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Sample records for ouratea multiflora ochnaceae

  1. Dos especies nuevas de Ouratea Aublet (Ochnaceae de Colombia Dos especies nuevas de Ouratea Aublet (Ochnaceae de Colombia

    Sastre C.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new colombian species of Ouratea Aublet (Ochnaceae are described. Relationships are established with O. gigantophylla (Erhard Engler and O. macrophylla van Tieghem.   Entre el material de Ouratea Aublet (Ochnaceae recolectado recientemente en Colombia, no he podido referir tres especímenes a las especies ya descritas.  Estas plantas pertenecen a dos especies nuevas, sistemáticamente cercanas a O. gigantophylla (Erhard Engler y a O. macrophylla van Tieghem.

  2. Biflavones and triterpenoids isolated from Ouratea castaneifolia (DC. Engl., Ochnaceae

    Luís Adriano S. do Nascimento

    Full Text Available This paper presents the chemical investigation of the leaves and stems of Ouratea castaneifolia (DC. Engl.. There are no chemical or pharmacological studies with this species. Classic phytochemical investigation of the organic extracts together with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC procedures lead to the identification of seventeen metabolites: seven triterpenes (friedelin, 3β-friedelinol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol, germanicol and taraxerol, four steroids (sitosterol, stigmasterol and the glycosides sitosteryl 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and stigmasteryl 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, one isoflavone (5,7,4'-trimethoxyisoflavone, one flavone (5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone and four biflavones (amenthoflavone, 7,7"-O-dimethylamenthoflavone, heveaflavone and tetramethylamenthoflavone. The structures of the compounds were established by the analysis of ¹H, 13C NMR spectra including bidimensional techniques. The classes of the identified metabolites are in agreement with previous studies of the Ouratea genus.

  3. Anti-TNF-α Activity of Brazilian Medicinal Plants and Compounds from Ouratea semiserrata.

    Campana, Priscilla R V; Mansur, Daniel S; Gusman, Grasielle S; Ferreira, Daneel; Teixeira, Mauro M; Braga, Fernão C

    2015-10-01

    Several plant species are used in Brazil to treat inflammatory diseases and associated conditions. TNF-α plays a pivotal role on inflammation, and several plant extracts have been assayed against this target, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 11 Brazilian medicinal plants on TNF-α release by LPS-activated THP-1 cells was evaluated. The plant materials were percolated with different solvents to afford 15 crude extracts, whose effect on TNF-α release was determined by ELISA. Among the evaluated extracts, only Jacaranda caroba (Bignoniaceae) presented strong toxicity to THP-1 cells. Considering the 14 non-toxic extracts, TNF-α release was significantly reduced by seven of them (inhibition > 80%), originating from six plants, namely Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae), Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae), Ouratea semiserrata (Ochnaceae), Ouratea spectabilis and Remijia ferruginea (Rubiaceae). The ethanol extract from O. semiserrata leaves was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 and RP-HPLC to give three compounds previously reported for the species, along with agathisflavone and epicatechin, here described for the first time in the plant. Epicatechin and lanceoloside A elicited significant inhibition of TNF-α release, indicating that they may account for the effect produced by O. semiserrata crude extract. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Ochnaceae

    Stoffers, A.L.

    1966-01-01

    Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, simple, glabrous, entire or serrate. Stipules entire or fringed. Inflorescence usually consisting of terminal or axillary panicles or racemes, sometimes flowers solitary or clustered in the leaf-axils. Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic. Sepals 5 (or

  5. Estudos taxonômicos em Philacra Dwyer (Ochnaceae = Taxonomic studies on Philacra Dwyer (Ochnaceae

    Fabíola Feres

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Philacra são encontradas principalmente na fronteira Brasil-Venezuela, e dentre outros gêneros de Ochnaceae, é o mais próximo a Luxemburgia, cujas espécies ocorrem somente no Brasil, especialmente na Cadeia do Espinhaço. A análise taxonômica das espécies de Philacra foi realizada com base no material tipo e em espécimes depositados em herbários. O trabalho objetivou a redescrição do gênero, a elaboração da chave taxonômica e a redescrição das espécies. É apresentada a redescrição do gênero, suadistribuição geográfica, a chave de identificação e a redescrição das espécies. Atualmente, são reconhecidas quatro espécies de Philacra: P. auriculata Dwyer, P. duidae (Gleason Dwyer, P. longifolia (Gleason Dwyer e, P. steyermarkii Maguire.The species of Philacra are found mainly at the Brazil-Venezuela border. Among other Ochnaceae genera, this is the most closely related to Luxemburgia, which occurs only in Brazil, especially at theEspinhaço Range. The taxonomic analysis of Philacra species was based on the type material and herbarium specimens. This work aimed to redescribe the genus, to prepare a taxonomic key and to redescribe the species. The genus redescription and the geographical distribution, a key to the species and species redescription, are presented. Currently, four Philacra species are recognized: P. auriculata Dwyer, P. duidae (Gleason Dwyer, P. longifolia (Gleason Dwyer, and P. steyermarkii Maguire.

  6. HABITATS AND UTILIZATIONS OF Lippia multiflora MOLDENKE ...

    species for health care, while Boo and Peulh used mainly the inflorescences ... UTILISATIONS DE Lippia multiflora MOLDENKE : PERCEPTION LOCALE .... cultural) importance on the organs of L. multiflora ..... Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical.

  7. Phylogenetics, ancestral state reconstruction, and a new infrafamilial classification of the pantropical Ochnaceae (Medusagynaceae, Ochnaceae s.str., Quiinaceae) based on five DNA regions

    Schneider, J.V.; Bissiengou, P.; Amaral, M.D.; Tahir, A.; Fay, M.F.; Thines, M.; Sosef, M.S.M.; Zizka, G.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    Ochnaceae s.str. (Malpighiales) are a pantropical family of about 500 species and 27 genera of almost exclusively woody plants. Infrafamilial classification and relationships have been controversial partially due to the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework. Including all genera except Indosinia

  8. Effets de l'extrait hydroéthanolique de Lippia multiflora Moldenke sur ...

    Effects of hydroethanolic extract of Lippia multiflora Moldenke on the heart ... These results suggest that the hydroethanolic extract of L. multiflora causes ..... Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes .... Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 52:.

  9. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Zataria multiflora essential oils.

    Mahboubi, M; HeidaryTabar, R; Mahdizadeh, E

    2017-06-01

    Dermtophytes are a group of pathogenic fungi and the major cause of dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Fighting dermatophytes by natural essential oils is one important issue in new researches. In this investigation, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of three samples of Z. multiflora essential oils against dermatophytes along with analysis of chemical compositions of the essential oils and their anti-elastase activities on elastase production in dermatophytes. Carvacrol (1.5-34.4%), thymol (25.8-41.2%), carvacrol methyl ether (1.9-28.3%) and p-cymene (2.3-8.3%) were the main components of Z. multiflora essential oils. Z. multiflora essential oils (100ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth of dermatophytes (6±1.7-47.0±1.4%) and had the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.03-0.25μl/ml against dermatophytes. Essential oils inhibited elastase produced in dermatophytes and pure porcine elastase. Z. multiflora essential oils can be used as natural anti-dermatophyte agent for fighting dermatophytes in further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. PROPRIETES DU SOL ET DOMESTICATION DE Lippia multiflora ...

    AISA

    Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) communement connu sous le nom de « thé de savane », offre une diversité d'usages en pharmacopée et en médecine. Toutefois, en dépit d'un intérêt grandissant, le thé de savane demeure un produit de cueillette. Dès lors, il apparaît opportun de procéder à sa domestication, dans une.

  11. An assessment of multiflora rose in northern U.S. forests

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; Mark H. Hansen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) on forest land across the 24 states of the midwestern and northeastern United States based on an extensive systematic network of plots measured by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station (NRS).

  12. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from municipal sewage sludge by Rosa multiflora and Sida hermaphrodita.

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Kołodziej, Barbara; Bielińska, Elżbieta Jolanta

    2017-04-03

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the multiflora rose var. "Jatar" (Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murray) and the Virginia fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita Rusby) to phytoextract heavy metals from municipal sewage sludge. The 6-year field experiment involved four levels of fertilization with sewage sludge at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 Mg DM (Dry Mass) sludge ha -1 . The increasing doses of sewage sludge were found to significantly increase the yield of multiflora rose and Virginia fanpetals biomass. They also significantly increased the content of heavy metals in these plants. The highest uptake of heavy metals by the multiflora rose and Virginia fanpetals crops was recorded at the fertilization dose of 60 Mg DM ⋅ ha -1 . Our investigations show that the Virginia fanpetals was more efficient in the phytoextraction of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd from the sewage sludge than the multiflora rose, due to the greater yields and higher heavy metal uptake by the former plant. In turn, the multiflora rose phytoextracted greater amounts of Pb from the sewage sludge. The analyses indicate that the Virginia fanpetals can be used for phytoremediation (phytoextraction) of heavy metals contained in sewage sludge.

  13. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae

    A.M Donato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. são usadas na medicina popular como hipoglicemiantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfológica e anatomicamente as folhas desta planta, de modo que os dados obtidos possam ser utilizados como referência em exames de controle de qualidade de amostras de fármacos, com vistas a verificar a autenticidade. Folhas inteiras foram diafanizadas e coradas para o estudo da nervação. Secções transversais do pecíolo e transversais e paradérmicas da lâmina foliar foram analisadas em microscópio óptico (MO e a superfície do limbo foi observada, também, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Foram aplicados testes histoquímicos em material fresco, para identificação e localização de glicídios, amido, taninos, lignina, cristais e sílica. Morfologicamente, a folha é simples, oval-elíptica, com margem inteira, base aguda, ápice acuminado e textura cartácea. A venação é do tipo camptódromo-broquidódromo. Anatomicamente, a folha é hipostomática, com mesofilo compacto e dorsiventral, com três estratos de parênquima paliçádico. A epiderme é uniestratificada, silicificada em algumas regiões e as células exibem paredes anticlinais retas. Em posição subepidérmica ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais e acompanhados por séries cristalíferas. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outras espécies de Myrtaceae e conclui-se que as características morfológicas e anatômicas de M. multiflora contribuem para a diagnose.Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. leaves have been used in folk medicine as hypoglycemic. The aim of this work is to describe morphoanatomically the leaves of this plant in order to use the obtained data as reference in quality control tests of drug samples, investigating their authenticity. Whole leaves were diaphanized and stained for venation study. Petiole transverse sections and leaf blade

  14. The combination of exercise training and Zataria multiflora supplementation increase serum irisin levels in postmenopausal women

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the effect of antioxidant supplementation and exercise on irisin within postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-eight participants (age: 55.7 ± 4.9 years; weight: 68.0 ± 6.3 kg; BMI 27.0 ± 2.7; mean ± SD were randomized into four groups for the eight week intervention: control group (CG; n = 12, resistance training group (RTG; n = 12, supplementation with Zataria multiflora group (ZG; n = 12, or supplementation with Z. multiflora and resistance training group (ZRTG; n = 12. RTG and ZRTG performed circuit resistance training, and both ZG and ZRTG consumed 500 mg of Z. multiflora every day during the intervention. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before and after the intervention. Results: There was a significant difference in irisin at post-training, with greater levels in ZRTG compared to CG. A significant increase was noted for irisin at post-training compared to pre-training for ZG, RTG, and ZRTG. Moreover, we identified a significant decrease in malondialdehyde in the RTG and ZRTG groups and increase in glutathione in the ZG, RTG, and ZRTG groups when compared to CG. Conclusion: These findings showed that exercise, Z. multiflora supplementation or their combination led to an increase in irisin. Keywords: Antioxidants, Circuit resistance training, Myokine, Postmenopausal women, Zataria multiflora

  15. The Effects of Zataria Multiflora Hydroalcoholic Extract on Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Saeed Hajihashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that broadly is used to treat gram negative bacteria infections, although it has side effects such as nephrotoxicity. According to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory properties of Zataria Multiflora, the effects of co-treatment with zataria Multiflora and hydroalcholic extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicitj were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this study, male rats of Vistar race were divided into 4 groups: 1.control group, 2. co-treatment with gentamicin and vehicle group, 3. co-treatment with gentamicin and zataria Multifiora extract group, 4. co-treatment with zataria Multiflora extract and normal saline solution group. Zataria Multiflora hydroalcoholic extract was added to drinking water as 800 PPm concentration. They, systolic blood pressure and renal blood flow (RBF were measured. Also, the amounts of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and osmolarity were measured in plasma and urine samples Results: In co-treatment group with zataria Multiflora extract, the amounts of urea, creatinine, absolute sodium excretion and relative sodium and potassium excretion and malondialdehyde (MDA that have been inceased in treatment with gentamicin, significantly were reduced. Creatinine clearance, urine osmolarity, RBF and FRAP that was decreased in gentamicin group in compare to control group, significantly increased. Conclusion: Co-treatment prevents nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin and attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation, So it can be effective to cure rats receiving gentamicin.

  16. Neighbour effects on Erica multiflora (Ericaceae) reproductive performance after clipping

    Vilà, Montserrat; Terradas, Jaume

    1998-04-01

    The effect of interspecific competition on resprouting and reproductive success and the relationship between above-ground vegetative biomass variability and reproductive biomass variability were analysed during resprouting after clipping. For this purpose, a field experiment was performed by removing neighbours around individuals of Erica multiflora in a Mediterranean shrub community. Removal of neighbours increased the number of sprouts and the above-ground vegetative biomass of target plants. However, it did not decrease plant size variability. Neighbours decreased the likelihood of fruiting and the biomass of fruits. In target plants that had set fruits a simple allometric relationship between above-ground vegetative biomass and the biomass of fruits explained 42% of the variation in fruit biomass. The probability to set fruits at a given plant size was smaller in plants with neighbours than without neighbours. Presence of neighbours also increased the variability of fruit biomass within the population, because 50% of target plants with neighbours did not set fruits. This failure to set fruits may be related to shading, the small size of plants with neighbours, as well as a delay in development.

  17. Antifungal Effects of Zataria multiflora Essential Oil on the Inhibitory Growth of some Postharvest Pathogenic Fungi

    Mahboobeh NASSERI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora to control Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil of Zataria multiflora was tested in vitro on PDA (malt extract agar medium with eight concentrations: 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 ppm. This investigation followed the completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. GC-MS evaluations of the essential oil revealed that thymol (35%, carvacrol (34%, cymene-p (9.89%, gamma-terpinene (5.88% and alpha-pinene (4.22% were the main compounds of Zataria multiflora oil. The results showed that the essential oil of Zataria multiflora has antifungal activity; the lowest inhibition (75% was observed in the A. niger, while the highest inhibition (95.3% was observed in A. solani. Minimum inhibitory concentration for A. solani, R. solani, R. stolonifer, A. flavus, A. ochraceus and A. niger was 200, 200, 200, 300, 300 and 200 ppm respectively. In addition, the present results showed that minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC for A. solani, R. solani, R .stolonifer, A. niger and A.ochraceus was 600, 400, 300, 900 and 700 ppm respectively and none of the tested concentrations were fatal for A. flavus. A. solani and R. solani showed a strong sensitivity to Zataria multiflora essential oil at all concentrations. Findings of the current study suggest that essential oils of Zataria multiflora could be used for control of postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits or vegetables.

  18. Erica multiflora (Ericaceae), Onosma pygmaeum (Boraginaceae) and Typha minima (Typhaceae) in Albania

    Mullaj, Alfred; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Erica multiflora (Ericaceae) in Albania is confirmed to occur in the Karaburun Peninsula as well as other regions in Albania. This links the distribution of the species in Croatia to that of western Greece. Onosma pygmaeum (Boraginaceae) and Typha minima (Typhaceae) are reported as new for the Al......Erica multiflora (Ericaceae) in Albania is confirmed to occur in the Karaburun Peninsula as well as other regions in Albania. This links the distribution of the species in Croatia to that of western Greece. Onosma pygmaeum (Boraginaceae) and Typha minima (Typhaceae) are reported as new...

  19. Systematic review: The potency of Zataria multiflora Boiss in treatment of vaginal infections

    Mohaddese Mahboubi Mahboubi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaginitis as female infectious disease is accompanied with some clinical symptoms such as vaginal abnormal discharges, itching, burning and many other unpleasant signs in patients. The responsable microorganisms in vaginitis are belonged to different kind of microorganisms including bacteria (Gardenella vaginitis, yeast (Candida albicans and protozoa (Trichomonas vaginalis. The current treatments of these infections are chemical oral and vaginal drugs with many adverse effects for patients. Furthermore, appearance of resistant microorganisms to these drugs has intensified the treatment’s problem. The aim of this review article was to evaluate the potency of “Zataria multiflora” essential oil in treatment of women’s vaginitis. For preparing this manuscript, the information was extracted from different electronic and published resources. Investigation in different resources showed there were 6 clinical trials that evaluate it as suitable treatment for vaginitis. 5 clinical studies have been focused on 0.1% Z. multiflora essential oils in treatment of bacterial vaginosis (n=1, candidiasis (n=1 and trichomoniasis (n=1. Two clinical studies were related to treatments of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and mixed infection. There is one clinical study for treatment of candidiasis by 1% Z. multiflora methanol extract. Z. multiflora was formulated in cream form and applied for 5-7 continuous days. The results of clinical trials showed that Z. multiflora essential oil (0.1% can be used as safe and efficient alternative treatment for treatment of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and to a lesser extent for trichomoniasis.

  20. The effect of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis and reproductive indices in lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). Cervical cytology, reagent strip test and cell counting by means of Neubauer hemocytometer were carried out in both examinations. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 1 were 45.5, 34.5 and 53.6% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 2, 3 were 66.7, 84.6 and 56.0% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively. Overall, proportions of successfully treated cows were 55.0, 58.2 and 54.7% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively ( p > 0.05). In placebo, none of the parameters were significantly different between first and second examination, while we found the significant differences in percentage of neutrophils and leukocyte esterase activity in other groups ( p conception rate of cows was higher in Z. multiflora compared to other groups; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, pen + strep and Z. multiflora extract can be effective on the clinical endometritis and may improve reproductive performance. The extract of Z. multiflora can be useful as an alternative therapy for treatment of clinical endometritis in lactating dairy cows.

  1. The effect of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis and reproductive indices in lactating Holstein dairy cows

    Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). C...

  2. Ácido ent-16a,17-diidroxicauran-19-óico isolado de Ouratea semiserrata e os desafios estereoquímicos dos carbonos quirais C-4 e C-16

    Velandia Javier Rincón

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the leaves and branches of a specimen of Ouratea semiserrata led to the isolation and characterization of ent-16alpha,17-dihydroxykauran-19-oic acid, along with other natural products. This diterpenoid and its derivatives were used to unambiguous ¹H and 13C chemical shifts assignments and to indicate some mistake data described in the literature as consequence mainly of the stereochemicals of the chiral carbons C-4 and C-16. The HRMS spectra were also analysed.

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

    Mohammad Hashemi; Saber Barkhori-Mehni; Saeed Khanzadi; Mohammad Azizzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO) against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas h...

  4. Cytotoxicity effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. on two human colon carcinoma cell lines

    F. Sharififar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Natural products are one of the major sources for investigations of novel medicines. Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM has shown pharmacological activities especially in gastrointestinal tract; however, there are limited studies about its cytotoxicity effects. In this study, the effect of Zataria multiflora was examined on two colon cancer cell lines (SW-48 and HT-29. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extract of ZM and its fractions including chloroform, petroleum ether and methanol extract were prepared by warm maceration method. Different concentrations were prepared and examined on SW-48 and HT-29 cell lines using 2-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: The results of the present study have shown the cytotoxic effect of some fractions of ZM. The most considerable cytotoxic effect was shown against HT-29 cell line. Also, total ZM extract and the petroleum ether fraction demonstrated cytotoxic effects with IC50 values of 44.22 and 33.42 µg/ml on SW-48 and HT-29 cell lines, respectively. Conclusion: Zataria multiflora was cytotoxic to against colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-48.

  5. In vitro propagation, carotenoid, fatty acid and tocopherol content of Ajuga multiflora Bunge.

    Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu; Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Noorzai, Rafi; Zamany, Ahmad Jawid; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation from shoot tip explants of Ajuga multiflora was studied. The highest number of shoots (17.1) was observed when shoot tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 8.0 µM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) and 2.7 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The mean number of shoots per explant was increased 1.6-fold in liquid medium as compared with semi-solid medium. Maximum rooting (100 %) with an average of 7.2 roots per shoot was obtained on MS basal medium. Rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatised in the greenhouse with 100 % survival rate. Composition of carotenoids, fatty acids and tocopherols was also studied from leaves of greenhouse-grown plants and in vitro-regenerated shoots of A. multiflora. The greatest amounts of carotenoids, fatty acids and tocopherols were obtained from leaves of in vitro-regenerated shoots cultured on MS basal medium, followed by leaves of greenhouse-grown plants and leaves of in vitro-regenerated shoots cultured on MS basal medium with 2.0 µM BA or thidiazuron. The most abundant carotenoid in A. multiflora leaves was all-E-lutein (89.4-382.6 μg g -1  FW) followed by all-E-β-carotene (32.0-156.7 μg g -1  FW), 9'-Z-neoxanthin (14.2-63.4 μg g -1  FW), all-E-violaxanthin (13.0-45.9 μg g -1  FW), all-E-zeaxanthin (1.3-2.5 μg g -1  FW) and all-E-β-cryptoxanthin (0.3-0.9 μg g -1  FW). α-Tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in A. multiflora leaves. Linolenic acid (49.03-52.59 %) was detected in higher amounts in A. multiflora leaf samples followed by linoleic acid (18.95-21.39 %) and palmitic acid (15.79-18.66 %).

  6. Acute diuretic activity of aqueous Erica multiflora flowers and Cynodon dactylon rhizomes extracts in rats.

    Sadki, Chrifa; Hacht, Brahim; Souliman, Amrani; Atmani, Fouad

    2010-03-24

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diuretic potential and effect on urinary electrolytes of aqueous Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae) flowers and Cynodon dactylon L. (Poaceae) rhizomes extracts in rats. Different concentrations of these plants extract (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 g/kg of body weight) or the reference drug furosemide (0.015 g/kg) were administrated orally to hydrated male Wistar rats and their urine output was measured at several interval of time after a single dose administration. Furthermore, a toxicological effect of both plants was undertaken as well. The results showed that furosemide induced significant diuresis and electrolytes excretion during the first hours. Plant extracts increased significantly urinary output and electrolytes excretion at the dose of 0.250 g/kg for Erica multiflora and 0.500 g/kg for Cynodon dactylon. This diuretic effect seems to be not related to K(+) plant content. Urinary pH remained mostly unchanged during the course of the study for both plant extracts. No lethality was observed among animals when using Erica multiflora even at the dose of 10 g/kg while Cynodon dactylon, instead, caused 50% of rat death (LD50) at 4.5 g/kg. We concluded that both aqueous herb extracts administered, particularly, at the dose of 0.500 g/kg induce significant effect on urinary output of water and electrolytes and justify their use as diuretic remedy in traditional medicine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Some Fish Spoilage Bacteria

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (EO against six fish spoilage bacteria for evaluation of its potential utilization in the preservation of minimally processed fish products. Methods: Firstly, GC-MS analysis of the EO was performed to determine its chemical composition. Then, antibacterial effect of the EO in a range of 0.031 to 4 mg/ml was tested against different fish spoilage bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis by broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory (MIC and minimum bactericidal (MBC concentrations. Results: GC-MS results showed that phenolic components such as carvacrol (51.55% and thymol (25.49% were predominant constituents of the EO. Zataria multiflora Boiss EO exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Shewanella Putrefaciens was the most sensitive bacteria with MBC value of 0. 5 mg/ml. Conclusion: According to the results, this EO could be used as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food specially seafood products to preserve them against bacterial spoilage.

  8. Lippia multiflora

    sufficient health care because of the weak economic systems ... age, overweight, smoking or drinking alcohol. Often, this ..... atoxic; +: weak toxicity; ++: moderate toxicity; +++: high toxicity. DISCUSSION .... Red wine polyphenol-induced,.

  9. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes.

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL(-1) and 125.00 µg mL(-1), respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes.

  10. Incorporating Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil and sodium bentonite nano-clay open a new perspective to use zein films as bioactive packaging materials.

    Kashiri, Mahboobeh; Maghsoudlo, Yahya; Khomeiri, Morteza

    2017-10-01

    Active zein films with different levels of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil were produced successfully. To enhance properties of this biopolymer for food packaging applications, sodium bentonite clay was used at two levels (2 and 4%). The results indicated that the addition of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil caused a reduction in tensile strength and Young's modulus and slight increase in the percent of elongation at break of the films. Maximum solubility in water and water vapor permeability was observed by incorporation of 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the zein matrix. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of zein film were verified by the exfoliation of the layers of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. Stronger films with lower water vapor permeability and water solubility were evident of good distribution of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. According to the results, 2% sodium bentonite clay was selected for evaluation of nano active film properties. Water vapor permeability, UV light barrier, tensile strength, and Young's modulus values of active films were improved by incorporation of 2% sodium bentonite clay. The antibacterial activity of different contents of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in vapor phase demonstrated that use of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the liquid phase was more effective than in vapor phase. The antibacterial zein-based films showed that active zein film with 5 and 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil had reductions of 1.68 log and 2.99 log, respectively, against Listeria monocytogenes and 1.39 and 3.07 log against Escherichia coli. Nano active zein film containing 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil and 2% sodium bentonite clay showed better antibacterial properties against L. monocytogenes (3.23 log) and E. coli (3.17 log).

  11. Evaluation of the antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora, Geranium herbarium, and Eucalyptus camaldolensis essential oils on Saprolegnia parasitica-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs.

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Sharifrohani, Mostafa; Mousavi, Hosseinali Ebrahimzadeh; Moosavi, Zahra

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and assess the capability of Zataria multiflora, Geranium herbarium, and Eucalyptus camaldolensis essential oils in treating Saprolegnia parasitica-infected rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout eggs. A total of 150 infected eggs were collected and plated on glucose-pepton agar at 24°C for 2 weeks. The antifungal assay of essential oils against S. parasitica was determined by a macrodilution broth technique. The eggs were treated with essential oils at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm daily with three repetitions until the eyed eggs stage. Of 150 eggs examined, S. parasitica (54.3%), Saprolegnia spp. (45%), and Fusarium solani (0.7%) were isolated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Z. multiflora, E. camaldolensis, and G. herbarium essential oils against S. parasitica were 0.9, 2.3, and 4.8 ppm, respectively. Zataria multiflora and E. camaldolensis at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 ppm, and G. herbarium at concentration of 100 ppm had significant differences in comparison with negative control (pherbarium treated eggs had remained the most number of final eyed eggs after treatment. The highest final larvae rates belonged to malachite green, E. camaldolensis, Z. multiflora, and G. herbarium, respectively. The most hatching rates were recorded with malachite green (22%), and then Z. multiflora (11%), E. camaldolensis (7%), G. herbarium (3%), and negative control (1%). Zataria multiflora and E. camaldolensis were more effective than G. herbarium for the treatment of S. parasitica-infected rainbow trout eggs in aquaculture environment.

  12. Effects of Drying Methods on the Drying Kinetics and the Essential Oil of Lippia multiflora Moldenke Leaves

    Raymond G. Elenga; Gouollaly Tsiba; J. Goma Maniongui; Jean M. Ouamba; Jean M. Bessière

    2011-01-01

    Lippia multiflora is widespread in Africa and America. Its leaves are consumed as tea and have various medicinal properties. To preserve the flavour and properties, the farmers dry the leaves in shade for six to ten days. The aim of this work on one hand, is to check the soundness of this traditional drying method by comparing its effects with those of the forced convective drying at 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60ºC on the drying kinetics, the composition and content of the Essential Oil (EO) of dried...

  13. The distribution of a non-native (Rosa multiflora) and native (Kalmia latifolia) shrub in mature closed-canopy forests across soil fertility gradients

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Jim Steinman; Todd F. Hutchinson; Todd E. Ristau; Alejandro A. Royo

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. A soil fertility gradient, ranging from infertile to highly fertile soils, may define whether or not a plant will establish and spread at a site. We evaluated whether or not such a fertility gradient exists for Rosa multiflora Thunb., a nonnative invasive shrub, and Kalmia latifolia L., a...

  14. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    Fatemi Faezeh; Dini Salome; Dadkhah Abolfazl; Zolfaghari Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities. - Highlights: • Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil has potential in vitro antimicrobial effect. • Z. multiflora oil has potential antimicrobial effect in vivo system. • The antibacterial activities of the oil remained after irradiation treatments

  15. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  16. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    Khadijeh Abdali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p=0.001 and p=0.01. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  17. Time-dependent antibacterial effects of Aloe vera and Zataria multiflora plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide in teeth infected with Enterococcus faecalis.

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Sahebi, Safoora; Gholami, Ahmad; Delroba, Alireza; Kiani, Amin; Iraji, Aida; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2016-02-01

    In the present in vitro study, we investigated the time-related antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide ([Ca[OH]2 ) to eliminate Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from root canals. A new strain of E. faecalis (Enterococcus spp. AGH04) was isolated from a previously root-filled tooth with persistent apical periodontitis. The 16S rRNA sequence was analyzed and deposited in GeneBank under accession number KF465681. A total of 108 extracted human single-rooted teeth were contaminated with this bacterial strain and treated with Aloe vera essential oil, Z. multiflora essential oil, and Ca(OH)2 for 1, 7, and 14 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of the oils. The percentage reduction from initial c.f.u./mL counts were calculated and analyzed. Carvacrol, thymol, and linalool were the main constituents of both essential oils. The c.f.u./mL count reductions significantly increased for all three medicaments when the contact time was extended. A statistically-significant difference was observed between the medicaments after 1 and 7 days, but there was no significant difference after 14 days. Both medicinal herbs showed equal antimicrobial efficiency against E. faecalis, comparable to Ca(OH)2 for the prolonged contact time of 14 days. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Influence of geography, seasons and pedology on chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Lippia multiflora Mold leaves.

    Soro, Lêniféré Chantal; Munier, Sylvie; Pelissier, Yves; Grosmaire, Lidwine; Yada, Rickey; Kitts, David; Ocho-Anin Atchibri, Anin Louise; Guzman, Caroline; Boudard, Frédéric; Menut, Chantal; Robinson, Jean Charles; Poucheret, Patrick

    2016-12-24

    Lippia multiflora is a plant with nutritional and pharmaco-therapeutic properties that is native to central and occidental Africa. The potential effects of plants on health are associated with their chemical composition. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify chemical variations in essential oils of Lippia multiflora as a function of geographic origin and time of annual harvest to determine optimal chemical profiles for ethno-pharmacotherapeutic applications. Experimental plants were cultivated at Abidjan (LPA), Toumodi (LPT) and Bondoukou (LPB). Natural Lippia multiflora seeds were sourced to produce standardized plants over a period of six months. Standard plants (n=40) were re-introduced into natural plots, cultivated for 12 months and leaves were sampled monthly in a standardized fashion. Essentials oils (n=36) were then extracted from these samples by hydro-distillation according to the European Pharmacopoeia and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using GC/FID and GC/MS. These data were then analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Anti-inflammatory properties were also assessed against activated macrophages in vitro. The results indicated that chemical profiles and essential oil yields vary according to the location where the plants were cultivated. One essential oil chemotype corresponded to the LPA and LPT sites and one corresponded to the LPB site. Statistical analysis of the chemical profiles and monthly evolution of the three sites over a period of one year allowed assessment of variations in composition and the subsequent choice of the optimal harvest time for ethnopharmacological applications. Anti-inflammatory activity apparently correlated with chemical profiles of essential oils and the geographic origins of the plants. The optimal harvest time was associated with the maximum yield of pharmacological compounds with the most potential interest for health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of callus induction of Zataria multiflora under the effect of different plant growth regulators and explant source

    N. Mosavat*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Lamiaceae family is rich in favorable secondary metabolites which have different medicinal properties and also use in food, cosmetic and sanitary industry. Zataria multiflora Boiss. is an aromatic and bushy plant containing specific pharmaceutical components which is only distributed in certain regions of Iran. Tissue culture technologies could be suitable for in vitro production of Zataria. Methods: In this study, callus production and callus related traits of Zataria was evaluated at in vitro condition. Callus induction was performed on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels of plant growth regulators including different cytokinins (Kinetin, benzyl amino purine and auxins (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtalen acetic acid and two different explant (hypocotyl and leaf. Results: The friable calli with yellow-green color only appeared from leaf explants on three different treatments including: 1: 2.5 (mg/L 2,4-D; 2: 2 (mg/L  2,4-D; 3: [2 (mg/L 2,4-D+ 1 (mg/L Kin].  The best callus induction (75% was obtained at 2,4-D (2 mg/L + Kin (1 mg/L after 2 month of incubation under the photoperiod of 16/8 (light/dark. The highest callus growth rate (CGR (0.072 mm/day and callus fresh weight (0.135 g were denoted to the treatment of 2 mg/L (2,4-D.  Conclusion: The benefits of the protocol described here include the possibility of its use throughout the callus culture for commercial production of suitable secondary metabolites of Zataria in rapid time and huge scale.

  20. Conversion of Natural Aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into Oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR Analysis †

    Igor W. Ouédraogo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae, Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  1. A Mixture of Extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora with PPAR α/γ Dual Agonistic Effects Prevents Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    Jeon, Hyerin; Kim, Dong Hye; Nho, Youn-Hwa; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Eung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α/γ is known to inhibit the increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ultraviolet light (UV). Extracts of natural herbs, such as Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora, have a PPAR α/γ dual agonistic effect. Therefore, we investigated whether and how they have an antiaging effect on photoaging skin. Eighteen-week-old hairless mice were irradiated with UVA 14 J/cm2 and UVB 40 mJ/cm2 three times a week for 8 weeks. A mixture of extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora (KR) was topically applied on the dorsal skin of photoaging mice twice a day for 8 weeks. Tesaglitazar, a known PPAR α/γ agonist, and vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol = 7:3, v/v) were applied as positive and negative controls, respectively. Dermal effects (including dermal thickness, collagen density, dermal expression of procollagen 1 and collagenase 13) and epidermal effects (including skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and epidermal cytokines) were measured and compared. In photoaging murine skin, KR resulted in a significant recovery of dermal thickness as well as dermal fibroblasts, although it did not change dermal collagen density. KR increased the expression of dermal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The dermal effects of KR were explained by an increase in procollagen 1 expression, induced by TGF-β, and a decrease in MMP-13 expression. KR did not affect basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) or stratum corneum (SC) integrity, but did decrease SC hydration. It also did not affect epidermal proliferation or epidermal differentiation. KR decreased the expression of epidermal interleukin (IL)-1α. Collectively, KR showed possible utility as a therapeutic agent for photoaging skin, with few epidermal side effects such as epidermal hyperplasia or poor differentiation. PMID:27854351

  2. A Mixture of Extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora with PPAR α/γ Dual Agonistic Effects Prevents Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    Hyerin Jeon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR α/γ is known to inhibit the increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by ultraviolet light (UV. Extracts of natural herbs, such as Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora, have a PPAR α/γ dual agonistic effect. Therefore, we investigated whether and how they have an antiaging effect on photoaging skin. Eighteen-week-old hairless mice were irradiated with UVA 14 J/cm2 and UVB 40 mJ/cm2 three times a week for 8 weeks. A mixture of extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora (KR was topically applied on the dorsal skin of photoaging mice twice a day for 8 weeks. Tesaglitazar, a known PPAR α/γ agonist, and vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol = 7:3, v/v were applied as positive and negative controls, respectively. Dermal effects (including dermal thickness, collagen density, dermal expression of procollagen 1 and collagenase 13 and epidermal effects (including skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and epidermal cytokines were measured and compared. In photoaging murine skin, KR resulted in a significant recovery of dermal thickness as well as dermal fibroblasts, although it did not change dermal collagen density. KR increased the expression of dermal transforming growth factor (TGF-β. The dermal effects of KR were explained by an increase in procollagen 1 expression, induced by TGF-β, and a decrease in MMP-13 expression. KR did not affect basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL or stratum corneum (SC integrity, but did decrease SC hydration. It also did not affect epidermal proliferation or epidermal differentiation. KR decreased the expression of epidermal interleukin (IL-1α. Collectively, KR showed possible utility as a therapeutic agent for photoaging skin, with few epidermal side effects such as epidermal hyperplasia or poor differentiation.

  3. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.

    Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  4. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil

    M. V. Urso-Guimarães

    Full Text Available Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera. This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae, Distictela (Bignoniaceae, Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae, Ouratea (Ochnaceae, and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae. The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  5. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

    Mojtaba Raeisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2% and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE, (0.5% and 1% were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thio-barbituric acid (TBA, TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05 effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  6. Amelioration of amyloid β-induced cognitive deficits by Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Majlessi, Nahid; Choopani, Samira; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Azizi, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    The limitations of current Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics have prompted investigation into innovative therapeutics focused on antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective agents including those from medicinal plants. Numerous plants have been tested for their potential for alleviating symptoms of AD. Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZM) a member of Lamiaceae family has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for its beneficial effects on mental abilities. Therefore, the effect of its essential oil was evaluated in a rat model of AD. Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) fragment 25-35 was injected bilaterally in the CA1 region of rats hippocampus and the effect of different doses of ZM essential oil (50, 100, or 200 μL/kg) on cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze. Acute toxicity of the essential oil was also studied. The results showed increases in escape latency, traveled distance, heading angle, and decreases in target quadrant entries in Aβ-received groups as compared to the control group. This impairment was reversed by ZM essential oil. The results of acute toxicity testing revealed that the calculated LD50 (1264.9 μL/kg) is much higher than the therapeutic dose (100 μL/kg). It seems that antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticholinesterase activities of ZM or its main constituents might contribute to its beneficial effects in this model. Our findings suggest that ZM may be a potentially valuable source of natural therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD. However, further investigations are necessary to establish its clinical efficacy and potential toxicity, before any recommendations concerning its use as a medication in the treatment of AD. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Antioxidant, Color and Antibacterial Properties of Edible Chitosan Film Incorporated with Zataria Multiflora Boiss ٍEssential Oil against Listeria Monocytogenes

    M Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The film containing antimicrobial agents are a type of active packaging which is mainly designed to control microbial and chemical spoilage of food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and color properties of chitosan film incorporated with essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZEO. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Urmia University of Medical Sciences between 2009-2010, the chemical composition of ZEO was analyzed using GC-MS. Chitosan films containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% ZEO, were obtained by casting method and subsequently, total phenol (TP, antioxidant, color (accordance with hunter system (L* (luminosity, * (redness, and b* (yellowness and antimicrobial characteristics of films on Listeria monocytogenes were studied. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: The order of TP for all films in the experiment was 2% ZEO1% ZEO 0.5% ZEO unsupplemented chitosan film, respectively. It was also concluded that the antioxidant activity of chitosan films was increased by adding various concentrations of ZEO. These increases were significant for film containing 1% (33.98% and 2% (37.77% ZEO (p0.05. Regarding the color luminosity (L* of the chitosan film, results indicated no significant changes by incorporating ZEO, whereas the incorporation of ZEO into films had a significant effect on film yellowness, evidenced by lower b* values. Finally, it was shown that the presence of ZEO in chitosan films significantly modified the anti- listerial activity of chitosan, (p0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that an active film from chitosan could be achieved by incorporating ZEO. Addition of ZEO improves functional and antibacterial characteristics of chitosan film.

  8. Efficacy of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf, Lippia multiflora Moldenke and hot water in the control of seed-borne fungi Phoma sorghina and their effects on Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seed germination and plants development in Burkina Faso

    Schémaeza BONZI1; Irénée SOMDA; Paco SEREME; Toudou ADAM

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus and Lippia multiflora) and varying durations of hot water at 50°C on seed-borne fungi Phoma sorghina on five varieties of sorghum were evaluated using morphological traits. The varieties were ICSV 1001, Sariaso 03, ICSV 1049, Kapelga and the local variety, 1341So07. The results indicate that hot water treatment and essential oil of C. citratus significantly reduced the infection level of P. sorghina compared to untreated seeds, seeds trea...

  9. Dinámica del daño foliar en plántulas de Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae y Clusia multiflora (Clusiaceae en el bosque altoandino de la Cordillera Oriental colombiana

    Carolina Ramos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Además de las estrategias fitoquímicas especializadas, las plantas pueden usar la producción sincrónica de hojas como un método de saciado de patógenos y herbívoros. Con el fin de determinar si las especies del bosque altoandino colombiano Clusia multiflora (Clusiaceae y Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae recurren a la producción sincrónica de hojas para controlar los efectos de la herbivoría y el ataque microbiano, y establecer que relación existe entre el estado de salud, el crecimiento y la mortalidad de plántulas, se evaluó la dinámica del daño foliar sobre diferentes cohortes. Dado que una plántula tolerante a la sombra recientemente emergida no puede suplir los costos fisiológicos de una estrategia especializada, se esperaba una alta sincronía en la producción de hojas en las plántulas más jóvenes, y diferencias en el daño foliar entre cohortes. Se midieron cuatro variables que evaluaban el estado de salud a lo largo del tiempo, en tres cohortes de plántulas: Proporción de hojas predadas, proporción de hojas sanas, proporción de hojas enfermas o con daño puntual y crecimiento. Ambas especies mostraron diferencias significativas entre épocas, en la proporción de hojas sanas; pero no hubo un efecto de la interacción tiempo-cohorte, por lo tanto la producción sincrónica de hojas no fue una estrategia más usada por alguna cohorte en particular. El daño foliar osciló a través del tiempo, lo cual puede ser explicado por los pulsos en la producción de hojas. Sin embargo, ésta estrategia tuvo poca eficiencia para controlar el ataque por patógenos. En general, el comportamiento unificado de todas las variables fue afectado por la cohorte, el tiempo, la especie y todas las diferentes interacciones. La relación entre crecimiento y daño foliar fue condicionado por el clima. La mayor mortalidad se dio durante la estación seca, y un cuarto de las muertes en D. granadensis fueron causadas por la acción conjunta de

  10. Comparative efficacy of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Origanum compactum and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, feline calicivirus and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby-leaf salads.

    Azizkhani, Maryam; Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa

    2013-09-02

    Ready-to-eat salads using baby-leaf and multi-leaf mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. There is great interest in developing novel decontamination treatments, which are both safe for consumers and more efficient against foodborne pathogens. In this study, emulsions of essential oils (EOs) from Origanum compactum (oregano), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria) were applied by spray (0.8 ml) after the sanitizing washing step. The aim was to investigate their ability to control the growth of potentially cross-contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Zataria EO emulsions of 3%, 5% and 10% reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in baby-leaf salads after 5 days of storage at 7°C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5% and 10% (2.5 log cfu/g reduction). Oregano (10%) reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in baby-leaf salads by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of baby-leaf salads stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated baby-leaf salads during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7°C) regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV inoculated in baby-leaf salads as occurred in FCV cultures. This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contamination-related risks in baby-leaf salads. However, further research should be done into foodborne viruses in order to improve food safety. © 2013.

  11. Effect of Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 and Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 with K2O Promoter Catalysts on H2, CO and CH4 Concentration by CO2 Gasification of Rosa Multiflora Biomass

    Tursunov Obid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behaviour of the Rosa mutiflora biomass by thermogravimetric analysis was studied at heating rate 3 K min−1 from ambient temperature to 950 °C. TGA tests were performed in high purity carbon dioxide (99 998% with a flow rate 200 ml/min and 100 mg of sample, milled and sieved to a particle size below 250 µm. Moreover, yields of gasification products such as hydrogen (H2, carbon monoxide (CO and methane (CH4 were determined based on the thermovolumetric measurements of catalytic (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 and Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 with K2O promoter catalysts and non-catalytic gasification of the Rosa multiflora biomass. Additionally, carbon conversion degrees are presented. Calculations were made of the kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation reaction in the catalytic and non-catalytic CO2 gasification processes. A high temperature of 950 °C along with Ni/Al2O3-SiO2and Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 with K2O promoter catalysts resulted in a higher conversion of Rosa multiflora biomass into gaseous yield production with greatly increasing of H2 and CO contents. Consequently, H2 and CO are the key factors to produce renewable energy and bio-gases (synthesis gas. The parameters obtained during the experimental examinations enable a tentative assessment of plant biomasses for the process of large-scale gasification in industrial sectors.

  12. A Nitrile Glucoside and Biflavones from the Leaves of Campylospermum excavatum (Ochnaceae).

    Njock, Gaétan Bayiha Ba; Grougnet, Raphaël; Efstathiou, Antonia; Smirlis, Despina; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Michel, Sylvie; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Kritsanida, Marina

    2017-11-01

    The study of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Campylospermum excavatum led to the isolation of a nitrile glucoside, named campyloside C (1) and an original derivative of ochnaflavone, 7-O-methylochnaflavone (2), along with three known biflavonoids, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone, and sotetsuflavone (3 - 5). The linkage site of the sub-units of 2 was confirmed by chemical correlation, after semi-synthesis of a trimethoxylated derivative of ochnaflavone (2a). The structures of these compounds as well as their relative and absolute configurations were assigned by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, HR-ESI-MS and Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) calculations. A low-pass J filter HMBC experiment was performed in order to define the configuration of the double bond of 1. All of the biflavonoids were evaluated against protozoan parasites. Amentoflavone moderately inhibited the promastigote form of Leishmania infantum. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 2. Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora)

    Denight, Michael L; Guertin, Patrick J; Gebhart, Dick L; Nelson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and damage to equipment and structures. Of the 11 plant species (or groups) identified by installations as "uncontrolled vegetation," six were invasive plants, of which the two invasive plants most commonly identified were Kudzu (Pueraria montana...

  14. Chromosome studies on Brazilian cerrado plants

    Eliana Regina Forni-Martins

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado is the Brazilian name for the neotropical savanna, which occurs mainly in Brazilian Central Plateau, composed of herbaceous-subshrubby and shrubby-arboreal floras, both of which are heliophilous, highly diverse and regionally differentiated. Considering species distribution and chromosome numbers, some authors have proposed that the herbaceous-subshrubby flora of the neotropical savanna is quite old, while the shrubby-arboreal flora is derived from forests, a hypothesis that implies higher chromosome numbers in the savanna than in the forest. If, however, chromosome numbers are similar in the cerrado and in forests, both could be similarly old, indicating that bi-directional flow of flora occurred in the past. This paper presents data on chromosome numbers and microsporogenesis for 20 species in 13 families collected in the States of São Paulo, Goiás and Minas Gerais, providing previously unpublished data for Myrcia (Myrtaceae, Luxemburgia (Ochnaceae and Hortia (Rutaceae. Meiosis proved to be normal, indicating regularity in the sexual reproductive process. Chromosome numbers varied from 2n = 18 (Allamanda angustifolia: Apocynaceae to 2n = ca. 104 (Ouratea spectabilis: Ochnaceae, being low (20 Cerrado é a palavra que, no Brasil, designa a savana neotropical, com área nuclear no Planalto Central, constituída de uma flora herbáceo-subarbustiva e outra arbustivo-arbórea, ambas heliófilas, altamente diversificadas e regionalmente diferenciadas. Considerando a distribuição de espécies e de números cromossômicos, alguns autores propuseram que a flora herbáceo-subarbustiva da savanna neotropical seria bastante antiga, enquanto a flora arbustivo-arbórea seria derivada das florestas Atlântica e Amazônica, uma hipótese que implica na ocorrência de números cromossômicos mais altos no cerrado que nas florestas. Porém, se os números cromossômicos forem similares no cerrado e nas florestas, ambos os tipos de formação poderiam

  15. Inferring genetic diversity and differentiation of the endangered chinese endemic plant sauvagesia rhodoleuca (ochnaceae) using microsatelite markers

    Chen, Z. Y.; Wei, X.; Jiang, Y. S.; Chai, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Sauvagesia rhodoleuca is one of the most endangered species in China. It has a narrow distribution in the evergreen broadleaved forest of southern China. Up to now, only six populations remained in two provinces. In this study, eight microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic diversity in these populations. We found very low levels of genetic diversity within populations of S. rhodoleuca with average observed and expected heterozygosity (HO and HE) of 0.069 and 0.186, respectively. Estimated inbreeding coefficients (FIS) within populations were high suggests the probable selfing in the species.Combination of the UPGMA dendrogram and the INSTRUCT analysis show that six extant populations could be classified into three distinct genetic groups and no pattern of isolation by distance was detected among populations. The low genetic variation within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations indicate that the management for the conservation of genetic diversity in S. rhodoleuca should aim to preserve every population. (author)

  16. Donnees Preliminaires Sur l'entomofaune de Lippia multiflora Mold ...

    En outre, elles sont parfois minées par une espèce d'abeille et une espèce de guêpe qui y accomplissent leur cycle de développement. Comme insectes utiles, des mantes religieuses et une espèce de Reduviidae ont été recensées. Un Hyménoptère parasitoïde de la famille des Pteromalidae, a émergé à partir des galles ...

  17. Zataria multiflora essential oil reduces diabetic damages in ...

    diabetic effects were analyzed in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The yield of EO was 3% and carvactol (53%), p-cymene (17%), and thymol (11%) were detected as the main EO components. The antioxidant and nitric oxide ...

  18. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    percent and decrease in heterophils percent that indicates positive effect the on enhancement of body immune system by Satureja bachtiarica. In present study Satureja bachtiarica extract did not show a significant increase in IgM compared to control group. Satureja bachtiarica showed a significant increase in neutrophils ...

  19. Zataria multiflora ameliorates testicular and spermatological damages induced by cisplatin in mice model

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cisplatin (CP, a highly effective antineoplastic drug, causes testicular damage. Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZM, a medicinal plant, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ZM against cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Thirty-two adult male mice were randomly divided into four groups. The control group received normal saline with oral gavage during 7 days; ZM group received ZM (200 mg/kg during 7 days by gavage; CP group received CP (10 mg/kg i.p. in 5th day of study; ZM + CP group received ZM during 7 days and CP was injected in 5th day. Sperm parameters (including motility, sperm count, sperm viability rate and morphological sperm abnormalities, biochemical (malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH and protein carbonyl (PC levels, serum testosterone levels, histological and immunochemistry assays of testis were examined one day after the last receipt of the drug. Results: CP treatment caused significant damage via changed of sperm parameters, increased oxidative stress (increased MDA, PC levels and decreased GSH level, histological changes (degeneration, necrosis, arrest of spermatogenesis, congestion and decrease in thickness of the germinal epithelium, diameter of seminiferous tubules and Johnsen’s Score, decreased serum testosterone level and increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. ZM preserved spermatogenesis and mitigated the toxic effects of CP on the testis tissue. In addition, pretreatment with ZM significantly reduced caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested ZM as a potential antioxidant compound which showed protective effect against cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

  20. Fitossociologia de uma área de floresta estacional perenifólia na fazenda Amoreiras, Querência, MT Seasonal perennial forest site phytossociology in the amareiras farm, Querência, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As florestas do sul da Amazônia, onde se encontra a Floresta Estacional Perenifólia, têm grande influência sobre a manutenção do equilíbrio físico regional e são as que mais estão ameaçadas pela ação antrópica, além de serem pouco conhecidas em relação à sua estrutura. Diante disso, objetivou-se estudar a estrutura fitossociológica de um trecho de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia na Bacia do Rio das Pacas em Querência, MT. A amostragem da vegetação consistiu na distribuição de 200 pontos quadrantes, sendo amostrados os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura de 1,30 m do solo (DAP ? 10 cm. A densidade total da área amostrada foi de 736 ind./ha, distribuídos em 58 espécies, 45 gêneros e 31 famílias. As espécies de maior Valor de Importância (VI, Ocotea leucoxylon (Sw. Laness., Trattinickia glaziovii Swart, Ouratea discophora Ducke, Xylopia amazonica R.E. Fr. e Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. corresponderam a 28,45% do VI total e também ocorreram em outros trechos de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia em Gaúcha do Norte, MT, porém não com a mesma representatividade. O índice de Shannon (3,51 pode ser considerado baixo por se tratar de Floresta Amazônica, mas a equabilidade de Pielou (0,86 evidenciou que a comunidade arbórea apresentava alta heterogeneidade florística.The Southern Amazon forests, where the Seasonal Perennial Forest occurs, has great influence on the maintenance of the regional physical equilibrium and they are among forests most threatened by anthropic action and are little known in relation to their structure. In this context, the objective of this work was to study phytosociological structure of a Seasonal Perennial Forest area in the Rio das Pacas Basin at Querência, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The vegetation sampling was composed of the distribution of 200 center quarter points, all individuals with DAP (diameter to height breast equal or superior to 10 cm were considered. The total density of

  1. Environ: E00627 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00627 Amblytropis multiflora root or herb Crude drug ... Amblytropis multiflora, Amb...lytropis [TAX:324290] ... Fabaceae (pea family) Amblytropis multiflora root or herb with root (dried) ...

  2. Anti-aflatoxin B1 effects of Shirazi thyme (Zataria multiflora in broilers: evaluation of performance and liver histopathology

    Omid Fani Makki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of Zataria multifora (ZM on the performance and liver histopathology of broiler chickens contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. One hundred and sixty Ross 308 male broilers (one-day-old were divided into four treatment groups with four replicates with 10 birds in each replicate. The chickens were reared on the floor for 35 days. The groups were contaminated with AFB1 at two different concentrations, i.e., 0 and 1000 ppb, and fed ZM in their feed at the concentrations of 0 and 20 gr Kg 1. The evaluated performance parameters were subjected to a completely randomized design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of the treatments using SAS software (version 9/1. AFB1 had a statistical lowering effects on the feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and average weight of the carcass, thigh, chest, bursa of fabricius, back and neck. Also, the weights of liver, gizzard, pancreas, proventriculus, abdominal fat, full intestine, and heart were increased with AFB1 (P<0.05. In histopathological evaluations, the liver of chickens that received feed containing AFB1 showed multifocal and varied cytoplasmic vacuolization, severe fatty change, degenerating foci, fibrosis of the portal regions, and bile duct hyperplasia. The variables that were evaluated in this study showed that ZM had significant efficacy in diminishing the aflatoxins negative effects on the chickens.

  3. Free Radicals Scavenging Activity of Essential Oils and Different Fractions of Methanol Extract of Zataria Multiflora, Salvia Officinalis, Rosmarinus Officinalis, Mentha Pulegium and Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    S Changizi Ashtiani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants are regarded as natural food preservatives and health promoting drugs. Considering their antioxidant activity, most of them can prevent oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate free radicals scavenging activity of essential oils and different fractions of methanol extracts from cinnamon, pennyroyal, black cumin, sage, rosemary and azkand. Methods: Antioxidant property of essential oils and different fractions of these medicinal plants was studied by determining their DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. Results: There were significant differences among the free radical scavenging activity of studied essential oils and different fractions. Ethyl acetate fractions were identified as the most active fractions than other ones and even synthetic antioxidant (BHT, IC50 value of 239.5μg/ml with the highest activity in Mentha pulegium (47.2 μg/ml μg/ml. Among others, n-hexane fraction of rosemary (969 μg/ml, dichloromethane fraction of rosemary (205.46 μg/ml and zatar (344 μg/ml and aqueous fractions of cinnamon (117.6 μg/ml and sage (321.3 μg/ml exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Regarding considerable activity of studied extracts, they have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants in relevant industries.

  4. Evaluación de la reproducción sexual de Espeletia grandiflora VAR. Multiflora en la Reserva Forestal Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Jairo Sánchez Zambrano

    2006-01-01

    fenología es diferente en relación con la que se presenta en lugares con mayor grado de conservación. Los resultados se compararon con los encontrados por Fagua (2002 en otro estudio realizado en el Páramo de Chingaza, lugar con mayor grado de conservación. Para el presente sitio de estudio se reportó un porcentaje de viabilidad menor, un índice de autoincompatibilidad mayor, una producción de semillas por planta menor y etapas fenológicas más cortas que en el Páramo de Chingaza. Las diferencias en el estado de conservación, la composición genética de E. grandiflora, y el clima entre los dos sitios, pueden explicar los diferentes resultados.

  5. Documenting the Regional and local distribution of Kalmia latifolia and Rosa multiflora in West Virginia, Ohio, and Pennsylvania Forests along a soil fertility gradient

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Todd Hutchinson; Todd Ristau; Alejandro Royo; James Steinman

    2012-01-01

    Use of environmental variables as predictors of vegetation distribution patterns has long been a focus of ecology. However, the effect of edaphic factors on vegetation pattern is often measured using surrogates such as topography, because accurate measures of soil fertility and nutrients are unavailable or rare (Marage and Gégout 2009). Kalmia latifolia...

  6. cas du cordon littoral Port-Bouët-Grand-Bassam

    Formations végétales. Espèces. Familles. Cocoteraie. Fourré littoral. Jachère. Saccharum officinarum L. Poaceae x. Salacia baumannii Loes. Celastraceae x. Sansevieria liberica Gérôme & Labroy. Agavaceae x. Sauvagesia erecta L. Ochnaceae x. Scoparia dulcis L. Scrophulariaceae x x. Sesamum radiatum Schumacher.

  7. Comparative efficacy of herbal essences with amphotricin B and ketoconazole on Candida albicans in the in vitro condition

    Shahin Gavanji

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, essential oils with different components showed antifungal activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil. They can therefore be used as new antifungal substances.

  8. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-12

    Jun 12, 2015 ... Addition of Z. multiflora boiss essential oil, resulted in decreasing the count of viable Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the produced cheese. This investigation concludes that the biofilm containing Z. multiflora boiss essential oil can be highly.

  9. Contribution a l'etude des effets pharmacologiques in vivo de lippia ...

    Lippia multiflora Mold (Verbenaceae) currently known as "Thé de Gambie" is one of popular medicinal plant used as tea in Togo to treat insomnia and jaundice. The aim of this study is to investigate the sedative, analgesic and muscular relaxation properties of aqueous extract of L. multiflora administered at 250, 500 and ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    Vol 14, No 50 (2015), Application of solar treatment for the disinfection of ... of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil for ... conditions of ultrasonic-assisted extraction from plant-chicory, Abstract PDF.

  11. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition

    Shahin Gavanji

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The essential oils used in the present study with different components showed antibacterial activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil, and therefore they can be used as a new antibacterial substance.

  12. New Chorological Data for Rare Vascular Plants from Romania

    Anastasiu Paulina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New chorological data about seven rare vascular plant taxa are reported in the present paper: Conringia austriaca, Jurinea multiflora, Linaria arvensis, Nonea pallens, Ophrys apifera, Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta, Saponaria officinalis. For Linaria arvensis, previously considered doubtful in the absence of the herbarium material, we confirm its presence in Romania. The report of Nonea pallens is the first for Dobrogea, while the report of Jurinea multiflora is the first for Muntenia region of Romania.

  13. Three New Multiflorane-Type Triterpenes from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Reiko Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2, and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  14. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  15. New species of the genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, Vietnam

    Dautova, T.N.; Ofwegen, van L.P.; Savinkin, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    A total of eight Sinularia species is described and depicted, all from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam (South China Sea). Six are new to science: S. capricornis, S. multiflora, S. pumila, S. sarmentosa, S. torta, and S. uva. Two other ones represent just new records for Vietnam: S. rigida (Dana, 1846) and S.

  16. Larvicidal properties of three plants on Anopheles gambiae ...

    No larvae exposed to Q. africana developed into pupae while development was also curtailed when exposed to K. senegalensis and L. multiflora extracts. Larvicidal activity was concentration dependent. These plants could be sources of botanical insecticides for malarial control. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources, Vol.

  17. Distribution and hosts of Stellicola (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) associated with Linckia (Asteroidea) in the Indo-West Pacific

    Humes, Arthur G.

    1976-01-01

    Five lichomolgid copepods belonging to the genus Stellicola are reported from three species of the sea star genus Linckia in the Moluccas: Stellicola flexilis n. sp. from Linckia guildingi. L. laevigata, and L. multiflora, S. caeruleus (Stebbing, 1900) from L. laevigata, L. guildingi, and L.

  18. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. Mechanical and microbiological characteristics of this biofilms were measured. Increasing concentration of antimicrobial agent in film reduced stretchability, tensile strength and elongation, however increased the thickness and ...

  19. Variation in the chemical composition of the essential oils of different ...

    The essential oils from the different organs of wild and domesticated Lippia multiflora Moldenke, analysed by GPC-FID and GPC-MS, were rich in monoterpenes. These made up 95.0, 94.0, 82.5 and 61.0% of oils from leaves, flowers, stems and roots, respectively, with a predominance of aromatic monoterpenes: p-cymene, ...

  20.  Invasibility of three major non-native invasive shrubs and associated factors in Upper Midwest U.S. forest lands

    W. Keith Moser; Zhaofei Fan; Mark H. Hansen; Michael K. Crosby; Shirley X. Fan

    2016-01-01

    We used non-native invasive plant data from the US Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, spatial statistical methods, and the space (cover class)-for-time approach to quantify the invasion potential and success ("invasibility") of three major invasive shrubs (multiflora rose, non-native bush honeysuckles, and common buckthorn...

  1. Les teneurs en carbone, azote et phosphore du sol sur l'occurrence ...

    Les teneurs en carbone, azote et phosphore du sol sur l'occurrence de Lippia multiflora M. (théier de savane) et la composition chimique de son huile essentielle extraite des feuilles au Nord-Ouest de la Côte d'Ivoire.

  2. Effects of an experimental increase of temperature and drought on the photosynthetic performance of two ericaceous shrub species along a north-south European gradient

    Llorens, L.; Penuelas, J.; Beier, C.

    2004-01-01

    ericaceous shrubs (Erica multiflora and Calluna vulgaris) along a European gradient of temperature and precipitation (UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Spain). At each site, a passive warming treatment was applied during the night throughout the whole year, whereas the drought treatment excluded rain events...

  3. Fitossociologia e similaridade florística entre trechos de Cerrado sentido restrito em interflúvio e em vale no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF Phytossociology and floristic similarity between plateau and valley `Cerrado` woody vegetation in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil

    Mônica Souza da Fonseca

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a composição florística, densidade e área basal do componente lenhoso do cerrado sentido restrito em duas situações num gradiente topográfico, designadas interflúvio (I e vale (V, no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF. Foram alocadas em cada área 10 parcelas permanentes de 20x50m para amostragem de todos os indivíduos com diâmetro basal DB(30cm> 5cm. A classificação por UPGMA (Índices de Sørensen e Morisita foi usada para a avaliação da similaridade entre parcelas. A análise da fitossociologia mostrou que as espécies mais importantes no interflúvio foram: Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.Hil Baill., Miconia ferruginata DC. e Dalbergia miscolobium Benth., enquanto que no vale foram: Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc. Schott & Endl., Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil. Baill. e Schefflera macrocarpa (Seem D.C. Frodin. Os índices de similaridade variaram entre 0,26 a 0,81 (Sørensen e 0,06 a 0,92 (Morisita. A classificação por UPGMA indicou dois grupos principais, que coincidiram com as posições no relevo: interflúvio e vale. Os resultados salientaram a topografia como forte determinante na distribuição de algumas das populações e comunidades lenhosas, por meio de sua influência na variação da profundidade do lençol freático, que afetou a composição florística, a densidade (I/V=1.219/956 ind.ha-1 e a área basal (I/V=8,56/5,64m².ha-1 nos Cerrados sentido restrito de interflúvio (I e vale (V estudados.This study aims to check differences in the floristic composition and structure of the woody vegetation of the cerrado (sensu stricto in two distinct topographic positions, Interfluve (I and Valley Slope (V area in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil. In each area ten 20x50m permanent plots were located to survey individuals, basal diameter BD(30cm > 5cm. UPGMA classification (Sørensen and Morisita similarity indices was used to assess similarity among plots

  4. The 'A' genome donor of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (Gramineae).

    Hiremath, S C; Salimath, S S

    1992-08-01

    In an attempt to discover 'A' and 'B' genome donor(s) to finger millet, Eleusine coracana, or its progenitor species, E. africana (both allotetraploid 2n=4x=36), five diploid species, E. Indica, E. Floccifolia, E. multiflora, E. tristachya and E. intermedia, were crossed to finger millet and its progenitor taxon. Crosses were successful only with E. coracana. Three combinations of triploid hybrids E. coracana x E. indica, E. coracana x E. floccifolia, and E. coracana x E. multiflora were obtained and analysed. Meiotic behaviour was perfectly normal in parental species. The regular number of 18 bivalents in E. coracana, 9 bivalents in E. indica, E. intermedia, E. tristachya and E. floccifolia and 8 bivalents in E. multiflora were invariably noticed. In E. coracana x E. indica hybrids a mean chromosome pairing of 8.84I+8.80II+0.03III+0.10IV per cell was found. About 86.5% of the cells showed the typical 9I+9II configuration, suggesting that E. indica (AA) is one of the diploid genome donors to cultivated species E. coracana. A mean chromosome pairing of 11.08I+7.63II+0.16III+0.04IV per cell was found in E. coracana x E. floccifolia hybrids. Two to ten bivalents and varying numbers of univalents were seen in 55% of the cells. About 45% of the cells showed the 9I+9II configuration. Various evidence suggests that perennial E. floccifolia is a primitive member of the 'A' genome group of Eleusine species, and it may not be a genome donor to E. coracana. In E. coracana x E. multiflora hybrids (2n=26) mean chromosome pairing of 21.45I+1.97II+0.13III+0.04IV per cell was found. About 91% of the cells were observed to have 20-26 univalents. Only a small percentage of the cells contained bivalents or multivalents. This pairing behaviour indicates that E. multiflora lacks genomic homology with the 'A' or 'B' genome of E. coracana. Genomically E. multiflora is a distinct species and a genomic symbol of 'C' is assigned to it. Identification of the 'B' genome donor species to

  5. The mycobiota of herbal drug plants in Oman and possible decontamination by gamma radiation

    A.E. Elshafie

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of seven herbal plant species were surveyed: Nigella sativa, Zataria multiflora, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Rhazya stricta (seeds and leaves, Haplophyllum tuberculatum, Aristolochia bracteolata and Teucrium muscatense. A total of 24 species of fungi were isolated from the plants (seeds, leaves, flowers and/or stems. No significant differences were found between the mycobiota of the herbal plant species or between the six samples of each plant. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. were the most common species, followed by A. flavus and Rhizopus spp. A. flavus was found in all herbal plants except R. stricta (leaves and Z. multiflora. Aflatoxins were extracted from a number of herbal plants. Some strains of A. flavus isolated from the plants were aflatoxigenic. Gamma radiation at 905.4 Gy showed an average percent inhibition of fungi on some herbal plants between 88.6 and 99.1%. Complete inhibition was obtained at 1836 Gy.

  6. INVENTAIRE DE L'ENTOMOFAUNE ET LUTTE CHIMIQUE ...

    SECRETARIAT

    Coléoptères. Sur certaines plantes, des feuilles présentant un aspect de filet ou de grillage occasionné par des criquets (Zonocerus variegatus). Certaines feuilles sont recro- quevillées suite aux piqûres de fourmis. (Camponotus sp.) et des pucerons. Figure 1 : Vue d'un pied mort de Lippia multiflora causés par les termites.

  7. KONAN J. L. et al..pmd

    SECRETARIAT

    de séchage. Ces résultats mettent en relief une possible évolution des teneurs en matières organiques, de la phase juvénile à la phase adulte. Concernant le moment de la récolte des feuilles de Lippia multiflora, il apparait utile de prendre en compte l'âge. CARACTERISATIONS PHYSICO-CHIMIQUE ET. MEDICINALE.

  8. Surveying the Effect of the Phenol Compounds on Antibacterial Activity of Herbal Extracts: In vitro Assessment of Herbal Extracts in Fasa-Fars Province

    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Due to increase in  bacterial drug resistance, discovering new antibacterial compounds is really important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phenol compounds effect on antibacterial activity of herbal extracts of Fasa-Fars province in vitro. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial activity of 26 plants was studied by disk diffusion, well, and MIC methods in compare with 13 standard antibiotics against S. aureus and E. coli as control bacteria. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods using Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: Inhibition zone of bacterial growth  against S. aureus in well and disk methods were 32 and 22 mm in using Zataria multiflora, respectively .And there were 23 and 16 mm against E. coli in Zataria multiflora, respectively. Less effects and inhibition zones, less than 15mm on both strains, were seen in using  Saturina hortensis, Cinamomum zeylanicum, ­Artemisia absinthium, ­Urtica dioica, Carum carvi L. cyminum Cuminum, Achillea fragrantissimia, Marticaria chamomilla, Zingiber officinale, Origanum majorana, and Plantago psyllium. Most effective MIC results, 7.8 µg/ml, were related to the extracts of Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum L. Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Laurus nobilis L. Phenol compound amounts were approximately between 66.51±1.9 and 233.15±5.1 mg/gr extract in Zataria multiflora and Plantago psyllium, respectively. Conclusion: Results of antibacterial activity of extracts and relation with phenol compound amounts indicate the antibacterial effect of phenol compounds in herbal extracts.

  9. General Reevaluation Report and Environmental Impact Statement for the Blanchard River, Ottawa, Ohio Flood Protection Project

    1987-04-01

    Black locust Black willow Honey locust Mulberry Slippery elm Box elder Cottonwood Multiflora rose Green ash Hackberry The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...flows in the Blanchard River at Ottawa. The Perry Street bridge was removed in 1951 and replaced by a new bridge at Elm Street that is less restrictive...flood plain. The present tree growth commonly consists of a second growth of spe- cies of elm , maple, and oak. All of the Blanchard River basin lies

  10. Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species.

    Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS.

  11. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Bagora Bayala

    Full Text Available This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78% and β-caryophyllene (10.54% for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%, camphor (12.730%, α-pinene (6.87% and trans α-bergamotene (5.32% for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%, α-pinene (20.11%, sabinene (10.26%, β-pinene (9.22% and α-phellandrene (7.03% for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%, β-caryophyllene (12.70%, thymol (11.88, γ-terpinene (9.17% and thymyle acetate (7.64% for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%, α-pinene (9.17% and limonene (8.76% for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%, camphene (12.70%, zingiberene (8.40%, β-bisabolene (7.83% and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34% for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the

  12. Fumigant Toxicity of some Essential Oils on Adults of some Stored-Product Pests Toxicidad Fumigante de Algunos Aceites Esenciales sobre Adultos de algunas Plagas de Productos Almacenados

    Mohammad Mahmoudvand

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials with insecticidal properties have been traditionally used for generations in some parts of the world. In this study, fumigant toxicity of some essential oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Zataria multiflora, and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var. hamlin on adults of stored-product pests, including Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus granarius, Callosobruchus maculatus, and Plodia interpunctella were investigated. Pure essential oils were used in glass vials for the bioassay. LC50 values of Citrus sinensis var. hamlin against T. castaneum, S. granarius, and C. maculatus were 391.28, 367.75, and 223.48 µL L-1 air after 24 h, 362.40, 20.45, and 207.17 µL L-1 air after 48 h, respectively. Furthermore, LC50 values of the fumigant test of C. sinensis and M. pulegium essential oils against S. granarius were 0.038 and 367.75 µL L-1 air after 24 h, 0.025 and 320.45 µL L-1 air after 48 h, respectively. On the other hand, LC50 values of R. officinalis and Z. multiflora on P. interpunctella moths were 0.93 and 1.75 µL L-1 after 24 h. Results showed that among tested essential oils, C. sinensis var. hamlin had good fumigant toxicity on T. castaneum, S. granarius, and C. maculatus. In addition, M. pulegium essential oil was stronger than C. sinensis var. hamlin on S. granarius. Results also indicated that both Z. multiflora and R. officinalis had fumigant toxicity on P. interpunctella adults. In summary, results indicated that these essential oils have good fumigant toxicity on stored-product pests.Materiales vegetales con propiedades insecticidas han sido usados tradicionalmente por generaciones en algunas partes del mundo. En este estudio se estudió la toxicidad fumigante de algunos aceites esenciales extraídos desde Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Zataria multiflora y Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var. hamlin sobre adultos de plagas de productos almacenados, incluyendo Tribolium castaneum

  13. Trichoderma evansii and T. lieckfeldtiae: two new T. hamatum-like species.

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan

    2009-01-01

    The new species, Trichoderma evansii and T. lieckfeldtiae, resemble the closely related T. hamatum and T. pubescens in forming discrete, setose conidial pustules within which arise smooth, green conidia from pachybasium-like conidiophores. The phylogenetic position of these species was determined with combined partial sequences of ITS, translationelongation factor 1-alpha, RNA polymerase II subunit and actin genes. All are members of the Viride clade. Trichoderma evansii forms a sister group relationship with a clade that includes T. hamatum and T. pubescens. It differs from the latter two species in having subglobose conidia; it was isolated as an endophyte from sapwood of Lophira alata (Ochnaceae) and Cola verticillata (Malvaceae) in Cameroon and Theobroma gileri (Malvaceae) in Peru. Trichoderma lieckfeldtiae occupies an unresolved position in the Viride clade despite being virtually morphologically indistinguishable from T. hamatum; it was isolated from fruit of cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri in Colombia, pseudostroma of Moniliophthora roreri on pods of Theobroma cacao in Peru and from soil in a cacao farm in Cameroon (central Africa).

  14. Pollen types used by Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (1874 (Hymenoptera, Apidae in the provisioning of brood cells in an area of Caatinga

    Ana Paula Araújo da Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify, by sediment pollen analysis, the plant species used as floral resources for the provisioning of brood cells in Centris (Hemisiella tarsata, in an area of Caatinga, within the municipality of Nova Soure, Bahia State, Brazil. The analysis of pollen contents from three brood cells revealed 11 pollen types, corresponding to four botanical families. Malpighiaceae was represented most, followed by Leguminosae, Ochnaceae, and Solanaceae, the latter two represented by just a single pollen type each. On the basis of the percentages in the samples, it was possible to infer that C. tarsata visited distinct plants, but intensified its pollen collection in species related to Aeschynomene martii and Solanum paniculatumpollen types, which are considered the most important pollen sources in the larval diet of this bee. In addition to the pollen sources, we have also recorded seven pollen types regarded as oil ones, all related to the Malpighiaceae family. The information about the resources for C. tarsata can be of great relevance, in view of the importance of these bees in the pollination of native flora.

  15. Nesting biology of Centris (Centris aenea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting activity of Centris aenea Lepeletier, 1841 was studied in two Brazilian habitats, Caatinga (Monte Santo, Bahia and Cerrado (Palmeiras, Bahia and Luiz Antônio, São Paulo. Nests were excavated in the ground and did not tend to be aggregated together at the two sites, but at Palmeiras, nests were in a large aggregation. Nest architecture consists of a single unbranched tunnel, sloping to vertical, which leads to a linear series of four cells, placed from 8 to 26 cm in depth. Cells are urn-shaped with a rounded base, and their cell caps have a central hollow process, as in other Centridini. Nest architecture of C. aenea was compared to other species of Centris Fabricius, 1804. Provisions are composed of a pollen mass covered by a thin liquid layer on which the egg is placed. Females were observed gathering oil on Mcvaughia bahiana W.R. Anderson flowers from October to March in the Caatinga, and on Byrsonima intermedia A.Juss. as well as other Malpighiaceae species from August to December in the Cerrado. Pollen is gathered by buzzing flowers of Solanaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Ochnaceae. Several nectar sources were recorded. There is indirect evidence that Mesoplia sp. parasitizes nests of C. aenea in the Cerrado.

  16. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest.

    Xiaoli Shen

    Full Text Available Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations.

  17. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic, and Antiviral Activity of Plants Traditionally Used for Treating Infectious Disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Leyssen, Pieter; Liu, Maoxuan; Neyts, Johan; Luyten, Walter

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we tested in vitro different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial ( E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans ); anthelmintic ( C. elegans ); and antiviral ( enterovirus 71 ) bioactivity. In total, 35 plant species belonging to 21 families were recorded from tribes of the SBR and periphery. Of the 35 plants, eight plants (23%) showed broad-spectrum in vitro antimicrobial activity (inhibiting all three test strains), while 12 (34%) exhibited narrow spectrum activity against individual pathogens (seven as anti-staphylococcal and five as anti-candidal). Plants such as Alangium salviifolium, Antidesma bunius, Bauhinia racemosa, Careya arborea, Caseria graveolens, Cleistanthus patulus, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Crotalaria pallida, Croton roxburghii, Holarrhena pubescens, Hypericum gaitii, Macaranga peltata, Protium serratum, Rubus ellipticus , and Suregada multiflora showed strong antibacterial effects, whilst Alstonia scholaris, Butea monosperma, C. arborea, C. pallida, Diospyros malbarica, Gmelina arborea, H. pubescens, M. peltata, P. serratum, Pterospermum acerifolium, R. ellipticus , and S. multiflora demonstrated strong antifungal activity. Plants such as A. salviifolium, A. bunius, Aporosa octandra, Barringtonia acutangula, C. graveolens, C. pallida, C. patulus, G. arborea, H. pubescens, H. gaitii, Lannea coromandelica, M. peltata, Melastoma malabathricum, Millettia extensa, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, P. serratum, P. acerifolium, R. ellipticus, S. multiflora, Symplocos cochinchinensis, Ventilago maderaspatana , and Wrightia arborea inhibit survival of C. elegans and could be a potential source for anthelmintic activity. Additionally, plants such as A. bunius, C. graveolens, C. patulus, C. oppositifolia, H. gaitii, M. extensa

  18. Efficacy of medicinal essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia sp. isolates.

    Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Fahimirad, S

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the distribution pattern and population size of Malassezia species in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the inhibitory efficacy of Zataria multiflora, Thymus kotschyanus, Mentha spicata, Artemisia sieberi, Rosmarinus officinalis and Heracleum persicum essential oils against pathogenic Malassezia isolates. The samples were collected from 5 different anatomical sites of 33 atopic dogs and cultured onto modified Dixon agar (MDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media. The essential oil extraction was performed by steam distillation using Clevenger system. Anti-Malassezia efficacy of medicinal essential oils and standard drugs was evaluated using broth microdilution method. A total of 103 yeast colonies were isolated from dogs with AD. Eight different Malassezia species were identified as follows: Malassezia pachydermatis (81.4%), M. globosa (7.8%), M. restricta (3.9%), M. sloofiae (2.9%), M. furfur (1%), M. nana (1%), M. obtusa (1%) and M. sympodialis (1%). The most and least infected sites were: anal (21.2%) and ear (10.6%) respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent Malassezia species isolated from both skin and mucosa of dogs with AD. Antifungal susceptibility test revealed the inhibitory efficacy of essential oils on pathogenic Malassezia isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 30 to 850 μg/mL. Among the tested oils, Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus exhibited the highest inhibitory effects (Pessential oils of Z. multiflora and T. kotschyanus showed strong antifungal activity against pathogenic Malassezia species tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Gangoué-Piéboji, J; Pegnyemb, D E; Niyitegeka, D; Nsangou, A; Eze, N; Minyem, C; Mbing, J Ngo; Ngassam, P; Tih, R Ghogomu; Sodengam, B L; Bodo, B

    2006-04-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 10 plant species (Voacanga africana, Crepis cameroonica, Plagiostyles africana, Crotalaria retusa, Mammea africana, Lophira lanceolata, Ochna afzelii, Ouratea elongata, Ou. flava and Ou. sulcata), each of which is currently used in the traditional medicine of Cameroon, were investigated in vitro. The activities of a methanol extract of each plant were tested, in disc-diffusion assays, against 37 reference or laboratory strains of seven species of microorganism (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each extract were then estimated, against each of the more susceptible microorganisms (i.e. those giving an inhibition zone measuring at least 9 mm in diameter in the disc-diffusion assays), by agar dilution. Although, in the disc-diffusion assays, each of the 10 methanol extracts investigated displayed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one species of microorganism, no activity against the Gram-negative bacteria (Es. coli, K. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa) was observed. The extract with the greatest antimicrobial activity was that of Pl. africana (Euphorbiaceae).

  20. [Bencao literature investigation of Polygonum multiflorum (Heshouwu)].

    Liang, Li; Zheng, Jin-Sheng; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen

    2016-12-01

    Heshouwu, derived from the root of Polygonum multiflorum (=Fallopia multiflora), is widely used in the Chinese medicine market as a traditional tonic. The emergence of heshouwu material with a human shape reflects a pursuit of its supplementing effects. However, reports of Heshouwu toxicity have repeatedly surfaced in recent years, attracting widespread concern. To clarify the situation surrounding the safety and efficacy of Heshouwu, this research utilizes a systematic review of the text and illustrations in historical bencao (materia medica) literature to investigate the origin, botanical characteristics, actions and processing of Heshouwu, as well as the origin and historical evolution of Baishouwu ("white Heshouwu"). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Evolution of the Rdr1 TNL-cluster in roses and other Rosaceous species

    Terefe-Ayana Diro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The resistance of plants to pathogens relies on two lines of defense: a basal defense response and a pathogen-specific system, in which resistance (R genes induce defense reactions after detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS. In the specific system, a so-called arms race has developed in which the emergence of new races of a pathogen leads to the diversification of plant resistance genes to counteract the pathogens’ effect. The mechanism of resistance gene diversification has been elucidated well for short-lived annual species, but data are mostly lacking for long-lived perennial and clonally propagated plants, such as roses. We analyzed the rose black spot resistance gene, Rdr1, in five members of the Rosaceae: Rosa multiflora, Rosa rugosa, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, Malus x domestica (apple and Prunus persica (peach, and we present the deduced possible mechanism of R-gene diversification. Results We sequenced a 340.4-kb region from R. rugosa orthologous to the Rdr1 locus in R. multiflora. Apart from some deletions and rearrangements, the two loci display a high degree of synteny. Additionally, less pronounced synteny is found with an orthologous locus in strawberry but is absent in peach and apple, where genes from the Rdr1 locus are distributed on two different chromosomes. An analysis of 20 TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL genes obtained from R. rugosa and R. multiflora revealed illegitimate recombination, gene conversion, unequal crossing over, indels, point mutations and transposable elements as mechanisms of diversification. A phylogenetic analysis of 53 complete TNL genes from the five Rosaceae species revealed that with the exception of some genes from apple and peach, most of the genes occur in species-specific clusters, indicating that recent TNL gene diversification began prior to the split of Rosa from Fragaria in the Rosoideae and peach from apple in the Spiraeoideae and continued after the split in

  2. Comparative analyses of ber (zizyphus) honey with other types of honey

    Iftikhar, F.; Mehmood, R.

    2007-01-01

    Eight different honey samples were collected from different ecological areas of Pakistan and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The aim was to evaluate the quality, difference in the composition and comparison of Ber/Sidder (Zizyphus spp.) honey with other types of honey. The two samples of Ber honey and six other floral honey i.e., Citrus, mixed (citrus + Justicia), Acacia modesta, multi-flora and mixed (zizyphus + sesamum) were collected from Apis mellifera colonies. The colonies of Apis mellifera foraged on the above-mentioned flora in different ecological areas i.e. ber honey from Bannu and Karak, Citrus and mixed (citrus + Justicia) honey from Mandi Bahauddin, Acacia honey from Peshawar + Islamabad and multi-flora from Lahore. Nine legal parameters of honey quality control were followed. All honey samples were well within the limits of Codex Alimentarius Commission except ber and citrus. The ber honey showed high pH (6.85) and low reducing sugars (67.66%), sucrose (1.0%), free acidity (6.09 meq/kg) and total acidity (7.68 meq/kg). Mixed honey (zizyphus + sesamum) exhibited highest pH (6.88), lowest free acidity (2.80 meq/kg) and total acidity (5.50 meq/kg). Citrus honey was also found high in Hydroxy-methyl-furfural (HMF, 22.75 meql kg). (author)

  3. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  4. The dynamics of ant mosaics in tropical rainforests characterized using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm.

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Leponce, Maurice; Corbara, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Compin, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    Ants, the most abundant taxa among canopy-dwelling animals in tropical rainforests, are mostly represented by territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAs) whose territories are distributed in a mosaic pattern (arboreal ant mosaics). Large TDA colonies regulate insect herbivores, with implications for forestry and agronomy. What generates these mosaics in vegetal formations, which are dynamic, still needs to be better understood. So, from empirical research based on 3 Cameroonian tree species (Lophira alata, Ochnaceae; Anthocleista vogelii, Gentianaceae; and Barteria fistulosa, Passifloraceae), we used the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, neural network) to illustrate the succession of TDAs as their host trees grow and age. The SOM separated the trees by species and by size for L. alata, which can reach 60 m in height and live several centuries. An ontogenic succession of TDAs from sapling to mature trees is shown, and some ecological traits are highlighted for certain TDAs. Also, because the SOM permits the analysis of data with many zeroes with no effect of outliers on the overall scatterplot distributions, we obtained ecological information on rare species. Finally, the SOM permitted us to show that functional groups cannot be selected at the genus level as congeneric species can have very different ecological niches, something particularly true for Crematogaster spp., which include a species specifically associated with B. fistulosa, nondominant species and TDAs. Therefore, the SOM permitted the complex relationships between TDAs and their growing host trees to be analyzed, while also providing new information on the ecological traits of the ant species involved. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Fitossociologia de um fragmento de cerrado sensu stricto na APA do Paranoá, DF, Brasil Phytosociology of a cerrado sensu stricto fragment at the Paranoá Environmental Protection Area, DF, Brazil

    Sérgio Lelis Assunção

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido no Distrito Federal, no Centro Olímpico da Universidade de Brasília. O local é um dos poucos remanescentes de vegetação natural no perímetro urbano de Brasília. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a composição florística e a fitossociologia do cerrado sensu stricto, visando obter subsídios para um plano de conservação da área. Foram alocadas aleatoriamente dez parcelas de 20×50m (1.000m². Foram incluídos na amostragem todos os troncos com diâmetro maior ou igual a 5cm, obtidos a 30cm do solo. Foram amostradas 54 espécies distribuídas em 44 gêneros e 30 famílias. A família Leguminosae apresentou o maior número de espécies (9, seguida da Malpighiaceae (4 e Vochysiaseae (4. As espécies com maior Índice do Valor de Importância foram Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville, Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart., Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hill., Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. e Kielmeyera coriacea (Spreng. Mart. O índice de Shannon (H'= 3,41 comprovou a alta diversidade da área. A densidade foi de 882 árvores por hectare e a área basal de 9,53m²/ha.This study was conducted in a remnant of cerrado sensu stricto at the Olimpic Center of the University of Brasília, at the Paranoá Environmental Protection Area - DF. The site is one of the few remnants of natural vegetation within the urban perimeter of Brasília. The objective was to investigate the floristic composition and the phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto to gather information for a conservation plan. Ten 20×50m (1,000m² plots were ramdonly located and all woody individuals with dbh equal or greater than 5cm at 30cm from ground level were identified and measured. A total of 54 species in 44 genera and 30 families were found at the site. Leguminosae had the most species (9, followed by Malpighiaceae (4 and Vochysiaseae (4. The highest importance values were for Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville, Styrax ferrugineus Nees

  6. Estrutura de um cerrado strico sensu na Gleba Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

    Fidelis Alessandra Tomaselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado ocupa aproximadamente 23% do território brasileiro e 70% do bioma correspondem a cerrado stricto sensu (s.s., sendo relevantes os estudos que buscam o entendimento da estrutura da vegetação nessas áreas. Com esse objetivo, foram estudadas cinco parcelas (10×25m em um hectare de cerrado s.s., amostrando-se todos os indivíduos com perímetro no nível do solo igual ou acima de 3cm (exceto lianas e indivíduos mortos. Alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos foram analisados, assim como a distribuição de classes de diâmetro dos indivíduos amostrados e a estrutura vertical. Foram amostradas 1.747 indivíduos, distribuídos em 75 espécies, pertencentes a 31 famílias. A densidade total absoluta encontrada foi de 13.976 ind.ha-1 e a área basal total, de 4,902m². Leguminosae foi a família com o maior número de espécies (16. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores valores de Índice do Valor de Importância (IVI foram Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Altschul, Myrcia guianensis (Aubl. DC., Xylopia aromatica (Lm. Mart., Ouratea spectabilis (Mart. Engl. e Pouteria ramiflora (Mart. Radlk. O Índice de Shannon encontrado foi de 3,623. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe. A área estudada não apresentou estratos bem definidos, estando a maioria dos indivíduos entre 1 e 3m de altura.

  7. Levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de cerrado sensu stricto no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goiás

    Silva Lucivânio Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de se conhecer mais sobre o Bioma Cerrado torna-se cada vez mais urgente, devido à destruição acelerada deste bioma. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto, no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, registrando as espécies arbóreas e arbustivas, utilizando o método de Point Centered Quarter. Verificou-se que apesar de algumas diferenças litológicas, latossolo vermelho-escuro na primeira área e vermelho-amarelo na segunda, a similaridade entre elas foi alta, com índices de Jaccard (0,72 e Morisita (0,64. Das 67 espécies pertencentes a 51 gêneros e 29 famílias, 48 foram comuns às duas áreas. Kielmeyera coriacea, Qualea grandiflora, Caryocar brasiliense, Syagrus flexuosa e Ouratea hexasperma tiveram os maiores Índices de Valor de Importância na primeira área e Pouteria ramiflora, Qualea parviflora, Qualea grandiflora, Caryocar brasiliense e Vochysia cinamommea, foram as espécies de maior importância na segunda área. A família Vochysiaceae foi a de maior IVI em ambas as áreas e Leguminosae apresentou o maior número de espécies (15, seguindo Vochysiaceae (7, Apocynaceae (5 e Myrtaceae (4.

  8. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  9. Three New Triterpene Esters from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Takashi Kikuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2, and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4. Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5–93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  10. Absence of mutagenicity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders

    Santos F.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna (locally called “Cerrado” is an important biome presenting several plants that are used in popular medicine. However, the risks associated with the consumption of derivatives from these plants are generally unknown. Studies with compounds obtained from different species have shown the risks of DNA damage. The present work assessed the in vivo mutagenicity of three plant species used in popular medicine to treat human gastrointestinal disorders (Mouriri pusa, Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora. The micronucleus assay was performed in peripheral blood of mice submitted to acute treatments. Results showed that no assessed extracts were mutagenic in vivo. In fact, the absence of mutagenicity in the present study indicates that the extracts do not contain compounds capable of inducing DNA breaks or chromosomal loss. However, further analysis should be performed in others systems to guarantee their safety, mainly to human chronic use.

  11. Changes in the onset of spring growth in shrubland species in response to experimental warming along a north-south gradient in Europe

    Prieto, Patricia; Penuelas, Josep; Niinemets, Üelo

    2009-01-01

    Species responsive to increased temperatures were Vaccinium myrtillus and Empetrum nigrum in Wales, Deschampsia flexuosa in Denmark, Calluna vulgaris in Netherlands, Populus alba in Hungary and Erica multiflora in Spain. Although the acceleration of spring growth was the commonest response to warming...... gradient with average annual temperatures (8.2–15.6 °C) and precipitation (511–1427 mm). Methods 'Bud break' was monitored in eight shrub and grass species in six European sites under control and experimentally warmer conditions generated by automatic roofs covering vegetation during the night. Results...... treatments, the responses at each site were species specific and year dependent. Under experimental warming 25% of cases exhibited a significantly earlier onset of the growing season and 10% had a significantly delayed onset of vegetative growth. No geographical gradient was detected in the experimental...

  12. Floristic and structure of the shrub-arboreal component of a remnant of cerrado sensustricto, Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil

    Bruno Aurélio Aguiar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize a floristic and phytosociology of a fragment of cerrado sensu stricto, located in Gurupi, Tocantins. The study was carried out in the legal Reserve of the experimental farm of the Federal University of Tocantins, Campus of Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil. Five porcelains of 20x50m were implanted, totaling 5000sqm and all compostations with a circumference greater than or equal to 10 cm, at 0 cm at the soil level (CAS were implanted. Foramaler 906 aphid shrub-arboreal belonging to 42 families, 102 species and 78 genera. The families that stood out in number of individuals, frequency, dominance were Myrtacea, Vochystaceae, Burseraceae and Fabaceae, among the indications of the main beings Myrcia fallax (Rich DC, Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl Marchand and Qualea multiflora Mart. The diversity index of Shannon (H ' was 3.70 and equability J'0,80, being considered for the cerrado region.

  13. Antimicrobial Effect of 15 Medicinal Plant Species and their Dependency on Climatic Conditions of Growth in Different Geographical and Ecological Areas of Fars Province

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of medicinal plants are variable in different conditions. Here, the antimicrobial effect of 15 medicinal plant species and their dependency on the climatic condition of growth in different geographical and ecological areas of Fars Province were studied. Materials and Methods: In This empirical study, the antimicrobial effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of 15 medicinal plant species was examined against standard bacterial strains comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics using disk diffusion assay and serial broth dilution. Results: All Extracts were effective against S.aureus ATCC 25923 growth; also Peganum harmala, Myrtus communis, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spp, and Zataria multiflora extracts were observed to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli ATCC 25922. This antimicrobial activity had partially similar results, comparing to conventional antibioticsConclusion: Medicinal plants produce various amounts of antimicrobial substances under the climatic and ecological conditions of each zone, which must be considered in manufacturing herbal medicines.

  14. Inheritance of photochemical air pollution tolerance in petunias

    Hanson, G.P.; Addis, D.H.; Thorne, L.

    1976-12-01

    Seven commercial inbred lines of pink flowered multiflora petunia (Petunia hybrida Vilm.) which differed widely in degrees of tolerance to photochemical oxidants were crossed in all possible combinations to yield a complete diallel cross. Sibling representatives of all 49 possible hybrids were then separately subjected to ozone (O/sub 3/), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and ambient oxidants at Arcadia, California. The seedlings were scored for tolerance to each pollutant and the inheritance of tolerance to each pollutant was studied. At the ambient levels of photochemical oxidants encountered, PAN more severely injured the petunias than did the O/sub 3/ component. Hybrids tolerant to one oxidant were not necessarily tolerant to the other. The genes which contributed photochemical oxidant tolerance in petunia acted primarily in an additive manner with some indication of partial dominance for tolerance. Gene interaction was evident in the expression of petunia sensitivity to PAN.

  15. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Genaveh Port

    Leila Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinatary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Genaveh port in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 30 local informants by face to face interview. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 93 medicinal plants belonging to 55 families were identified. Plantago psyllium, Teucrium polium, Peganum harmala, Descuraninia sophia, Cichorium intybus, Achillea erophora DC, Matricarria charmomilla and Citrolus colocynthis had the highest cultural importance indices. Plantago psyllium, Descuraninia sophia and Zataria multiflora had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynocological diseases, respiratory disorders, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. In addition to the use of these plants to treat diseases as in Iran’s traditional medicine, people in the Genaveh port particularly use Plantago psyllium for drainage of infective boils and abscesses, cough, skin diseases, Teucrium polium for diabetes mellitus, wound washing and sterilizing, Peganum harmala for uterus infections and abdominal cramps, Descuraninia sophia for heart diseases and heatstroke, Cichorium intybus for heatstroke and liver diseases, Achillea eriophora DC for reflex, diabetes mellitus and wound healing, Matricarria charmomilla for seizure and dysmenorrhea, Citrolus colocynthis for hemorrhoid, diabetes mellitus and rheumatism and Zataria multiflora for sedation, abdominal pain and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Genaveh port. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Genaveh port are the

  16. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    Meyers Ryan

    2010-11-01

    multiflora were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis.

  17. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State.

    Frey, Frank M; Meyers, Ryan

    2010-11-06

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Our data

  18. Catálogo florístico del término de Ladruñán (Castellote, Maestrazgo, Teruel [Floristic Checklist of Ladruñán (Castellote, Teruel, E Spain

    Antoni AGUILELLA i PALASÍ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se presenta el catalogo florístico del término de Ladruñán, en el Guadalope medio (NE de Teruel, donde la diversidad de hábitats favorece la coexistencia de 694 taxones vegetales, en un área que apenas llega a una tercera parte de una cuadrícula MGRS de 10x10 km. Algunas citas como la de Ridolfia segetum, constituyen una nueva localidad relevante para la flora aragonesa. De cada taxón se dan las cuadrículas MGRS en las que está presente. En algunos casos como Arbutus unedo, Erica multiflora, Juniperus thurifera y Ridolfia segetum, se hacen comentarios adicionales. Palabras clave: Florística, Catálogo, Corología. SUMMARY: Floristic Checklist of Ladruñán (Castellote, Teruel, E Spain. In this work, the checklist of Ladruñán area is presented. The habitats diversity of this territory, from the medium Guadalope River Basin, allows the presence of 693 taxa, with an area near to a third part of a 10x10 km2 MGRS square. Some records, as that of Ridolfia segetum, are a new and relevant record for the flora of Aragón. For every taxon we provided the 10x10 km2 squares were it has been observed or collected. In some cases as Arbutus unedo, Erica multiflora, Juniperus thurifera and Ridolfia segetum, some extra comments are made. Key words: loristics, Checklist, Chorology.

  19. Distribución e identificación de especies hospedantes de Heterodera glycines Ichinohe raza 3 en el Valle del Cauca

    Varón de Agudelo Francia

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Se dividió la parte plana del Valle del Cauca en tres zonas (norte, centro y sur, habiéndose visitado 33 fincas. En la zona norte las malezas con mayor porcentaje de frecuencia y distribución en los cultivos de soya fueron Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum y Leptochloa filiformis; en la zona centro Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius y Echinochloa colonum y en la zona sur predominaron Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea Cyperus rotundus. Los análisis de muestras de suelo y raíces indicaron que H. glycines se encuentra distribuido en todo el Valle del Cauca, presentando la zona sur (Candelaria, Palmira y Puerto Tejada las mayores poblaciones. Entre las especies evaluadas (malezas, cultivos, leguminosas forrajeras y silvestres, solamente Glycine max y Phaseolus vulgaris se consideraron como susceptibles a H. glycines raza 3. y P. angularis y P. multiflora permitieron muy poca infección y multiplicación del nemátodo.A nematode recognition of Heterodera glycines was focused on crops of soybean. Valle del Cauca was divided in three zones (northen, central and southern and 33 farms were visited. The results of the analysis on samples of soils and roots showe that Heterodera glycines is scattered throughout Valle del Cauca, being the southern zone (Palmira, Candelaria and Puerto Tejada the one having the highest standards in nematode population. Weeds showing a greater frequency percentage were : Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa colonum and Leptochloa filiformis, in the northen zone; Ipomoea hirta, Amaranthus dubius and Echinochloa colonum, in the central zone, and Ipomoea hirta, Portulaca oleracea and Cyperus rotundus, in the southern zone , From among the whole species evaluated (weeds, crops, leguminous a n d fodder plants, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris were considered to be susceptible to H. Glycines race 3. Phaseolus angularis y P. multiflora let low population levels.

  20. Oxygen uptake from aquatic macrophyte decomposition from Piraju Reservoir (Piraju, SP, Brazil

    I. Bianchini Jr.

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxygen consumption related to mineralisation of 18 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (Cyperus sp, Azolla caroliniana, Echinodorus macrophyllus, Eichhornia azurea, Eichhornia crassipes, Eleocharis sp1, Eleocharis sp2, Hetereanthera multiflora, Hydrocotyle raniculoides, Ludwigia sp, Myriophyllum aquaticum, Nymphaea elegans, Oxycaryum cubense, Ricciocarpus natans, Rynchospora corymbosa, Salvinia auriculata, Typha domingensis and Utricularia foliosa from the reservoir of Piraju Hydroelectric Power Plant (São Paulo state, Brazil were described. For each species, two incubations were prepared with ca. 300.0 mg of plant (DW and 1.0 L of reservoir water sample. The incubations were maintained in the dark and at 20 ºC. Periodically the dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations were measured; the accumulated DO values were fitted to 1st order kinetic model and the results showed that: i high oxygen consumption was observed for Ludwigia sp (533 mg g-1 DW, while the lowest was registered for Eleocharis sp1 (205 mg g-1 DW mineralisation; ii the higher deoxygenation rate constants were verified in the mineralisation of A. caroliniana (0.052 day-1, H. raniculoides (0.050 day-1 and U. foliosa (0.049 day-1. The oxygen consumption rate constants of Ludwigia sp and Eleocharis sp2 mineralisation (0.027 day-1 were the lowest. The half-time of oxygen consumption varied from 9 to 26 days. In the short term, the detritus of E. macrophyllus, H. raniculoides, Ludwigia sp, N. elegans and U. foliosa were the critical resources to the reservoir oxygen demand; while in the long term, A. caroliniana, H. multiflora and T. domingensis were the resources that can potentially contribute to the benthic oxygen demand of this reservoir.

  1. Novel fen ecosystems in western North Carolina

    Wilcox, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Western North Carolina is mountainous, and groundwater flows from hillslope recharge zones to valley stream and spring discharge zones. Depending on surface topography and geologic conditions, the water table may approach or intersect the ground surface to form seepage wetlands, or fens. Fen ecosystems can be very sensitive to changes in land use, groundwater pumping, and upslope development. This presentation will focus on two sites where historical land use and human activity played important roles in creating or preserving fen ecosystems. Both sites now support—and are being managed to protect—federally endangered flora and fauna. The first site is home to Sarracenia oreophilia, an endangered pitcher plant that thrives on saturated soils with low nutrient content. The site's early history includes tree clearing, drain tile installation, and cattle grazing, while more recent management activities have included drain tile excavation, manual invasive removal, and prescribed burns. A 15-year water-level record indicates seasonal artesian conditions wet a 3m clay unit (K=2E-5 cm/sec) beneath the site, which is able to retain moisture during drier periods. Shorter "clay wetting periods" during drought years (1999-2000; 2007-2008) correspond to reduced clump counts in pitcher-plant surveys. The second site is a former aggregate quarry that now supports over 60 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). The biggest threat to this site is encroachment of non-native and invasive multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) and other large woody species. Management activities include manual removal and prescribed goat herbivory. Current efforts to characterize the springs, water-table, and surface-water flows will be used to detect changes in the future to the hydrologic regime in the fen.

  2. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    increased the most in restricted areas compared to irregularly and regularly grazed sites. When analyzing soil properties, Generalized mixed models revealed reliable results in the differences among categories of grazing types and intensity. These differences were only noticeable in calcium concentration being calcium the most decreased by medium grazing intensity and the most increased by irregular grazing. Grazing had significant effects on individual plant species occurrences and covers. Horses decreased presence of Anthoxanthum odoratum and regular grazing sites as well as fences had significantly higher occurrence of trampling tolerant species Nardus stricta compared to sites with irregular grazing. The type of grazing herbivores influenced covers of Agrostis capillaris, A. rupestris, Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. The grazing types significantly altered covers of Agrostis capillaris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Nardus stricta, and Potentilla ternata (Potentilla aurea subsp. chrysocraspeda). The intensity of grazing had important impact on covers of Agrostis rupestris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Poa alpina, Potentilla ternata, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. Key words: alpine meadows; pastures; GLMM; NMDS; (nested) PERMANOVA

  3. Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Plants in the DOE Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park

    Drake, S.J.

    2002-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth

  4. Antiproliferative activity and phenotypic modification induced by selected Peruvian medicinal plants on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells.

    Carraz, Maëlle; Lavergne, Cédric; Jullian, Valérie; Wright, Michel; Gairin, Jean Edouard; Gonzales de la Cruz, Mercedes; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2015-05-26

    The high incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Peru and the wide use of medicinal plants in this country led us to study the activity against HCC cells in vitro of somes species used locally against liver and digestive disorders. Ethnopharmacological survey: Medicinal plant species with a strong convergence of use for liver and digestive diseases were collected fresh in the wild or on markets, in two places of Peru: Chiclayo (Lambayeque department, Chiclayo province) and Huaraz (Ancash department, Huaraz province). Altogether 51 species were collected and 61 ethanol extracts were prepared to be tested. Biological assessment: All extracts were first assessed against the HCC cell line Hep3B according a 3-step multi-parametric phenotypic assay. It included 1) the evaluation of phenotypic changes on cells by light microscopy, 2) the measurement of the antiproliferative activity and 3) the analysis of the cytoskeleton and mitosis by immunofluorescence. Best extracts were further assessed against other HCC cell lines HepG2, PLC/PRF/5 and SNU-182 and their toxicity measured in vitro on primary human hepatocytes. Ethnopharmacological survey: Some of the species collected had a high reputation spreading over the surveyed locations for treating liver problems, i.e. Baccharis genistelloides, Bejaria aestuans, Centaurium pulchellum, Desmodium molliculum, Dipsacus fullonum, Equisetum bogotense, Gentianella spp., Krameria lapacea, Otholobium spp., Schkuhria pinnata, Taraxacum officinale. Hep3B evaluation: Fourteen extracts from 13 species (Achyrocline alata, Ambrosia arborescens, Baccharis latifolia, Hypericum laricifolium, Krameria lappacea, Niphidium crassifolium, Ophryosporus chilca, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, Otholobium pubescens, Passiflora ligularis, Perezia coerulescens, Perezia multiflora and Schkuhria pinnata) showed a significant antiproliferative activity against Hep3B cells (IC50≤ 50µg/mL). This was associated with a lack of toxicity on primary

  5. Asymmetric effects of native and exotic invasive shrubs on ecology of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Gardner, Allison M; Allan, Brian F; Frisbie, Lauren A; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-06-16

    Exotic invasive plants alter the structure and function of native ecosystems and may influence the distribution and abundance of arthropod disease vectors by modifying habitat quality. This study investigated how invasive plants alter the ecology of Culex pipiens, an important vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that three native leaf species (Rubus allegheniensis, blackberry; Sambucus canadensis, elderberry; and Amelanchier laevis, serviceberry), and three exotic invasive leaf species (Lonicera maackii, Amur honeysuckle; Elaeagnus umbellata, autumn olive; and Rosa multiflora, multiflora rose) alter Cx. pipiens oviposition site selection, emergence rates, development time, and adult body size. The relative abundance of seven bacterial phyla in infusions of the six leaf species also was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to test the hypothesis that variation in emergence, development, and oviposition site selection is correlated to differences in the diversity and abundance of bacteria associated with different leaf species, important determinants of nutrient quality and availability for mosquito larvae. Leaf detritus from invasive honeysuckle and autumn olive yielded significantly higher adult emergence rates compared to detritus from the remaining leaf species and honeysuckle alleviated the negative effects of intraspecific competition on adult emergence. Conversely, leaves of native blackberry acted as an ecological trap, generating high oviposition but low emergence rates. Variation in bacterial flora associated with different leaf species may explain this asymmetrical production of mosquitoes: emergence rates and oviposition rates were positively correlated to bacterial abundance and diversity, respectively. We conclude that the displacement of native understory plant species by certain invasive shrubs

  6. Subtribo Myrciinae O. Berg (Myrtaceae na Restinga da Marambaia, RJ, Brasil Subtribe Myrciinae O. Berg (Myrtaceae at Marambaia Restinga, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Marcelo da Costa Souza

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A família Myrtaceae é uma das famílias com maior riqueza de espécies nas Restingas. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi o levantamento da subtribo Myrciinae (Myrtaceae nas diferentes formações vegetais da Restinga da Marambaia, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro (43º32' e 44º01'W; 23º01' e 23º06'S. Foram registradas as ocorrências dos seguintes táxons: Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng., Gomidesia fenzliana O. Berg, G. martiana O. Berg, Marlierea tomentosa Cambess., Myrcia acuminatissima O. Berg, M. lundiana Kiaersk., M. multiflora (Lam. DC., M. recurvata O. Berg e M. richardiana (O. Berg Kiaersk. Dois novos sinônimos são propostos para esta última espécie: Aulomyrcia lúcida O.Berg e Myrcia grandiglandulosa Kiaersk. Apresenta-se uma chave de identificação para as espécies, bem como descrições, ilustrações, dados relativos às épocas de floração e frutificação e distribuição geográfica.The family Myrtaceae is one of the most species-rich families in restinga vegetation. The main objective of this paper was to survey the subtribe Myrciinae (Myrtaceae in the different vegetation types of Marambaia Restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (43º32' - 44º01'W; 23º01' - 23º06'S. The following taxa were found: Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng., Gomidesia fenzliana O.Berg, G. martiana O. Berg, Marlierea tomentosa Cambess., Myrcia acuminatissima O. Berg, M. lundiana Kiaersk., M. multiflora (Lam. DC., M. recurvata O. Berg, and M. richardiana (O. Berg Kiaersk. Two new synonyms are proposed for the last specie: Aulomyrcia lucida O. Berg and Myrcia grandiglandulosa Kiaersk. A species key is given, as well as descriptions, illustrations, data on flowering and fruiting periods, and geographic distributions of the species.

  7. Presencia de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA en especies representativas del bosque seco tropical del litoral ecuatoriano

    Ivette Chiquito Noboa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA son microorganismos que mantienen una relación simbiótica mutualista con las raíces de las plantas. El bosque seco tropical contiene abundantes especies de interés silvícola, sin embargo, en Ecuador se desconoce las relaciones simbióticas de los HMA con los árboles que representan el bosque seco. El propósito de este estudio fue aislar e identificar la presencia de HMA en determinadas especies vegetales de este nicho ecológico del Ecuador. Las muestras de suelo y raíces se recolectaron en la época húmeda entre los meses de marzo y abril del 2017. Los porcentajes de micorrización encontrados fueron los siguientes: Cochlospermun vitifolium (Bototillo 80.8%, Triplaris cumingiana (Fernán Sánchez 71.7%, Albizia multiflora (Compoño 70.0%, Tecoma castanifolia (Moyuyo de montaña 68.6%, Bursera graveolens (Palo Santo 68.3%, Sapindus saponaria (Jaboncillo 67.5%, Croton wagneri (Purga 65.0%, Ceiba trichistandra (Ceibo 62.2%. Todas las plantas muestreadas presentaron una densidad media de esporas por 100 gr de suelo, pero Triplaris cumingiana (Fernán Sánchez obtuvo una mayor esporulación a pesar de presentar la misma densidad media.

  8. Combined Activity of Colloid Nanosilver and Zataria Multiflora Boiss Essential Oil-Mechanism of Action and Biofilm Removal Activity

    Maryam Shirdel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial and biofilm removal potential of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO and silver nanoparticle (SNP alone and in combination on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and evaluate the mechanism of action. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and optimal inhibitory combination (OIC of ZEO and SNP were determined according to fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC method. Biofilm removal potential and leakage pattern of 260-nm absorbing material from the bacterial cell during exposure to the compounds were also investigated. Results: MICs of SNP for both bacteria were the same as 25 μg/ mL. The MICs and MBCs values of ZEO were 2500 and 1250 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective OIC value for SNP and ZEO against Salm. Typhimurium and Staph. aureus were 12.5, 625 and 0.78, 1250 μg/ mL, respectively. ZEO and SNP at MIC and OIC concentrations represented a strong removal ability (>70% on biofilm. Moreover, ZEO at MIC and OIC concentrations did a 6-log reduction of primary inoculated bacteria during 15 min contact time. The effect of ZEO on the loss of 260-nm material from the cell was faster than SNP during 15 and 60 min. Conclusion: Combination of ZEO and SNP had significant sanitizing activity on examined bacteria which may be suitable for disinfecting the surfaces.

  9. Micropropagation of Ajuga species: a mini review.

    Park, Han Yong; Kim, Doo Hwan; Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu

    2017-09-01

    The genus Ajuga L., belonging to Lamiaceae family, is widespread. The demand for Ajuga species has risen sharply because of their medicinal, ornamental, and pharmacological properties. These wide-ranging plants are being rapidly depleted due to over-collection for ornamental and medicinal purposes, as well as by habitat destruction and deforestation. Ajuga boninsimae, A. bracteosa, A. ciliate, A. genevensis, A. incisa, A. makinoi, A. multiflora, A. pyramidalis, A. shikotanensis, A. reptans, and A. vestita are categorized and protected as endangered plants. In vitro plant culture has therefore emerged for the conservation and mass clonal propagation of rare plants. This mini-review covers the current in vitro scenario in the propagation of Ajuga species. Adventitious or axillary shoots are initiated on the leaf, petiole and internodes, as well as roots, nodes, and shoot tip explants. Shoot induction is predominantly dependent on plant growth regulators added to the culture medium. Full- or half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with or without auxin is used for in vitro rooting. Rooted shoots need to be acclimatized in the greenhouse with an estimated 82-100% survival rate.

  10. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  11. Diversity of fungal assemblages in roots of Ericaceae in two Mediterranean contrasting ecosystems.

    Hamim, Ahlam; Miché, Lucie; Douaik, Ahmed; Mrabet, Rachid; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Duponnois, Robin; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The plants belonging to the Ericaceae family are morphologically diverse and widely distributed groups of plants. They are typically found in soil with naturally poor nutrient status. The objective of the current study was to identify cultivable mycobionts from roots of nine species of Ericaceae (Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea, Erica australis, Erica umbellate, Erica scoparia, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Vaccinium myrtillus, and Vaccinium corymbosum). The sequencing approach was used to amplify the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region. Results from the phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences stored in the Genbank confirmed that most of strains (78) were ascomycetes, 16 of these were closely related to Phialocephala spp, 12 were closely related to Helotiales spp and 6 belonged to various unidentified ericoid mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. Although the isolation frequencies differ sharply according to regions and ericaceous species, Helotiales was the most frequently encountered order from the diverse assemblage of associated fungi (46.15%), especially associated with C. vulgaris (19.23%) and V. myrtillus (6.41%), mostly present in the Loge (L) and Mellousa region (M). Moreover, multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) showed three distinct groups connecting fungal order to ericaceous species in different regions. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Using RNA-Seq to assemble a rose transcriptome with more than 13,000 full-length expressed genes and to develop the WagRhSNP 68k Axiom SNP array for rose (Rosa L.

    Carole F S Koning-Boucoiran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a versatile and large SNP array for rose, we set out to mine ESTs from diverse sets of rose germplasm. For this RNA-Seq libraries containing about 700 million reads were generated from tetraploid cut and garden roses using Illumina paired-end sequencing, and from diploid Rosa multiflora using 454 sequencing. Separate de novo assemblies were performed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within and between rose varieties. SNPs among tetraploid roses were selected for constructing a genotyping array that can be employed for genetic mapping and marker-trait association discovery in breeding programs based on tetraploid germplasm, both from cut roses and from garden roses. In total 68,893 SNPs were included on the WagRhSNP Axiom array.Next, an orthology-guided assembly was performed for the construction of a non-redundant rose transcriptome database. A total of 21,740 transcripts had significant hits with orthologous genes in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca L. genome. Of these 13,390 appeared to contain the full-length coding regions. This newly established transcriptome resource adds considerably to the currently available sequence resources for the Rosaceae family in general and the genus Rosa in particular.

  13. KERAGAMAN DAN ANALISIS KEKERABATAN Hoya spp. BERTIPE DAUN NON SUKULEN BERDASARKAN KARAKTER ANATOMI DAUN

    Aldi Rahman Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoya spp. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae has differences in leaf type, there are succulent and non succulent leaf types.  Anatomical structure of Hoya spp. leaf has not been widely studied, especially for the non succulent type. The aims of this research were to explore the diversity and relationship of non succulent Hoya, based on leaf anatomical characters represented by eight species i.e. H. bandaensis, H. campanulata, H. chlorantha, H. cilliata, H. coriacea, H. coronaria, H. densifolia and H. multiflora. Hoya leaf anatomical characters were observed on the paradermal and transversal section and analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 19 sotfware for cluster analysis. According to the paradermal observation, stomata were present at lower surface (hypostomatic for all species, and amphistomatic (both surface for H. densifolia.  The type of stomata is cyclocytic for all species. Clustered stomata were found in H. coriacea.  Observation on transversal section showed that all of species has the normal structure i.e cuticula, upper and lower epidermis, palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma with the variation in the layer thickness.  The cluster analysis resulted four groups at distance scale 19. Each group has specific characters. The first group has trichomes on both sides of the leaf surface. The second group has amphistomatic stomatal. The third group has thin leaves. The fourth group has the widest stomata.

  14. A simplified strategy for sensitive detection of Rose rosette virus compatible with three RT-PCR chemistries.

    Dobhal, Shefali; Olson, Jennifer D; Arif, Mohammad; Garcia Suarez, Johnny A; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M

    2016-06-01

    Rose rosette disease is a disorder associated with infection by Rose rosette virus (RRV), a pathogen of roses that causes devastating effects on most garden cultivated varieties, and the wild invasive rose especially Rosa multiflora. Reliable and sensitive detection of this disease in early phases is needed to implement proper control measures. This study assesses a single primer-set based detection method for RRV and demonstrates its application in three different chemistries: Endpoint RT-PCR, TaqMan-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and SYBR Green RT-qPCR with High Resolution Melting analyses. A primer set (RRV2F/2R) was designed from consensus sequences of the nucleocapsid protein gene p3 located in the RNA 3 region of RRV. The specificity of primer set RRV2F/2R was validated in silico against published GenBank sequences and in-vitro against infected plant samples and an exclusivity panel of near-neighbor and other viruses that commonly infect Rosa spp. The developed assay is sensitive with a detection limit of 1fg from infected plant tissue. Thirty rose samples from 8 different states of the United States were tested using the developed methods. The developed methods are sensitive and reliable, and can be used by diagnostic laboratories for routine testing and disease management decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Using RNA-Seq to assemble a rose transcriptome with more than 13,000 full-length expressed genes and to develop the WagRhSNP 68k Axiom SNP array for rose (Rosa L.).

    Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F S; Esselink, G Danny; Vukosavljev, Mirjana; van 't Westende, Wendy P C; Gitonga, Virginia W; Krens, Frans A; Voorrips, Roeland E; van de Weg, W Eric; Schulz, Dietmar; Debener, Thomas; Maliepaard, Chris; Arens, Paul; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a versatile and large SNP array for rose, we set out to mine ESTs from diverse sets of rose germplasm. For this RNA-Seq libraries containing about 700 million reads were generated from tetraploid cut and garden roses using Illumina paired-end sequencing, and from diploid Rosa multiflora using 454 sequencing. Separate de novo assemblies were performed in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and between rose varieties. SNPs among tetraploid roses were selected for constructing a genotyping array that can be employed for genetic mapping and marker-trait association discovery in breeding programs based on tetraploid germplasm, both from cut roses and from garden roses. In total 68,893 SNPs were included on the WagRhSNP Axiom array. Next, an orthology-guided assembly was performed for the construction of a non-redundant rose transcriptome database. A total of 21,740 transcripts had significant hits with orthologous genes in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome. Of these 13,390 appeared to contain the full-length coding regions. This newly established transcriptome resource adds considerably to the currently available sequence resources for the Rosaceae family in general and the genus Rosa in particular.

  16. Antimicrobial evaluation of novel poly-lactic acid based nanocomposites incorporated with bioactive compounds in-vitro and in refrigerated vacuum-packed cooked sausages.

    Rezaeigolestani, Mohammadreza; Misaghi, Ali; Khanjari, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Abdulkhani, Ali; Fayazfar, Samira

    2017-11-02

    Biodegradability and antimicrobial activity of food packaging materials are among the most attractive parameters in modern food industries. In order to develop biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) film to antibacterial nanocomposites, different concentration of Zataria multiflora Bioss. essential oil (ZME), propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) were incorporated to the polymer by solvent casting method. The resulting films were characterized by mechanical and physical tests and their antimicrobial application was evaluated in-vitro against four common foodborne pathogens and in vacuum-packed cooked sausages during refrigerated storage. Mechanical examination revealed that addition of ZME and PEE made films more flexible and incorporation of CNF improved almost all mechanical parameters tested. Moreover, according to physical analysis, incorporation of 0.5% v/v ZME to the composite primary solutions improved water vapor permeability of the resulting films. Almost all of the active films were effective against the tested bacteria except for PLA/PEE films, and maximum antibacterial effects recorded for the films containing both ZME and PEE. Based on the microbiological and sensory evaluation of the sausages, all of the PLA/1%ZME/PEE composites increased the shelf life to >40days. The results indicate that incorporation of natural antimicrobial substances such as ZME and PEE to packaging material could be an interesting approach in development of active packaging material without significant negative effect on polymer technical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effective Medicinal plants in Cataract Treatment: An Inquiry in Persian Medicine Resources (4-13th century AH

    MR Sheikhrezaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cataract is a kind of eye disease that starts with blurriness of eye lens and the vision is disrupted as the opacity and cloudiness of the lens increases. Iranian people knew cataract as "Nozoul-al-ma" (water fall and they believed that this disease was an effect of the moisture that accumulates between lens and cornea. Currently, surgery is the only way to restore vision in people with cataract. However, effective medical therapy can reduce the costs and risks of surgery. The purpose of this study is to find the effective medicinal plants in cataract treatment. METHODS: This review article based on library research methods was conducted in three steps (keyword determination, analysis of resources, scoring and arrangement by investigating Persian medicine references. In this study, seven books from 4-13th century AH were studied. The results were scored from 1 to 3 based on implicit or undecided statement, single citation, direct statement and emphatic effect statement. FINDINGS: 36 medicinal plants were found and 11 plants (Ferula assafoetida, Ferula Persica, Foeniculum Vulgare, Cyclamen europaeum, Allium cepa, Euphorbia resinifera, Isatis tinctoria, Zataria multiflora , Olea europaea, Caesalpinia bonduc, Commiphora opobalsamum obtained the highest scores. CONCLUSION: The plants that obtained the highest scores were probably the most prominent drugs for the treatment of cataract in 4-13th century AH. Frequent use of these drugs in recent centuries may indicate their appropriate effect on cataract. However, more clinical researches are required to confirm that.

  18. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal

    Botsaris Alexandros S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs.

  19. Wood anatomy of lianas of sapindaceae commercially used in São Paulo - SP

    Neusa Tamaio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an anatomical survey of Sapindaceae species growing on the private property that supplies liana fragments to the Adere (Association for the Development and Recovery for the Intellectually Disabled, one of the major producer of art wood marquetry made from the lianas from Sao Paulo. Based on species identification, we carried out both morphological and microscopic analyses of the transversal section of lianas stems, with the aim of separating the species based on wood characters. Only one of the seven analyzed species had no cambial variant (Paullinia trigonia Vell.; the rest presented cambial variant of the compound vascular cylinder type. Also, the six remaining species belong to the following genera: Serjania (Serjania caracasana (Jacq. Willd., Serjania lethalis A. St.-Hill., Serjania laruotteana Cambess., and Serjania multiflora Cambess. These genera could be distinguished by pith configuration, arrangement and quantity of peripheral vascular cylinders, as well as two statistically significant quantitative features: the diameter and frequency of vessel elements. In this work, a key for species identification and illustrations are presented, in addition to comments about the extractivism carried out by Adere.

  20. A taxonomic revision of the southern African native and naturalized species of Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae

    J. C. Manning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The native and naturalized species of Silene L. in southern Africa are reviewed, with full synonomy and the description of two new species from the West Coast of Western Cape. Eight native species and three naturalized species are recognized, including the first identification in southern Africa of the Mediterranean S. nocturna L. The identity of S. aethiopica Burm., which has remained unknown since its description, is established and is found to be the oldest name for S. clandestina Jacq. Patterns of morphological variation within each species are discussed and subspecies are recognized for geographically segregated groups of populations that are ± morphologically diagnosable. The following new names or combinations are made among the southern African taxa: S. aethiopica subsp. longiflora; S. burchellii subsp. modesta, subsp. multiflora, and subsp. pilosellifolia; S. crassifolia subsp. primuliflora; S. saldanhensis; S. rigens; and S. undulata subsp. polyantha. Each taxon is described, with information on ecology and distribution, and most species are illustrated, including SEM micrographs of the seeds.

  1. Study of Herbal Medicine in Zirrah (Touz /Dashtestan/Bushehr province

    Mohammad ali Ziraee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 23 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 131 medicinal plants belonging to 62 families were identified. Malva sylvestris, Zataria multiflora, Terminalia chebula, Cuminum cyminum, Foenicum vulgare, Olivera decumbens, Echium amoenum, Teucriuma polium, Cannabis sativa and Papaver somniferum had the highest cultural importance indices. Ducrosia anethifolia Bioss, Nigella sativa, Capparis spinosa and Urtica dioica had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynecological diseases and dermatological uses, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province are the same as Iran’s traditional medicine, but the people of this region use some of these plants for some diseases which are unique for this area. Thus, investigation about these plants should be initiated to discover novel drugs for clinical applications.

  2. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Victoriano-Romero, Elizabeth; Valencia-Díaz, Susana; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.

  3. Dispersal limitation of Tillandsia species correlates with rain and host structure in a central Mexican tropical dry forest.

    Elizabeth Victoriano-Romero

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera and low (Conzattia multiflora epiphyte loads. With the exception of one species that presents late dispersion and low abundance, all of the species disperse prior to the onset of the rainy season. However, early rains immobilize the seeds, affecting up to 24% of the fruits in species with late dispersion. We observed that Tillandsia seeds reach both Bursera and Conzattia hosts, but found that adherence to the host is 4-5 times higher in Bursera. Furthermore, seeds liberated from Bursera travel shorter distances and up to half may remain within the same crown, while the highest seed capture takes place in the upper strata of the trees. We conclude that dispersion of Tillandsia seeds is limited by early rains and by the capture of seeds within the trees where populations concentrate. This pattern of capture also helps to explain the high concentrations of epiphytes in certain hosts, while trees with few epiphytes can be simultaneously considered deficient receivers and efficient exporters of seeds.

  4. Coanatomical, developing and comparative analysis of 40 wood species belonging to two associations in colombian Andes highland forest

    Polanco Tapia Cesar; Grande Pulido Diana Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we conducted a relationship of the timber found with ecological aspects arising from an earlier study of the characterization, structure and floral composition practiced in the Carpatos Forest Reserve, bordering the site from which wood samples were obtained. This comparison shows a strong link between the microscopic anatomical characteristics of vegetal species with the type of association to which they belong. For example, characters such as the grouping form, the type of perforated and intervessel pits, height, number of cells wide, stratification and type of cells that make up the radio and type fiber, show a greater degree of change in the exclusive species of Ocotea callophylla-Weinmannietum pinnatae (OW) association, while the same characters show minor changes in the exclusive species of Clusia multiflorae - Weinmannietum balbisianae(CW) association. The evolution of the timber was identified through an index that suggests the research based on references like Carlquist (2001) and Leon (2001), and its relationship with the plant associations found in the study area is argued.

  5. Evolution of finger millet: evidence from random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Hilu, K W

    1995-04-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana ssp. coracana) is an annual tetraploid member of a predominantly African genus. The crop is believed to have been domesticated from the tetraploid E. coracana ssp. africana. Cytogenetic and isozyme data point to the allopolyploid nature of the species and molecular information has shown E. indica to be one of the genomic donors. A recent isozyme study questioned the proposed phylogenetic relationship between finger millet and its direct ancestor subspecies africana. An approach using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was employed in this study to examine genetic diversity and to evaluate hypotheses concerning the evolution of domesticated and wild annual species of Eleusine. Unlike previous molecular approaches, the RAPD study revealed genetic diversity in the crop. The pattern of genetic variation was loosely correlated to geographic distribution. The allotetraploid nature of the crop was confirmed and molecular markers that can possibly identify the other genomic donor were proposed. Genotypes of subspecies africana did not group closely with those of the crop but showed higher affinities to E. indica, reflecting the pattern of similarity revealed by the isozyme study. The multiple origin of subspecies africana could explain the discrepancy between the isozyme-RAPD evidence and previous information. The RAPD study showed the close genetic affinity of E. tristachya to the E. coracana--E. indica group and understood the distinctness of E. multiflora.

  6. Phytosociology of a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, Municipality of Pelotas, RS, Brazil

    Tiago Schuch Lemos Venzke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Floristic composition and structure of the tree component were analyzed in a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, located in the southern region of Lagoa dos Patos (31º43’39”S e 52º12’04”W. The phytosociological sampling was conducted on a sample area of 0.1 ha. All trees with DBH ≥ 4.8 cm were included. The species richness found was equivalent to 23 species distributed in 20 genera and 15 families. Two endangered species were sampled. The total tree density estimated for one hectare was equivalent to 3,480 trees. The most important species in the forest structure were Ocotea sp., Myrcia multiflora, Psidium cattleyanum, Ocotea pulchella, Myrsine lorentziana, Citharexyllum myrianthum, Ilex dumosa, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Guapira opposita and Sebastiania brasiliensis. The species diversity estimated by the Shannon index was 2,174 nats.ind.-1 and evenness (J was 0.684. The forest structure, number of taxa and diversity are similar to other surveys carried out in swamp forests of southern and southeastern Brazil. These parameters must be considered in the environmental licensing and ecological restoration projects of this forest type.

  7. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  8. The flower anatomy of five species of Myrteae and its contribution to the taxonomy of Myrtaceae

    Luana Martos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considerable effort has been spent towards understanding the phylogeny of Myrteae, and based on the phylogenetic data presently available the traditional subdivision of Myrteae into three subtribes is not supported. The present paper aims to assess the usefulness of floral characters in distinguishing five species that represent five of the six South American clades of Myrteae (Myrtaceae. Floral buds and flowers of Campomanesia adamantium, Eugenia pitanga, Myrceugenia alpigena, Myrcia multiflora and Myrciaria cuspidata were collected from individual plants growing in the Cerrado (Brazilian/Central South American savanna. Among these species, the perianth of E. pitanga is the most distinct due to its vasculurization and pilosity. The hypanthium is thickest in C. adamantium and M. alpigena, while M. delicatula possesses tangentially elongated cells. Anthers do not exhibit much variation among the studied species, while M. alpigena is the only species with trichomes and secretory cavities distributed throughout the mesophyll of the outer wall of the ovary. The ovaries of all of the studied species exhibit vascularization in the form of a single ring of larger-sized bundles. Comparative analysis of these floral structures demonstrates that they are useful in separating these species, and thus the subtribes, of Myrteae.

  9. Free Radical Scavenging Fingerprints of Selected Aromatic and Medicinal Tunisian Plants Assessed by Means of TLC-DPPH(•) Test and Image Processing.

    El Euch, Salma Kammoun; Cieśla, Łukasz; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous-methanol extracts prepared from 10 Tunisian plant species were analyzed for the presence of potent direct antioxidants. The analyzed species included: Anacyclus clavatus Desf., Erica multiflora L., Cistus salvifolius L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Marrubium vulgare L., Lavandula stoechas L., Artemisia campestris L., Origanum majorana L., Salvia officinalis L., and Pistacia lentiscus L. All the extracts were chromatographed on the RP18 W plates with methanol-water-acetic acid (48 + 47 + 5, v/v/v) mobile phase. Upon completion of the chromatographic development and the drying step, the plates were stained with a chloroform solution of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)). An image processing protocol, with use of Sorbfil TLC Videodensitometer, was applied to quantitatively measure the activity of polyphenols and to screen complex samples for the presence of free radical scavengers. The activity of the individual compounds was compared with that of rutin, used as a standard. The TLC-DPPH(•) test showed that C. salvifolius had the most potent antioxidant activity, as it possessed the highest activity coefficient (calculated as the sum of the areas under the peaks of all active compounds/area under peak of rutin). The proposed procedure may be used to differentiate potent chain-breaking antioxidants and compounds propagating radical chain reactions.

  10. Effect of removal of hesperis matronalis (Dame's rocket) on species cover of forest understory vegetation in NW indiana

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Grundel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Exotic invasive plant species differ in their effects on indigenous vegetation as evidenced by research evaluating community response to their removal. We used a removal approach to quantify the response of a mesic woodland to the removal versus retention of an invasive plant, Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket) from paired treatment plots over 3 y. Cover of H. matronalis did not differ between control and treatment plots prior to removal, declined in the removal plots and remained significantly lower in cover compared to the control plots. Removal did not significantly affect species richness and species diversity (evenness, Shannon and Simpson) at the plot scale, but did result in increased species richness overall in the removal plots in the last sampling year when compared to control plots. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis indicated a significant compositional change in the spring plant composition of plots over the 3 y, reflecting an increase in exotic woody species. Exotic woody plants, especially Rosa multiflora and Euonymus alatus, increased in cover in response to H. matronalis removal. In the 3 y, neither native nor exotic forbs, nor native woody plants responded to the removal of H. matronalis in a statistically significant manner. The increasing cover of woody invasive plants in response to the removal of H. matronalis has important management implications for restoration of degraded communities.

  11. The ecological and biological characteristics and sowing propagation of Ochna integerrima(Lour.) Merr%金莲木(Ochna integerrima(Lour.)Merr.)的生态生物学特征及其播种繁殖技术

    袁莲莲; 王少平; 任海; 刘楠; 范桑桑; 张佩霞

    2013-01-01

    金莲木(Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr.)是金莲木科落叶灌木或小乔木,是潜在的优良园林绿化树种。文章从其形态解剖特征、光合生理生态特征及播种繁殖技术方面进行了系统的研究。结果表明:金莲木为中性偏阳性树种,光合速率日进程呈单峰曲线,无午休现象;其光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP)分别在800μmol·m-2·s-1及52.2μmol·m-2·s -1左右。在高于光饱和点的光强下,其叶片的光合速率并未出现明显下降趋势,同时还维持了较高的蒸腾速率。金莲木叶绿素荧光参数显示其具有较高的能量利用效率,叶绿素a/b比值(5.677꞉1)略高于理论值(3꞉1),表明它能有效吸收光能并传到光反应中心。播种前金莲木种子宜进行浸泡处理,浸泡24 h处理后其发芽率高且发芽较早,播种在泥炭土中的种子较沙土中的种子发芽要早且萌发周期短,但在沙土中播种的种子最终的发芽率要相对较高。因此,金莲木适合生长在水热充沛、土壤相对肥沃的热带亚热带地区,栽培时要尽量选择土层肥沃的壤土或砂质壤土。%Ochna integerrima (Lour.) Merr. is a deciduous shrub or small tree species of Ochnaceae family with potentials to be used for landscape greening. We examined the species’ ecological, biological and physiological characteristics and sowing propagation, and found that it was a shade intolerant mesophyte species. Its diurnal net photosynthetic rate in leaves showed a single peaked curve without midday depression. Its light saturation point was 800 μmol·m-2·s-1 and light compensation point was 52.2 μmol·m-2·s-1. When the light intensity was higher than light saturation point, the photosynthetic rate did not decline significantly and kept high transpiration rate. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed that this species had a relatively high level of energy use efficiency. Its chlorophyll a/b ratio(5

  12. Estrutura fitossociológia de um fragmento natural de floresta inundável em área de orizicultura irrigada, município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins Phytosociologial structure of a natural fragment of floodplain forest in area of irrigated rice cultivation, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, Brazil

    Elizabeth Rodrigues Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos naturais de florestas inundáveis conhecidos como ipucas localizam-se na planície do Araguaia, sob a forma de depressões naturais, que no Estado do Tocantins estão situados em áreas de planícies de inundação, que favorece seu alagamento e, conseqüentemente, o maior tempo de retenção da água em épocas de elevada precipitação. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido na fazenda Lago Verde, Município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, situado entre as coordenadas UTM: 643586 e 644060 leste e 8792795 e 8799167 norte. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a estrutura de um fragmento de floresta inundável de aproximadamente um hectare, inserido em área de orizicultura irrigada. Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com perímetro a 1,30 m do solo (PAP > 15 cm. Ao todo, foram encontrados 807 indivíduos, 35 famílias e 70 espécies. As espécies com maior VC, em ordem decrescente, foram Hirtella racemosa Lam., Qualea multiflora Mart. e Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram Fabaceae (9, Vochysiaceae (6, Annonaceae e Malvaceae (4. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,44. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe.The natural fragments of floodplain forests known as "ipucas" are located in the Araguaia plain, in form of natural depressions, which are located in areas of floodplains in the State of Tocantins, favoring its flooding and, consequently, the largest period of water retention during periods of high precipitation. The present study was developed at Lagoa Verde farm, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins between the coordinates UTM: 643586 and 644060 east and 8792795 and 8799167 north. The objective of the work was to characterize the structure of a floodplain forest fragment of approximately one-hectare area

  13. Fitossociologia do componente arbóreo na floresta turfosa do Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Phytosociology of the tree component in a peat forest of the National Park Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Lúcia Patrícia Pereira Dorneles

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A composição florística e a estrutura do componente arbóreo foram analisadas na floresta de restinga turfosa do Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe (31º04' - 31º29'S, 50º461 - 51º09'W, localizado na região central da Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O componente arbóreo foi amostrado pelo método de quadrantes centrados, incluindo indivíduos com DAP mínimo de 5cm. Foram amostrados 60 pontos, distribuídos ao longo de quatro transectos paralelos, aproximadamente com a mesma orientação NE-SW do sistema lagunar. A composição florística resultou em 14 famílias, 18 gêneros e 21 espécies. A densidade arbórea total estimada para um hectare foi de 3.479 indivíduos. A família com maior riqueza específica foi Myrtaceae. As espécies mais importantes foram Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman, Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC., Ilex pseudobuxus Reissek, Citharexylum myrianthum Cham. e Dendropanax cuneatum Decne. & Planch. A diversidade específica estimada pelo índice de Shannon (H' foi de 2,601 nats.ind.-1 e a equabilidade (J de 0,854, similar aos resultados obtidos em outros estudos realizados em florestas brejosas ou turfosas do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil.Floristic composition and structure of the tree component were analyzed in a coastal peat forest of the National Park Lagoa do Peixe (31º04' - 31º29'S, 50º46' - 51º09'W, located in the central region of the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The tree component was sampled according to the point-centered quarter method, including individuals with a minimum DBH of 5cm. Sixty sample points were distributed along four parallel transects, approximately with the same NE-SW orientation as the lagoon system. Floristic composition resulted in 14 families, 18 genera and 21 species. The total tree density estimated for one hectare was 3,479 individuals. The family with highest species richness was Myrtaceae. The most important species were Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham

  14. Aspectos florísticos e fitossociológicos de um trecho de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia na Fazenda Trairão, Bacia do rio das Pacas, Querência-MT Floristic and phytosociological aspects of a Seasonal Evergreen Forest area in the Trairão Farm, rio das Pacas Basin, Querência-MT

    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A borda sul da região amazônica apresenta um tipo peculiar de floresta, denominada de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia, que atualmente vem sofrendo severos impactos ambientais devido à expansão da fronteira agrícola no Norte do Estado de Mato Grosso. Diante da falta de estudos neste tipo florestal, objetivou-se identificar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um trecho florestal na Fazenda Trairão em Querência-MT. A amostragem da vegetação consistiu na distribuição de 200 pontos-quadrantes, sendo considerados os quatro indivíduos mais próximos de cada ponto que tivessem DAP (diâmetro à altura do peito igual ou superior a 10 cm. A densidade total foi de 728 ind./ha, distribuídos em 49 espécies, 39 gêneros e 24 famílias. A família que apresentou maior riqueza foi Fabaceae (cinco espécies, seguida por Burseraceae e Euphorbiaceae, cada uma com quatro espécies, consideradas também as mais ricas em trechos de Floresta Amazônica. As espécies de maior Valor de Importância (VI foram Ocotea leucoxylon (Sw. Laness., Xylopia amazonica R.E. Fr., Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC., Chaetocarpus echinocarpus (Baill. Ducke e Protium pilosissimum Engl., mas não tiveram a mesma representatividade em outros trechos de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia, evidenciando diferenças estruturais desta unidade fitogeográfica. A comunidade avaliada possui porte fino, pois a maioria dos indivíduos concentra-se nas classes de diâmetro entre 10 e 14,9 cm e altura entre 10,6 e 16,5 m. O índice de Shannon (3,17 é considerado baixo por se tratar de floresta amazônica, na qual a diversidade é superior a 4,0.The southern border of the Amazon region presents a peculiar type of forest called Seasonal Evergreen Forest, which has currently undergone several environmental impacts due to the agriculture frontier expansion from the Northern state of Mato Grosso. Due to the lack of studies on this type of forest

  15. Deep sequencing reveals a novel closterovirus associated with wild rose leaf rosette disease.

    He, Yan; Yang, Zuokun; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Ning, Guogui; Xu, Wenxing

    2015-06-01

    A bizarre virus-like symptom of a leaf rosette formed by dense small leaves on branches of wild roses (Rosa multiflora Thunb.), designated as 'wild rose leaf rosette disease' (WRLRD), was observed in China. To investigate the presumed causal virus, a wild rose sample affected by WRLRD was subjected to deep sequencing of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for a complete survey of the infecting viruses and viroids. The assembly of siRNAs led to the reconstruction of the complete genomes of three known viruses, namely Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus (BCRV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), and of a novel virus provisionally named 'rose leaf rosette-associated virus' (RLRaV). Phylogenetic analysis clearly placed RLRaV alongside members of the genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae. Genome organization of RLRaV RNA (17,653 nucleotides) showed 13 open reading frames (ORFs), except ORF1 and the quintuple gene block, most of which showed no significant similarities with known viral proteins, but, instead, had detectable identities to fungal or bacterial proteins. Additional novel molecular features indicated that RLRaV seems to be the most complex virus among the known genus members. To our knowledge, this is the first report of WRLRD and its associated closterovirus, as well as two ilarviruses and one capilovirus, infecting wild roses. Our findings present novel information about the closterovirus and the aetiology of this rose disease which should facilitate its control. More importantly, the novel features of RLRaV help to clarify the molecular and evolutionary features of the closterovirus. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Herbivory of tropical rain forest tree seedlings correlates with future mortality.

    Eichhorn, Markus P; Nilus, Reuben; Compton, Stephen G; Hartley, Sue E; Burslem, David F R P

    2010-04-01

    Tree seedlings in tropical rain forests are subject to both damage from natural enemies and intense interspecific competition. This leads to a trade-off in investment between defense and growth, and it is likely that tree species specialized to particular habitats tailor this balance to correspond with local resource availability. It has also been suggested that differential herbivore impacts among tree species may drive habitat segregation, favoring species adapted to particular resource conditions. In order to test these predictions, a reciprocal transplant experiment in Sabah, Malaysia, was established with seedlings of five species of Dipterocarpaceae. These were specialized to either alluvial (Hopea nervosa, Parashorea tomentella) or sandstone soils (Shorea multiflora, H. beccariana), or were locally absent (S. fallax). A total of 3000 seedlings were planted in paired gap and understory plots in five sites on alluvial and sandstone soils. Half of all seedlings were fertilized. Seedling growth and mortality were recorded in regular samples over 3.5 years, and rates of insect herbivore damage were estimated from censuses of foliar tissue loss on marked mature leaves and available young leaves. Greater herbivory rates on mature leaves had no measurable effects on seedling growth but were associated with a significantly increased likelihood of mortality during the following year. In contrast, new-leaf herbivory rates correlated with neither growth nor mortality. There were no indications of differential impacts of herbivory among the five species, nor between experimental treatments. Herbivory was not shown to influence segregation of species between soil types, although it may contribute toward differential survival among light habitats. Natural rates of damage were substantially lower than have been shown to influence tree seedling growth and mortality in previous manipulative studies.

  17. Natural radioactivity levels of some medical plants used in Ghana

    Tettey-Larbi, L.

    2012-07-01

    The presence of natural radioactivity in plants constitutes pathway of exposure to human via the food chain. The natural radioactivity concentrations in some selected medicinal plants used in Ghana from the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine were investigated to determine the activity concentration and the annual committed effective dose due to primodial radionuclide series of 238 U, 232 Th, and the non-serial 40 K. The plants were sampled based on their therapeutic purposes for which they are commonly used. The activity concentration was determined using gamma spectrometry. The results of the analysis indicated an average activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in the medicinal plants to be 31.78±2.80 Bq kg -1 , 56.16±2.32 Bq kg -1 and 839.80±11.86 Bq kg -1 respectively. Khaya ivorensis recorded the highest concerntration of 238 U and 232 Th while Lippia multiflora recorded the highest concentration of 40 K. The total annual committed effective doses due to 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in medicinal plant samples ranged from 0.026±0.001 to 0.042±0.002 mSv a -1 with an average value of 0.035±001 mSv a -1 . The average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of the natural radionuclides in the medicinal plant samples were far below the world average annual effective dose of 0.3 mSv a -1 for ingestion of natural radionuclide provided in UNSCEAR 2000 report. Therefore, the radiological hazard associated with intake of the natural radionuclides in the medicinal plants is insignificant. (author)

  18. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  19. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  20. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador

    Hildebrandt, Patrick; Cueva, Jorge; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium. PMID:29267357

  2. Phenological observations on shrubs to predict weed emergence in turf

    Masin, Roberta; Zuin, Maria Clara; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological events. If we can find easily recognizable events in common plants that precede or coincide with weed emergences, these plants could be used as indicators. Weed seedlings are usually difficult to detect in turf, so the use of phenological indicators may provide an alternative approach to predict the time when a weed appears and consequently guide management decisions. A study was undertaken to determine whether the phenological phases of some plants could serve as reliable indicators of time of weed emergence in turf. The phenology of six shrubs (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Sambucus nigra L., Syringa vulgaris L., Rosa multiflora Thunb., Ziziphus jujuba Miller) and a perennial herbaceous plant [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] was observed and the emergence dynamics of four annual weed species [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner, Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] were studied from 1999 to 2004 in northern Italy. A correlation between certain events and weed emergence was verified. S. vulgaris and F. viridissima appear to be the best indicators: there is a quite close correspondence between the appearance of D. sanguinalis and lilac flowering and between the beginning of emergence of E. indica and the end of lilac flowering; emergences of S. glauca and S. viridis were predicted well in relation to the end of forsythia flowering. Base temperatures and starting dates required to calculate the heat unit sums to reach and complete the flowering phase of the indicators were calculated using two different methods and the resultant cumulative growing degree days were compared.

  3. Mapping of rDNA on the chromosomes of Eleusine species by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Bisht, M S; Mukai, Y

    2000-12-01

    Mapping of rDNA sites on the chromosomes of four diploid and two tetraploid species of Eleusine has provided valuable information on genome relationship between the species. Presence of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA on the largest pair of the chromosomes, location of 5S rDNA at four sites on two pairs of chromosomes and presence of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S rDNA at same location on one pair of chromosomes have clearly differentiated E. multiflora from rest of the species of Eleusine. The two tetraploid species, E. coracana and E. africana have the same number of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S rDNA sites and located at similar position on the chromosomes. Diploid species, E. indica, E. floccifolia and E. tristachya have the same 18S-5.8S-26S sites and location on the chromosomes which also resembled with the two pairs of 18S-5.8S-26S rDNA locations in tetraploid species, E. coracana and E. africana. The 5S rDNA sites on chromosomes of E. indica and E. floccifolia were also comparable to the 5S rDNA sites of E. africana and E. coracana. The similarity of the rDNA sites and their location on chromosomes in the three diploid and two polyploid species also supports the view that genome donors to tetraploid species may be from these diploid species.

  4. The Investigation of Decontamination Effects of Ozone Gas on Microbial Load and Essential Oil of Several Medicinal Plants

    Razieh VALI ASILL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, Ozone as a disinfectant method, without putting on the harmful effects on human and plant products, it is alternative common methods for disinfection of plant material. The research as a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications and the effects of Ozone gas on decreasing the microbial load of some important medicinal plants include: Peppermint (Mentha piperita, Summer savory (Satureja hortensis, Indian valerian(Valeriana wallichii, Meliss (Melissa officinalis and Iranian thyme (Zataria multiflora were investigated. Medicinal plants leaves were treated with Ozone gas concentration 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 ml/L at times of 10 and 30 then total count, coliform and mold and yeast of the samples were studied. The result showed that Ozone gas decreases microbial load of medicinal plants samples. But Ozone gas and Ozone gas in medicinal plants interaction effect had no effect on essential oil content. The lowest and the highest of microbial load were detected in samples treated with concentration of 0.9 ml/L of Ozone gas and control respectively. The highest and the lowest of microbial load were observed in Iranian thyme and Indian valerian respectively. Also result showed that Ozone gas treatment for 30 min had the greatest of effect in reducing the microbial load and 0.9 ml/L Ozone gas concentration had the lowest of microbial load. Results of this survey reflect that the use of Ozone as a method of disinfection for medicinal plants is a decontamination.

  5. Floristic composition and soil fertility in gold mining of Lavrinha, Pontes and Lacerda, MT, Brazil

    Tatiani Botini Pires

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mining activities cause intense environmental degradation, especially to the soil and vegetation. This study evaluated attributes of floristic composition and soil fertility in areas of open gold mining areas. One hundred plots of 10 × 10 m were distributed in the area effectively mined and in its surroundings. Stem circunference measures (AGC of all identified woody individuals with greater than or equal to 9 cm were taken at 0.3 m height above the ground. In all plots soil samples at 0-20 cm depth were collected for analysis of fertility attributes that are routinely evaluated. In total we observed the occurrence of 92 species and 43 families. The most abundant families were Myrtaceae, Fabaceae and Dilleniaceae; and families that had the greatest numbers of species were Fabaceae (10, Malpighiaceae (7 and Vochysiaceae (5. In the area effectively mined the species with higher importance value index (IVI were Curatella americana (89.1 Cecropia hololeuca (40.9, Roupala montana (12.5 and Pouteria ramiflora (10.2 while in surrounding of the mined area the species with the highest IVI were Myrcia multiflora (25.6, Caryocar brasiliense (15.7, Magonia pubescens (14.8 and Vatareia macrocarpa (14.4. In both areas, the soil had low pH, low availability of P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ and high Al3+ saturation. In spite of the low soil fertility of the studied area, it was able to maintain an overall density of vegetation with AGC > 9 cm of 430 individuals per hectare in the effectively mined area and of 2,220 individuals per hectare in their surroundings.

  6. Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador.

    Manchego, Carlos E; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Cueva, Jorge; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium.

  7. A regional assessment of white-tailed deer effects on plant invasion

    Averill, Kristine M. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Plant Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Mortensen, David A. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Plant Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Smithwick, Erica A. H. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Geography, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Kalisz, Susan [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; McShea, William J. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA, USA; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA, USA; Parker, John D. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, USA; Royo, Alejandro A. [United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Irvine, PA, USA; Abrams, Marc D. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Apsley, David K. [Department of Extension, The Ohio State University, Jackson, OH, USA; Blossey, Bernd [Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Boucher, Douglas H. [Department of Biology, Hood College, Frederick, MD, USA; Caraher, Kai L. [Department of Biology, Hood College, Frederick, MD, USA; DiTommaso, Antonio [Soil and Crop Sciences Section, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; Johnson, Sarah E. [Ecology Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; Masson, Robert [National Park Service, Morristown National Historical Park, Morristown, NJ, USA; Nuzzo, Victoria A. [Natural Area Consultants, Richford, NY, USA

    2017-12-07

    Herbivores can profoundly influence plant species assembly, including plant invasion, and resulting community composition. Population increases of native herbivores, e.g., white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), combined with burgeoning plant invasions raise concerns for native plant diversity and forest regeneration. While individual researchers typically test for the impact of deer on plant invasion at a few sites, the overarching influence of deer on plant invasion across regional scales is unclear. We tested the effects of deer on the abundance and diversity of introduced and native herbaceous and woody plants across 23 white-tailed deer research sites distributed across the east central and northeastern United States and representing a wide range of deer densities and invasive plant abundance and identity. Deer access/exclusion or deer population density did not affect introduced plant richness or community-level abundance. Native and total plant species richness, abundance (cover and stem density), and Shannon diversity were lower in deer-access vs. deer-exclusion plots. Among deer access plots, native species richness, native and total cover, and Shannon diversity (cover) declined as deer density increased. Deer access increased the proportion of introduced species cover (but not of species richness or stem density). As deer density increased, the proportion of introduced species richness, cover, and stem density all increased. Because absolute abundance of introduced plants was unaffected by deer, the increase in proportion of introduced plant abundance is likely an indirect effect of deer reducing native cover. Indicator species analysis revealed that deer access favored three introduced plant species, including Alliaria petiolata and Microstegium vimineum, as well as four native plant species. In contrast, deer exclusion favored three introduced plant species, including Lonicera japonica and Rosa multiflora, and fifteen native plant species. Overall

  8. The Effect of Isabgol (Plantago psyllium Mucilage and Shiraz Thyme Essential Oils on Microbial Load and Improving Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Carrot

    M. Azizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fresh-cut produce graduated to retail during the1990s, especially for lettuce, cabbage, carrots and other similar vegetables. The high microbial loads of these products after harvest can be substantially reduced through a cleaning in flowing chlorinated water and adistribution under ensured controlledrefrigeration. Therefore, a good number of convenient ready-to-use greens were launched to the market in the past decade. Nowadays, theuse of this technology to achieve similar results in fruit products is one of the most challengingtargets for processors. However, there is anumber of issues that still need to beovercomebeforefresh-cut fruit commodities can be sparked off to anoutstanding position in the segment of lightly-treatedrefrigerated foods. The importance of freshly cut products increases day by day. Tissue and cell rupture leads to a decrease in the shelf life of these products. On the other hand, these products due to increased enzyme activity, respiration rate and microbiological considerations that affect the health of these productsrequires highly attention.To increase the shelf life of the products and prevent undesirable changes in cut slices of fruit or vegetables a coating on the surface of these products has been suggested. Mucilages and essential oils of herbs are natural compounds that can be used to create such covers. The advantages of these coatings are their bactericidal effect, maintenanceof pleasant taste and other physical and chemical characteristics of the product and even decrease of environmental pollution. In this research, the effect of natural compounds such as Zataria multiflora essential oil (EO and Plantagopsyllium mucilage on storage life and microbial load of fresh cut carrot was studied. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted in two separate experiments on fresh-cut carrot: In the first experiment, the effect of different concentrations of Plantago psyllium mucilage (0,100, 200, and

  9. DISPONIBILIDAD DE RAÍCES ADVENTICIAS DE TRES ESPECIES SILVESTRES COSECHADAS PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE ARTESANÍAS EN SANTA ELENA, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA

    ANA MARÍA BENAVIDES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En los Andes colombianos, un gran número de artesanías se fabrican a partir de raíces adventicias de plantas nativas que crecen de forma silvestre. Sin embargo, la deforestación y las prácticas no sustentables han diezmado la disponibilidad de plantas silvestres productoras de fibra. En este estudio evaluamos la disponibilidad de fibras de tres especies en Santa Elena (Antioquia, Colombia: Asplundia sarmentosa, Philodendron aff. sagittifolium y Clusia multiflora. Después de una búsqueda exhaustiva en la zona de estudio ubicamos menos de 30 individuos adultos de cada especie. Para cada planta se midieron las variables asociadas al tamaño de la planta y se registró el número y la longitud de raíces maduras e inmaduras. Se pesaron fragmentos de raíces para estimar la biomasa. El crecimiento de raíces de cada planta fue monitoreado mensualmente durante siete meses. La disponibilidad actual de fibra (raíces maduras es de ca. 3 352 m (Asplundia 1 481 m, Clusia de 952 m, Philodendron 918 m, con esta cantidad de material se pueden elaborar entre 419 a 838 canastos. De acuerdo a la tasa de crecimiento mensual, una nueva raíz podría alcanzar un tamaño para ser cosechado entre el mes 38 y 71. Plantas más grandes tienen mayor cantidad de raíces maduras, sin embargo, la tasa de crecimiento no está asociada al tamaño de la planta. Nuestros resultados proveen evidencia de que las plantas en Santa Elena presentan una relación (tamaño de la planta, número de raíces maduras que es similar a plantas que se encuentran en zonas no intervenidas, no obstante, la cosecha de fibras en Santa Elena no es una actividad sostenible debido al bajo número de individuos susceptibles de ser cosechados, la lenta tasa de crecimiento de raíces y la alta demanda de fibras. Es necesario implementar estrategias como el enriquecimiento del bosque con estas tres especies para garantizar una actividad sustentable para recolectores y artesanos en Santa Elena y

  10. Effect of anti-inflamentation extracts from Korean traditional medicinal herb

    Zhang Xiaowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Mix Plant Extracts according to different extraction solvents were assessed for its cell viability and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. The single plant extract was extracted with 70% ethanol(EtOH and the mix plants(C.kousa, R.multiflora, T.nucifera, M.basjoo and S.glabra were extracted with EtOH 30%, 70%; Butylene Glycol(BG 30%, 70%; Propylene Glycol(PG 30%, 70%; Distilled Water(D.W. Cell viability was measured using the Micro culture tetrazolium (MTT assay method and Human fibroblast cells, CCD 1102 KERTr were used. The plant extracts with the maximum concentration that none toxic to the cells were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using lipoxygenase inhibition assay method. A dose response curve was plotted to determine the IC50 values. Results showed that, at the 5 kinds of single plant extracts by 70% EtOH extraction solvent, it showed the IC50 was 280ug/ml of S1, 370ug/ml of S2, 380ug/ml of S3, 170ug/ml of S4 and 190ug/ml of S5. At the mix plant extracts by 7 kinds of extraction solvents (70%, 30% EtOH; 70%, 30% BG; 70%, 30% PG; D.W, it showed the IC50 was 140ug/ml of M E70, 140ug/ml of M E30, 120ug/ml of M BG70, 110ug/ml of M BG30, 120ug/ml of M PG70, 136ug/ml of M PG30 and 120ug/ml of M D.W. From the results, it is concluded that when these five plants mixed before extraction, it will extract more active ingredients with anti-inflammatory effects. Further study we will analyzing plants effective single compound using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profiling and progressing the experiments in vivo.

  11. Chloroplast genes as genetic markers for inferring patterns of change, maternal ancestry and phylogenetic relationships among Eleusine species.

    Agrawal, Renuka; Agrawal, Nitin; Tandon, Rajesh; Raina, Soom Nath

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of phylogenetic relationships is an important component of any successful crop improvement programme, as wild relatives of the crop species often carry agronomically beneficial traits. Since its domestication in East Africa, Eleusine coracana (2n = 4x = 36), a species belonging to the genus Eleusine (x = 8, 9, 10), has held a prominent place in the semi-arid regions of India, Nepal and Africa. The patterns of variation between the cultivated and wild species reported so far and the interpretations based upon them have been considered primarily in terms of nuclear events. We analysed, for the first time, the phylogenetic relationship between finger millet (E. coracana) and its wild relatives by species-specific chloroplast deoxyribonucleic acid (cpDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers/sequences. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the seven amplified chloroplast genes/intergenic spacers (trnK, psbD, psaA, trnH-trnK, trnL-trnF, 16S and trnS-psbC), nucleotide sequencing of the chloroplast trnK gene and chloroplast microsatellite polymorphism were analysed in all nine known species of Eleusine. The RFLP of all seven amplified chloroplast genes/intergenic spacers and trnK gene sequences in the diploid (2n = 16, 18, 20) and allotetraploid (2n = 36, 38) species resulted in well-resolved phylogenetic trees with high bootstrap values. Eleusine coracana, E. africana, E. tristachya, E. indica and E. kigeziensis did not show even a single change in restriction site. Eleusine intermedia and E. floccifolia were also shown to have identical cpDNA fragment patterns. The cpDNA diversity in Eleusine multiflora was found to be more extensive than that of the other eight species. The trnK gene sequence data complemented the results obtained by PCR-RFLP. The maternal lineage of all three allotetraploid species (AABB, AADD) was the same, with E. indica being the

  12. A regional assessment of white-tailed deer effects on plant invasion

    Mortensen, David A; Smithwick, Erica A H; Kalisz, Susan; McShea, William J; Bourg, Norman A; Parker, John D; Royo, Alejandro A; Abrams, Marc D; Apsley, David K; Blossey, Bernd; Boucher, Douglas H; Caraher, Kai L; DiTommaso, Antonio; Johnson, Sarah E; Masson, Robert; Nuzzo, Victoria A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Herbivores can profoundly influence plant species assembly, including plant invasion, and resulting community composition. Population increases of native herbivores, e.g. white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), combined with burgeoning plant invasions raise concerns for native plant diversity and forest regeneration. While individual researchers typically test for the impact of deer on plant invasion at a few sites, the overarching influence of deer on plant invasion across regional scales is unclear. We tested the effects of deer on the abundance and diversity of introduced and native herbaceous and woody plants across 23 white-tailed deer research sites distributed across the east-central and north-eastern USA and representing a wide range of deer densities and invasive plant abundance and identity. Deer access/exclusion or deer population density did not affect introduced plant richness or community-level abundance. Native and total plant species richness, abundance (cover and stem density) and Shannon diversity were lower in deer-access vs. deer-exclusion plots. Among deer-access plots, native species richness, native and total cover, and Shannon diversity (cover) declined as deer density increased. Deer access increased the proportion of introduced species cover (but not of species richness or stem density). As deer density increased, the proportion of introduced species richness, cover and stem density all increased. Because absolute abundance of introduced plants was unaffected by deer, the increase in proportion of introduced plant abundance is likely an indirect effect of deer reducing native cover. Indicator species analysis revealed that deer access favoured three introduced plant species, including Alliaria petiolata and Microstegium vimineum, as well as four native plant species. In contrast, deer exclusion favoured three introduced plant species, including Lonicera japonica and Rosa multiflora, and 15 native plant species. Overall, native

  13. Molecular characterization of a novel cryptic virus infecting pigeonpea plants.

    Surender Kumar

    Full Text Available A new member of the genus Deltapartitivirus was identified containing three dsRNAs with an estimated size of 1.71, 1.49 and 1.43 kb. The dsRNAs were extracted from symptomless pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh] plants cv. Erra Kandulu. This new virus with 4.64 kb genome was tentatively named Arhar cryptic virus-1 (ArCV-1. The genomic RNAs were amplified and characterized by sequence independent single primer amplification. The dsRNAs shared a highly conserved 16 nt 5' non-coding region (5'-GATAATGATCCAAGGA-3'. The largest dsRNA (dsRNA-1 was identified as the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (replicase, predicted to encode a putative 55.34 kDa protein (P1. The two other smaller dsRNAs (dsRNA-2 and dsRNA-3 predicted to encode for putative capsid proteins of 38.50kDa (P2 and 38.51kDa (P3, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ArCV-1 formed a clade together with Fragaria chiloensis cryptic virus, Rosa multiflora cryptic virus and Rose cryptic virus-1, indicating that ArCV-1 could be a new member of the genus Deltapartitivirus. ArCV-1 3Dpol structure revealed several interesting features. The 3Dpol in its full-length shares structural similarities with members of the family Caliciviridaeand family Picornaviridae. In addition, fourth dsRNA molecule (dsRNA-2A, not related to ArCV-1 genome, was found in the same plant tissue. The dsRNA-2A (1.6 kb encodes a protein (P4, with a predicted size of 44.5 kDa. P4 shares similarity with coat protein genes of several cryptic viruses, in particular the bipartite cryptic viruses including Raphanus sativus cryptic virus-3. This is the first report of occurrence of a cryptic virus in pigeonpea plants.

  14. Análisis del sitio de un bosque altoandino con énfasis en el mantillo. Microcuenca de la quebrada "La Vieja", Bogotá, Colombia

    Johanna Paola Vargas Núñez

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENLa materia orgánica es un compartimento importante dentro de los ecosistemas y su estudiopuede proporcionar criterios de manejo para ecosistemas con conflicto de uso, como son los Bos-ques Altoandinos en Colombia. Para realizar este estudio, se escogió un bosque altoandino en loscerros orientales de la ciudad de Bogotá. Para el sitio de estudio se caracterizaron las reservasorgánicas y minerales de los compartimentos foliar, mantillo y suelo; adicionalmente se establecióla descomposición mediante el método de canastas de descomposición de tres mantillos de dis-tintas procedencias (bosque altoandino de Bojacá, bosque de robles de Pacho y páramo de CruzVerde, además del mantillo del sitio, y de cuatro especies seleccionadas (Clusia multiflora, Piperbogotense, Juglans neotropicay Tillandsia fendleri. Las especies con mayor descomposición fueronJuglans neotropicay Piper bogotense, las cuales presentaron también los mayores contenidos denutrientes y la mayor liberación de nutrientes en la descomposición; Clusia multifloray Tillandsiafendleripresentaron menor descomposición y menores contenidos de nutrientes. C. multiflorapre-sentó una liberación media de nutrientes y T. fendleriuna liberación baja. Basándose en estascaracterísticas, se sugiere utilizar a J. neotropicay P. bogotense para la movilización de nutrientesdentro del sitio y a C. multiflorapara promover la reserva de nutrientes dentro del mantillo delbosque. El aporte desde el compartimento foliar al compartimento mantillo representado en lacaída de hojarasca fue de 13.4 Ton · Ha-1 · Año-1, siendo las especies que más aportan Clusiamultiflora, Vaccinumsp. y Weinmannia tomentosa. La profundidad promedio del mantillo fue de 16cm, con una densidad promedio de 14.32 Kg · m-3y un peso promedio de 23.49 Ton por hectárea.El mantillo proveniente de Bojacá y el mantillo nativo del sitio presentaron la mayor descom-posición, los mayores contenidos de nutrientes y

  15. Кристаллы в тканях семянок видов Asteraceae

    E. V. Boyko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Представлены результаты морфо- логических и анатомических исследований, а также сканирующей электронной микроскопии семянок 48 видов из 30 родов, относящихся к 7 трибам семейства Asteraceae. Карпологическое изучение семя- нок выявило наличие нескольких типов кристаллов (крупных одиночных, мелких многочисленных, друз, рафид в клетках и межклеточном пространстве раз- ных тканей покровов семени и в чешуйках хохолка семянки. Впервые выявлены кристаллы в семянках: крупные одиночные во всех клетках экзокарпия (Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pyrethrum poteriifolium, Helenium aromaticum, H. autumnale, Gaillardia aristata; крупные одиночные во всех клетках эндокарпия (Gaillardia aristata; крупные одиночные в клетках нижней части чешуек хохолка (Balduina multiflora, Gaillardia aristata; мелкие многочисленные во многих клетках экзокарпия (Argyranthemum pinnatifidum; мелкие многочисленные во всех клетках экзокарпия (Psilostrophe bakeri; мелкие многочисленные во многих клетках экзокарпия (Baileya pleniradiata; друзы в клетках экзокарпия (Gynura aurantiaca, Pyrethrum parthenifolium, Synedrella nodiflora; друзы в клетках карпоподиума (Stokesia laevis. Полученных данные могут быть использованы при таксономических построениях в