut oil. This agrees with the reports made on the study of these oils by the biological assay. The values for the mental activity of mice fed with avocado and sesame diets were also higher. However, mice fed with avocado diet showed relatively higher values than those fed with sesame. It is possible that the content of essential fatty acids among others could be directly related to intellectual performance.

  19. Ocular distribution of topically applied adrenaline in albino and pigmented rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urtti, A.; Periviita, L.; Salminen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Systemic absorption, ocular distribution and ocular metabolism in albino and pigmented rabbit of topically applied 1% [ 3 H]1-adrenaline eye drops was studied by liquid scintillation counting and thin layer chromatography. The effect of adrenaline on the pupillary diameter was also registered. The peak plasma level of adrenaline was reached at 150 min. The corneal adrenaline metabolism was substantial, but did not vary with the rabbit strain. At 30 min after instillation, the total adrenaline concentration of pigmented iris and ciliary body exceeded that of corresponding albino tissues. At 180 min the drug concentration of the iris and ciliary body did not differ between the rabbit strains. Th time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis was equal in both rabbit strains. Since neither total adrenaline concentration at 180 min nor the time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis differed between the rabbit strains, the higher initial adrenaline uptake by pigmented tissues is not explained by pigment binding. It is proposed that the increased initial binding of adrenaline by pigmented tissues is caused by a difference between pigmented and albino tissues in the number of adrenergic neurones; this is also supported by the literature. (author)

  20. Correlation among foetal number, corpora lutea and plasma progesterone in rockland-swiss mice. [Progesterone determination by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N G; Bridges, R S; Gandelmann, R [Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick. NJ (USA). Dept. of Psychology; Rutgers - the State Univ., Newark, NJ (USA). Inst. of Animal Behavior)

    1978-01-01

    The relationship among plasma progesterone, number of corpora lutea, and foetal number was assessed in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. While number of corpora lutea and foetal number were significantly correlated, neither was related to plasma progesterone level. This finding in the mouse is similar to results reported in the rabbit.

  1. Variable Suppression of Serum Thyroxine in Female Mice of Different Inbred Strains by Triiodothyronine Administered in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly; Chen, Chun-Rong; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Background Recombinant-inbred mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to Graves'-like hyperthyroidism induced by immunization with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. Because one genetic component contributing to this susceptibility is altered thyroid sensitivity to TSH receptor agonist stimulation, we wished to quantify thyroid responsiveness to TSH. For such studies, it is necessary to suppress endogenous TSH by administering L-3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (L-T3), with the subsequent decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) reflecting endogenous TSH suppression. Our two objectives were to assess in different inbred strains of mice (i) the extent of serum T4 suppression after L-T3 administration and (ii) the magnitude of serum T4 increase induced by TSH. Methods Mice were tail-bled to establish baseline-serum T4 before L-T3 administration. We initially employed a protocol of L-T3-supplemented drinking water for 7 days. In subsequent experiments, we injected L-T3 intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 3 days. Mice were then injected i.p. with bovine TSH (10 mU) and euthanized 5 hours later. Serum T4 was assayed before L-T3 administration, and before and after TSH injection. In some experiments, serum T3 and estradiol were measured in pooled sera. Results Oral L-T3 (3 or 5 μg/mL) suppressed serum T4 levels by 26%–64% in female BALB/c mice but >95% in males. T4 suppression in female B6 mice ranged from 0% to 90%. In C3H mice, L-T3 at 3 μg/mL was ineffective but 5 μg/mL achieved >80% serum T4 reduction. Unlike inbred mice, in outbred CF1 mice the same protocol was more effective: 83% in females and 100% suppression in males. The degree of T4 suppression was unrelated to baseline T4, T3, or estradiol, but was related to mouse weight and postmortem T3, with greater suppression in larger mice (outbred CF1 animals and inbred males). Among females with serum T4 suppression >80%, the increase in serum T4 after TSH injection was greater for BALB

  2. Modulatory action of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on mitomycin C-and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Rashmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a structural analog of glucose is an effective inhibitor of glucose metabolism and ATP production. It selectively accumulates in cancer cells and interferes with glycolysis leading to cell death. 2-DG is shown to differentially enhance the radiation-induced damage in cancer cells both under euoxic and hypoxic conditions. A combination of 2-DG and ionizing radiation selectively destroys tumors while protecting the normal tissue. 2-DG is being advocated as an adjuvant in the radiotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer. Objective: The present investigation focuses on the modulatory effect of 2-DG on mitomycin C- (MMC and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO-induced cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were pretreated with 2-DG (500 mg/kg, i.p. for five consecutive days followed by MMC (2 mg/kg, i.p or 4-NQO (15 mg/kg, i.p., 24h prior to sacrifice. Control animals were given either the mixture of olive oil and acetone (3:1 or distilled water. Bone marrow cells were processed for the micronucleus assay and metaphase analysis for estimating cytogenetic damage. Results: 2-DG significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the frequency of aberrant cells induced by MMC (~90% and 4-NQO (~74%. Incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs induced by the mutagens were reduced up to 68%. Conclusion: 2-DG effectively reduces the MMC-and 4-NQO-induced genotoxicity.

  3. Histological review of skin cancers in African Albinos: a 10-year retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiprono, Samson Kimaiyo; Chaula, Baraka Michael; Beltraminelli, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is rare among Africans and albinism is an established risk for skin cancer in this population. Ultraviolet radiation is highest at the equator and African albinos living close to the equator have the highest risk of developing skin cancers. This was a retrospective study that involved histological review of all specimens with skin cancers from African albinos submitted to The Regional Dermatology Training Center in Moshi, Tanzania from 2002 to 2011. A total of 134 biopsies from 86 patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 were reviewed. Head and neck was the commonest (n = 75, 56.0%) site affected by skin cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was more common than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with a ratio of 1.2:1. Only one Acral lentiginous melanoma was reported. Majority (55.6%) of SCC were well differentiated while nodular BCC (75%) was the most common type of BCC. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common than basal cell carcinoma in African albinos

  4. Comparison of the Pathogenesis of the Angola and Ravn Strains of Marburg Virus in the Outbred Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Fenton, Karla A; Geisbert, Joan B; Ebihara, Hideki; Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Phylogenetic comparisons of known Marburg virus (MARV) strains reveal 2 distinct genetic lineages: Ravn and the Lake Victoria Marburg complex (eg, Musoke, Popp, and Angola strains). Nucleotide variances of >20% between Ravn and other MARV genomes suggest that differing virulence between lineages may accompany this genetic divergence. To date, there exists limited systematic experimental evidence of pathogenic differences between MARV strains. Uniformly lethal outbred guinea pig models of MARV-Angola (MARV-Ang) and MARV-Ravn (MARV-Rav) were developed by serial adaptation. Changes in genomic sequence, weight, temperature, histopathologic findings, immunohistochemical findings, hematologic profiles, circulating biochemical enzyme levels, coagulation parameters, viremia levels, cytokine levels, eicanosoid levels, and nitric oxide production were compared between strains. MARV-Rav infection resulted in delayed increases in circulating inflammatory and prothrombotic elements, notably lower viremia levels, less severe histologic alterations, and a delay in mean time to death, compared with MARV-Ang infection. Both strains produced more marked coagulation abnormalities than previously seen in MARV-infected mice or inbred guinea pigs. Although both strains exhibit great similarity to pathogenic markers of human and nonhuman primate MARV infection, these data highlight several key differences in pathogenicity that may serve to guide the choice of strain and model used for development of vaccines or therapeutics for Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in eye structures of mice subjected to whole-body X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakina, N.L.; Dontsov, A.E.; Afanas'ev, G.G.; Ostrovskij, M.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    In studying the effect of whole-body X-irradiation on the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, TBA-active products, and Sciff bases) in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of pigmented and nonpigmented mice it was shown that irradiation of dark-pigmented mice does not cause even a slight accumulation of lipid peroxidation products as compared to that in the controls. Albino mice exhibited a marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products which was manifested soon after irradiation and persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. Melanine is suggested to participate in protecting eye structures against pro-oxidizing action of ionizing radiation

  6. Effect of Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection on Salt Taste Perception in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0–300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies. PMID:21743094

  7. Melanoma maligno em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Florisbal Damé

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se melanomas múltiplos em dois búfalos albinos da raça Murrah no Sul do Brasil. Macroscopicamente havia múltiplos tumores enegrecidos no músculo esquelético, pulmões, linfonodos, saco pericárdio, cápsula renal, mediastino e pleura. Microscopicamente foram observadas células epitelióides poliédricas dispostas em ninhos sólidos ou fascículos entrelaçados sustentadas por um estroma colagenoso fino e esparso. O citoplasma era eosinofílico e por vezes continham quantidades variáveis de pigmento de melanina. A taxa de mitose foi baixa. Na imuno-histoquímica houve imunomarcação positiva utilizando anticorpo anti-tirosinase, anti-Melan-A, anti-vimentina, anti-proteína S-100 e antineurofilamento. É possível que o polimorfismo relacionado com o gene da pigmentação em búfalos albinos tenha contribuído para o maior risco de desenvolvimento de melanomas, como foi sugerido em humanos.

  8. Narratives of Tanzanian Albinos in Kenya and South-Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Social and Government Studies, ... A network of syndicates hunting for albinos, .... tracing of PWA's residences and locations, through friends and later through head teachers and principals in secondary schools, key informants in shopping ...

  9. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  10. BLACK TEA INFUSION AMELIORATES ENZYMATIC CHANGES INDUCED BY SUBCUTANEOUS EXPOSURE OF GASOLINE AND GM-10 IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Manjeet Dave; Ramtej Jayram Verma

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the ameliorative effect of black tea infusion on gasoline and GM-10 induced enzymatic changes in kidney of mice. Eighty healthy adult Swiss strain male albino mice weighing 32-35 gm were divided into eight groups including untreated control and various treated groups. Treated groups were subcutaneously administered with gasoline (412 mg/kg/day) and GM-10 low dose (206 mg/kg/day) and high dose (412 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Black tea infusion (2%) was...

  11. Body surface area prediction in normal, hypermuscular, and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Michael C; Spalding, Paul B; Gutierrez, Juan C; Balkan, Wayne; Namias, Nicholas; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2009-05-15

    Accurate determination of body surface area (BSA) in experimental animals is essential for modeling effects of burn injury or drug metabolism. Two-dimensional surface area is related to three-dimensional body volume, which in turn can be estimated from body mass. The Meeh equation relates body surface area to the two-thirds power of body mass, through a constant, k, which must be determined empirically by species and size. We found older values of k overestimated BSA in certain mice; thus we determined empirically k for various strains of normal, obese, and hypermuscular mice. BSA was computed from digitally scanned pelts and nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit k. The empirically determined k for C57BL/6J mice of 9.82 was not significantly different from other inbred and outbred mouse strains of normal body composition. However, mean k of the nearly spheroid, obese lepr(db/db) mice (k = 8.29) was significantly lower than for normals, as were values for dumbbell-shaped, hypermuscular mice with either targeted deletion of the myostatin gene (Mstn) (k = 8.48) or with skeletal muscle specific expression of a dominant negative myostatin receptor (Acvr2b) (k = 8.80). Hypermuscular and obese mice differ substantially from normals in shape and density, resulting in considerably altered k values. This suggests Meeh constants should be determined empirically for animals of altered body composition. Use of these new, improved Meeh constants will allow greater accuracy in experimental models of burn injury and pharmacokinetics.

  12. Immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and depression of antioxidant status by arecoline in albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Romi [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Saha, Indraneel [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Pal, Suman [Microbiology Laboratory, Bose Institute, Kankurgachi, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Bhattacharyya, Arindam [Microbiology Laboratory, Bose Institute, Kankurgachi, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Sa, Gaurisankar [Microbiology Laboratory, Bose Institute, Kankurgachi, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Nag, Tapas C [Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 020 (India); Das, Tania [Microbiology Laboratory, Bose Institute, Kankurgachi, Calcutta 700 054 (India); Maiti, B R [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India)

    2006-10-03

    Background: There are about 600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Betal quid chewing is one of the major risk factors of hepatocarcinoma, oropharyngeal and esophagus cancers. Arecoline, the main Areca alkaloid of the betel nut is reported to have cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects in various cells. It shows strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucosal fibrosis, leukoplakia and oral cancer, and has also been found to impose toxic manifestations in immune, hepatic and other defense systems of the recipient. Aim: The precise molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of arecoline deserve investigation. To clarify the action of arecoline on defense systems, immune, hepatic and detoxification system were studied in mice. Method: Cell count and cell cycle of the splenocytes were studied for evaluating cell immunity. Liver function test (LFT) was followed by assaying different enzyme systems from serum (SGPT, SGOT and ALP) and liver (GST for detoxication enzyme, SOD and catalase for antioxidant enzymes and GSH for non-enzymatic antioxidant) and by ultrastructural studies of hepatocytes. Results: Here we report that arecoline arrested splenic lymphocyte cell cycle at lower concentration with induced apoptosis at higher concentration thereby causing immunosuppression in arecoline recipients. Besides, it resulted in hepatotoxicity in arecoline recipient mice by disrupting the hepatocyte ultrastructure, as judged by liver ultrastructural studies that showed decreased nuclear size, RER with profusely inflated cysternae and abundance of lipid droplets, and by up regulating hepatotoxic marker enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) in serum. Arecoline also caused depression of antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) that are known to neutralize reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: All these above-mentioned results led us to conclude that arecoline attacks multiple targets to finally

  13. Immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and depression of antioxidant status by arecoline in albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Romi; Saha, Indraneel; Pal, Suman; Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Sa, Gaurisankar; Nag, Tapas C.; Das, Tania; Maiti, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There are about 600 million betel quid chewers in the world. Betal quid chewing is one of the major risk factors of hepatocarcinoma, oropharyngeal and esophagus cancers. Arecoline, the main Areca alkaloid of the betel nut is reported to have cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects in various cells. It shows strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucosal fibrosis, leukoplakia and oral cancer, and has also been found to impose toxic manifestations in immune, hepatic and other defense systems of the recipient. Aim: The precise molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of arecoline deserve investigation. To clarify the action of arecoline on defense systems, immune, hepatic and detoxification system were studied in mice. Method: Cell count and cell cycle of the splenocytes were studied for evaluating cell immunity. Liver function test (LFT) was followed by assaying different enzyme systems from serum (SGPT, SGOT and ALP) and liver (GST for detoxication enzyme, SOD and catalase for antioxidant enzymes and GSH for non-enzymatic antioxidant) and by ultrastructural studies of hepatocytes. Results: Here we report that arecoline arrested splenic lymphocyte cell cycle at lower concentration with induced apoptosis at higher concentration thereby causing immunosuppression in arecoline recipients. Besides, it resulted in hepatotoxicity in arecoline recipient mice by disrupting the hepatocyte ultrastructure, as judged by liver ultrastructural studies that showed decreased nuclear size, RER with profusely inflated cysternae and abundance of lipid droplets, and by up regulating hepatotoxic marker enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) in serum. Arecoline also caused depression of antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) that are known to neutralize reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: All these above-mentioned results led us to conclude that arecoline attacks multiple targets to finally

  14. Exploring alternative models for sex-linked quantitative trait loci in outbred populations: application to an iberian x landrace pig intercross.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Enciso, Miguel; Clop, Alex; Folch, Josep M; Sánchez, Armand; Oliver, Maria A; Ovilo, Cristina; Barragán, C; Varona, Luis; Noguera, José L

    2002-01-01

    We present a very flexible method that allows us to analyze X-linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) in crosses between outbred lines. The dosage compensation phenomenon is modeled explicitly in an identity-by-descent approach. A variety of models can be fitted, ranging from considering alternative fixed alleles within the founder breeds to a model where the only genetic variation is within breeds, as well as mixed models. Different genetic variances within each founder breed can be estimated. ...

  15. the reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    exposure to inhalation gasoline, which generally saturate the ambient air of their workplaces. In this study, we challenged male and female albino rats with gasoline vapour and monitored the endocrine disruptive effects as part of a comprehensive study of the health risks faced by refinery workers in Nigeria. The ultimate.

  16. Immunological evaluation of Aeromonas infection in albino rats | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common bacterial species causing an acute self limiting diarrheal illness in mammals. Albino rats were categorized into treated and control groups. Treated groups were injected daily intraperitoneally with 0.2ml of bacterial suspension containing 6x106 cells/ml of 0.9% NaCl, while the ...

  17. A study on the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Genistein against radiation mortality on Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Manju; Patni, Shikha; Gaur, Ajay; Bhatia, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective effects of an acute administration of the isoflavone, Genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) obtained from Soya foods has been investigated in adult mice. Genistein is also classified as a phytoestrogen. Genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring isoflavone mainly found in legumes, such as soyabeans. Genistein has gained increasing attention because of its association with beneficial effects for treatment of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Genistein block protein-tyrosine kinase and other enzymes that trigger tumor formation. Genistein apparently reverse the process in which cancerous cells loose their individual identity. Mice were administered with different doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 8 Gy gamma radiations and optimum dose (200 mg/kg) was worked out for the experiment. The dose of Genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered intra peritoneally (I.P.; in 0.5 ml) to mice 15 minutes and 24 hrs before gamma irradiation. Mice treated with Genistein (200 mg/kg), 24 hr before irradiation demonstrated a significant increase in 30-day survival in contrast to mice treated with Genistein 15 minutes before irradiation

  18. Sex differences in the activity of mice: modulation by postnatal gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Svare, B

    1984-03-01

    A series of six experiments was performed to examine the influence of postnatal-gonadal-hormone exposure on home-cage activity in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. Intact females were more active than their male counterparts and gonadectomy in adulthood, while reducing levels of the behavior in both sexes, did not eliminate the gender difference. Males that were castrated on the day of birth were more active than animals castrated 5, 10, or 25 days later. Also, females treated with testosterone propionate on the day of birth were less active than oil-treated controls and females exposed to the steroid 10 days after birth. Thus, perinatal exposure to gonadal hormones suppresses adult levels of home-cage activity in mice.

  19. Biochemical response of normal albino rats to the addition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the biochemical effect of Hibiscus cannabinus and Murraya koenigii extracts on normal albino rats using standard methods. Analyses carried out indicated that the aqueous leaf extract of H. cannabinus and M. koenigii exhibited significant hypolipideamic activity in normal rats.

  20. Case Report: Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino, a treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino ... headache, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, dizziness, change in ... This was the case with our patient, whose five ... We need more interventional studies in treatment of locally.

  1. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl 2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24.

  2. Malignant Melanoma in an Albino | Efem | Sudan Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oculocutaneous albinism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by generalised depigmentation, photophobia, decreased visual acuity, and nystagmus. Malignant melanoma is rare in patients with albinism. We report a case of a large advanced fumigating tumour on the right forearm of a male Nigerian albino ...

  3. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chang-Ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Cassia angustifolia in a Cadmium Induced Hepatotoxicity Assay Conducted in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21stst day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  5. STUDY OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (AMLA IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoyee Deori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The study has been undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of fruits extract of Emblica officinalis on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity on Albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology. The required amount of fresh fruits of Emblica officinalis were collected and prepared by percolation method using 90% ethyl alcohol. Oral toxicity test was performed as per OECD 423 guidelines. Liver damage was induced in Albino rats with carbon tetrachloride at the dose of 0.5 mL/kg/body weight subcutaneously. All the animals used for the experiment were kept under observation for daily food intake and body weight were measured after 7 days. The drugs were administered to the animals in the dose of 200 mg/kg/body weights by means of an intragastric feeding tube. The experiment was carried out for the period of 14 days. RESULTS The study was carried out with an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in albino rats and was compared with standard drug Silymarin. The statistical significance between groups was analysed using one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. The significance was expressed by ‘p’ values as mentioned in the tables. P value of <0.05 was considered significant. CONCLUSION From this study, it can be seen that Emblica officinalis has significant hepatoprotective activity in rats with CCL4-induced liver injury.

  6. Oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice with retinal photoreceptor cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Zuo-Ming

    2014-04-25

    It is reported that retinal neovascularization seems to rarely co-exist with retinitis pigmentosa in patients and in some mouse models; however, it is not widely acknowledged as a universal phenomenon in all strains of all animal species. We aimed to further explore this phenomenon with an oxygen-induced retinopathy model in mice with retinal photoreceptor cell degeneration. Oxygen-induced retinopathy of colored and albino mice with rapid retinal degeneration were compared to homologous wild-type mice. The retinas were analyzed using high-molecular-weight FITC-dextran stained flat-mount preparation, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained cross-sections, an immunohistochemical test for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) distribution and Western blotting for VEGF expression after exposure to hyperoxia between postnatal days 17 (P17) and 21. Leakage and areas of non-perfusion of the retinal blood vessels were alleviated in the retinal degeneration mice. The number of preretinal vascular endothelial cell nuclei in the retinal degeneration mice was smaller than that in the homologous wild-type mice after exposure to hyperoxia (Poxygen-induced retinopathy was positively correlated with the VEGF expression level. However, the VEGF expression level was lower in the retinal degeneration mice. Proliferative retinopathy occurred in mice with rapid retinal degeneration, but retinal photoreceptor cell degeneration could partially restrain the retinal neovascularization in this rapid retinal degeneration mouse model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cutaneous Cancers in Nigerian Albinos: A Review of 22 Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... Context: Albinism is an inherited disorder of hypopigmentation involving the skin, eyes, and hair. ... These data include age, gender, site of the lesion, the diagnosis, no of lesions excised .... increase awareness to treatment among the albinos and their .... their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

  8. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  9. Possible hepatotoxic consequence of nevirapine use in juvenile albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nevirapine (NVP is used in human immunodeficiency virus exposed neonates. This could present safety concern due to decreased liver metabolizing enzymes activity and renal clearance in neonates. Aims: To determine the hepatotoxic effect of NVP in juvenile albino rats. Methods: Juvenile albino rats were weighed, divided into groups and treated orally with 4-32 mg/kg/day of NVP for 14 days including a recovery group. The control groups were treated with water (placebo and normal saline (solvent. At the end of NVP treatment, rats were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and serum extracted. Serum was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB and conjugated bilirubin (CB. The liver was harvested via dissection, weighed and evaluated for AST, ALT, ALP, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA levels and histological damage. Results: The body, absolute and relative liver weights of rats in NVP treated groups were not significantly different (p>0.05 when compared to placebo. However, serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, TB and CB were significantly increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner in NVP-treated groups. Furthermore, liver levels of ALT, ALP, AST and MDA were significantly increased (p<0.05 while SOD, CAT, and GSH were decreased in a dose dependent manner in NVP-treated groups. NVP-treated rats were characterized by varying degrees of hepatic morphological alterations. However, in the recovery group, the effects of NVP were reversed. Conclusions: This study observed dose-dependent and reversible hepatotoxicity in nevirapine- treated juvenile albino rats.

  10. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Prafulla P; Jadhav, Pranita P; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Bhaskar, V H; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders.

  11. Effect of Cassava based diet on lipids concentration in albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Environ. Manage. March 2013. Vol. 17 (1) 15-19. Full-text Available Online at ... compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05) suggesting that gari ... and sugar) during processing. ). ... It was mixed and incubated for 5 minutes at 370C.

  12. EFFECTS OF RUN TRAINING ON BONE DEVELOPMENT AND BONE MINERALIZATION IN GROWING MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gönül

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We planned to study the body weights, bone sizes and bone mineral (Ca, Mg, Zn contents of growing mice subjected to treadmill training. Twelve 4-week-old male Swiss Albino mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. The mice were trained by running exercise on a flat bed treadmill with 15 m/min, 30 min/day motion, throughout 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The body weight of animals, and length, fat-free dry weight and Ca, Mg, and Zn contents of bones were measured in both groups. Body weights of animals, and lengths and wet and dry weights of the femur and the tibia were significantly higher in the exercised group. Also, the Zn, Mg and Ca mineral contents of bones in the group that underwent exercise were higher than in the other group. Running exercise with a flat bed treadmill performed by the growing mice is an effective exercise mode, especially for bone morphology.

  13. Radioresponse of mice testes with or without vitamin-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, T.K.; Goyal, P.K.; Dev, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamins have generated a great deal of interest in recent years for a wide range of protective effects in biological systems. The present study is an attempt to assess the prophylactic use of Vitamin-E against radiation induced changes in the testicular cell counts of Swiss albino mice after exposure to low dose of gamma rays. Quantitative changes in different type of testicular cells of adult Swiss albino mice exposed to 1.6 Gy gamma rays after 7 days prior treatment of vitamin-E (as α-tocopherol), once a day, were studied. The results were compared with those obtained from animals irradiated with the same dose of gamma rays in the absence of Vitamin-E. It was found that the number of different cell counts declined in the testes after irradiation. A continuous depletion was found in the frequency of different spermatogonia types and primary spermatocytes from 6 h to 5 d after irradiation both with control and experimental groups. The counts of such testicular components started elevating from day 10, but remained below normal till 20 days post-irradiation. A progressive decline in the counts of spermatids was also observed from 6 h to the last autopsy interval. However, the experimental values were significantly higher than their corresponding controls at days 10 and 20 post-irradiation intervals. It appears that the higher surviving germ cells population and lesser testicular degeneration in Vitamin-E treated animals is the result of high degree of protection provided by Vitamin-E to the germ cells, which continue to retain their proliferative activities. (author)

  14. Effect of corn silk extract on acetaminophen induced renal damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, F.; Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the protective role of Corn Silk extract on Acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity in albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in experimental research laboratory University of Health Sciences and Anatomy department, Lahore. The study duration was one year from February 2012 to February 2013. Material and Methods: Twenty seven male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 + 5 gm, were used; these animals were randomly divided into three groups having nine mice in each group. Group A served as control and was given 16.6ml/kg normal saline intraperitoneally on first day of experiment and was sacrificed on 10th day of the experiment. Group B was treated with acetaminophen 600 mg/kg dissolved in 16.6 ml of normal saline intraperitoneally on 1st day of experiment and was sacrificed after 48 hours. Group C was given acetaminophen at a dose of 600 mg/kg intraperitoneally on first day of experiment and then corn silk extract was given by oral route at a dose of 400 mg/kg for next 8 days. The animals were sacrificed on 10th day of the experiment, the kidneys were removed; 3mm three tissue pieces were fixed in 10% formaline; processed and stained with H and E for histological study. Results: It was observed on microscopic examination that Corn silk extract reduced deleterious effects of acetaminophen on tubules of kidney as evidenced by reduction of tubular vacuolation and necrosis, absence of protein casts, vascular congestion and inflammation. Conclusion: It is concluded from current results that corn silk extract protects acetaminophen induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  15. Effects of tritiated water ingestion on mice: II. Damage at cellular vis-a-vis subcellular level monitored up to four generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.N.; Sharan, R.N.; Pozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Damage at cellular level is measured using colony forming units in spleen (CFU-S) technique while that at subcellular level by DNA unwinding technique. The damage is monitored up to four generations in Swiss albino mice. The results show drastically reduced colony forming ability in mice bone marrow cells (BMC). On plotting survival fractions (percent of control) for BMC against generations of mice, the plateau is found around 50% survival. The role of DNA in colony forming ability of BMC is tested. The results indicate that, at least, initial impairment of colony ability is not DNA dependent but related to some other factor(s)

  16. Exposure to chronic variable social stress during adolescence alters affect-related behaviors and adrenocortical activity in adult male and female inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-09-01

    Rodent models provide valuable insight into mechanisms that underlie vulnerability to adverse effects of early-life challenges. Few studies have evaluated sex differences in anxiogenic or depressogenic effects of adolescent social stress in a rodent model. Furthermore, adolescent stress studies often use genetically heterogeneous outbred rodents which can lead to variable results. The current study evaluated the effects of adolescent social stress in male and female inbred (BALB/cJ) mice. Adolescent mice were exposed to repeat cycles of alternating social isolation and social novelty for 4 weeks. Adolescent social stress increased anxiety-related behaviors in both sexes and depression-related behavior in females. Locomotion/exploratory behavior was also decreased in both sexes by stress. Previously stressed adult mice produced less basal fecal corticosteroids than controls. Overall, the novel protocol induced sex-specific changes in anxiety- and depression-related behaviors and corticoid production in inbred mice. The chronic variable social stress protocol used here may be beneficial to systematically investigate sex-specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying adolescent stress vulnerability where genetic background can be controlled. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Antivenom reversal of biochemical alterations induced by black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Heterometrus fastigiousus venom (HFV was employed as antigen to produce species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV in albino mice (NIH strain. To determine SAV efficacy, it was pre-incubated with 10 LD50 of HFV and then injected subcutaneously into mice. Subsequently, mortality was observed after 24 hours. Minimum effective dose (MED was 12.5 LD50 of HFV/mL of SAV. SAV effectiveness to reverse HFV-induced biochemical alterations in mice was analyzed by challenge method. Simultaneously, mice received subcutaneously 40% of 24-hour-LD50 of HFV and intravenously SAV. After four hours, changes in serum glucose, free amino acids, uric acids, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase enzyme level were determined. Treatment with species-specific SAV resulted in the reversal of HFV-induced biochemical alterations.

  18. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  19. Hypolipidemic action of garlic unsaturated oils in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    1988-01-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with 74 KBq g -1 body weight of radiocalcium 45 Ca in the presence and absence of unsaturated oils of garlic, and changes in the total lipids and triglycerides contents of liver were observed at various intervals from 1 to 14 days. The results obtained indic ate that the garlic oils prevented rapid increase in hepatic total lipids and triglycerides induced by radiocalcium and the values reached normal values earlier in garlic-treated than in irradiated animals. Possible mechanism(s) underlying hypolipidemic action of garlic oil have been discussed. (author). 22 refs

  20. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.J.; Saleem, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  1. Effect of antiretroviral drug (arved) on hepatic enzymes in albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with very little or no laboratory monitory, limited attention has been given to side effects ... A total of fifty two (52) albino rats were randomly divided into four groups ... The mean value of ALT activity for the drug in dose dependent manner was ...

  2. Modifications in sperm quality of Wister Albino Rats by Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a well known herb, Phyllanthus amarus on the sperm characteristics in male albino rats was studied. This was an investigation of the age-long claim by the locales in the rural communities in the southern states of Nigeria where this plant is consumed religiously that it affects sperm quality, hence sexual potency ...

  3. Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Activities of Phragmanthera austroarabica Extract in Pentylenetetrazole-Kindled Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibah M. Aldawsari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activity of Phragmanthera austroarabica extract were tested in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. All the chemical constituents of the plant extract were identified. Additionally, the extract was standardized and proved to contain total phenolic contents equal to 379.92±1.32 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry plant extract. Induction of kindling was achieved by repeated intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg twice weekly. Male albino mice were given P. austroarabica extract (200, 400, or 800 mg/kg. The two higher doses (400 or 800 mg/kg of the extract significantly caused notable reduction in seizure activity and hippocampal malondialdehyde level compared to pentylenetetrazole control group. The highest dose enhanced cortical GSH level and showed intact DNA in the laddering assay. Upon studying the neuroprotective effect, mice treated with the higher dose of the extract demonstrated an improvement in the percent of surviving neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. We concluded that P. austroarabica extract ameliorated seizure activity and protected cortical and hippocampal neurons against pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice.

  4. Strontium-85 in the fetuses of pregnant rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyskowova, Z.; Josifko, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pregnant SPF Wistar rats and ICR/Swiss albino mice were injected in the tail vein with 85 SrCl 2 with 0.05mM inactive carrier (SrCl 2 ) given in volumes of 0.1 ml. The activity in the injected volume.was about 14 MBq per kg of rat and 13 MBq per kg of mouse. The animals were injected on day 3 or 13 of gestation. Activity retained by the fetuses was quantitatively determined at three stages of the fetal intrauterine development: in rats on days 14, 16 and 21 of gestation, in mice on days 14, 16 and 20 of gestation. The activity of fetuses and/or placentas with fetal membranes was measured using a TESLA automatic gamma counter. The results indicate that the fetuses of mice retained a significantly (P<0.01) greater proportion of strontium activity than the fetuses of rats. The highest specific activities (the percentage of total activity retained per gram of fetal tissue) were found in the late pregnancy period on (day 21 of gestation in rats and on day 20 of gestation in mice) in animals that were injected with the radionuclide on day 13 of gestation. (author)

  5. Antigenotoxic effects of a polyherbal drug septilin against the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shruthi

    Full Text Available Septilin (Spt is a polyherbal drug formulation from Himalaya Drug Company, consisting of extracts from different medicinal plants and minerals. In the traditional system of medicine, septilin is being used as immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In the present study, the protective effects of septilin against the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CP a widely used alkylating anticancer drug was evaluated by using in vivo micronucleus (MN and sperm shape abnormality assays in Swiss albino mice. CP administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. was used as positive mutagen. Different doses of septilin viz., 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. was orally administered for 5 consecutive days. CP was administered intraperitoneally on 5th day. MN and sperm preparations were made after 24 h and 35 days respectively. CP induced significant MN in both bone marrow and peripheral blood cells and also a high frequency of abnormal sperms. In septilin supplemented animals, no significant induction of MN and abnormal sperms was recorded. In septilin supplemented groups, a dose dependent significant decrease in CP induced clastogenicity was observed. Thus the current in vivo study revealed the antigenotoxic effects of septilin against CP induced damage, in both somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice. Keywords: Septilin, Cyclophosphamide, Micronucleus test, Sperm abnormality, Antigenotoxic

  6. Effect of calcium bentonite on lipid parameters in Wistar albino rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo effect of Nigerian calcium bentonite clay on rat plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels of Wistar albino rats was investigated. The rats were fed for a period of four weeks with varying concentrations of the bentonite clay, and the cholesterol and triglyceride levels determined using spectrophotometric methods.

  7. Impact of Lutein Intervention in Mice on the Radiation Induced Clastogenic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Vasudeva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the genetic effects of radiation is that it may lead to formation of single or double strand breaks in DNA which can be observed in differentially stained polychromatic or normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE and NCE respectively. In pursuit of finding a natural radioprotector to treat the radiation induced damages; lutein, a carotenoid pigment is one such approach. Swiss albino mice are administered with the compound (lutein/gallic acid/DMSO with respective controls for 15 consecutive days after which they are irradiated. The whole blood is drawn for comet assay and the femur of the leg is removed to flush out the content of the bone marrow in BSA for the micronucleus assay. The comet slides are observed under the fluorescent microscope and the PCE/NCE or micronucleated PCEs or NCEs are scored blindly. Lutein in the present study has effectively reduced the olive moment and the tail moment. However, % DNA in tail has been maintained to normal levels in comparison to its control indicating lesser extent of damage to the genetic material. The percent micronucleated NCE (MnNCE has been decreased in the group treated with lutein prior to radiation. The % MnPCE and the PCE/(PCE + NCE ratio has been increased in all the irradiated groups; however lutein treatment has not drastically increased the formation of micronuclei in comparison to its control. This indicates that lutein shows a protective effect against the radiation induced cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice.

  8. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  9. Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

  10. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  11. Tritium toxicity on postnatally developing mice testes: a qualitative and quantitative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to evaluate the possible radiobiological effects of tritiated water (HTO) on the testes of Swiss albino mice during postnatal development. Mice were continuously irradiated with different doses providing 46, 93 and 185 kBq of HTO per ml drinking water (after a priming injection) from day 1 after brith up to 6 weeks of age. Qualitative and quantitative studies were made at 6 weeks old mice testes and were compared with the sham-irradiated controls. A dose-dependent damage is noticed in the testes in the form of various radiopathological lesions such as intertubular edema, necrotic and pycnotic cells at various stages, mild cytoplasmic vacuolation, fibrosis, sclerosis, cellular edema etc. The number of various germ cells at their different phases were greatly reduced. 185 kBq/ml affect severely the spermatogonia and spermatid populations. The primary spermatocyte level was maintained at the range 64 +- 3.5%

  12. Tritium toxicity on postnatally developing mice testes: a qualitative and quantitative evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, A.L. (Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Radiation Biology Lab.)

    1982-11-01

    The present study is an attempt to evaluate the possible radiobiological effects of tritiated water (HTO) on the testes of Swiss albino mice during postnatal development. Mice were continuously irradiated with different doses providing 46, 93 and 185 kBq of HTO per ml drinking water (after a priming injection) from day 1 after brith up to 6 weeks of age. Qualitative and quantitative studies were made at 6 weeks old mice testes and were compared with the sham-irradiated controls. A dose-dependent damage is noticed in the testes in the form of various radiopathological lesions such as intertubular edema, necrotic and pycnotic cells at various stages, mild cytoplasmic vacuolation, fibrosis, sclerosis, cellular edema etc. The number of various germ cells at their different phases were greatly reduced. 185 kBq/ml affect severely the spermatogonia and spermatid populations. The primary spermatocyte level was maintained at the range 64 +- 3.5%.

  13. Efficacy of Albendazole-Chitosan Microsphere-based Treatment for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitiseyiti Abulaihaiti

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the pharmacology and anti-parasitic efficacy of albendazole-chitosan microspheres (ABZ-CS-MPs for established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in an experimental murine model. Male outbred Kunming mice infected with E. multilocularis Metacestodes were administered with three ABZ formulations, namely, ABZ-CS-MPs, Liposome-Albendazole (L-ABZ, and albendazole tablet (ABZ-T. Each of the ABZ formulations was given orally at three different doses of 37.5, 75, and 150 mg/kg, three times a week for 12 weeks postinfection. After administering the drugs, we monitored the pharmacological performance and anti-parasitic efficacy of ABZ-CS-MPs compared with L-ABZ, and ABZ-T treated mice. ABZ-CS-MPs reduced the weight of tissues containing E. multilocularis metacestodes most effectively compared with the ABZ-T group and untreated controls. Metacestode grown was Highly suppressed during treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs. Significantly higher plasma levels of ABZ metabolites were measured in mice treated with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ compared with ABZ-T. In particular, enhanced ABZ-sulfoxide concentration profiles were observed in the mice given 150 mg/kg of ABZ-CS-MPs, but not in the mice treated with L-ABZ. Histological examination showed that damages caused disorganization of both the germinal and laminated layers of liver hyatid cysts, demolishing their characteristic structures after treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ. Over time, ABZ-CS-MPs treatment induced a shift from Th2-dominant to Th1-dominant immune response. CS-MPs As a new carrier exhibited improved absorption and increased bioavailability of ABZ in the treatment of E. multilocularis infections in mice.

  14. Efficacy of Albendazole-Chitosan Microsphere-based Treatment for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulaihaiti, Maitiseyiti; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Qiao, Lei; Lv, Hai-Long; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Aduwayi, Nasrul; Wang, Yan-Jie; Wang, Xin-Chun; Peng, Xin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacology and anti-parasitic efficacy of albendazole-chitosan microspheres (ABZ-CS-MPs) for established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes in an experimental murine model. Male outbred Kunming mice infected with E. multilocularis Metacestodes were administered with three ABZ formulations, namely, ABZ-CS-MPs, Liposome-Albendazole (L-ABZ), and albendazole tablet (ABZ-T). Each of the ABZ formulations was given orally at three different doses of 37.5, 75, and 150 mg/kg, three times a week for 12 weeks postinfection. After administering the drugs, we monitored the pharmacological performance and anti-parasitic efficacy of ABZ-CS-MPs compared with L-ABZ, and ABZ-T treated mice. ABZ-CS-MPs reduced the weight of tissues containing E. multilocularis metacestodes most effectively compared with the ABZ-T group and untreated controls. Metacestode grown was Highly suppressed during treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs. Significantly higher plasma levels of ABZ metabolites were measured in mice treated with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ compared with ABZ-T. In particular, enhanced ABZ-sulfoxide concentration profiles were observed in the mice given 150 mg/kg of ABZ-CS-MPs, but not in the mice treated with L-ABZ. Histological examination showed that damages caused disorganization of both the germinal and laminated layers of liver hyatid cysts, demolishing their characteristic structures after treatment with ABZ-CS-MPs or L-ABZ. Over time, ABZ-CS-MPs treatment induced a shift from Th2-dominant to Th1-dominant immune response. CS-MPs As a new carrier exhibited improved absorption and increased bioavailability of ABZ in the treatment of E. multilocularis infections in mice.

  15. Modification of postnatal hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after gamma radiation in utero by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.; Kumar, S.; Dev, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were irradiated with oamma radiation at post-conception days 14.5, 16.25 and 18.25. Hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of the male offsprings were found to be below normal during the early postnatal development. The value became normal from 4 week onwards. However these values were found to be significantly elevated in the early postnatal development of the male offsprings of the mice which were administered MPG before irradiation. The possible radioprotective mechanism of MPG is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  16. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The activity of pomegranate extract standardized 40% ellagic acid during the healing process of incision wounds in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid on the incised wound in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty albino rats were divided into 10 treatment groups. The five groups were sacrificed on the 8th day, while the others were sacrificed on the 15th day. Two groups of albino rats with incised wound were not treated at all (P0, the other two groups of albino rats with incised wound were treated with Betadine® (P1 ointment, and the rest of the groups were treated with pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid with a concentration of 2.5% (P2, 5% (P3, and 7.5% (P4. The treatments were carried out twice a day with an interval of 12 h for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the research, the skin tissue of those albino rats had been taken for histopathologic preparations before H and E staining was performed. Results: Collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis degree in Group P4 treated with 7.5% pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid for 14 days were significantly different from those in Groups P0, P1, P2, and P3, especially in the case of PMN inflammation (p<0.05. Conclusion: The administration of 7.5% pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid for 14 days on incised wounds of those albino rats can accelerate the wound healing process characterized by collagen deposition improvement, PMN infiltration in the wound area, angiogenesis, and fibrosis degree.

  18. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    V Vengaiah; A Govardhan Naik; C Changamma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, esti...

  19. Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine encoding Toscana virus NSs retains neuroinvasiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, Sabarish V; Lihoradova, Olga A; Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Kalveram, Birte; Head, Jennifer A; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Smith, Jennifer K; Zhang, Lihong; Juelich, Terry L; Gong, Bin; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) causes high rates of abortion and fetal malformation in pregnant ruminants, and haemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans. The MP-12 strain is a highly efficacious and safe live-attenuated vaccine candidate for both humans and ruminants. However, MP-12 lacks a marker to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. In this study, we originally aimed to characterize the efficacy of a recombinant RVFV MP-12 strain encoding Toscana virus (TOSV) NSs gene in place of MP-12 NSs (rMP12-TOSNSs). TOSV NSs promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and inhibits interferon-β gene up-regulation without suppressing host general transcription. Unexpectedly, rMP12-TOSNSs increased death in vaccinated outbred mice and inbred BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice. Immunohistochemistry showed diffusely positive viral antigens in the thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem, including the medulla. No viral antigens were detected in spleen or liver, which is similar to the antigen distribution of moribund mice infected with MP-12. These results suggest that rMP12-TOSNSs retains neuroinvasiveness in mice. Our findings demonstrate that rMP12-TOSNSs causes neuroinvasion without any hepatic disease and will be useful for studying the neuroinvasion mechanism of RVFV and TOSV.

  20. Effects of dietary protein quality and quantity on albino rat tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary protein quality and quantity on albino rat tissue serum protein, erythrocyte fragility and bone mineral content. ... The 20% protein diet was a commercial diet better in nutrient composition and quality than the diet containing 17 and 15% protein formulated in our laboratory. At the end of 21 days, kidney, testes, ...

  1. Biochemical Changes in the Serum and Liver of albino rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical changes in the serum and liver of albino rats chronically exposed to rats administered 5gk-1 , 7.5gk-1 and 15gk-1 of gasoline , kerosine and crude petroleum(bonny light) respectively were studied. The petroleum samples were administered intraperitoneally and the biochemical changes in the rat serum and the ...

  2. Effects of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) extract consumption on leukocytes increase in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro Terrazos, Jony; Moisés Saldaña, Ítalo

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the article published by Amaro, which shows that there is an increase of leukocytes to manage beets in albino mice of the species Mus musculus Balb / c (1) strain. We want to share the results of a study that bean (Vicia faba L.), a plant that has the role in the diet of rural and urban dwellers for its contribution in proteins characteristic of all legume was used, and for their contribution carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. The importance of this kind is increasing ...

  3. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  4. Amelioration of lead induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

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    Sharma A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a blue-gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth crust and isspread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativumto reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oraltreatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/ kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50 induceda significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanineaminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ALP, cholesterol, lipidperoxidation (LPO and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead exposed mice weresignificantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status ofthe liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxidedismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione (GSH. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kgbody weight for 10 days, the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/ kg body weight and500 mg/ kg body weight and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/ kg body weight and 250 mg/ kg bodyweight and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly Histological examination of theliver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate exposed group and treatment with garlicimproved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract thedeleterious effects of lead nitrate.

  5. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  6. Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Susana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.

  7. Colorimetry provides a rapid objective measurement of de novo hair growth rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzung, Tien-Yi; Yang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yung-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Depilated mice have been used as a test platform for hair growth-regulating agents. However, currently available assessment tools for hair growth in mice are less than ideal. Tristimulus colorimetry of the fur color of depilated agouti, albino, and black mice with L*, a*, and b* values were performed daily until the full growth of pelage. Using light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (650 and 890 nm) with a daily dose of 3.5 J/cm(2) as hair growth regulators, the hair growth rates observed by the global assessment were compared with those derived from colorimetry. In contrast to a* and b* values, L* values changed more drastically over time in the anagen phase regardless of fur color. Unlike the inhibitory effect of 650 nm irradiation, LED of 890 nm promoted de novo hair regrowth in mice. The difference in hair growth rates detected by colorimetry paralleled the observation made by the global assessment. The L* value of fur color obtained by tristimulus colorimetry was a sensitive yet quantitative indicator of de novo hair growth, and could be used to project the hair growth rate in mice.

  8. Effects of imidazole derivatives in the survival of 60Co irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mastro, N.L. del.

    1988-07-01

    The presence of hypoxic and radioresistant cells is considered the main reason of failure in radiotherapy of neoplasms. Hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, as nitroimidazole derivatives, have an advantage over other alternative methods for improving the effects of radiotherapy since hypoxic cells exist in considerable concentration in tumours and only in small concentration in normal tissues. Its show also a direct cytotoxicity over the hypoxic cell population. In this work, studies on combining ip administered drugs and single dose radiation treatments in healthy albino mice are presented. It was compared the action of 2-nitroimidazole, levamisole and cysteine, the latest considered as radioprotector for several biological systems. The results showed some radioprotective action for 2 - nitroimidazole (MISO), sensitizer capacity for levamisole and in those conditions, cysteine failed to produce any effects on the survival of 9 Gy 60 Co irradiated mice. (author) [pt

  9. Does melatonin help save dopaminergic cells in MPTP-treated mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jeannine; Shaw, Victoria E; Mitrofanis, John

    2009-05-01

    This study explores whether melatonin neuroprotects dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) from degeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice (well-known animal model of Parkinson disease). BALB/c albino mice were divided into four experimental groups. In each, mice received three series (over a 24-h period) of two intraperitoneal injections (1h apart) in different combinations. The different groups and their combinations of injections were: (1) Saline (saline, saline); (2) Mel (melatonin, saline); (3) MPTP (saline, MPTP); (4) Mel-MPTP (melatonin, MPTP). Six days after the last injection, all mice were perfused transcardially with aldehyde fixative. Brains were processed for routine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; rate limiting enzyme for dopamine production) immunochemistry and Nissl staining. Our results - using unbiased stereology - showed that there were more TH(+) (50%) and Nissl-stained (30%) cells in the SNc of the Mel-MPTP group compared to the MPTP group, indicating a clear saving or neuroprotection of these cells. In fact, we found no significant difference between the number of TH(+) and Nissl-stained SNc cells in the Mel-MPTP group compared to the controls, namely Saline and Mel groups. This indicated that melatonin pre-treatment potentially neuroprotected all the SNc cells from MPTP toxicity and death.

  10. Determination of the temperature causing a nociceptive response in the tail of albino BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Siancas, E E; Lam Figueroa, N M; Delgado Rios, J C; Ruiz Ramirez, E; Portilla Flores, O S; Crispín Huamaní, L J; Alarcón Velásquez, L

    2018-06-08

    Designs for determining nociceptive response in rodents are of great use in neurology and experimental neuroscience. Immersing mice's tails in warm water is one of the most widely used procedures to evaluate this response; however, a wide range of temperatures are used in different studies. Knowing the temperature that produces a powerful nociceptive response in the tail of BALB/c mice is extremely useful. Eight 2-month-old male BALB/c mice were used. A 14-cm high beaker was filled with water up to 13 cm. The animals' tails were immersed in the container with a starting temperature of 36°C. The water temperature was raised in 1°C increments until we identified the temperatures that produced nociceptive responses. That response was determined by counting the time taken before the mouse shook its tail to remove it from the water. Six of the 8 mice began shaking their tails at the temperature of 51°C. All animals removed their tails from the water at the temperatures of 54°C, 55°C, and 56°C, taking a mean time of 8.54, 7.99, and 5.33seconds, respectively. ANOVA applied to the response times for each of the 3 temperatures indicated revealed a value of F=2.8 (P=.123). The response time was statistically similar for the temperatures of 54°C, 55°C, and 56°C; however, the data were less dispersed for the latter temperature. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Capsaicin induced histological and ultrastructural changes in the submandibular salivary gland of albino rats

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    Ahmed Mahmoud Halawa

    2016-06-01

    From the present work, it could be concluded that chronic capsaicin intake was associated with noticeable histological and ultrastructural changes in acini, granular convoluted tubules and excretory ducts of the SMSG in albino rats.

  12. Distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in the skins of normal and albino adult turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huarong; HUANG Bing; QI Fei; ZHANG Shicui

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in skins of normal and albino adult turbots were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of pigment cells of melanophore, iridophore and xanthophore have been recognized in adult turbot skins. The skin color depends mainly on the amount and distribution of melanophore and iridophore, as xanthophore is quite rare. No pigment cells can be found in the epidermis of the skins. In the pigmented ocular skin of the turbot, melanophore and iridophore are usually co-localized in the dermis. This is quite different from the distribution in larvae skin. In albino and white blind skins of adult turbots, however, only iridophore monolayer still exists, while the melanophore monolayer disappears. This cytological evidence explains why the albino adult turbot, unlike its larvae, could never resume its body color no matter what environmental and nutritional conditions were provided. Endocytosis is quite active in the cellular membrane of the iridophore. This might be related to the formation of reflective platelet and stability of the iridophore.

  13. The Combination of Antidepressant Duloxetine with Piracetam in Mice does not Produce Enhancement of Nootropic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Pravin Popatrao; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu; Sarkar, Amrita; Patel, Sonam; Savai, Jay

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong association between depression and memory impairment. The present study aims to assess the nootropic activity of duloxetine and piracetam combination. Male Swiss Albino mice were divided randomly into 4 groups. Treatment of normal saline (10 ml/kg), duloxetine (10 mg/kg), piracetam (100 mg/kg), and duloxetine (5 mg/kg) plus piracetam (50 mg/kg) were given through intra-peritoneal route to group I-IV, respectively. Transfer latency in elevated plus maze (EPM) and time spent i...

  14. Effect of Cr-Vi on skeletal muscles of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeel, H.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium plays an important role in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as it's an essential trace element in human nutrition. It was found that patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without chromium developed glucose intolerance, weight loss and peripheral neuropathy Chromium is present in a normal diet at trace (but essential) levels. Occupational exposure is related to the industrial uses of chrome compounds in production and use of steels, pigments, leather tanning and wood preservation solutions, plating chemicals, and cement. Toxicity is predominantly associated with industrial exposures. Its trivalent form is the most stable form and can't cross the cell membrane. Hexavalent chromium crosses the cell membrane and is reduced to Cr- V, Cr-IV and Cr-111. Once in trivalent form it can combine with nuclear proteins and nucleic acids causing adverse effects and derangements. Hexavalent chromium compounds appear to have severe toxicity and almost all tissues of body are affected. To evaluate the effects on skeletal muscles, present study was carried out. The mice of experimental group (2wks, 4wks, 6wks and 8wks) were injected Potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/ Cr/sub 2/0/sub 7/) intraperitoneally according to experimental design. The drug caused slight to marked inflammation of skeletal muscle fibers and vaculations of nuclei was also observed indicating degenerative changes. (author)

  15. Effects of bentonite on plasma urea and creatinine of wistar albino rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo effect of Nigerian calcium bentonite clay on wistar albino rat plasma urea and creatinine levels were investigated. The rats were fed for a period of four weeks with varying concentrations of the bentonite clay, and the urea and creatinine levels determined using spectrophotometric methods. Test results showed ...

  16. Prevention Of Radiation Induced Hematological Alterations By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modulatory influence of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) leaves extract was investigated in Swiss albino mice at a dose of 3 Gy gamma radiation. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice were irradiated with 3 Gy gamma rays in the presence (experimental) or absence (control) of rosemary (1000 mg/kg body wt.).

  17. Article Title:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garima

    albino mice at a dose of 3 Gy gamma radiation. ... registered low in the blood, whereas a significant elevation was estimated in rosemary ... Natural products of plant origin may prove to be protective against ionizing irradiation if .... have attempted to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect of R. officinalis in Swiss albino mice.

  18. The Anti-Diarrhea Properties Of Zingibier Offcinale | Nwoko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The crude extract of the plant Zingiber officinale has a high folkloric reputation for anti-diarrhea activity. This study investigated the scientific basis of this folkloric claim. Materials and Methods: Diarrhea was induced in albino mice and albino wistar rats using Castor-oil. The animals (mice) were offered the ...

  19. RhD Specific Antibodies Are Not Detectable in HLA-DRB11501* Mice Challenged with Human RhD Positive Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidice Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to study the immune response to the RhD antigen in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn has been hampered by the lack of a mouse model of RhD immunization. However, the ability of transgenic mice expressing human HLA DRB11501* to respond to immunization with purified RhD has allowed this question to be revisited. In this work we aimed at inducing anti-RhD antibodies by administering human RhD+ RBCs to mice transgenic for the human HLA DRB11501* as well as to several standard inbred and outbred laboratory strains including C57BL/6, DBA1/J, CFW(SW, CD1(ICR, and NSA(CF-1. DRB11501* mice were additionally immunized with putative extracellular immunogenic RhD peptides. DRB11501* mice immunized with RhD+ erythrocytes developed an erythrocyte-reactive antibody response. Antibodies specific for RhD could not however be detected by flow cytometry. Despite this, DRB11501* mice were capable of recognizing immunogenic sequences of Rh as injection with Rh peptides induced antibodies reactive with RhD sequences, consistent with the presence of B cell repertoires capable of recognizing RhD. We conclude that while HLA DRB11501* transgenic mice may have the capability of responding to immunogenic sequences within RhD, an immune response to human RBC expressing RhD is not directly observed.

  20. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-04-05

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the S(D) effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the S(D) effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the S(D) effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Activity of Catalase (CAT, ALT and AST in Different Organs of Swiss Albino Mice Treated with Lead Acetate, Vitamin C and Magnesium-L-Threonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Nazmi Mazreku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a natural element with toxic properties and is widespread in the environment. Lead toxicity is associated with generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and consumption of antioxidants elements (vitamin E and C, glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid, melatonin, carotenoids and natural flavonoids in the cell, and unbalancing oxidantsantioxidants levels. Aim: To evaluate the effects of different chemical combinations (lead acetate, Vitamin C and Magnesium-L-threonate on antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase-CAT of liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and brain, and serum transaminases [Serum Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST]. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals (49 male Mus musculus-swiss albino mice were separated into five different groups. The first group was used as a control, hence the other four groups were treated with sub-lethal doses (90 mg/kg of lead acetate (group 2, lead acetate (90 mg/kg and Vitamin C dose 40mg/kg (group 3, lead acetate (90 mg/kg and Magnesium-Lthreonate dose 100 mg/kg (group 4 and only with MagnesiumL-threonate dose 100 mg/kg (group 5, during the treatment period (40 days. Blood samples were taken from the facial vein and used for transaminase analysis. Organ tissue was collected after euthanizing anaesthetized animals with neck dislocation technique. Results: The results showed that lead acetate treatment has caused significant elevation in the activity of AST (group 2 and 3 and ALT (group 3. Also, CAT activity was significantly (p<0.05 increased in groups treated with lead acetate (liver, pancreas, kidney and brain but not in spleen. Treatment of lead intoxicated groups with Vitamin C and Magnesium L-threonate increased significantly CAT activity in brain. Conclusion: Lead effects by interacting with different molecular systems and increasing enzyme activity (CAT, ALT and AST. Effects on CAT activity of Magnesium-L-threonate and Vitamin C treatment

  2. Effect of ovariectomy on the levels of plasma sex hormones in albino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the levels of sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone & estradiol), six weeks post normal ovariectomy as against estimating the levels immediately or less 48 hours after operation. 28 adult female albino rats of Wistar strain were used. They were fed twice a day with Guinea pellets and ...

  3. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via dr...

  4. New insight into the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Tretinoin in NMRI mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Recent evidence have proposed that Tretinoin produced in the gut preferentially promote differentiation of FoxP3+Treg cells but inhibits Th17 lymphocytes, and this may be the main immunomdulatory mechanism of Tretinoin  in vivo. This study was done to investigate the effects of Tretinoin in outbred white mice after challenge with sheep red blood cells (SRBC. Materials and Methods: Twenty male NMRI-mice randomly allocated in two equal groups. Mice were treated with 1×109 SRBCs emulsified in CFA intraperitoneally twice with one weak interval. Animals were bled 5 days after last injection. Moreover, 48 hr before bleeding time, 1×109 SRBCs were injected into the left hind foot pad of mice. Tretinoin (25 mg/kg-every other day were intraperitoneally injected into the treatment group from the beginning of the study and continued throughout the study. The levels of anti-SRBC antibody and the specific cellular immune responses were measured by microhemagglutination test and footpad thickness, respectively. Moreover, splenocytes were checked for proliferation rate, respiratory burst, cytokine production and FoxP3+Treg cells frequency. Results: Tretinoin markedly alleviated cellular immunity and concurrently potentiated humoral immunity after mice challenge with SRBCs. Furthermore, aside from reducing NBT reduction and lymphocyte proliferation, Tretinoin markedly suppressed the secretion of interleukin-17 and conversely, increased the production of interleukin-10. However, the level of IFN-γ and the frequency of FoxP3+Treg cells did not alter significantly. Conclusion: The in vivo immunomudlatoty effects of Tretinoin may be partly due to immune deviation from pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 to anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, but not absolutely depend on the expansion of FoxP3+Treg cells.

  5. COMPARISON OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Qureshi, Hamid Javaid; Saleem, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa or "Kalonji" is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 µl was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (pdiclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium.

  6. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on Haloperidol-induced Catalepsy in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishchal, B. S.; Rai, S.; Prabhu, M. N.; Ullal, Sheetal D.; Rajeswari, S.; Gopalakrishna, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we have attempted to evaluate the anticataleptic effect of Tribulus terrestris on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice. Mice were allocated to four groups, each group containing six animals. Both, the test drug, Tribulus terrestris and the standard drug trihexyphenidyl were uniformly suspended in 1% gum acacia solution. Catalepsy was induced in mice with haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The first group received the vehicle (10 ml/kg, orally), the second group received trihexyphenidyl (10 mg/kg, orally) and the remaining two groups received Tribulus terrestris (100, 200 mg/kg, orally). The animals were assessed after single and repeated dose administration for ten days, 30 min prior to haloperidol, using standard bar test. The result of the present study demonstrates Tribulus terrestris has a protective effect against haloperidol-induced catalepsy, which is comparable to the standard drug used for the same purpose. Our study indicates Tribulus terrestris can be used to prevent haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal side effects. PMID:25593394

  7. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on Haloperidol-induced Catalepsy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishchal, B S; Rai, S; Prabhu, M N; Ullal, Sheetal D; Rajeswari, S; Gopalakrishna, H N

    2014-01-01

    Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we have attempted to evaluate the anticataleptic effect of Tribulus terrestris on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice. Mice were allocated to four groups, each group containing six animals. Both, the test drug, Tribulus terrestris and the standard drug trihexyphenidyl were uniformly suspended in 1% gum acacia solution. Catalepsy was induced in mice with haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The first group received the vehicle (10 ml/kg, orally), the second group received trihexyphenidyl (10 mg/kg, orally) and the remaining two groups received Tribulus terrestris (100, 200 mg/kg, orally). The animals were assessed after single and repeated dose administration for ten days, 30 min prior to haloperidol, using standard bar test. The result of the present study demonstrates Tribulus terrestris has a protective effect against haloperidol-induced catalepsy, which is comparable to the standard drug used for the same purpose. Our study indicates Tribulus terrestris can be used to prevent haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal side effects.

  8. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose ...

  9. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p alopecia. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Memory-Enhancing Activity of Palmatine in Mice Using Elevated Plus Maze and Morris Water Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhingra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmatine on memory of Swiss young male albino mice. Palmatine (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p. and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. per se were administered for 10 successive days to separate groups of mice. Effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice was evaluated using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also estimated. Effect of palmatine on scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia was also investigated. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg and physostigmine significantly improved learning and memory of mice, as indicated by decrease in transfer latency using elevated plus maze, and decrease in escape latency during training and increase in time spent in target quadrant during retrieval using Morris water maze. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice. Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine (1 mg/kg was comparable to physostigmine. Palmatine (1 mg/kg significantly reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. Palmatine and physostigmine also significantly reduced brain acetylcholinesterase activity of mice. Thus, palmatine showed memory-enhancing activity in mice probably by inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase activity, through involvement of GABA-benzodiazepine pathway, and due to its antioxidant activity.

  11. Piroxicam attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Jadiswami; H M, Megha; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Potadar, Pandharinath P; B S, Thippeswamy; V P, Veerapur

    2014-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p.) regularly for 14 days. Body weights of the mice were measured on alternative days of the experiment. At the end of the treatment schedule, mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations (movement analysis, locomotor test, beam walking test and hanging wire test) and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and catalase). Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral activities and brain antioxidant status in mice. Piroxicam, at both the tested doses, caused a significant reversal of 3-NP-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice. These findings suggest piroxicam protects the mice against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration. The antioxidant properties of piroxicam may be responsible for the observed beneficial actions.

  12. Effect of vitamin C on N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin C on paraquat-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) and paraquat (15 mg/kg) + vitamin C (20 mg/kg) were used in the study. The drugs were administered ...

  13. Using the Mouse Grimace Scale to Reevaluate the Efficacy of Postoperative Analgesics in Laboratory Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Lynn C; Sorge, Robert E; Sotocinal, Susana G; Tabaka, John M; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Zaloum, Austin; King, Oliver D; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pain management in animals is complicated greatly by the inability to recognize pain. As a result, the choice of analgesics and their doses has been based on extrapolation from greatly differing pain models or the use of measures with unclear relevance to pain. We recently developed the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS), a facial-expression–based pain coding system adapted directly from scales used in nonverbal human populations. The MGS has shown to be a reliable, highly accurate measure of spontaneous pain of moderate duration, and therefore is particularly useful in the quantification of postoperative pain. In the present study, we quantified the relative intensity and duration of postoperative pain after a sham ventral ovariectomy (laparotomy) in outbred mice. In addition, we compiled dose–response data for 4 commonly used analgesics: buprenorphine, carprofen, ketoprofen, and acetaminophen. We found that postoperative pain in mice, as defined by facial grimacing, lasts for 36 to 48 h, and appears to show relative exacerbation during the early dark (active) photophase. We find that buprenorphine was highly effective in inhibiting postoperative pain-induced facial grimacing in mice at doses equal to or lower than current recommendations, that carprofen and ketoprofen are effective only at doses markedly higher than those currently recommended, and that acetaminophen was ineffective at any dose used. We suggest the revision of practices for postoperative pain management in mice in light of these findings. PMID:22330867

  14. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects...

  15. Effect of ultraviolet irradiation on mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikai, K.; Danno, K.; Horio, T.; Narumiya, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on the skin was investigated in (WB-W/+) X (C57BL/6J-Wv/+)F1-W/Wv mice, which are genetically deficient in tissue mast cells. Their congenic littermates (+/+) and normal albino mice (ICR or BALB/c) were used as controls. Mice were irradiated with 500 mJ/cm2 of UVB and the increment of ear thickness was measured before and 6, 12, and 24 h after irradiation. Ear swelling in W/Wv mice at 12 and 24 h after irradiation was significantly smaller than that in +/+ and ICR mice. In contrast, the number of sunburn cells formed 24 h after UVB irradiation (200 or 500 mJ/cm2) was similar in W/Wv, +/+ and ICR mice. On the other hand, when mice were treated with 8-methoxy-psoralen (0.5%) plus UVA irradiation (4 J/cm2) (topical PUVA), ears of W/Wv and BALB/c mice, which were both white in color, were thickened similarly 72 h after treatment, but less swelling was observed in +/+ mice, which were black in skin color. The amount of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in ears, determined by radioimmunoassay specific for PGD2, was elevated 3-fold in +/+ and ICR mice at 3 h after irradiation with 500 mJ/cm2 of UVB in comparison with basal level without irradiation. However, such elevation was not observed in W/Wv mice. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in UVB-induced inflammation, and PGs from mast cells are responsible at least in part for the development of this reaction. However, neither mast cells nor PGs contribute to the sunburn cell formation and ear swelling response by PUVA treatment

  16. Protective effects of the dietary supplementation of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) on sodium arsenite-induced biochemical perturbation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md Rezaul; Haque, Abedul; Islam, Khairul; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Ekhtear; Fajol, Abul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of turmeric powder on arsenic toxicity through mice model. Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as control, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with turmeric powder (T, 50 mg/kg body weight/day), sodium arsenite (Sa, 10 mg/kg body weight/day) and turmeric plus Sa (T+Sa), respectively. Results showed that oral administration of Sa reduced the weight gain of the mice compared to the control group and food supplementation of turmeric prevented the reduction of weight gain. Turmeric abrogated the Sa-induced elevation of serum urea, glucose, triglyceride (TG) level and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity except the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Turmeric also prevented the Sa-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity (BChE). Therefore, ameliorating effect of turmeric on Sa-treated mice suggested the future application of turmeric to reduce or to prevent arsenic toxicity in human.

  17. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  18. The effect of electron beam radiations on testicular damage in mice, Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, S.; Nair, Vijay Mala Grover

    2013-01-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus (8-10 weeks old) weighing 28±2.5 gm were exposed to varying doses (2-12 Gy) of electron beam radiations and maintained in animal house at 26-28 C. The animals were sacrificed following 35 and 60 days following exposure to electron beam radiations. The LD-50 value, change in the weight and histological details of the testis, sperm count, sperm shape abnormalities and sperm motility were recorded. The data suggests that electron beam radiations is a potential inducer to cause reproductive system dysfunctions which probably may be responsible leading to infertility. (author)

  19. Chemoprotection of ovarian follicles of mice against gamma irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Uma Devi, P.

    1982-01-01

    Adult virgin female Swiss albino mice were irradiated with 2.5, 5 and 10 Gy of gamma radiation in the presence and absence of the drug MPG and changes in the ovarian follicular population were scored at various post irradiation intervals of 3 hours to 14 days. The results indicate that the drug has partially prevented the rapid reduction in the follicular number. Primordial follicles are protected to a greater extent than the growing and large follicles. The difference between the number of follicles of drug treated and non-drug treated animals is greater at low dose group. (author)

  20. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained.

  1. Influence of continuous microwave irradiation of low intensity on the behaviour of albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rynskov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of a single 10 min exposure of albino rats to microwaves (6 GHz, 0.2 MW/cm 2 ) on their orientative-trying reaction. The locomotive activity, attentiveness and trying activity of the experimental animals were found to increase

  2. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  3. Biological study on the effect of an anabolic steroidal agent administration pre-exposure to whole body gamma irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.M.; Eldawy, H.A.E.; Ragab, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was prepared to evaluate the potency of methoxy dimethylamino phenyl epiandrosterone (an anabolic agent animal in origin with an additive side chain) in a dose of 35 μ/g/kg b.wt in male albino mice as a radio-protective agent pre-exposure to gamma irradiation. This was accomplished through measuring follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prostaglandin-E 2 (PGE 2 ) and endothelin in plasma of mice. Meanwhile, observations of the chromosomal aberrations and sperm head abnormalities were recorded. The administration of the anabolic agent pre-irradiation resulted in slightly non-significant amelioration in the pituitary hormone levels and in levels of PGE 2 and endothelin

  4. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanie MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Muluken Walle Birhanie,1 Bizuayehu Walle,1 Kidist Rebba2 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated.Methods: Essential oil (EO of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg. Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively.Results: There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner.Conclusion: The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. Keywords: Myrtus communis, hypnotic, motor coordination, muscle relaxation, essential oil

  5. Haematopoetic effect of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee (Apis mellifera propolis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Lawal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the haematopoetic effect of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee propolis in mice. Methods: Fifteen white Albino mice were grouped into 3(A-C of 5 animals each. Group A mice serve as control group, while groups B and C received 300 and 600 mL/kg of honey bee propolis respectively, for 21 days. The haematological parameters were determined using the automated haematologic analyzer Sysmex kx21, (product of Sysmex Corporation, Japan using standard techniques. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the level of significance was at P 0.05 alteration to the erythrocytic indices like red blood cells, haematocrite, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width, but increase mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in dose related fashion. Acute oral toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe at a high dose on acute exposure. However, 21-days of treatment with the extract do neither increase nor decrease the body weight of the mice. Conclusions: Administration of methanol extract of Nigerian honey bee propolis in mice at the doses investigated has brought about leucopoietic and thrombopoietic changes without any significant effect on red blood cells and factors that relate to it, except for the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration.

  6. Micronucleus test in mice fed on irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.; Pentiah, P.R.; Rani, M.V.U.; Devi, K.R.; Goud, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Eight week old Swiss albino male mice were fed on freshly irradiated or unirradiated whole diet for one week. (Exposure was to 75 or 200 kR γ rays from a 1000 Ci 60 Co γ source at a dose rate of 584 R/min.) On the seventh day, six hours after feeding, the mice were killed and bone marrow preparations were made by the Schmid technique. From each group three animals were taken and from each animal 2000 polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes were scored. It was evident from the data obtained that the irradiated whole diet failed to induce any significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in normochromatic erythrocytes when compared with control data. The polychromatic to normochromatic ratio was also unaffected. The diet consisted of wheat flour (60%). groundnut cake (20%), fish meal (8%), Bengal gram flour (8%), dried yeast (3%), salt/mineral mixture (1%) and traces of vitamins. (U.K.)

  7. Collagen-induced arthritis in nonhuman primates: multiple epitopes of type II collagen can induce autoimmune-mediated arthritis in outbred cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozuru, Y; Yamane, S; Fujimoto, K; Terao, K; Honjo, S; Nagai, Y; Sawitzke, A D; Terato, K

    1998-03-01

    To define which regions of the type II collagen (CII) molecule result in anticollagen antibody production and the subsequent development of autoantibodies in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) nonhuman primate model. Male and female cynomolgus monkeys (2-6 of each sex per group) were immunized with either chicken (Ch), human, or monkey (Mk) CII, or with cyanogen bromide (CB)-generated peptide fragments of ChCII emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant. Monkeys were observed for the development of arthritis, and sera were collected and analyzed for anticollagen antibody specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overt arthritis developed in all groups of monkeys immunized with intact CII and with all major CB peptide fragments of ChCII except CB8. Onset and severity of arthritis correlated best with serum anti-MkCII antibody levels. The levels of IgG autoantibody to MkCII were a result of the cross-reactivity rate of anti-heterologous CII antibodies with MkCII, which was based on the genetic background of individual monkeys rather than on sex differences. CII from several species and disparate regions of the CII molecule were able to induce autoantibody-mediated arthritis in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. The strong anti-MkCII response suggests that epitope spreading or induction of broad-based CII cross-reactivity occurred in these animals. Autoantibody levels to MkCII were higher in CIA-susceptible monkeys than in resistant monkeys, despite comparable antibody levels in response to the various immunizations of CII. These results closely parallel the type of anticollagen responses found in sera from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Perhaps this can be accounted for by similar major histocompatibility complex heterogenicity associated with an outbred population, or maybe this is a primate-specific pattern of reactivity to CII.

  8. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Balakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham group and six ovariectomised (OVX subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX; OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day; OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day. Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, serum acid phosphatase (ACP, serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss.

  9. Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxin (T 4 ), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

  10. Role of Rosemary leaves extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Garima S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a study of the modulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract on radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice. The dose reduction factor for the Rosemary extract against gamma rays was calculated 1.53 from LD50/30 values. The Rosemary extract was administered orally for 5 consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. The hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed from day 1 to 30 post-irradiation intervals. The total erythrocyte count, total leucocytes count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values in the experimental group were found to be elevated as compared to the control group of mice. Furthermore, the Rosemary extract treatment enhanced reduced glutathione content in the liver and blood against radiation-induced depletion. Treatment with the plant extract brought a significant fall in the lipid peroxidation level, suggesting rosemary's role in protection against radiation-induced membrane and cellular damage. The results from the present study suggest a radio-protective effect of the Rosemary extract against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice.

  11. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity in Swiss Albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Chidambaram; Sankar, Renu; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Sivasindhuja, Gnanasambantham; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study is to establish Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke inhalation induced toxicity in mice. Primarily, we confirmed mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity in mice via reduced the body, organ weight and major vital organ tissue morphological structure changes. Furthermore, FTIR spectra was collected from control and mosquito coil smoke inhalation (8 h per day for 30 days) mice various tissues like liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain, to investigate the functional groups and their corresponding biochemical content variations. The FTIR spectra result shown major bio macromolecules such as protein and lipid functional peaks were shifted (decreased) in the mosquito coil smoke inhalation group as compared to control. The drastic peak shift was noticed in the liver, kidney followed by lung and brain. It is therefore concluded that the FTIR spectroscopy can be a successful detection tool in mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity.

  12. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Davies, William

    2013-01-01

    Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  13. Dissociable effects of Sry and sex chromosome complement on activity, feeding and anxiety-related behaviours in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kopsida

    Full Text Available Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry; in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.

  14. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  15. Delta receptor antagonism, ethanol taste reactivity, and ethanol consumption in outbred male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Amanda E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, produces significant changes in ethanol responsivity in rats by rendering the taste of ethanol aversive as well as producing a decrease in voluntary ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effect of naltrindole, a specific antagonist of delta opioid receptors, on ethanol taste reactivity and ethanol consumption in outbred rats. In the first experiment, rats received acute treatment of naltrexone, naltrindole, or saline followed by the measurement of ethanol consumption in a short-term access period. The second experiment involved the same treatments and investigated ethanol palatability (using the taste-reactivity test) as well as ethanol consumption. Results indicated that treatment with 3 mg/kg naltrexone significantly affected palatability (rendered ethanol more aversive, Experiment 2) and decreased voluntary ethanol consumption (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of naltrindole were inconsistent. In Experiment 1, 8 mg/kg naltrindole significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption but this was not replicated in Experiment 2. The 8 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in aversive responding (Experiment 2) but did not affect ingestive responding. Lower doses of naltrindole (2 and 4 mg/kg) were ineffective in altering rats' taste-reactivity response to and consumption of ethanol. While these data suggest that delta receptors are involved in rats' taste-reactivity response to ethanol and rats' ethanol consumption, it is likely that multiple opioid receptors mediate both behavioral responses.

  16. Immunomodulatory properties of Alternanthera tenella Colla aqueous extracts in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N.M. Guerra

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the genus Alternanthera are thought to possess antimicrobial and antiviral properties. In Brazilian folk medicine, the aqueous extract of A. tenella Colla is used for its anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the immunomodulatory property of A. tenella extract by evaluating the antibody production in male albino Swiss mice weighing 20-25 g (10 per group. The animals received standard laboratory diet and water ad libitum. The effect of A. tenella extract (5 and 50 mg/kg, ip was evaluated in mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC 10%, ip as T-dependent antigen, or in mice stimulated with mitogens (10 µg, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, LPS, ip. The same doses (5 and 50 mg/kg, ip of A. tenella extract were also tested for antitumor activity, using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma as model. The results showed that 50 mg/kg A. tenella extract ip significantly enhanced IgM (64% and IgG2a (50% antibody production in mice treated with LPS mitogen. The same dose had no effect on IgM-specific response, whereas the 5 mg/kg treatment caused a statiscally significant reduction of anti-SRBC IgM-specific antibodies (82%. The aqueous extract of A. tenella (50 mg/kg increased the life span (from 16 ± 1 to 25 ± 1 days and decreased the number of viable tumor cells (59% in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The present findings are significant for the development of alternative, inexpensive and perhaps even safer strategies for cancer treatment.

  17. Microscopic changes induced by Cr-VI in smooth muscles of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chromium is believed to be an essential trace element in human nutrition. Evidence suggests that it plays an important role in normal carbohydrate metabolism. It was found that patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without chromium developed glucose intolerance, weight loss and peripheral neuropathy Chromium is present in a normal diet at trace (but essential) levels. Occupational exposure is related to the industrial uses of chrome compounds in production and use of steels, pigments, leather tanning and wood preservation solutions, plating chemicals, and cement. Toxicity is predominantly associated with industrial exposures. Hexavalent chromium compounds appear to have greatest toxicity and almost all tissues of body are affected. To evaluate the effects on smooth muscles, present study was carried out. The mice of experimental group (2wks, 4wks, 6wks ,and 8wks) were injected Potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/) intraperitoneally according to experimental design. The drug caused slight to marked inflammation of smooth muscle fibers and vaculations of nuclei was also observed indicating degenerative changes. (author)

  18. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Calotropis procera leaf extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Sultan, Shamsuddin; Toma, Tanzila Taher; Lucky, Sayeda-A-Safa; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel; Annay, Eashmat Ara; Jahan, Rownak

    2009-12-30

    Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant) and Calotropis procera (leaves) are used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control blood sugar in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effects of methanol and chloroform extracts of whole plants of Cuscuta reflexa, and methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera were investigated in oral glucose tolerance tests in Long Evans rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Both methanol and chloroform extracts of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant demonstrated significant oral hypoglycemic activity in glucose-loaded rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera, when tested at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight did not demonstrate any oral hypoglycemic effect when tested in glucose-loaded mice.

  19. Neurobehavioral development of CD-1 mice after combined gestational and postnatal exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell` Omo, G [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Fiore, M [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Petruzzi, S [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Alleva, E [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bignami, G [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    Outbred CD-1 mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O{sub 3}, 0.6 ppm) from 6 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs to the time of weaning of the offspring on postnatal day 22 (PND 22) or to PND 26. One half of the mice in each of eight O{sub 3} and eight control litters were subjected on PND 24 to a 20-min open-field test after IP treatment by either saline or scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The remaining mice (those exposed until PND 26) were subjected on PNDs 28-31 to a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using a short schedule with a single IP injection on PND 29 of either d-amphetamine (3.3 mg/kg) or saline. Subsequently, the saline mice of the open-field experiment were used on PND 59 for an activity test in one of the CPP apparatus compartments after IP treatment by either d-amphetamine (same dose) or saline. In addition, the saline mice of the CPP experiment underwent a multitrial, step-through passive avoidance (PA) acquisition test on PND 59 or 60, followed 24 h later by a single-trial retention test. In the absence of effects on reproductive performance (proportion of successful pregnancies, litter size, offspring viability, and sex ratio), O{sub 3} offspring showed a long-lasting reduction in body weight without modification of sec differences. Ozone effects on neurobehavioral development were not large and quite selective, including: attenuation of the sex differences in several responses (rearing and sniffing in the open-field, activity in the final CPP test session); a change in response choices in the final CPP test, in the absence of a main effect on conditioning; a reduction of grooming in the activity test on PND 29; and impairment of PA acquisition limited to the initial period of training. (orig.)

  20. Neurobehavioral development of CD-1 mice after combined gestational and postnatal exposure to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Omo, G; Fiore, M; Petruzzi, S; Alleva, E; Bignami, G

    1995-01-01

    Outbred CD-1 mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O3, 0.6 ppm) from 6 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs to the time of weaning of the offspring on postnatal day 22 (PND 22) or to PND 26. One half of the mice in each of eight O3 and eight control litters were subjected on PND 24 to a 20-min open-field test after IP treatment by either saline or scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The remaining mice (those exposed until PND 26) were subjected on PNDs 28-31 to a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using a short schedule with a single IP injection on PND 29 of either d-amphetamine (3.3 mg/kg) or saline. Subsequently, the saline mice of the open-field experiment were used on PND 59 for an activity test in one of the CPP apparatus compartments after IP treatment by either d-amphetamine (same dose) or saline. In addition, the saline mice of the CPP experiment underwent a multi-trial, step-through passive avoidance (PA) acquisition test on PND 59 or 60, followed 24 h later by a single-trial retention test. In the absence of effects on reproductive performance (proportion of successful pregnancies, litter size, offspring viability, and sex ratio), O3 offspring showed a long-lasting reduction in body weight without modification of sex differences. Ozone effects on neurobehavioral development were not large and quite selective, including: attenuation of the sex differences in several responses (rearing and sniffing in the open-field, activity in the final CPP test session); a change in response choices in the final CPP test, in the absence of a main effect on conditioning; a reduction of grooming in the activity test on PND 29; and impairment of PA acquisition limited to the initial period of training.

  1. Impaired neuronal maturation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells in mice lacking CRAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Götz, Rudolf; Camarero, Guadelupe; Heinsen, Helmut; Blum, Robert; Rapp, Ulf Rüdiger

    2018-01-01

    RAF kinases are major constituents of the mitogen activated signaling pathway, regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival of many cell types, including neurons. In mammals, the family of RAF proteins consists of three members, ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF. Ablation of CRAF kinase in inbred mouse strains causes major developmental defects during fetal growth and embryonic or perinatal lethality. Heterozygous germline mutations in CRAF result in Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by neurocognitive impairment that may involve hippocampal physiology. The role of CRAF signaling during hippocampal development and generation of new postnatal hippocampal granule neurons has not been examined and may provide novel insight into the cause of hippocampal dysfunction in Noonan syndrome. In this study, by crossing CRAF-deficiency to CD-1 outbred mice, a CRAF mouse model was established which enabled us to investigate the interplay of neural progenitor proliferation and postmitotic differentiation during adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Albeit the general morphology of the hippocampus was unchanged, CRAF-deficient mice displayed smaller granule cell layer (GCL) volume at postnatal day 30 (P30). In CRAF-deficient mice a substantial number of abnormal, chromophilic, fast dividing cells were found in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG), indicating that CRAF signaling contributes to hippocampal neural progenitor proliferation. CRAF-deficient neural progenitor cells showed an increased cell death rate and reduced neuronal maturation. These results indicate that CRAF function affects postmitotic neural cell differentiation and points to a critical role of CRAF-dependent growth factor signaling pathway in the postmitotic development of adult-born neurons.

  2. Gene expression-based classifiers identify Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Ahn

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes a spectrum of human infection. Diagnostic delays and uncertainty lead to treatment delays and inappropriate antibiotic use. A growing literature suggests the host's inflammatory response to the pathogen represents a potential tool to improve upon current diagnostics. The hypothesis of this study is that the host responds differently to S. aureus than to E. coli infection in a quantifiable way, providing a new diagnostic avenue. This study uses Bayesian sparse factor modeling and penalized binary regression to define peripheral blood gene-expression classifiers of murine and human S. aureus infection. The murine-derived classifier distinguished S. aureus infection from healthy controls and Escherichia coli-infected mice across a range of conditions (mouse and bacterial strain, time post infection and was validated in outbred mice (AUC>0.97. A S. aureus classifier derived from a cohort of 94 human subjects distinguished S. aureus blood stream infection (BSI from healthy subjects (AUC 0.99 and E. coli BSI (AUC 0.84. Murine and human responses to S. aureus infection share common biological pathways, allowing the murine model to classify S. aureus BSI in humans (AUC 0.84. Both murine and human S. aureus classifiers were validated in an independent human cohort (AUC 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. The approach described here lends insight into the conserved and disparate pathways utilized by mice and humans in response to these infections. Furthermore, this study advances our understanding of S. aureus infection; the host response to it; and identifies new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues.

  3. The effect of gamma-rays on the hemoglobin of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Selim, N.S.; El-Behay, A.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum of mouse hemoglobin as a result of whole body irradiation were studied. White albino adult mice were exposed to a Cs-137 γ-source at a dose rate of 47.5 Gy/h to different absorbed dose values ranging from 1 to 8 Gy. Blood specimens were taken 24 h after irradiation. The UV-visible absorption spectra of hemoglobin of irradiated and control mice were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The obtained results showed significant changes in the bands measured at 340 nm, in the Soret band measured at 410 nm, also, the α- and β-bands measured at 537 and 572 nm showed significant decrease in intensity with the absorbed dose increase. The absorbance measured at 630 nm showed no significant changes. The radiation effect on the animal hemoglobin was discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (Author)

  4. Ameliorating effects of genestein: Study on mice liver glutathione and lipid peroxidation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, A.

    2010-01-01

    Genistein is a soya isoflavone, which is found naturally in legumes. such as soybeans and chickpeas. Radiation-induced free radicals in turn impair the antioxidative defense mechanism, leading to an increased membrane lipid peroxidation that results in damage of the membrane bound enzyme and may lead to damage or death of cell. Hence, the lipid peroxidation is a good biomarker of damage occurs due to radiation and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation is suggestive of radioprotective action. Glutathione has been shown to protect cells against oxidative stress by reacting with peroxides and hydroperoxides and determines the inherent radiosensitivity of cells. Materials and Methods: For experimentation, healthy Swiss Albino male mice of 6-8 weeks old were selected from inbred colony. Genistein was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and then prepared different concentration solutions so that the volume administered intraperitoneally was 0.5 ml. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by the method of Ohkawa and GSH was estimated by the method of Moron. Results: The intraperitoneal administration of optimum dose (200 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 24 hours and 15 minutes of irradiation (8 Gy at a dose rate of 1.02 Gy/min)reverted the increase in lipid peroxidation (by 18.01% ± 3.05) and decrease of Glutathione (by 62.05%±21.58) caused by irradiation in liver of Swiss albino mice. Statistically analyzed survival data produced a dose reduction factor = 1.24. Conclusion: The results indicate that Genistein against radiation effect may pave way to the formulation of medicine in radiotherapy for normal tissue and possible against radiomimetic drug induced toxicity.

  5. Analysis of inorganic elements in blood of albino rabbit using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations in albino rabbit blood were determinate using NAA. They are the first indicative interval for reference values in whole blood and they could be used for checking the clinical status of this specie when it will be used was animal model. The results when compared with human whole blood estimation suggest compatibility for Br, Cl and K considering 95% of confidence interval but, for Na the levels are altered, suggesting physiologic differences. (author)

  6. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddesi, Behzad; Dwivedi, Ravindra; Ashok, B. K.; Aghera, Hetal; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decr...

  7. Memory-impairing effects of local anesthetics in an elevated plus-maze test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Blatt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-training intracerebroventricular administration of procaine (20 µg/µl and dimethocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, local anesthetics of the ester class, prolonged the latency (s in the retention test of male and female 3-month-old Swiss albino mice (25-35 g body weight; N = 140 in the elevated plus-maze (mean ± SEM for 10 male mice: control = 41.2 ± 8.1; procaine = 78.5 ± 10.3; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 58.7 ± 12.3; 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 109.6 ± 5.73; for 10 female mice: control = 34.8 ± 5.8; procaine = 55.3 ± 13.4; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 59.9 ± 12.3 and 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 61.3 ± 11.1. However, lidocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, an amide class type of local anesthetic, failed to influence this parameter. Local anesthetics at the dose range used did not affect the motor coordination of mice exposed to the rota-rod test. These results suggest that procaine and dimethocaine impair some memory process(es in the plus-maze test. These findings are interpreted in terms of non-anesthetic mechanisms of action of these drugs on memory impairment and also confirm the validity of the elevated plus-maze for the evaluation of drugs affecting learning and memory in mice

  8. Ribavirin exposure induces histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.

    2013-01-01

    Study objectives: The objectives of the study are to describe and compare histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of rat, with different doses of Ribavirin at different time intervals. Introduction: The chemical disturbances may affect a vast number of potential sites in male reproductive system as well as its complex hormonal regulation. Testicular toxicity may reduce the fertility of the male. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ribavirin on the histological structure of seminiferous tubules in the testes of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seventy two sexually mature adult male albino rats weighing 180-200gms were divided into four groups: A, B, C and D; each group having 18 rats. Ribavirin was administered intraperitoneally in different doses to these groups that were 20mg, 100mg and 200mg/kg body weight, while group A was control. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to three time points which were selected for sacrifice that were 20th, 40th and 60th day from the last exposure to drug. Six randomly selected rats from each group were sacrificed on every sacrifice time. Results and Conclusion: The seminiferous tubules with degenerative changes like appearance of vacuole and necrotic material were observed in comparison to control groups, on 20th day of sacrifice in all groups. In rats sacrificed on day 40th and 60th, the sign of recovery in the form of regeneration of seminiferous epithelium was observed that was more marked in low dose groups than high dose groups which showed late recovery. We conclude that ribavirin being used as antiviral drug induces reversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of albino rats. (author)

  9. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Sherbiny, E.M.; EI-Mahdy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI 4 ) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl 4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI 4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  10. Studies on modulatory effect of Opuntia elatior extract in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poonia, Kavita; Sharma, Jaimala

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia elatior is succulent shrub and is widely grown in warmer parts of the world. Opuntia spp. have shown a variety of medicinal properties such as antiviral, antihyper-lipidemic, antioxidative, antiulcerous, immunomodulatory etc. Objective of the study was to explore radioprotective potential of this wild cactus. The cladodes of Opuntia elatior were collected and cleaned and shade-dried and powdered then hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by refluxing for 36 hrs at 40 °C then liquid extract was cooled and concentrated by evaporating its liquid contents. Mice selected for this study were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals each and administered Opuntia elatior extract dissolved in double distilled water orally with the 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 (mg./kg. body weight/day) for 30 minutes and then animals were exposed whole-body to 8 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, these doses were given for 30 consecutive days. Two doses 5 and 10 (mg./kg. body weight/day) were found tolerable when observed for weight, sign of sickness, morbidity, behavioral and mortality till 30 days. The optimum dose was chosen as 10 (mg./kg body weight/day) on the basis of radiation sickness and survival of mice. It will lay the foundation for the development of New, more effective and non toxic radiomodulators drugs from natural sources. (author)

  11. Early and Late Pathogenic Events of Newborn Mice Encephalitis Experimentally Induced by Itacaiunas and Curionópolis Bracorhabdoviruses Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; dos Santos, Zaire Alves; Braga, Marcio Augusto Galvão; Dias, Ádila Liliane Barros; da Silva, Daisy Elaine Andrade; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Barros, Vera Lucia Reis de Souza; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Zoghbi, Kendra Eyllen de Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Moura Neto, Vivaldo; de Souza, Wanderley; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço

    2008-01-01

    In previous reports we proposed a new genus for Rhabdoviridae and described neurotropic preference and gross neuropathology in newborn albino Swiss mice after Curionopolis and Itacaiunas infections. In the present report a time-course study of experimental encephalitis induced by Itacaiunas and Curionopolis virus was conducted both in vivo and in vitro to investigate cellular targets and the sequence of neuroinvasion. We also investigate, after intranasal inoculation, clinical signs, histopathology and apoptosis in correlation with viral immunolabeling at different time points. Curionopolis and Itacaiunas viral antigens were first detected in the parenchyma of olfactory pathways at 2 and 3 days post-inoculation (dpi) and the first clinical signs were observed at 4 and 8 dpi, respectively. After Curionopolis infection, the mortality rate was 100% between 5 and 6 dpi, and 35% between 8 and 15 dpi after Itacaiunas infection. We identified CNS mice cell types both in vivo and in vitro and the temporal sequence of neuroanatomical olfactory areas infected by Itacaiunas and Curionopolis virus. Distinct virulences were reflected in the neuropathological changes including TUNEL immunolabeling and cytopathic effects, more intense and precocious after intracerebral or in vitro inoculations of Curionopolis than after Itacaiunas virus. In vitro studies revealed neuronal but not astrocyte or microglial cytopathic effects at 2 dpi, with monolayer destruction occurring at 5 and 7 dpi with Curionopolis and Itacaiunas virus, respectively. Ultrastructural changes included virus budding associated with interstitial and perivascular edema, endothelial hypertrophy, a reduced and/or collapsed small vessel luminal area, thickening of the capillary basement membrane, and presence of phagocytosed apoptotic bodies. Glial cells with viral budding similar to oligodendrocytes were infected with Itacaiunas virus but not with Curionopolis virus. Thus, Curionopolis and Itacaiunas viruses share

  12. Early and late pathogenic events of newborn mice encephalitis experimentally induced by itacaiunas and curionópolis bracorhabdoviruses infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Picanço Diniz

    Full Text Available In previous reports we proposed a new genus for Rhabdoviridae and described neurotropic preference and gross neuropathology in newborn albino Swiss mice after Curionopolis and Itacaiunas infections. In the present report a time-course study of experimental encephalitis induced by Itacaiunas and Curionopolis virus was conducted both in vivo and in vitro to investigate cellular targets and the sequence of neuroinvasion. We also investigate, after intranasal inoculation, clinical signs, histopathology and apoptosis in correlation with viral immunolabeling at different time points. Curionopolis and Itacaiunas viral antigens were first detected in the parenchyma of olfactory pathways at 2 and 3 days post-inoculation (dpi and the first clinical signs were observed at 4 and 8 dpi, respectively. After Curionopolis infection, the mortality rate was 100% between 5 and 6 dpi, and 35% between 8 and 15 dpi after Itacaiunas infection. We identified CNS mice cell types both in vivo and in vitro and the temporal sequence of neuroanatomical olfactory areas infected by Itacaiunas and Curionopolis virus. Distinct virulences were reflected in the neuropathological changes including TUNEL immunolabeling and cytopathic effects, more intense and precocious after intracerebral or in vitro inoculations of Curionopolis than after Itacaiunas virus. In vitro studies revealed neuronal but not astrocyte or microglial cytopathic effects at 2 dpi, with monolayer destruction occurring at 5 and 7 dpi with Curionopolis and Itacaiunas virus, respectively. Ultrastructural changes included virus budding associated with interstitial and perivascular edema, endothelial hypertrophy, a reduced and/or collapsed small vessel luminal area, thickening of the capillary basement membrane, and presence of phagocytosed apoptotic bodies. Glial cells with viral budding similar to oligodendrocytes were infected with Itacaiunas virus but not with Curionopolis virus. Thus, Curionopolis and

  13. Mouse strain-dependent caspase activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity does not result in apoptosis or modulation of inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Koerner, Michael R., E-mail: mkoern2@illinois.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Lampe, Jed N. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, Brackenridge Hospital, Austin, TX 78701 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The mechanisms of acetaminophen (APAP)-mediated hepatic oncotic necrosis have been extensively characterized. However, it was recently demonstrated that fed CD-1 mice have a transient caspase activation which initiates apoptosis. To evaluate these findings in more detail, outbred (Swiss Webster, SW) and inbred (C57BL/6) mice were treated with APAP with or without pan-caspase inhibitor and compared to the apoptosis model of galactosamine (GalN)/endotoxin (ET). Fasted or fed APAP-treated C57BL/6 mice showed no evidence of caspase-3 processing or activity. Interestingly, a minor, temporary increase in caspase-3 processing and activity (150% above baseline) was observed after APAP treatment only in fed SW mice. The degree of caspase-3 activation in SW mice after APAP was minor compared to that observed in GalN/ET-treated mice (1600% above baseline). The pancaspase inhibitor attenuated caspase activation and resulted in increased APAP-induced injury (plasma ALT, necrosis scoring). The caspase inhibitor did not affect apoptosis because regardless of treatment only < 0.5% of hepatocytes showed consistent apoptotic morphology after APAP. In contrast, > 20% apoptotic cells were observed in GalN/ET-treated mice. Presence of the caspase inhibitor altered hepatic glutathione levels in SW mice, which could explain the exacerbation of injury. Additionally, the infiltration of hepatic neutrophils was not altered by the fed state of either mouse strain. Conclusion: Minor caspase-3 activation without apoptotic cell death can be observed only in fed mice of some outbred strains. These findings suggest that although the severity of APAP-induced liver injury varies between fed and fasted animals, the mechanism of cell death does not fundamentally change. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer During acetaminophen overdose caspase-3 can be activated in fed mice of certain outbred strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hepatic ATP levels are not the determining factor for caspase

  14. Compared to sucrose, previous consumption of fructose and glucose monosaccharides reduces survival and fitness of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-03-01

    Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar-high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays-seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Effect of low dose of vinclozolin on reproductive tract development and sperm parameters in CD1 outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzeinova, Fatima; Novakova, Vendula; Buckiova, Daniela; Kubatova, Alena; Peknicova, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a low dose of vinclozolin within the development of the reproductive tract during gestation (VIN-GD 15-22) and puberty (VIN-PND 23-44) in CD1 mice was tested. We found a decrease in the anogenital distance, prostate weight and pathology of testes in both experimental groups. Sperm counts decreased to 46% (VIN-GD) and to 81% (VIN-PND), and also the acrosomal state (evaluated by antiacrosomal antibody) decreased in both groups to 89% in comparison to the control group (100%). Sperm head abnormalities increased by approximately 18% and 13%, respectively. In this connection, the expression of some genes was changed (arosome-related gene (Acr), apoptosis related genes (p53, p21)). In conclusion, a low dose of vinclozolin affected the reproductive tract, sperm parameters and expression of selected genes in both experimental groups.

  16. Influence of diethylmaleate on the survival of irradiated mice and on serum protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.

    1990-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the major of the living plants or animal cell low molecular weight thiol compound which serves as a main endogenous cellular radioprotector. In order to improve radiotherapy, a possible approach should be to try to administrate hypoxic cell radiosensitizers altogether with glutathione intracellular depletors, for example, a binding GSH agent like diethylmaleate (DEM), in an attempt to overcome the neurotoxic side effects while maintaining their radiosensitizing properties. This study was performed to investigate whether the administration of DEM alone could modify the radioresistance of mice as measure by the 30-day-survival after irradiation and to establish whether this modification can be reflected in the murine serum protein profiles. Millimolar concentrations of DEM were dissolved alternatively in commercial peanut oil or absolute ethanol (final concentration 0.27%) and administered to male or female albino mice ip 1 h prior to 9 Gy sup(60) Cowhole-body irradiation with an average dose rate of 5.2 Gy/min. (author)

  17. In vivo antimalarial activity of crude extracts and solvent fractions of leaves of Strychnos mitis in Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentahun, Selamawit; Makonnen, Eyasu; Awas, Tesfaye; Giday, Mirutse

    2017-01-05

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world which is responsible for death of millions particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Today, the control of malaria has become gradually more complex due to the spread of drug-resistant parasites. Medicinal plants are the unquestionable source of effective antimalarials. The present study aimed to evaluate antiplasmodial activity and acute toxicity of the plant Strychnos mitis in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Standard procedures were employed to investigate acute toxicity and 4-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and hydro-methanolic extracts of the leaves of Strychnos mitis against P. berghei in Swiss albino mice. Water, n-hexane and chloroform fractions, obtained from crude hydro-methanolic extract, were also tested for their suppressive effect against P. berghei. All crude extracts revealed no obvious acute toxicity in mice up to the highest dose administered (2000 mg/kg). All crude and solvent fractions of the leaves of Strychnos mitis inhibited parasitaemia significantly (p antimalarial agent.

  18. Comparative Safety and Efficacy Profile of a Novel Oil in Water Vaccine Adjuvant Comprising Vitamins A and E and a Catechin in Protective Anti-Influenza Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Patel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS, based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil, and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3 agonist Poly (I:C, induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1 or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases.

  19. The role of mammary gland on 131-I uptake by neonatal of wistar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darussalam, M.; Soedjono, I.; Ilyas, R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to know the role of mammary gland of Wistar mice in transfering Iodine (I) to neonatal that fit in the role of I itself, and the degree of neonate need to I. Twenty four albino Wistar mouse post natal, were divided into 4 groups of six mouse for each, based on the interval observation. Each mice was given per oral 0.25 ml Na131-I with the activity of 300 uCi. The observation were pointed to tissues and organs such as: blood, liver, kidney, digestion cannal, tiroid gland, lymphe, mammary gland and urine; where as for neonatal: blood, kidney, digestion cannal, and the tiroid gland. The resuls show thet the high 131-I repentions were bound on tiroid gland (between 5.72 and 21.76 %) and on mammary gland (batween 9.30 and 21.90 %) of Wistar mice at lactation period in line with the increasing of mammary gland function and increasing the need of iodine for neonatal. In uptake of 131-I the thyroid gland of neonatal seemed superior compared to tissue or other neonatal organs. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Biochemical changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice orally exposed to acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a common chemical which is used worldwide to synthesise polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide and acrylamide both have numerous applications in cosmetic industries, plastic and aesthetic surgeries, ophthalmic operations, waste water treatments, oil recovery processes, and other industrial and laboratory processes. Exposure of mice (Mus musculus to acrylamide at three dose levels (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg body weight was investigated for its effects on the liver. Mortality was found to be nil in all the experimental groups. A significant decrease in body weight gain and liver weight was observed but the relative liver weight increased significantly with dose concentration. A significant decrease was observed in protein and GSH levels as compared to those of control, and this reduction was more pronounced at highest dose level. Concentrations of SGOT, SGPT, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity showed a significant increase which was directly proportional to the concentration of the dose.

  1. Compared to Sucrose, Previous Consumption of Fructose and Glucose Monosaccharides Reduces Survival and Fitness of Female Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar—high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). Objectives: We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. Methods: We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays—seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Results: Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. Conclusion: This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. PMID:25733457

  2. Differences in susceptibility among mouse strains to infection with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA clone) sporozoites and its relationship to protection by gamma-irradiated sporozoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.I.; Lowell, G.H.; Gordon, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Three inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 (H-2b), A/J (H-2a), and BALB/c (H-2d), and 1 outbred strain, CD-1, demonstrated differences in susceptibility to iv challenge with the ANKA clone of Plasmodium berghei. Mice were challenged with 100, 1,000, or 10,000 sporozoites, then evaluated daily beginning on day 4 for patency. CD-1 mice were further evaluated at challenge doses of 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 sporozoites. C57BL/6 mice were the easiest to infect, with 90% becoming infected with 100 sporozoites. The outbred strain CD-1 was the most difficult to infect, requiring a challenge dose of 25,000 sporozoites/mouse in order to achieve a 100% infection rate. Mouse strains also demonstrated differences in their ability to be protected by intravenous immunization with gamma-irradiated sporozoites. A/J mice needed a minimum of 3 doses of irradiated sporozoites for protection against a challenge with 10,000 sporozoites. In contrast, BALB/c mice immunized with a single dose of 1,000 irradiated sporozoites are protected against a 10,000 sporozoite challenge. These data suggest that both infectivity and protection are genetically restricted and that susceptibility to infection may be inversely related to protection

  3. PGE from Octopus aegina Induces Apoptosis in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthigayan, S; Balasubashini, M Sri; Balasubramanian, T; Somasundaram, S T

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to assess the antitumor effect of venomous peptide from the cephalopod Octopus aegina on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC). Male albino Swiss mice were used in the present study. Four groups of animals were treated with three doses of the sublethal dose of venom, 15, 75, and 150 mug/kg body weight (intraperitoneal injection), along with the standard drug 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg b.w.). After 10 days of treatment, six animals from each group were sacrificed for the biochemical analysis and the rest were left to calculate the mean survival time. In EAC-bearing mice, mean lifespan, tumor volume, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and lymphocytes were significantly decreased when compared to the normal animals. While body weight, neutrophils, and viable tumor cell count were increased in the EAC-bearing mice, these changes were brought back to near normal levels in different treatment groups. The macromolecule concentration of peritoneal cells, such as DNA, RNA, and protein, were altered in the EAC-bearing mice and observed to be near normal in the treatment groups. The caspase-3 activity was significantly increased in the peritoneal cells of the treatment groups when compared to the EAC-bearing mice. The role of apoptotic cascade in EAC cell death was confirmed by the DNA fragmentation on agarose gel. Apart from the antitumor effect, octopus venom reduced the tumor burden on the liver and altered the changes in the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Therefore, the venom from O. aegina has a potential antitumor effect on the EAC-bearing mice.

  4. Lack of beneficial effect of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel James Offor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various diseases including testicular toxicity. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated a beneficial role of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Method: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats received deionised water (10 ml/kg, group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymal sperm reserve, testicular sperm count, percent sperm motility and percent sperm viability were monitored. Results: AC failed to show any significant beneficial effect in ameliorating lead induced testicular toxicity. Conclusions: There seem to be a poor adsorption on lead onto AC in vivo.

  5. The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, O.A.; Mohamed, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  6. Radioprotective efficacy of Carica papaya (L.) leaf extract in electron beam irradiated Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-sickling properties and has shown to increase the platelets in patients with dengue fever. In the present study, the radioprotective effects and radioadaptive response of Carica papaya (L.) was evaluated in mice irradiated with electron beam radiation. Radiation induced hematological suppression was seen at sublethal doses of 6 Gy irradiated groups. There was a decrease in hemoglobin, red blood cell, total white blood cell count and platelet counts in irradiated groups whereas papaya leaf extract enhanced platelet levels indicated thrombopoietic effect

  7. Oxidative impairment and histopathological alterations in kidney and brain of mice following subacute lambda-cyhalothrin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Nitin Nanasaheb; Badgujar, Prarabdh Chandrakant; Sharma, Laxman Prasad; Telang, Avinash Gopal; Singh, Karam P

    2017-03-01

    Lambda cyhalothrin (LCT), a broad-spectrum type II (α-cyano) synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, is widely employed in various agricultural and animal husbandry practices for the control of pests. Acute and chronic exposure to LCT can elicit several adverse effects including oxidative stress. With the objective to investigate nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity of LCT in mice, we evaluated oxidative stress parameters and histological changes in the kidney and brain of LCT exposed mice. Swiss albino mice were divided randomly into four groups ( n = 6 per group) as: (A) corn oil/vehicle control; (B) 0.5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) LCT; (C) 1 mg/kg b.w. LCT; (D) 2 mg/kg b.w. LCT. Mice were treated orally for 28 days. LCT exposure significantly increased serum urea nitrogen, creatinine and urea levels. LCT exposure also increased lipid peroxidation, superoxide anion generation, nitrite level and decreased the level of reduced glutathione. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione- S-transferase were depleted significantly in both kidney and brain. Histological examination revealed marked histopathological changes in the kidney and brain of mice that were more pronounced at high dose of LCT. Thus, results of the present study indicate that 28 days oral exposure of LCT causes oxidative damage to the kidney and brain of mice which in turn could be responsible for nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, further detailed studies are required to prove these effects especially after long-term exposure.

  8. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin of Swiss mice after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Saini, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Biological effects of radiation are detrimental to life. Skin being a cell-renewal system is one of the best organ for studying radiation induced effects and their modulation by antioxidants. An attempt has been made to evaluate radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin in Swiss mice (1g/kg body wt/day). The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups. The first group was given Aloe vera extract orally for 15th consecutive days and served as experimental group while the other group received DDW (vol. equal to Aloe extract) to serve as control group. On the 15th day, after 30 min of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation and autopsied on 6h 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. DNA as well as total protein decreases in control group as compared to the normal value. Surprisingly, in experimental group, DNA and protein increases in comparison to the control group. Thus, Aloe vera were found to have positive influence against radiation induced alterations on skin of Swiss albino mice

  9. Melatonin against radiation induced free radicals: a study on tissues of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Manda, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Antioxidant enzymes are part of the primary cellular defense against free radicals generated by radiation. Reports on low level chronic administration of melatonin with its antiradiation influence are scanty. Although compelling logic suggests that melatonin may be effective for a variety of disorders, the mode and optimal dose of melatonin is still not clear. Most studies have used doses of supraphysiological blood levels. Present investigation reports that melatonin in relatively lower concentrations increases the mRNA of both superoxide dismutases (SODs) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and mediates possibly through receptors. The influence of low dose chronic administration (0.10 mg/Kg body weight/day for 15 days) of melatonin was studied against radiation-induced oxidative stress in 6 to 8 weeks old mice. Just after 24 hours of the last dose in various tissues viz. brain, liver, spleen and kidney were studied for lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), protein, RNA, DNA and serum phosphatase activity. Radiation induced augmentation in the level of lipid peroxidation, glutathione disulphide (GSSG) and acid phosphatase was significantly ameliorated by pre-irradiation treatment with melatonin. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and alkaline phosphatase is significantly averted by melatonin administration. Regression analysis of survival data yielded LD50/30 as 7.16 Gy and 11Gy for control (irradiation alone) and experimental (melatonin + irradiation), respectively. Animals produced a dose reduction factor (DRF) as 1.53. Radiation induced deficit in the body and organ weight was also significantly thwarted in the melatonin pre-treated mice. Results indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin against the gamma radiation. The findings support the results showing melatonin as a free radical scavenger, and

  10. Reduction of Sodium Arsenite-Mediated Adverse Effects in Mice using Dietary Supplementation of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) Root Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Rim Sabrina Jahan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Hossain, Khaled; Ghosh, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of water Hyacinth Root Powder (HRP) on arsenic-mediated toxic effects in mice. Swiss albino mice, used in this study, were divided into four different groups (for each group n=5). The control group was supplied with normal feed and water, Arsenic group (As-group) was supplied with normal feed plus arsenic (sodium arsenite)-containing water, and arsenic+hyacinth group (As+Hy group) was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus arsenic water. The remaining Hy-group was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus normal water. Oral administration of arsenic reduced the normal growth of the mice as evidenced by weight loss. Interestingly, tip of the tails of these mice developed wound that caused gradual reduction of the tail length. Supplementation of HRP in feed significantly prevented mice growth retardation and tail wounding in As+Hy group mice. However, the growth pattern in Hy-group mice was observed to be almost similar to that of the control group indicating that HRP itself has no toxic or negative effect in mice. Ingested arsenic also distorted the shape of the blood cells and elevated the serum enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Importantly, elevation of these enzymes and distortion of blood cell shape were partially reduced in mice belong to As+Hy group, indicating HRP-mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity. Therefore, the preventive effect of hyacinth root on arsenic-poisoned mice suggested the future application of hyacinth to reduce arsenic toxicity in animal and human.

  11. Prolactin effect on the insulin content of albino rats in different physiological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; El-Mougi, S.M.; El-Sayed, F.B.; Kuwait Univ.)

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125 I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)

  12. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  13. Ocimum basilicum improve chronic stress-induced neurodegenerative changes in mice hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; El Wahab, Manal Galal Abd; Ali, Soad Shaker; Abdel-Tawab, Hanem Saad

    2018-01-22

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the progressive neurodegenerative diseases might be associated with exposure to stress and altered living conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oils in improving the neurodegenerative-like changes induced in mice after exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Forty male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10); the control, CUMS, CUMS + Fluoxetine, CUMS + OB were used. Behavioral tests, serum corticosterone level, hippocampus protein level of the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and brain-dreived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were determined after exposure to CUMS. Hippocampus was histopathologically examined. Data were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) and P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. OB diminished the depression manifestation as well as impaired short term memory observed in the mice after exposure to the CUMS as evidenced by the forced swimming and elevated plus maze test. OB also up-regulated the serum corticosterone level, hippocampal protein level of the glucocorticoid receptor and the brain-derived neurotropic factor and reduced the neurodegenerative and atrophic changes induced in the hippocampus after exposure to CUMS. Essential oils of OB alleviated the memory impairment and hippocampal neurodegenerative changes induced by exposure to the chronic unpredictable stress indicating that it is the time to test its effectiveness on patients suffering from Alzheimer disease.

  14. Antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. (Brassicaceae) seeds against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluye, Abrham Belachew; Melese, Eshetie; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint

    2015-10-15

    Resistances to currently available drugs and insecticides, significant drug toxicities and costs and lack of vaccines currently complicated the treatment of malaria. A continued search for safe, effective and affordable plant-based antimalarial agents thus becomes crucial and vital in the face of these difficulties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) was used to test the antimalarial activity of the extract. In suppressive and prophylactic models, Swiss albino male mice were randomly grouped into five groups of five mice each. Group I mice were treated with the vehicle, group II, III and IV were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively and the last group (V) mice were treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg). The level of parasitemia, survival time and variation in weight of mice were used to determine the antimalarial activity of the extract. Chemosuppressive activities produced by the extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra were 21.88, 50.00 (P activities were 17.42, 21.21 and 53.79 % (P activities and the plant may contain biologically active principles which are relevant in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, thus supporting further studies of the plant for its active components.

  15. A long-term intake of a protein hydrolysate seems to increase the risk of encephalopathy in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Haroldo S Ferreira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations showed that Schistosoma mansoni infection aggravates protein malabsorption in undernourished mice and this can be reverted by administration of casein hydrolysate. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ingestion of casein hydrolysate for long periods. Albino Swiss mice were divided into eight groups. Diets contained 5% (undernourished or 20% (controls casein levels. For each group there were sub-groups ingesting whole or hydrolysed casein for 12 weeks. Infection with S. mansoni developed in half of the animals under each diet. All undernourished mice developed malabsorption. Low albuminemia was detected in infected animals independently of the protein level in the diet. However, albuminemia was lower in infected controls than in undernourished non-infected mice, suggesting a deficient liver protein synthesis. Infected mice fed on a 20% protein hydrolysed diet exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rates. On the other hand, non-infected mice ingesting the same diet had the highest body weights. We are investigating the hypothesis that infected mice, even when fed normal diets, are unable to metabolise large amounts of amino acids due to the liver lesions related to schistosomiasis and as a result die of hepatic coma. In some of them, the excessive accumulation of ammonia in the blood enhances the outcome of an encephalopathy.

  16. Do neonatal mouse hearts regenerate following heart apex resection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Ganesalingam, Suganya; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian heart has generally been considered nonregenerative, but recent progress suggests that neonatal mouse hearts have a genuine capacity to regenerate following apex resection (AR). However, in this study, we performed AR or sham surgery on 400 neonatal mice from inbred and outbred...

  17. A comparative profile of methanol extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum in diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Abhishek; Shri, Richa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This may result from increased oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes. Hence plants with antioxidant action play an important role in management of diabetes and its complications. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate preventive as well as curative effect of methanol extracts of outer scales and edible portions of two plants with established antioxidant action - Allium cepa and Allium sativum, in induced DN in albino mice. Mice were divided into control, diabetic and test extracts treated groups. Test extracts were administered daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days, in the preventive group prior to onset of DN, and in the curative group after the onset of DN. Hyperalgesia and oxidative stress markers were assessed. STZ-diabetic mice showed a significant thermal hyperalgesia (as assessed by the tail-flick test), indicating development of DN. Results: Treatment with test extracts prevented loss in body weight, decreased plasma glucose level, and significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, TBARS, serum nitrite and GSH levels in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Methanol extract of outer scales of onion has shown most significant improvement; may be due to higher content of phenolic compounds in outer scales of A. cepa. PMID:21713142

  18. A Technical Report on the Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation From a Mobile Phone on Mice Organs

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    Elgenaidi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR from mobile phones can cause detrimental effects on cell function, chromosomal aberrations, and tissue injuries [1-6]. The rapid expansion of mobile phones has lead to widespread concern for their safety. We examined the histopathological effects of direct exposure to this EMR from mobile phones in adult male Swiss albino mice. The animals were obtained from the biotechnology center, Tripoli, Libya, weighing from 25-30 grams, aged 10-12 weeks. The experiments were approved by state authorities and fol¬lowed guidelines of Egyptian law for animal protection. Mice were fed standard diets and water ad libitum. Plastic cages (diameter 45 cm by 11 cm height were designed for this work. The roof of the cage was designed to receive the mobile phone from a distance of about 10 cm from the cage floor [7]. EMR was emitted from the Nokia 1112 device with a dimension of 104×44×17 in connection with Libyan network (Misurata, Libya. The distance between phone and mice was about 10 cm. The GSM mobile phones operate with microwave carrier frequencies in the GHz range (850–1900 MHz [8-10].

  19. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  20. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El Arab, A.; Ayad, S.K.Y.; El Fouly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  1. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice

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    Ravindra G Mali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata Linn (family: Caesalpiniaceae, popularly known as Rakta Kanchnar, is a medium-sized tree found throughout India. The stem bark of B. variegata (BV is used traditionally in the treatment of asthma, jaundice, tuberculosis, leprosy, and skin diseases. In the present study, we have investigated the role of aqueous (BVA and ethanol (BVE extracts of the plant against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both the extracts caused significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in dose-dependent manner. From these results, it can be concluded that the plant BV is having antieosinophilic activity.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of subchronic use of pioglitazone in mice

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    Said Said Elshama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pioglitazone (Actos is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects.This studyinvestigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the assessment of renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes, and some hematological indices with histological changes of liver, kidney, heart, and bladder. Materials and Methods: 120 albino mice were divided into four groups; 30 in each. The first group (control received water, second (diabetic group received alloxan only, while the third and the fourth groups received alloxan with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of pioglitazone, respectively for 90 days. Results: Prolonged use of pioglitazone induced significant abnormalities of hepatic, renal, and cardiac biomarkers and some hematological indices associated with histopathological changes in the liver, kidney, heart, and bladder that increased based on administered dose. Conclusion: Subchronic use of pioglitazone leads to hepatic, renal, cardiac, hematological, and bladder affection depending on the applied dose.

  3. Protective effect of Heliotropium eichwaldi against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra Kr; Goyal, Naveen

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Heliotropium eichwaldii (MHE) in mice with cisplatin-induced acute renal damage. Nephrotoxicity was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (16mg/kg). Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle, cisplatin, cisplatin plus MHE 200 mg/kg and cisplatin plus MHE 400mg/kg, respectively. MHE was administered for 7 d at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg per day orally starting 4 d before cisplatin injection. Animals were sacrificed 3d after treatment and blood as well as kidney tissue was isolated and analyzed. The various parameters such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (CRE), malondialdehyde (MDA), and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were analyzed. MHE treatment significantly reduced BUN and serum CRE levels elevated by cisplatin administration (P<0.05). Also, it significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced increase in MDA level and improved the decreased CAT and SOD activities in renal cortical homogenates (P<0.05). Additionally, histopathological examination and scoring showed that MHE markedly ameliorated cisplatin-induced renal tubular necrosis. MHE can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  4. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Anil K; Boitet, Evan R; Turner, Ashley N; Johnson, Larry W; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R; Hymel, Katherine M; Gross, Alecia K; Kesterson, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene.

  5. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Challa

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1 in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood. These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene.

  6. Pneumocystis carinii: its incidence in rodents and enhancement of the infection by corticosteroids

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    Helly A. Lage

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was made on the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii in 361 rodents including sewer rats, albino rats, albino mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits. P. carinii was found in 4 of the 215 Rattus norvegicus examined (1,8%. These results accord with recent observations but disagree with investigations made by the researchers who first studied this parasite in the past when high indexes of infection were found. However, in 20 albino rats treated with corticosteroids (betamethazone we found 8 positive (40% and in 20 albino mice treated by the same way, 9 were positive for P. carinii (45%. These results confirm the opportunistic character of P. carinii in rodents already well demonstrated in man.Foi feita uma investigação sobre a ocorrência de P. carinii em 361 roedores, incluindo ratos de esgoto, ratos albinos, camundongos albinos, cobaios e coelhos. Só foram encontrados positivos 4 Rattus norvegicus em 215 examinados (1.8%. Estes resultados estão de acordo com observações feitas nos últimos anos, os quais constrastam com as verificações feitas nos primeiros anos, os quais contrastam com as verificações feitas nos primeiros anos de estudo do P. carinii, quando foram assinalados altos índices infecciosos. Entretanto, em 20 ratos albinos tratados com corticosteróides (betametasona foram encontrados 8 positivos (40%; e em 20 camundongos albinos, tratados do mesmo modo, foram encontrados 9 positivos (45%. Estes resultados confirmaram o caráter oportunístico do P. carinii no roedores, do mesmo modo como acontece no homem.

  7. Skin cancers among Albinos at a University teaching hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 64 cases

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    Mabula Joseph B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. The challenges associated with the care of these patients are numerous and need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to outline the pattern and treatment outcome of skin cancers among albinos treated at our centre and to highlight challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffer solutions for improved outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of all albinos with a histopathological diagnosis of skin cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre from March 2001 to February 2010. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 64 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The median age of patients was 30 years. The median duration of illness at presentation was 24 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was financial problem. Head and the neck was the most frequent site afflicted in 46(71.8% patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type in 75% of cases. Surgical operation was the commonest modality of treatment in 60 (93.8% patients. Radiotherapy was given in 24(37.5% patients. Twenty-seven (42.2% of the patients did not complete their treatment due to lack of funds. Local recurrence following surgical treatment was recorded in 6 (30.0% patients. Only thirty-seven (61.7% patients were available for follow-up at 6–12 months and the remaining patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions Skin cancers are the most common cancers among albinos in our environment. Albinism and exposure to ultraviolet light appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of these cancers. Late presentation and failure to complete treatment due to financial difficulties and lack of radiotherapy services at our centre are major challenges in the care of these patients. Early institution of preventive

  8. Cytokine gene expression and pathology in mice experimentally infected with different isolates of Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, P; Sengupta, P P; Das, Sangita; Ligi, M; Shome, B R; Rahman, H

    2016-11-01

    Aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine gene expression in liver, kidney and spleen and histopathological changes in mice infected with buffalo and dog isolates of Trypanosoma evansi. Forty-four Swiss albino mice was divided into eleven groups of four mice each and injected subcutaneously with 1 × 10 5 trypanosomes of buffalo and dog isolate to twenty mice each, four mice served as control. Mice were examined for clinical signs, blood smear for trypanosome counts. Blood for PCR, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, testis and abdominal muscle for histopathology and liver, kidney, spleen for cytokine gene expression studies, were collected. Mice showed dullness, lethargy, hunched back, sluggish movements on D4 and D5 in buffalo and dog isolate, respectively. Parasite count in blood varied between the two isolates of T. evansi. By PCR, trypanosome DNA was detected on D1 and D2 for buffalo and dog isolate, respectively. Splenomegaly was observed in mice infected with buffalo isolate but not with dog isolate. Histopathological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen and heart of mice but no changes in testis and abdominal muscles. Blood vessels of liver, heart, lung showed presence of trypanosomes in mice infected with buffalo isolate but not for dog isolate. Cytokine gene expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ increased in liver, kidney and spleen in both these isolates. However, the buffalo isolate exhibited pronounced increase in cytokine gene expression when compare to dog isolate of T. evansi. Anti-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-10 showed 50-60 and 10-20 folds increment in buffalo and dog isolates, respectively. This is the first report of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 cytokine changes in mice infected with T. evansi. A variation in pathogenicity between buffalo and dog isolates was recorded indicating buffalo isolate of T. evansi remained more pathogenic in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

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    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  10. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Quillaja saponaria Mol. saponin extract in mice

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    Sumana Sarkhel

    Full Text Available Objective: Quillaja saponaria bark contains a high percentage of triterpene saponins and has been used for centuries as antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in Chilean folk medicine.In the Present study the anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of commercially partially purified saponin from Quillaja saponaria Mol. in in vivo animal models. Methods & materials:: Aqueous extract of the plant material was prepared by cold maceration. The anti-inflammatory activity of a commercial Quillaja saponaria Mol. (QS saponin extract was investigated by carragenan induced mice paw edema model for acute inflammation (Winter, 1962 [16]. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carragenan in paw edema model in swiss albino mice (18–20 g. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carragenan induced paw edema. QS was found to significantly (p < 0.05 reduce the carragenan induced mice paw edema (38.59%; 20 mg/kg bw as compared to carragenan control. The percentage inhibition of standard anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was (55%; 10 mg/kg, bw. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria saponins (QS possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: Anti-inflammatory activity, Aqueous extract, Paw edema

  11. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  12. Measurement of genome changes of greenable albino mutation line c.v. W25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dianxing; Xia Yingwu; Shu Qingyao; Zhang Yaozhou; Liu Guifu

    1997-01-01

    W25 was a greenable albino mutation line, which was derived from a temperature-sensitive genic male sterile rice 2177s, with 300 Gy gamma rays irradiation. During the whole growth duration, the leaves of W25 showed the following characters: white, greenism, albinism and greenism again. 70 primers were used for the detection of polymorphism, one of them gave polymorphic products. RAPD analysis of W25 and 2177s with random primer H05 indicated that there were two DNA bands differences

  13. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

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    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  14. Attenuation coefficient of the light in skin of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Aureliano, D. P.; De Pretto, L. R.; Freitas, A. Z.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Optical properties of the biological tissue play an important role to a correct use of optical techniques for therapy and diagnosis. The mice skin presents morphological differences due to characteristics such as gender, body mass and age. Murine models are frequently used in pre-clinical trials in optical therapy and diagnosis. Therefore, the assessment of the skin tissue in animal models is needed for a proper understanding of how light interacts with skin. Noninvasive techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been used to obtain optical information of the tissue, as the attenuation coefficient, with the advantage of obtaining sectional images in real time. In this study, eight female BALB/c albino mice (twenty-four weeks old) and eight male C57BL/6 black mice (eight weeks old) were used to measure the attenuation coefficient of the light in the skin, utilizing the OCT technique, aiming to check for influence of the aging process. Two moments were assessed twenty-two weeks apart from each other. Our data show that the aging process significantly affects the light attenuation coefficient in mice skin. Twenty-two weeks after, statistical significant differences were observed between groups within a same strain. We conclude that light attenuation coefficient of mice skin may be influenced by factors such as disorganization of the dermis. Morphological aspects of skin should be taken into account in studies that involve optical strategies in murine models.

  15. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M; El-Husseini, M; Saleh, F [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation.

  16. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation

  17. Citotoxicidad del cadmio en hepatocitos de ratón albino y sus posibles implicaciones en ambientes tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letty Marcano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis de las alteraciones fenotípicas, estructurales y ultraestructurales inducidas por Cd+2 en hepatocitos de ratón albino suizo. El metal fue suministrado vía oral en solución acuosa de CdCl2 durante 100 días a concentraciones de 50 ppm, 100 ppm y 150 ppm, en los controles la solución de cadmio fue sustituida por agua destilada. Las muestras fueron procesadas utilizando la técnica de inclusión en parafina y teñidas con hematoxilina- eosina para microscopía óptica y por la técnica convencional para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Identificamos cambios fenotípicos (diferencias entre talla y peso y fisiológicos (debilidad muscular e intranquilidad; a nivel histológico, pérdida de la disposición trabecular y de la arquitectura lobulillar, focos de aglomerados linfocíticos, vacuolización, dilatación de sinosoides y de la vena central. El estudio ultraestructural señala diversas alteraciones tales como: nucléolo con un elevado número de centros fibrilares (50 ppm; voluminosas gotas de lípidos en el citoplasma, retículo endoplasmático rugoso distendido, vacuolización citoplasmática, lisosomas y peroxisomas alterados (100 ppm; núcleos contraídos con cromatina condensada, dilatación en el espacio intracelular y áreas de pérdida mitocondrial y fibrilar (150 ppm. Sugerimos que el cadmio ejerce un efecto tóxico en las células hepáticas el cual se hace más severo con el aumento de la concentración, llevando a la necrosis celular.Cadmium citotoxicity in mice hepatocytes and impications on tropical environments. We analyzed phenotypic, structural and ultrastructural alterations induced by Cd+2 in hepatocytes extracted from Swiss Albino mice. Cadmium was given orally in watery solution of CdCl2 during 100 days at concentrations of 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 150 ppm. In controls, distilled water alone was used. The samples were processed with the paraffin inclusion and hematoxilin-eosin coloration

  18. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones.

  19. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  20. Antidepressant effects of insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice: Modulation of brain serotonin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepali; Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh

    2014-04-22

    Diabetes is a persistent metabolic disorder, which often leads to depression as a result of the impaired neurotransmitter function. Insulin is believed to have antidepressant effects in depression associated with diabetes; however, the mechanism underlying the postulated effect is poorly understood. In the present study, it is hypothesized that insulin mediates an antidepressant effect in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in mice through modulation of the serotonin system in the brain. Therefore, the current study investigated the antidepressant effect of insulin in STZ induced diabetes in mice and insulin mediated modulation in the brain serotonin system. In addition, the possible pathways that lead to altered serotonin levels as a result of insulin administration were examined. Experimentally, Swiss albino mice of either sex were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ. After one week, diabetic mice received a single dose of either insulin or saline or escitalopram for 14days. Thereafter, behavioral studies were conducted to test the behavioral despair effects using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), followed by biochemical estimations of serotonin concentrations and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the whole brain content. The results demonstrated that, STZ treated diabetic mice exhibited an increased duration of immobility in FST and TST as compared to non-diabetic mice, while insulin treatment significantly reversed the effect. Biochemical assays revealed that administration of insulin attenuated STZ treated diabetes induced neurochemical alterations as indicated by elevated serotonin levels and decreased MAO-A and MAO-B activities in the brain. Collectively, the data indicate that insulin exhibits antidepressant effects in depression associated with STZ induced diabetes in mice through the elevation of the brain serotonin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mangiferin Reduces Oxidative Stress-mediated Renal Injury in γ-radiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabany, H.; Lotfi, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species in different tissues provoking oxidative damage and tissue injury. Mangiferin (MGN), 1,3,6,7-tetra hydroxyxanthone-C 2 -β-D-glucoside, a naturally occurring polyphenol, present in Mangifera indica (M. indica) in large amounts in the leaves and edible mango fruits has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MGN on radiation-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in the kidney of mice. MGN (20 mg/ kg body weight) was administrated to male albino mice via gavages during 15 successive days before whole body exposures to gamma rays (4 Gy). The animals were sacrificed 48 hours post irradiation. Biochemical analysis in the kidney of irradiated mice revealed an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species. A significant increase was recorded in the level of lipid peroxidation products; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and lipid hydroperoxides (HDPx), in addition to a significant increase in the level of protein carbonyl content (PC) , marker of protein oxidation. The increase of oxidative markers was accompanied by a significant decrease in the contents of total sulphydryl (SH) group ,glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. Moreover, irradiation induced a significant decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Histological observations in the kidney of irradiated mice revealed tubular necrosis, degeneration, dilatation, desquamation, thickening of basement membrane and luminal cast formation. MGN pre-treatment has significantly improved the oxidant /antioxidant status, which was associated with significant regeneration of the kidney tissue. Based on these results, it is concluded that the natural dietary antioxidant M GN m ight

  2. Protective effects of agmatine against D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agamy, Dina S; Makled, Mirhan N; Gamil, Nareman M

    2014-06-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by massive hepatic necrosis and high mortality. There is no effective therapy for the disease other than liver transplantation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of agmatine, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, on D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-induced FHF in mice and explore its possible mechanism(s). Male Swiss albino mice were injected with a single dose agmatine (14 mg/kg, IP) 8 h prior to challenge with a single intraperitoneal injection of both GalN (800 mg/kg) and LPS (50 μg/kg). Agmatine significantly attenuated all GalN/LPS-induced biochemical and pathological changes in liver. It prevented the increase of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, agmatine markedly attenuated GalN/LPS-induced necrosis and inflammation. Agmatine significantly reduced oxidative stress and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. Importantly, agmatine decreased total nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). These findings reveal that agmatine has hepatoprotective effects against GalN/LPS-induced FHF in mice that may be related to its ability to suppress oxidative stress, NO synthesis and TNF-α production. Therefore, agmatine may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for hepatic inflammatory diseases.

  3. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  4. Sarcocystis jamaicensis n. sp., from Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) Definitive Host and IFN-γ Gene Knockout Mice as Experimental Intermediate Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; von Dohlen, A Rosypal; Mowery, J D; Scott, D; Rosenthal, B M; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH, Buteo jamaicensis) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 × 9.9-μm sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW, Mus musculus) and also to KO mice. The sporocysts were infective for KO mice but not for SW mice. All SW mice remained asymptomatic, and neither schizonts nor sarcocysts were found in any SW mice euthanized on days 54, 77, 103 (n = 2) or 137 post-inoculation (PI). The KO mice developed neurological signs and were necropsied between 52 to 68 days PI. Schizonts/merozoites were found in all KO mice euthanized on days 52, 55 (n = 3), 59, 61 (n = 2), 66, and 68 PI and they were confined to the brain. The predominant lesion was meningoencephalitis characterized by perivascular cuffs, granulomas, and necrosis of the neural tissue. The schizonts/merozoites were located in neural tissue and were apparently extravascular. Brain homogenates from infected KO mice were infective to KO mice by subcutaneous inoculation and when seeded on to CV-1 cells. Microscopic sarcocysts were found in skeletal muscles of 5 of 8 KO mice euthanized between 55-61 days PI. Only a few sarcocysts were detected. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 3.5 mm long. When viewed with light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall appeared thin (<1 μm thick) and smooth. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall classified as "type 1j" (new designation). Molecular characterization using 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-1, and cox1 genes revealed a close relationship with Sarcocystis microti and Sarcocystis glareoli; both species infect birds as definitive hosts

  5. Estimation of Genetic Variance Components Including Mutation and Epistasis using Bayesian Approach in a Selection Experiment on Body Weight in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widyas, Nuzul; Jensen, Just; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    Selection experiment was performed for weight gain in 13 generations of outbred mice. A total of 18 lines were included in the experiment. Nine lines were allotted to each of the two treatment diets (19.3 and 5.1 % protein). Within each diet three lines were selected upwards, three lines were...... selected downwards and three lines were kept as controls. Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate the genetic variance components. Mixed model analysis is modified including mutation effect following the methods by Wray (1990). DIC was used to compare the model. Models including mutation effect...... have better fit compared to the model with only additive effect. Mutation as direct effect contributes 3.18% of the total phenotypic variance. While in the model with interactions between additive and mutation, it contributes 1.43% as direct effect and 1.36% as interaction effect of the total variance...

  6. Effect of infrared radiation A on photoaged hairless mice harboring eumelanin and pheomelanin in the epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shizuka; Funasaka, Yoko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2015-04-01

    Infrared radiation A (IRA) is absorbed by melanin and generates heat. Therefore, the effect of IRA could be well analyzed using skin, which contains melanin in the epidermis. Hairless mice harboring epidermal melanocytes that produce eumelanin, pheomelanin, or non-melanin were generated by backcrossing K14-stem cell factor mice, recessive yellow mice, and then albino hairless mice. High-dose IRA was irradiated over 18 weeks after the establishment of photoaged mice by irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB) three times a week for 14 weeks. Tumor formation was assessed every week. The formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and apoptotic cells by the irradiation of IRA and UVB was evaluated. Repetitive irradiation of IRA did not promote tumor formation in all types of mice. Pre-irradiation of IRA to UVB, but not post-irradiation, accelerated the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and enhanced apoptosis; these effects were most obvious in eumelanin-producing mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed downregulation of FLICE (cellular caspase 8)-like inhibitory protein and B-cell lymphoma-extra large and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein by UVB, but further enhancement of these molecules by pre-irradiation of IRA was not observed. These results indicate that IRA does not confer the promotion of UVB-induced carcinogenesis in photoaged mice harboring epidermal melanocytes and that photochemical reaction between IRA and melanin might be involved in the induction of apoptosis and the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by UVB. The enhancement of apoptosis by pre-irradiation of IRA to UVB might be induced by mechanisms other than the modification of the mRNA expression of FLICE (cellular caspase 8)-like inhibitory protein, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and Bcl-2-associated X. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Effect of administration of some antitumor extracts on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesalam, N.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is considered one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many researches have been studied on the discovery of natural and synthetic compounds that can be used in the prevention and/or treatment of cancer. Many chemo preventive agents have been associated with antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on cancer cells because of their high antioxidant activity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant and antitumor effects of three natural extracts including (propolis, green tea and Chlorella vulgaris) without or with radiation exposure in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) - bearing female albino mice. The animals were randomly distributed into three major groups as follows:- Group A (control group).This group consists of 10 mice kept on normal standard rodent diet without any treatment and housed in two cages: mice of the first cage served as control for non tumor-bearing group and the second cage served as control for tumor-bearing group. Group B (Non tumor - bearing group).This group consists of 30 mice and used to study the effect of the vehicle solutions (gum acacia, DMSO), propolis, green tea, Chlorella vulgaris and gamma irradiation on normal mice. Mice of this group were equally distributed into six subgroups receiving gum acacia, DMSO, propolis, green tea and Chlorella vulgaris for two weeks and whole body gamma irradiated. Group C (Tumor- bearing group): This group consists of 160 mice randomly and equally distributed into 8 subgroups: Ehrlich ascites carcinoma(mice were inoculated with 2.5 x 10 6 intra-peretoneally(i.p), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and 2 Gy irradiated, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and propolis treated (150 mg/kg b.w), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, propolis treated and irradiated, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and green tea treated (150 mg/kg b.w), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, green tea treated and irradiated, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Chlorella vulgaris treated (150 mg/kg b.w) and Ehrlich ascites

  8. Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 µmol/g increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 µmol/g; P<=0.05 in mice. Sialic acid concentration in other tissues (liver, kidney, testes and brain also increased (~40, 10, 30 and 58%, respectively in the tumour-bearing hosts as compared with that in the respective tissues of normal mice. In vivo cyclophosphamide or cisplatin treatment resulted in an overall decrease of sialic acid contents in the tissues. Cyclophosphamide was more efficient in lowering tissue sialic acid than cisplatin (P<=0.01, ANOVA. It is suggested that sialic acid residues could be an important factor contributing to the manifestation of malignant properties in cancer cells in general and Dalton's lymphoma cells in particular. A significant decrease in the sialic acid content of Dalton's lymphoma cells after cisplatin or cyclophosphamide treatment may bring about specific changes in tumour cells which could be associated with tumour regression.

  9. Radioprotective Effects of Gallic Acid in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopakumar Gopinathan

    2013-01-01

    Radioprotecting ability of the natural polyphenol, gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA), was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of GA (100 mg/kg body weight), one hour prior to whole body gamma radiation exposure (2–8 Gy; 6 animals/group), reduced the radiation-induced cellular DNA damage in mouse peripheral blood leukocytes, bone marrow cells, and spleenocytes as revealed by comet assay. The GA administration also prevented the radiation-induced decrease in the levels of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidise (GPx), and nonprotein thiol glutathione (GSH) and inhibited the peroxidation of membrane lipids in these animals. Exposure of mice to whole body gamma radiation also caused the formation of micronuclei in blood reticulocytes and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, and the administration of GA resulted in the inhibition of micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations. In irradiated animals, administration of GA elicited an enhancement in the rate of DNA repair process and a significant increase in endogenous spleen colony formation. The administration of GA also prevented the radiation-induced weight loss and mortality in animals (10 animals/group) exposed to lethal dose (10 Gy) of gamma radiation. (For every experiment unirradiated animals without GA administration were taken as normal control; specific dose (Gy) irradiated animals without GA administration serve as radiation control; and unirradiated GA treated animals were taken as drug alone control). PMID:24069607

  10. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  12. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  13. Rodent model choice has major impact on variability of standard preclinical readouts associated with diabetes and obesity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Victoria Svop; Porsgaard, Trine; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the phenotypic variation in commonly used experimental readouts within obesity and diabetes research, for four of the most frequently used mouse strains: inbred C57BL/6 and BALB/c and outbred NMRI and CD-1 mice. The variation for all readouts was examined by calculating the coefficient...

  14. Photodegradation of retinal bisretinoids in mouse models and implications for macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keiko; Zhao, Jin; Kim, Hye Jin; Sparrow, Janet R

    2016-06-21

    Adducts of retinaldehyde (bisretinoids) form nonenzymatically in photoreceptor cells and accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as lipofuscin; these fluorophores are implicated in the pathogenesis of inherited and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here we demonstrate that bisretinoid photodegradation is ongoing in the eye. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of eyes of dark-reared and cyclic light-reared wild-type mice, together with comparisons of pigmented versus albino mice, revealed a relationship between intraocular light and reduced levels of the bisretinoids A2E and A2-glycero-phosphoethanolamine (A2-GPE). Analysis of the bisretinoids A2E, A2-GPE, A2-dihydropyridine-phosphatidylethanolamine (A2-DHP-PE), and all-trans-retinal dimer-phosphatidylethanolamine (all-trans-retinal dimer-PE) also decreases in albino Abca4(-/-) mice reared in cyclic light compared with darkness. In albino Abca4(-/-) mice receiving a diet supplemented with the antioxidant vitamin E, higher levels of RPE bisretinoid were evidenced by HPLC analysis and quantitation of fundus autofluorescence; this effect is consistent with photooxidative processes known to precede bisretinoid degradation. Amelioration of outer nuclear layer thinning indicated that vitamin E treatment protected photoreceptor cells. Conversely, in-cage exposure to short-wavelength light resulted in reduced fundus autofluorescence, decreased HPLC-quantified A2E, outer nuclear layer thinning, and increased methylglyoxal (MG)-adducted protein. MG was also released upon bisretinoid photodegradation in cells. We suggest that the lower levels of these diretinal adducts in cyclic light-reared and albino mice reflect photodegradative loss of bisretinoid. These mechanisms may underlie associations among AMD risk, oxidative mechanisms, and lifetime light exposure.

  15. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Hymete, Ariaya; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Tadesse, Mekuria

    2017-05-02

    Ajuga remota Benth is traditionally used in Ethiopia for the management of diabetes mellitus. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. After acute toxicity test, the Swiss albino mice were induced with alloxan to get experimental diabetes animals. The fasting mean blood glucose level before and after treatment for two weeks in normal, diabetic untreated and diabetic mice treated with aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts were performed. Data were statistically evaluated by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20. P-value Phytochemical screening of both extracts indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids, which might contribute to the antidiabetic activity. The extracts, however, did not contain alkaloids and anthraquinones. The aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) showed the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose levels and the ability of A. remota extracts in reducing blood glucose levels presumably due to the presence of antioxidant constituents such as flavonoids. The effect of the extract supported the traditional claim of the plant.

  16. Estudo quantitativo do nervo frênico de rato albino em função do envelhecimento

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    Romeu Rodrigues de Souza

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The phrenic nerve of albino rats was studied for age changes in number of fibres, myelin sheath thickness and axon calibre. Nerves were excised from three young and three aged rats. There is no significant morphological differences between nerves from young and aged rats and no difference with age was found in the number of fibres, myelin sheath thickness and axon calibre.

  17. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  18. Lycopene Attenuates Tulathromycin and Diclofenac Sodium-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice

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    Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments showed a potential cardiotoxic effect of the macrolide antibiotic (tulathromycin. This study was performed to investigate whether diclofenac sodium (DFS potentiates the cardiotoxicity of tulathromycin and increases the cardioprotective effects of lycopene against DFS and tulathromycin. Seven groups (eight per group of adult Swiss albino mice received saline (control, tulathromycin (a single subcutaneous dose of 28 mg/kg/bw on day 14, DFS (a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg/bw on day 14, tulathromycin plus DFS, or lycopene (oral, 10 mg/kg/bw daily for 15 d combined with tulathromycin, DFS, or both. Compared to the control group, the administration of tulathromycin or DFS (individually or in combination caused significantly elevated (p < 0.05 serum levels of Creatine kinase-myocardial B fraction (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, and cardiac-specific troponin-T and tissue levels of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde that were accompanied by significantly decreased tissue reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase antioxidant enzyme activity. Upon histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, the mean pathology scores and the percentages of caspase-3-, Bax-, and CK-positive regions were significantly higher in the tulathromycin- and/or DFS-treated groups than in control mice. For all these parameters, the pathological changes were more significant in the tulathromycin–DFS combination group than in mice treated with either drug individually. Interestingly, co-administration of lycopene with tulathromycin and/or DFS significantly ameliorated the changes described above. In conclusion, DFS could potentiate the cardiotoxic effects of tulathromycin, whereas lycopene can serve as a cardioprotective agent against DFS and tulathromycin.

  19. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

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    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  20. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

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    Peterson Menezes Terrazas

    Full Text Available Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE and normochromatic (NCE erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans.

  1. Biological Effect of Ganoderma lucidum in Mice Suffering from Ehrlich Carcinoma and Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahim, Th.M.; Sherif, N.H.; Abd El-Azime, A.Sh.

    2013-01-01

    The popular edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been widely used for the general promotion of health and longevity in oriental countries. The present study was performed to investigate the antitumor effect of G. lucidum on Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) cells and/or gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress, kidney dysfunction and histopathological changes in the albino mouse. G. lucidum was orally administered via gavages to mice for a period of 3 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight begins on the 10th day of tumor inoculation. Animals were exposed to 4 Gy whole body γ radiation after 2 weeks of tumor inoculation. The antitumor effect of G. lucidum was evident in terms of a reduction in tumor viable cells count, inhibited both weight loss and tumor growth rate of EC-tumor bearing mice alone and in combination with gamma-radiation. Inoculation of mice with EC cells resulted in biochemical and histopathological changes leading to kidney damage. Oral administration of G. lucidum improved kidney functions through a recovery of the elevated levels of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid and increased albumin level and decreased the levels of tumor markers. Also, treatment of mice with G. lucidum induced a reduction of lipid peroxidation (MDA) level, improvement in glutathione content (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the kidney compared with those EC and /or irradiated damaged mice. On the other hand, treatment EC bearing mice with gamma radiation or G. lucidum combined showed increase in MDA level and decrease in GSH content and SOD activity, as compared to EC bearing mice. Histopathological studies showed that suffering from EC caused fatty degeneration, presence of necrosis and enlargement of kidney cells nuclei. Furthermore, an elevation of tail DNA % was recorded in the tumor tissue of mice treated with G. lucidum and/or γ radiation compared to EC control group. Treatment of EC bearing mice with G. lucidum and/or γ radiation exhibited

  2. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASSAB, F.M.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; KAMAL, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

  3. bipyridinium dichloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) ... Control and vitamin C-treated mice .... Tokyo, Japan).

  4. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus Brain

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    Ahmed A. Allam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication; Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  5. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  6. Evaluation of protective effect of cactus pear seed oil (Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL.) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abderrahim, Ziyyat; Hassane, Mekhfi; Abdelkhaleq, Legssyer; Mohammed, Aziz; Mohamed, Bnouham

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant power of cactus pear seed oil [Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL. (CPSO)] and its protective effect against chemically induced diabetes mellitus in mice. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPSO was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The preventive effect was conducted on Swiss albino mice treated with CPSO (2 mL/kg, per os), before and after a single intraperitoneal alloxan administration (100 mg/kg). Survival rate, body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured and histopathological analysis of pancreas was performed to evaluate alloxan-induced tissue injuries. CPSO exhibited an antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging assay. Moreover, the administration of CPSO (2 mL/kg) significantly attenuated alloxan-induced death and hyperglycemia (P < 0.001) in treated mice. Morphometric study of pancreas revealed that CPSO significantly protected islets of langerhans against alloxan induced-tissue alterations. Based on theses results, CPSO can prevente alloxan-induced-diabetes by quenching free radicals produced by alloxan and inhibiting tissue injuries in pancreatic β-cells. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiomodulatory action of rosemary extract against hepatic injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyal, Dhanraj; Gehlot, Prashasnika; Goyal, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radio therapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical application due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose. Search for non toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the polyherbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of the clinically useful radioprotector as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high. A worldwide hunt is on for the development of non-toxic/less toxic radioprotectors. Keeping this view, the present study has been undertaken to find out radioprotective potential of the Rosemarinus officinalis extract (ROE) in the liver of Swiss albino mice as its leaves have various medicinal properties like analgesic, anti-epileptic, antioxidant, hepatoprotactive and anti-cancer, etc

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of inosine against radiation-induced damage at cellular, biochemical and chromosomal levels in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shamy, E.; Sallam, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Inosine has been used for treatment of various diseases and disorders in medicine. Modulator effect of inosine against γ radiation-induced histological alterations in testis, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), acid and alkaline phosphatases activities (AP and ALP) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in mice was studied at various experimental intervals between 1 and 30 days. Mice exposed to 8 Gy γ-rays showed acute radiation sickness including marked testis histological changes and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in bone marrow cells with 100 % mortality within 22 days. When inosine was given orally at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body wt for 15 consecutive days after exposure to γ-rays, death in radiation + inosine group was reduced to 70 % at 30 days. The radiation - dose reduction factor (DRF) was 1.43. There was significantly lesser degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and leydig cells. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the LPO and increase in the GSH levels were observed in testis of radiation + inosine group. Similarly, a significant decrease in level of AP and increase in level of ALP were observed. Inosine treatment significantly prevented γ-rays-induced CA frequency in bone marrow cells.

  9. Evaluation of Anticonvulsive ٍEffect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles in Comparison with Conventional MgO in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jahangiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some studies show magnesium has anticonvulsive effect in some animal models. Despite of the availability of well-studied anticonvulsant drugs, this evaluation was not carried on new kind of magnesium supplement, magnesium oxide nanoparticles (nMgO. According to the interaction between magnesium and convulsion, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of nMgO on strychnine-induced convulsive model in compared to its conventional in diabetic and normal mice. Methods: Healthy male albino mice were divided to 10 groups. Diabete mellitus was induced by streptozocin in 5 groups. Conventional and nanoparticle MgO (5&10mg/kg in presence and absence diabetes injected to mice, then strychnine injected and onset of convulsions and time of death were measured after strychnine administration. Results: Convulsive parameters did not change in normal and diabetic mice. cMgO pretreatment did not have anticonvulsant effect in strychnine-induced convulsion in normal and diabetic mice. But nMgO significantly changed convulsion onset and death time after strychnine administration in normal and diabetic status. Discussion: According to our results It seems that nMgO may be important in prevention or treatment of epilepsy and has more efficacy than its conventional form to showing anticonvulsive effect that probably is related to the physicochemical properties of nMgO, specially in diabetic subjects, a point that need to further investigation.

  10. Antigenic variants of yellow fever virus with an altered neurovirulence phenotype in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, K D; Xie, H; Ledger, T N; Campbell, G A; Barrett, A D

    1997-04-14

    The live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine virus, strain 17D-204, has long been known to consist of a heterologous population of virions. Gould et al. (J. Gen. Virol. 70, 1889-1894 (1989)) previously demonstrated that variant viruses exhibiting a YF wild-type-specific envelope (E) protein epitope are present at low frequency in the vaccine pool and were able to isolate representative virus variants with and without this epitope, designated 17D(+wt) and 17D(-wt), respectively. These variants were employed here in an investigation of YF virus pathogenesis in the mouse model. Both the 17D-204 parent and the 17D(+wt) variant viruses were lethal for adult outbred mice by the intracerebral route of inoculation. However, the 17D(-wt) variant was significantly attenuated (18% mortality rate) and replicated to much lower titer in the brains of infected mice. A single amino acid substitution in the envelope (E) protein at E-240 (Ala-->Val) was identified as responsible for the restricted replication of the 17D(-wt) variant in vivo. The 17D(+wt) variant has an additional second-site mutation, believed to encode a reversion to the neurovirulence phenotype of the 17D-204 parent virus. The amino acid substitution in the E protein at E-173 (Thr-->Ile) of the 17D(+wt) variant which results in the appearance of the wild-type-specific epitope or nucleotide changes in the 5' and 3' noncoding regions of the virus are proposed as a candidates.

  11. Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Preeti N.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Linaria ramosissima (Wall.) Janch., Scrophulariaceae, a folklore plant, has been claimed for its diuretic activities by traditional practitioners. The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity of L. ramosissima leaves in albino rats. Suspension of leaf powder in 2% gum acacia was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 450 mg/kg. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume, pH of urine, and urinary electrolyte excretion. Administration of the test drug increased the urine volume in a non-significant manner, while it enhanced the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium significantly, in comparison to the control group. From the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of L. ramosissima have a significant diuretic activity. PMID:23723679

  12. Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, J S; Rao, V H [Central Leather Research Inst., Madras (India)

    1981-01-01

    The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of /sup 3/H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of /sup 3/H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls.

  13. Studies on the influence of static magnetic fields on prenatal development of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konermann, G.; Moenig, H.

    1986-10-01

    Developmental effects were studied in pregnant albino-mice after exposures to a static homogeneous magnetic field (1T) on days 7, 10 or 13 post conception. These days correspond approximately to the 16th, 28th or 42nd day p.c. in human development and represent stages of increased sensitivity. Intrauterine effects (after exposures on days 7 or 10 p.c.) were evaluated included lethality, external malformations, disoders in the fetal skeleton and fetal weights. The evaluation of postnatal effects (after exposure on day 13 p.c.) included body-weight, brain-weight, diameter of neocortex and commissures and the alignment of cortical neurons up to day 46 p.c. According to all these criteria, no developmental effects were observed after the exposures to the magnetic field. Transient effects, either being compensatable or biologically without relevance, cannot be excluded.

  14. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.; Abo zid, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  15. Impact of Sexual Deprivation on Sexual Behavior and Some Reproductive-Endocrinal Functions in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek S. Abd El Moghny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of stress on the sexual behavior and its pathophysiological effects on some reproductive and endocrine functions in albino rats. Methods: One hundred and twenty albino rats were included and divided into a control groupand three exper-imental sub-groups, which were subjected to sexual stress. Female rats were investigated for the cytological changes in the phases of the estrous cycle. All rats were observed for behavioral changes throughout the experiment. Histopathological examination of the thyroid, testes and ovaries and the assessment of thyroid and gonadal hormones in the sera of control and experimental rats were performed. Results: Cytological examination revealed stopped estrous cycle in the diestrous phase in all female rats. Thyroid hormones revealed a decrease in the levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxin; however, non-significant changes were detected in the thyroid-stimulating hormone level in experimental rats compared to the controls. Gonadal hormones revealed a great discrepancy in their levels among both sexes. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that sexual excitation is one of the stressful factors affecting sexual behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes as well as sex organs with secretory functions. Therefore, it is considered as a socio-pathological factor that needs more specific studies to further clarify its effects.

  16. Embryotoxic effect of gamma radiation in mice and their modulation by vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.; Singh, N.; Gajawat, S.; Pareek, T.K.; Dev, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Ionizing radiations severely interfere with normal embryonic or fetal development, although period of late fetal development in mammals is considered to be the somewhat radioresistant. Here, an attempt is made to check the radiation induced developmental anomalies by vitamins during fetal development period. For this purpose, pregnant Swiss albino mice were exposed to 0.50 Gy gamma radiation during fetal growth period (day 14.25 post-coitus) in the presence (experimental) or absence (control) of vitamin B complex (20 mg/kg b.w.) till term. All dams were sacrificed on day 18 post-coitus and their uteri were examined to study reproductive status and anatomical abnormalities of each conceptus. About 48% pregnant females of the control group showed a complete embryonic resorption while in the experimental group the number of females showing resorption was only 33%. Resorption of embryos, fetal mortality and reduction in placental weight were significantly increased in mice irradiated in the absence of vitamin B complex. Various gross malformations including skeletal anomalies were significantly reduced in 18 days old fetuses given vitamin B complex therapy. Further, such fetuses had better ossification of skull and vertebrae. Sex-ratio of the fetuses, however, remained unaltered in both groups as compared to normal. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative fundus autofluorescence in mice: correlation with HPLC quantitation of RPE lipofuscin and measurement of retina outer nuclear layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Janet R; Blonska, Anna; Flynn, Erin; Duncker, Tobias; Greenberg, Jonathan P; Secondi, Roberta; Ueda, Keiko; Delori, François C

    2013-04-17

    Our study was conducted to establish procedures and protocols for quantitative autofluorescence (qAF) measurements in mice, and to report changes in qAF, A2E bisretinoid concentration, and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in mice of different genotypes and age. Fundus autofluorescence (AF) images (55° lens, 488 nm excitation) were acquired in albino Abca4(-/-), Abca4(+/-), and Abca4(+/+) mice (ages 2-12 months) with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). Gray levels (GLs) in each image were calibrated to an internal fluorescence reference. The bisretinoid A2E was measured by quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histometric analysis of ONL thicknesses was performed. The Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability (95% confidence interval) was ±18% for between-session qAF measurements. Mean qAF values increased with age (2-12 months) in all groups of mice. qAF was approximately 2-fold higher in Abca4(-/-) mice than in Abca4(+/+) mice and approximately 20% higher in heterozygous mice. HPLC measurements of the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E also revealed age-associated increases, and the fold difference between Abca4(-/-) and wild-type mice was more pronounced (approximately 3-4-fold) than measurable by qAF. Moreover, A2E levels declined after 8 months of age, a change not observed with qAF. The decline in A2E levels in the Abca4(-/-) mice corresponded to reduced photoreceptor cell viability as reflected in ONL thinning beginning at 8 months of age. The qAF method enables measurement of in vivo lipofuscin and the detection of genotype and age-associated differences. The use of this approach has the potential to aid in understanding retinal disease processes and will facilitate preclinical studies.

  18. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANGOOD, S.A.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratibha, N; Saxena, V S; Amit, A; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55% inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7% inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated 31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately 63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated

  20. Anti-leishmanial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    150 mg/kg against intracellular amastigotes in albino mice was 97.02 % (95 % CI = 96.14 - 98.10) .... (Reichert, New York, U.S.A), and enumerating ... mice. Development of lesion was measured weekly with dial micrometer during the infection.

  1. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapou...

  2. Reproductive capacity of male mice protected from supralethal effect of gamma-radiation by the administration of a mixture of extracts from Archangelica officinalis and Ledus palustre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narimanov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-day old albino mongrel male mice were exposed to gamma-radiation (LD 90/30 ) after preventive single injection of a mixture of extracts from Archangelica officinalis and Ledum palustre. One month after irradiation, the survivors were mated to nonirradiated females. Healthy offspring were obtained from 11 out 12 experimental males. The number of both sexes in the posterity of nonirradiated parents was equal, whereas in offspring of experimental groups, the number of female pups was 2.3 times larger than that of males. The experimental posterity was found to be resistant to supralethal radiation doses

  3. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  4. Histogenesis and progression of ultraviolet light-induced tumors in hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kligman, L.H.; Kligman, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Tumor histogenesis and progression were studied in UV-irradiated albino (Skh:hairless-1) and lightly pigmented (Skh:hairless-2) hairless mice. A strongly carcinogenic dose of UV light was used, producing 100% tumor incidence by 35 weeks. The light source emitted mainly UV radiation in the range of 280-320 nm and the less energetic UV radiation up to 400 nm. The resulting epidermal changes and neoplasms resembled those seen in the actinically damaged skin of humans. Microscopic lesions included benign hyperplasia, actinic keratoses, and squamous cell carcinoma in situ and with microinvasion. Clinical tumors were epithelial papillomas, fibropapillomas, keratoacanthomas, cystic keratomas, benign pigmented macules, cutaneous hornlike growths, exophytic and endophytic squamous cell carcinomas of several cytologic types, and fibrosarcomas. Even with this high dose of UV radiation, not all of the small tumors progressed to cancer. Many regressed, including some keratoacanthomas, whereas others remained small and benign for the lifetime of the mouse

  5. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  6. Biochemical changes after subchronic and chronic interaction of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Swiss albino mice with two specific compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Laila S; Medhat, Amina M; Abdel-Menem, Hanan A

    2003-04-01

    In Egypt, infection with Schistosoma mansoni (S.m.) and residues of pesticides have been considered as major environmental pollutants that adversely affect health. Effects of diazinon (DZN) and/or praziquantel (PZQ) on the levels of plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), activities of brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in addition to blood reduced glutathione (GSH) in healthy and S.m. infected mice were investigated after 9 and 17 weeks of either infection or intoxication with DZN. Triiodothyronine showed significant differences among the different treatments. The group of mice treated with PZQ showed the highest levels of T3 at both time intervals. Thyroxine level showed significant differences between the two time intervals. The lowest levels of T4 were observed in the infected-PZQ group at week 17. The maximum inhibition of brain AchE activity was noticed in DZN-PZQ treated group after 9 and 17 weeks. The different treatments significantly reduced the activities of liver ALT. The highest decrease was recorded in the infected-DZN-PZQ group at week 9. All treatments significantly lowered the levels of blood GSH after 9 weeks.

  7. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

  8. Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Nonmodel rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift; so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. Here we use high throughput sequencing to demonstrate genetic divergence in three isolated colonies of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) even though they were all established recently from the same source. We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly “outbred” colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. We conclude that genetic divergence in isolated colonies may play an important role in the “replication crisis.” In a more positive light, divergent rodent colonies represent an opportunity to leverage genetically distinct individuals in genetic crossing experiments. In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. PMID:29242387

  9. Mucuna pruriens reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in Parkinsonian mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in aged peoples. Plentiful studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for this disease giving special impetus on use of herbal plants. The study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (Mp) on level of nitric oxide (NO) in paraquat (PQ) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model and its subsequent contribution to lipid peroxidation. Twenty four Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups; Control, PQ and PQ+Mp. PQ doses were given intraperitoneally, twice in a week and oral dose of ethanolic extract of Mp seed was given for 9 weeks. Nitrite content and lipid peroxidation was measured in all treated groups along with respective controls. RNA was isolated from the nigrostriatal tissue of control and the treated mice and was reverse transcribed into cDNA. PCR was performed to amplify iNOS mRNA and western blot analysis was performed to check its protein level. We had also perfused the mice in all treated group and performed Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and iNOS immunoreactivity in substantia nigra region of mice brain. PQ-treatment increased nitrite content, expression of iNOS and lipid peroxidation compared to respective controls. Mp treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of iNOS expression, nitrite content and lipid peroxidation demonstrating that it reduces nitric oxide in PQ-induced Parkinson's disease. Interestingly; we also observed that mRNA, protein expression and immunoreactivity of iNOS was significantly decreased after Mp treatment and TH immunoreactivity was significantly improved after the treatment of Mp. Our results demonstrated that Mp protects the dopaminergic neurons from the NO injury in substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiome of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the colon of albino rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Sydorchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The microbiome of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the large intestine in direct contact with the body also interacts with the immune and other systems that emphasizes the urgency of its study in various diseases. The purpose of the study was to determine the taxonomic composition, population level, analytical microecological indicators and the degree of microecological disorders of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the large intestine in albino rats with thyrotoxicosis. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 25 mature male albino rats weighing 220–240 g, of which 15 animals were included to the control group (intact animals, and 10 rats — to the main group. The experimental thyrotoxicosis was simulated by intragastric administration of L-thyroxine for 14 days. Under sterile conditions, a laparotomy was performed, a segment (up to 3 cm of the large intestine with its contents was taken. The washed portion of the intestine was homogenized with a sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. A series of ten-fold dilutions with 10–2 to 10–7 concentrations of the initial mixture were prepared. From each tube, 0.01 ml were seeded on solid optimal nutrient media with subsequent isolation and identification of microbes according to morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties. Results. In some animals, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, as well as bacteroides and escherichia, are eliminated. A significant deficiency of not only bifidobacteria by 48.50 % and lactobacillus by 94.59 %, but also of bacteroides by 44.85 % was established. Determination of the quantitative dominance of each taxon showed that the dominant role of bifidobacteria in the microbiocenosis is reduced by 82.76 %, lactobacillus — by 2.20 times, and the role of bacteroides in the microbiocenosis of the epithelial biofilm of the large intestine of albino rats with the experimental thyrotoxicosis — by 43.04 %, E.coli — by 7.18 %, but the role of

  11. Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible toxicological risks of Allium sativum aqueous extract upon consumption were assessed in mice and rats using acute and sub-chronic treatments. 36 male Swiss albino mice were used, and the various doses administered were 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g/kg body weight. Mice were observed for behavioural changes ...

  12. The effects of compound 48/80, morphine, and mast cell depletion on electroshock seizure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yillar, D O; Küçükhüseyin, C

    2008-01-01

    The effects of compound 48/80 (C48/80), morphine, and mast cell depletion on maximal electroshock seizure (MES) were studied in Swiss albino mice. An electrical current (60Hz, 0.2 msec) inducing convulsions in 50% of the animals (CC50) was assessed as 46 mA. Compound 48/80 (5 mg/kg) and morphine (100mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously. CC50 was applied separately to electroshock-unexposed animal groups at 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min after the onset of the experiment. In untreated controls, the percent of seizure induced by CC50 and percent of death among mice having convulsions were 50 and 20, respectively. After C48/80, a significant increase in rates of seizure at 60th and 120th min and death beyond 60th min (p seizure tended to decrease following mast-cell depletion, which was readily reversed by C48/80 at the 60th min (p seizure induced by the application of CC50 in the mast-cell depleted animals (anticonvulsive action) but increased the percent of dying animals by as much as 100% at the 30th and 60th min (p opiate receptors in the brain.

  13. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  14. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  15. Potential role of meflquine (antimalarial drug and methanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Wahab El-Emam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the efficacy of mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban (S. sesban as a combined therapy for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni infected mice, and study the parasitological, biochemical and histological parameters of treated mice. Methods: Two groups of male Swiss Albino mice were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The first group untreated served as control. The second group was orally treated with a single dose (200 mg/kg of mefloquine 3 weeks post infection, then subsequently divided into 2 subgroups; the first orally retreated with the plant extracts 1 000 mg/kg of S. sesban followed by 1 250 mg/kg of C. ambrosioides with an 1 h interval, for 2 successive days. The second sub-group was re-treated with the same (dose and method plant extracts after 7 weeks post infection. Results: The results showed that S. mansoni infected mice treated with mefloquine and the plants’ extracts 3 weeks post infection significantly (P < 0.01 reduced the worm burden/ mouse by 95.5% and the few worms recovered from sacrificed mice in this treatment failed to lay ova. Moreover, no worms were recovered from infected mice treated with mefloquine (3 weeks post infection and re-treated by the plant’s extracts at 7 weeks post infection. Also, treatment of infected mice with mefloquine followed by the plants’ extracts either at 3 or 7 weeks post infection ameliorated the activities of the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkline phosphatase and acid phosphatase as well as the hepatic granulomatous lesions compared to infected untreated group. Conclusions: It is concluded that successive treatment of S. mansoni infected mice with mefloquine and methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides and S. sesban could be a promising device in the strategy of schistosomiasis control.

  16. High-fertility phenotypes: two outbred mouse models exhibit substantially different molecular and physiological strategies warranting improved fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Martina; Michaelis, Marten; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sobczak, Alexander; Schoen, Jennifer; Weitzel, Joachim M

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are valuable tools in fertility research. Worldwide, there are more than 400 transgenic or knockout mouse models available showing a reproductive phenotype; almost all of them exhibit an infertile or at least subfertile phenotype. By contrast, animal models revealing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described. This article summarizes data on two outbred mouse models exhibiting a 'high-fertility' phenotype. These mouse lines were generated via selection over a time period of more than 40 years and 161 generations. During this selection period, the number of offspring per litter and the total birth weight of the entire litter nearly doubled. Concomitantly with the increased fertility phenotype, several endocrine parameters (e.g. serum testosterone concentrations in male animals), physiological parameters (e.g. body weight, accelerated puberty, and life expectancy), and behavioral parameters (e.g. behavior in an open field and endurance fitness on a treadmill) were altered. We demonstrate that the two independently bred high-fertility mouse lines warranted their improved fertility phenotype using different molecular and physiological strategies. The fertility lines display female- as well as male-specific characteristics. These genetically heterogeneous mouse models provide new insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms that enhance fertility. In view of decreasing fertility in men, these models will therefore be a precious information source for human reproductive medicine. Translated abstract A German translation of abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/147/4/427/suppl/DC1.

  17. Investigations into the post-natal development of demethylating enzyme systems by determination of carbon dioxide 14 in the air exhaled by mice after applications of carbon 14 dimethyl amino-antipyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.

    1982-01-01

    Albino mice were subcutaneously injected with carbon 14 dimethyl aminopyrines, the methyl group of which can be metabolised in the organism into carbon dioxide 14. The following results were obtained: In the carbon dioxide 14 exhalation of neonate, young and adult animals after administration of carbon 14 aminopyrine, distinct differences were noted. The maximum of elimination via the lungs occurs after 20-30 minutes in grown-up mice, in neonates or young animals distinctly later (60-90 min). The carbon dioxide 14 exhalation was also measured after additional subcutaneous application of methrotrexate. In mice aged 8 and 10 days a distinct decrease in carbon dioxide 14 exhalation was found. By contrast, a rise in carbon dioxide 14 exhaled was found in mice aged 2 days. The orientating experiments with folic acid and carbon 14 dimethyl aminopyrine show that leucovorin leads to a distinct increase in carbon dioxide 14 exhalation during the first 30 minutes. As a cause of the different degrees of stimulation respectively inhibition of demethylation, different biochemical ways of formaldehyde formation are pointed out. One of these probably includes the folate-dependent reaction. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Distinct virulence of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus strains from different genetic lineages in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Ikegami

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV causes high rates of abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral transmission occurs via mosquito vectors in endemic areas, which necessitates regular vaccination of susceptible livestock animals to prevent the RVF outbreaks. Although ZH501 strain has been used as a challenge strain for past vaccine efficacy studies, further characterization of other RVFV strains is important to optimize ruminant and nonhuman primate RVFV challenge models. This study aimed to characterize the virulence of wild-type RVFV strains belonging to different genetic lineages in outbred CD1 mice. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with 1x103 PFU of wild-type ZH501, Kenya 9800523, Kenya 90058, Saudi Arabia 200010911, OS1, OS7, SA75, Entebbe, or SA51 strains. Among them, mice infected with SA51, Entebbe, or OS7 strain showed rapid dissemination of virus in livers and peracute necrotic hepatitis at 2-3 dpi. Recombinant SA51 (rSA51 and Zinga (rZinga strains were recovered by reverse genetics, and their virulence was also tested in CD1 mice. The rSA51 strain reproduced peracute RVF disease in mice, whereas the rZinga strain showed a similar virulence with that of rZH501 strain. This study showed that RVFV strains in different genetic lineages display distinct virulence in outbred mice. Importantly, since wild-type RVFV strains contain defective-interfering RNA or various genetic subpopulations during passage from original viral isolations, recombinant RVFV strains generated by reverse genetics will be better suitable for reproducible challenge studies for vaccine development as well as pathological studies.

  19. Sub-acute toxicological effects of Jobelyn on pregnant albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Yakubu, Omolara Faith; Egbung, Godwin Eneji; Williams, Olabisi Ibidun; Okubena, Olajuwon

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the sub-acute toxicological effects of Jobelyn® on pregnant albino rats by employing biochemical, haematological and histopathological methods. A total of 32 pregnant female rats were randomly assigned to four different groups of eight rats each. The control group received distilled water and different doses of Jobelyn®; 250, 500, 1000 mg kg-1 were administered orally once a day for 2 weeks to the other groups. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant decrease (pAlkaline phosphatase, total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, WBC count, revealed no significant difference (p<0.05) when compared to the control. The results show that at an appropriate dosage, the use of Jobelyn® during pregnancy may have no adverse effect on the liver and kidney tissues and may possess hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties however the histopathological studies revealed that very high levels of Jobelyn may be hepatotoxic.

  20. Induction of Protective Immune Responses against Schistosomiasis Haematobium in Hamsters and Mice Using Cysteine Peptidase-Based Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A M Tallima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major lessons we learned from the radiation-attenuated cercariae (RA vaccine studies is that protective immunity against schistosomiasis is dependent on the induction of T helper (Th1/Th2-related immune responses. Since most schistosome larval and adult-worm-derived molecules used for vaccination uniformly induce a polarized Th1 response, it was essential to include a type 2 immune responses-inducing molecule, such as cysteine peptidases, in the vaccine formula. Here we demonstrate that a single subcutaneous injection of Syrian hamsters with 200 microg active papain 1 h before percutaneous exposure to 150 cercariae of Schistosoma haematobium led to highly significant (P 50% in worm burden and worm egg counts in intestine. Immunization of hamsters with 20 microg recombinant glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rSG3PDH and 20 ug 2-cys peroxiredoxin-derived peptide in a multiple antigen peptide construct (PRX MAP together with papain (20 microg/hamster as adjuvant led to considerable (64% protection against challenge S. haematobium infection, similar to the levels reported with irradiated cercariae. Cysteine peptidases-based vaccination was also effective in protecting outbred mice against a percutaneous challenge infection with S. haematobium cercariae. In two experiments, a mixture of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1 and Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 (FhCL1 led to highly significant (P < 0.005 reduction of 70% in challenge S. haematobium worm burden and 60% reduction in liver egg counts. Mice vaccinated with SmCB1/FhCL1/ rSG3PDH mixture and challenged with S. haematobium cercariae three weeks after the second immunization displayed highly significant (P < 0.005 reduction of 72% in challenge worm burden and no eggs in liver of 8-10 mice/group, as compared to unimmunized mice, associated with production of a mixture of type 1 and type 2-related cytokines and antibody responses.

  1. Immunotoxicity evaluation of novel bioactive composites in male mice as promising orthopaedic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan T. El-Bassyouni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective : In orthopaedics, novel bioactive composites are largely needed to improve the synthetic achievement of the implants. In this work, semiconducting metal oxides such as SiO 2 , TiO 2 , and ZrO 2 particles (Ps were used individually and in different ratios to obtain different biphasic composites. The immunotoxicity of these composites was tested to inspect the potential toxicity prior to their use in further medical applications. Materials and methods : In vitro mineralisation ability was inspected by soaking the composites in simulated body fluid (SBF. Additionally, in vivo experiments were performed consuming male mice using ISSR-PCR, micronucleus (MN test, comet assay, glutathione peroxidase activity, and determination of albumin, globulin, lymphocyte population, ALT, and AST levels. Several groups of adult male albino mice were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of SiO 2 , TiO 2 , and ZrO 2 -Ps in pure or mixed forms. Results : Our findings revealed that treatment of mice with low and medium doses of SiO 2 , TiO 2 , and ZrO 2 -Ps in pure or mixed form revealed values relatively similar to the control group. However, using 400 mg/kg especially from TiO 2 -Ps in genuine form or mixed with SiO 2 showed proliferation in the toxicity rates compared with the high dose of SiO 2 and ZrO 2 -Ps. Conclusions : The results suggest that TiO 2 composite induced in vivo toxicity, oxidative DNA damage, bargain of the antioxidant enzymes, and variations in the levels of albumin, globulin, lymphocyte population, ALT, and AST in a dose-dependent manner. However, SiO 2 , and ZrO 2 composites revealed a lower toxicity in mice compared with that of TiO 2 .

  2. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.; Hedeskov, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 μmol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10 -3 pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation. (author)

  3. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S E; Hedeskov, C J [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 ..mu..mol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10/sup -3/ pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation.

  4. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  5. Effect of radiophosphorus on hematology of mice during postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Srivastava, P.N.

    1975-01-01

    Swiss albino mice at different stages of their postnatal development (one day, one week, two weeks,three weeks, four weeks age groups) were injected intraperitoneally with radioactive phosphorus (P-32) at the dose of 1.0 μCi/g body weight and studied for their hematological response at weekly intervals up to six weeks of age when they attain sexual maturity. In all the treated groups in both males and females, the radiation injury was evident after injection of radioactive phosphorus. Animals showed reduction in blood cell number and fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after injection. Reparation was also evident in the animals after some lapse of time following P-32 administration. Morphological changes in different white blood cells were not observed. No radiation sickness symptoms were observed in any of the treated groups during the study. There was no radiation mortality. The radiation damage to blood forming organs was moderate. It was observed that the females showed a greater hematological damage than the males. (orig.) [de

  6. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula ... Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, ... albino mice, while the phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and glycosides.

  7. Visualisation of cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns in albino Xenopus larvae in vivo

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    Mogi Kazue

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has long been known that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, its composition and flow, play an important part in normal brain development, and ependymal cell ciliary beating as a possible driver of CSF flow has previously been studied in mammalian fetuses in vitro. Lower vertebrate animals are potential models for analysis of CSF flow during development because they are oviparous. Albino Xenopus laevis larvae are nearly transparent and have a straight, translucent brain that facilitates the observation of fluid flow within the ventricles. The aim of these experiments was to study CSF flow and circulation in vivo in the developing brain of living embryos, larvae and tadpoles of Xenopus laevis using a microinjection technique. Methods The development of Xenopus larval brain ventricles and the patterns of CSF flow were visualised after injection of quantum dot nanocrystals and polystyrene beads (3.1 or 5.8 μm in diameter into the fourth cerebral ventricle at embryonic/larval stages 30-53. Results The fluorescent nanocrystals showed the normal development of the cerebral ventricles from embryonic/larval stages 38 to 53. The polystyrene beads injected into stage 47-49 larvae revealed three CSF flow patterns, left-handed, right-handed and non-biased, in movement of the beads into the third ventricle from the cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius. In the lateral ventricles, anterior to the third ventricle, CSF flow moved anteriorly along the outer wall of the ventricle to the inner wall and then posteriorly, creating a semicircle. In the cerebral aqueduct, connecting the third and fourth cerebral ventricles, CSF flow moved rostrally in the dorsal region and caudally in the ventral region. Also in the fourth ventricle, clear dorso-ventral differences in fluid flow pattern were observed. Conclusions This is the first visualisation of the orchestrated CSF flow pattern in developing vertebrates using a live animal imaging approach. CSF flow

  8. Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.; Afifi, E.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

  9. Negative effects of bisphenol A on testicular functions in albino rats and their abolitions with Tribulus terristeris L.

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    Bushra Munir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to find out the ameliorative properties of Tribulus terristeris L (TT on BPA induced spermatotoxicity in male albino rats. Mature male albino rats were divided into five groups, Group A was taken as control for comparison group, whereas the other four groups namely B(vehicle control, C (toxic, D (preventive control and Group E (amelioration group received distilled water, olive oil, BPA, TT, and (TT + BPA respectively. Macroscopic results revealed decreased body weight of rats, weight of testes, and the relative tissue weight index (RTWI in BPA induced group. Hormonal (testosterone assay results revealed the decreased values of BPA treated group. Microscopic examination of testis of BPA treated rats showed reduction in leydig cells, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and low values of Johnsen’s scoring. Histological examination showed discontinuity and irregularity of basement membrane and sloughing of the germinal cell linage. Group E showed the body weights of rats, weight of testes, RTWI, and increased, while reduced level of testosterone, reduced number of Leydig cells, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and low values of Johnsen’s scoring were restored near to normal. These results demonstrate that TT might be beneficial in combating the spermatotoxicity, induced by BPA.

  10. In vivo toxicity of the culturable marine cyanobacterium Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 extract on male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthanayagam, Veerabadhran; Nagarajan, Manivel; Sundararaman, Muthuraman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 organic extract in a murine host. A single intraperitoneal injection of 1 g extract kg⁻¹ body weight (BW) did not exhibit mortality, whereas 3 g extract kg⁻¹ BW (approximate lethal dose) resulted in mortality within 5 days. To perform subchronic exposure toxicity analyses (i.e., daily exposure for a total of 14 days), a maximum concentration of ≤1 g extract kg⁻¹ BW was used. Subchronic toxicity studies in the treated mice, showed fluctuations of feed intake, loss of body weight, increase in specific activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and decrease in whole serum protein concentration. LDH isoenzyme expression was found, and levels of the various isoforms were decreased as a result of the treatment. Histopathology studies in liver, kidney, and spleen isolated from the treated mice showed the presence of necrotic debris, hemorrhage, and micronuclei revealing the toxicity of the extract. The dose-dependent alterations in biochemical parameters in conjunction with the histological lesions noted in the animals treated with the prepared extract illustrate the likely potential toxicity to mammals from any encounters with the studied cyanobacterium.

  11. Molecular analysis of radiation-induced albino (c)-locus mutations that cause death at preimplantation stages of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinchik, E.M.; Toenjes, R.R.; Paul, D.; Potter, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Deletion mutations at the albino (c) locus have been useful for continuing the development of fine-structure physical and functional maps of the Fes-Hbb region of mouse chromosome 7. This report describes the molecular analysis of a number of radiation-induced c deletions that, when homozygous, cause death of the embryo during preimplantation stages. The distal extent of these deletions defines a locus, pid, (preimplantation development) genetically associated with this phenotype. The proximal breakpoints of eight of these deletions were mapped with respect to the Tyr (tyrosinase; albino) gene as well as to anonymous loci within the Fah-Tyr region that are defined by the Pmv-31 viral integration site and by chromosome-microdissection clones. Rearrangements corresponding to the proximal breakpoints of two of these deletions were detected by Southern blot analysis, and a size-altered restriction fragment carrying the breakpoint of one of them was cloned. A probe derived from this deletion fusion fragment defines a locus, D7Rn6, which maps within (or distal to) the pid region, and which discriminates among the distal extents of deletions eliciting the pid phenotype. Extension of physical maps from D7Rn6 should provide access both to the pid region and to loci mapping distal to pid that are defined by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lethal mutations. 36 refs., 10 figs

  12. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  13. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on okadaic acid induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Dwivedi, Subhash; Tota, Santosh Kumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-09-05

    Okadaic acid (OKA) has been observed to cause memory impairment in human subjects having seafood contaminated with dinoflagellate (Helicondria okadai). OKA induces tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress leading to memory impairment as our previous study has shown. Curcumin a natural antioxidant has demonstrated neuroprotection in various models of neurodegeneration. However, the effect of curcumin has not been explored in OKA induced memory impairment. Therefore, present study evaluated the effect of curcumin on OKA (100ng, intracerebrally) induced memory impairment in male Swiss albino mice as evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance tests (PAT). OKA administration resulted in memory impairment with a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) (measured by laser doppler flowmetry), ATP level and increased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, neuroinflammation (increased TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and GFAP), oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased Caspase-9 and cholinergic dysfunction (decreased AChE activity/expression and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice brain. Oral administration of curcumin (50mg/kg) for 13 days significantly improved memory function in both MWM and PAT along with brain energy metabolism, CBF and cholinergic function. It decreased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, and ameliorated neuroinflammation and oxidative-nitrostative stress in different brain regions of OKA treated mice. Curcumin also inhibited astrocyte activation as evidenced by decreased GFAP expression. This neuroprotective effect of curcumin is due to its potent anti-oxidant action thus confirming previous studies. Therefore, use of curcumin should be encouraged in people consuming sea food (contaminated with dinoflagellates) to prevent cognitive impairment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exacerbation of N-nitrosodiethylamine Induced Hepatotoxicity and DNA Damage in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress contributes to increased susceptibility to a number of diseases including cancer. The present study was designed to assess the effect of chronic unpredictable stress on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver toxicity in terms of in vivo antioxidant status and DNA damage in Swiss albino mice. The animals used in this study were randomized into different groups based on the treatment with N-nitrosodiethylamine or chronic unpredictable stress alone and post-stress administration of N-nitrosodiethylamine. The mice were sacrificed after 12 weeks of treatment, and the status of major enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, liver function markers, lipid peroxidation and the extent of DNA damage were determined in circulation and liver tissues of all the groups. The N-nitrosodiethylamine treated group showed significantly compromised levels of the antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and the liver function markers with enhanced DNA damage as compared to chronic unpredictable stress or control groups. A similar but less typical pattern observed in the chronic unpredictable stress treated mice. All the measured biochemical parameters were significantly altered in the group treated with the combination of chronic unpredictable stress and N-nitrosodiethylamine when compared to controls, or chronic unpredictable stress alone and/or N-nitrosodiethylamine alone treated groups. Thus, exposure to continuous, unpredictable stress conditions even in general life may significantly enhance the hepatotoxic potential of N-nitrosodiethylamine through an increase in the oxidative stress and DNA damage.

  15. Agmatine attenuates nicotine induced conditioned place preference in mice through modulation of neuropeptide Y system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Walke, Sonali; Shelkar, Gajanan P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Umekar, Milind J; Taksande, Brijesh G

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of agmatine on nicotine induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino mice. Intra-peritoneal (ip) administration of nicotine (1mg/kg) significantly increased time spent in drug-paired compartment. Agmatine (20 and 40 mg/kg, ip) co-administered with nicotine during the 6 days conditioning sessions completely abolished the acquisition of nicotine-induced CPP in mice. Concomitant administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) (1 pg/mouse, icv) or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (0.1 pg/mouse, icv), selective NPY Y1 receptor agonist potentiated the inhibitory effect of agmatine (10 mg/kg, ip) on nicotine CPP. Conversely, pretreatment with NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.01 ng/mouse, icv) blocked the effect of agmatine (20 mg/kg, ip) on nicotine induced CPP. In immunohistochemical study, nicotine decreased NPY-immunoreactivity in nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral part (BNSTl), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Conversely, administration of agmatine prior to the nicotine significantly reversed the effect of nicotine on NPY-immunoreactivity in the above brain nuclei. This data indicate that agmatine attenuate nicotine induced CPP via modulation of NPYergic neurotransmission in brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypercholesterolemia causes psychomotor abnormalities in mice and alterations in cortico-striatal biogenic amine neurotransmitters: Relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajib; Choudhury, Amarendranath; Chandra Boruah, Dulal; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Borah, Anupom

    2017-09-01

    The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include motor behavioral abnormalities, which appear as a result of the extensive loss of the striatal biogenic amine, dopamine. Various endogenous molecules, including cholesterol, have been put forward as putative contributors in the pathogenesis of PD. Earlier reports have provided a strong link between the elevated level of plasma cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) and onset of PD. However, the role of hypercholesterolemia on brain functions in terms of neurotransmitter metabolism and associated behavioral manifestations remain elusive. We tested in Swiss albino mice whether hypercholesterolemia induced by high-cholesterol diet would affect dopamine and serotonin metabolism in discrete brain regions that would precipitate in psychomotor behavioral manifestations. High-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in blood total cholesterol level, which validated the model as hypercholesterolemic. Tests for akinesia, catalepsy, swimming ability and gait pattern (increased stride length) have revealed that hypercholesterolemic mice develop motor behavioral abnormalities, which are similar to the behavioral phenotypes of PD. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia caused depressive-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the increased immobility time in the forced swim test. We found a significant depletion of dopamine in striatum and serotonin in cortex of hypercholesterolemic mice. The significant decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in striatum supports the observed depleted level dopamine in striatum, which is relevant to the pathophysiology of PD. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia-induced depleted levels of cortical and striatal biogenic amines reported hereby are similar to the PD pathology, which might be associated with the observed psychomotor behavioral abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A study of the effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyajit Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Results: The study indicated that the treatment of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic albino rats restored the body weight and significantly controlled the elevated blood glucose level as compared with the untreated group. Levels of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle tissues were recovered by treatment with Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic rats as compared with the untreated diabetic rats. Levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were increased in diabetic rats significantly as compared with the control group, which were resettled in the control group after treatment with mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic animals. Alongside, significant recovery in the activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalyse, peroxidase and super oxide dismutase, the levels of free radicals generated as bye products in hepatic and renal tissues were also observed in the treatment with mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum treated diabetic animals with respect to the untreated in diabetic animals. Conclusion: The homoeopathic mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum has therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders and oxidative injuries in Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats.

  18. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration in albino rat model: a possible involvement of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal K; Roy, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Mucosal thickness (MT), ulcer index (UI), different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism.

  19. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational transmission of liver abnormalities in mice

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    Mohamed A. Al-Griw

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/ or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i.p., every 4th day. The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring

  20. Exploring Bhavana samskara using Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica combination for learning and memory in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Onkarrao Malve

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current medications for dementia and enhancement of learning and memory are limited hence we need to explore traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda to investigate agents that can improve learning and enhance memory. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate effects and mechanisms of Ayurveda drug formulations, Tinospora cordifolia (Tc and Phyllanthus emblica (Pe with and without Bhavana samskara on learning and memory of mice. Materials and Methods: After approval of Animal Ethics Committee, Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups, administered orally: Distilled water, Rivastigmine (2.4 mg/kg, Tc (100 mg/kg, Pe (300 mg/kg, formulation 1 (Tc + Pe: 400 mg/kg and formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Ocimum sanctum: 400 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Piracetam (200 mg/kg was injected daily intraperitoneally for 8 days. The mice underwent a learning session using elevated plus maze. Memory was tested 24 hours later. Results: Mice pretreated with all the drugs showed a trend toward reducing transfer latencies but values were comparable to vehicle control. In all drug-treated groups, a significant reduction in transfer latency was observed after 24 h. Improvement in learning and memory by both formulations were comparable to individual plant drugs, Tc and Pe. Conclusion: The plant drugs showed improvements in learning and memory. The fixed-dose formulations with Bhavana samskara, showed encouraging results as compared to individual agents but the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, the concept of Bhavana samskara could not be explored in the present study. However, these drugs showed comparable or better effects than the modern medicinal agents thus, their therapeutic potential as nootropics needs to be explored further.