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Sample records for otto fuel ii

  1. The interaction between Otto fuel II and aqueous hydroxylammonium perchlorate (HAP). Pt. 3: depletion of components within the reacting liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerby, John M.; Blackman, Christopher S. [Department of Environmental and Ordnance Systems, Cranfield University, Defence College of Management and Technology, Shrivenham, Swindon SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Gas chromatography (GC) with a Flame Ionisation Detector (FID) has been used to determine changes in the concentrations of the components of Otto Fuel II (OF) in contact with an 82% aqueous solution of hydroxylammonium perchlorate (HAP) in sealed vials at 31.7 C during the period leading up to auto-ignition of the two liquids. The concentration of hydroxylamine in HAP was monitored over the same period using a titration method. It was found that 2-nitrodiphenylamine (2NDPA), the stabiliser in the OF, is completely consumed after about 65-70 h and that the concentration of hydroxylamine begins to fall at this point. 1,2-Propanediol dinitrate (propylene glycol dinitrate, PGDN), the energetic component in the OF, is not depleted significantly until after about 90 h. The evolution of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) between 65 and 90 h is attributed to the reaction of the hydroxylammonium ion with nitrous acids produced by PGDN decomposition at the liquid-liquid interface. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is evolved after 90 h and is attributed to PGDN decomposition. HAP and PGDN are each thought to contribute to N{sub 2}O evolution after 90 h. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Power Peaking Effect of OTTO Fuel Scheme Pebble Bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadipura, T.; Suwoto; Zuhair; Bakhri, S.; Sunaryo, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) type of Hight Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a very interesting nuclear reactor design to fulfill the growing electricity and heat demand with a superior passive safety features. Effort to introduce the PBR design to the market can be strengthen by simplifying its system with the Once-through-then-out (OTTO) cycle PBR in which the pebble fuel only pass the core once. Important challenge in the OTTO fuel scheme is the power peaking effect which limit the maximum nominal power or burnup of the design. Parametric survey is perform in this study to investigate the contribution of different design parameters to power peaking effect of OTTO cycle PBR. PEBBED code is utilized in this study to perform the equilibrium PBR core analysis for different design parameter and fuel scheme. The parameters include its core diameter, height-per-diameter (H/D), power density, and core nominal power. Results of this study show that diameter and H/D effectsare stronger compare to the power density and nominal core power. Results of this study might become an importance guidance for design optimization of OTTO fuel scheme PBR.

  3. Experiences during the exchange of fuel elements of the NS OTTO HAHN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharge, J.; Manthey, H.J.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    In the fall of 1972, the nuclear ship OTTO HAHN was taken out of service in order to exchange the fuel elements and to take care of necessary modifications. Up to this time, she travelled a total distance of 241 588 nautical miles on 79 trips. The reactor plant was in service for approximately 25 230 h. The fuel elements reached a burn-up of 570 days. The guaranteed burn-up was exceeded by 14%. At sea the reactor was available 99.7% during operation. Operational data proved the design of the reactor plant to be very conservative. The fuel elements were never damaged. This successful operation of the FDR-reactor and its first core demonstrated that a reactor of this type is suitable for shipboard use. (orig.) [de

  4. Burnup performance of OTTO cycle pebble bed reactors with ROX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hai Quan; Obara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 300 MW t Small Pebble Bed Reactor with Rock-like oxide fuel is proposed. • Using ROX fuel can achieve high discharged burnup of spent fuel. • High geological stability can be expected in direct disposal of the spent ROX fuel. • The Pebble Bed Reactor with ROX fuel can be critical at steady state operation. • All the reactor designs have a negative temperature coefficient. - Abstract: A pebble bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (PBR) with rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel was designed to achieve high discharged burnup and improve the integrity of the spent fuel in geological disposal. The MCPBR code with a JENDL-4.0 library, which developed the analysis of the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO) cycle in PBR, was used to perform the criticality and burnup analysis. Burnup calculations for eight cases were carried out for both ROX fuel and a UO 2 fuel reactor with different heavy-metal loading conditions. The effective multiplication factor of all cases approximately equalled unity in the equilibrium condition. The ROX fuel reactor showed lower FIFA than the UO 2 fuel reactor at the same heavy-metal loading, about 5–15%. However, the power peaking factor and maximum power per fuel ball in the ROX fuel core were lower than that of UO 2 fuel core. This effect makes it possible to compensate for the lower-FIFA disadvantage in a ROX fuel core. All reactor designs had a negative temperature coefficient that is needed for the passive safety features of a pebble bed reactor

  5. Experiences with W3Re/W25Re thermocouples in fuel pins of NS Otto Hahn's two cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, M.

    1975-01-01

    Applications and performance of thermocouples in the Otto Hahn reactor are presented. The measurement of effective thermocouple time constants and of fuel rod heat transfer time constants utilizing the reactor noise and the resulting small temperature fluctuations which has become practical by the advent of modern noise analysis systems, is dealt with

  6. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  7. Conversion of cycle Diesel engines to Otto aiming the methane utilization as alternative fuel; Conversao de motores do ciclo diesel para Otto visando a utilizacao do metano como combustivel alternativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J F; Venanzi, D [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1988-12-31

    A diesel engine was converted in Otto engine for use methane as fuel, by modifications on compression ratio and on the induction system, and inclusion of a spark ignition system. The performance of dynamometer essays results in both cycles are compared and presented in overlapped curves. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Structure and influence factors of fuel cycle costs of pebble bed HTRs with OTTO-fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacke, S.

    1975-06-15

    The study in this paper can be divided into two parts. The first part deals with the analysis of the structure of the fuel cycle costs of today in 1974. A comparison is made between two pebble bed HTRs with OTTO-refueling-management (once-through) and a LWR of the type Biblis A. The two HTRs use different fuels: The one low-enriched Uranium (LOTTO), the other high-enriched Uranium and Thorium (TOTTO). The analysis of the structure of the fuel cycle costs consists of a discussion of the most important input parameters, and a comparison of each cost item. This study was made without adjustment of the core design to the changing market conditions. It is quite natural that an adaptation of the moderation ratio, of the conversion ratio, of the enrichment level, and of the burn-up may lower the fuel cycle costs. But the differences cannot be very important, and the results of this examination may remain valid, even on best adjustment conditions.

  9. Effects of heat loss as percentage of fuel's energy, friction and variable specific heats of working fluid on performance of air standard Otto cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-C.; Hou, S.-S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of heat loss characterized by a percentage of the fuel's energy, friction and variable specific heats of working fluid on the performance of an air standard Otto cycle with a restriction of maximum cycle temperature. A more realistic and precise relationship between the fuel's chemical energy and the heat leakage that is based on a pair of inequalities is derived through the resulting temperature. The variations in power output and thermal efficiency with compression ratio, and the relations between the power output and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are presented. The results show that the power output as well as the efficiency where maximum power output occurs will increase with increase of the maximum cycle temperature. The temperature dependent specific heats of the working fluid have a significant influence on the performance. The power output and the working range of the cycle increase with the increase of specific heats of the working fluid, while the efficiency decreases with the increase of specific heats of the working fluid. The friction loss has a negative effect on the performance. Therefore, the power output and efficiency of the cycle decrease with increasing friction loss. It is noteworthy that the effects of heat loss characterized by a percentage of the fuel's energy, friction and variable specific heats of the working fluid on the performance of an Otto cycle engine are significant and should be considered in practical cycle analysis. The results obtained in the present study are of importance to provide good guidance for performance evaluation and improvement of practical Otto engines

  10. NS Otto Hahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    For the bulk cargo ship had been chosen the advanced PWR, the secial characteristic of which is an integrated primary loop with automatic pressurisation. Altogether the Otto Hahn covered over half a million sea-miles. In-service inspections and examinations of the reactor plant were effected by control authorities every year. During the whole operating period the NS Otto Hahn showed a safe and reliable behaviour even from the view of radiation protection. (DG) [de

  11. Engineering solutions for a reflector change concept in the high-temperature reactor with pebble bed core and OTTO-fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, K.J.

    1975-06-01

    In the field of reactor engineering an increasing tendency is visible towards a 'repairable reactor'. In the construction of the HTR with spherical fuel elements this fact should already be taken into account at an early stage. Additionally it is possible that in connection with the OTTO-fueling load conditions for the graphite reflector could result which are locally not far away from limiting values. Therefore the removability of the reflector is included in the reactor construction as an accompanying technical step of the physical lay-out of the core. The core arrangements, realized for HTR until recently, are discussed as well as the properties of the graphites used and the operating conditions in the reactors are stated. At the example of the PR 3,000 proposals are offered for the construction of a removable side and top reflector for a pebble bed reactor. Hereby a solution was found which, on one hand allows the changing of the reflector and on the other hand requires no significant increase of the costs for the reactor assembly. Moreover the requirements of reactor operation and of repairability are satisfied in an optimal manner. (orig.) [de

  12. Experience with W3Re/W25Re thermocouples in fuel pins of NS Otto Hahn's two cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper first deals with the installation of 18 and 9 high-temperature sheathed thermocouples in fuel rods of the cores FDR-1 and FDR-2, respectively. The measured fuel rod centerline temperatures could be related to the local linear rod power at any given time by means of the densities of fission products with different half-lives obtained from fuel rod γ-scans. The fuel temperatures show then already an increase with the burn-up of the FDR-1 which becomes steeper when taking into account the decrease of the EMF measured at irradiated thermocouples taken from the fuel rods. Finally, the determination of effective thermocouple time constants and of fuel rod heat transfer time constants is demonstrated by utilizing the reactor noise to measure the transfer function between neutron flux and fuel temperature signal. (orig.) [de

  13. Ultimate - a new generation of gasoline and diesel fuels; Ultimate - eine neue Generation von Otto- und Dieselkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strempel, G. [Aral Forschung/Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany); Beckwith, P. [BP Fuels Management Group, Pangbourne (United Kingdom); Froehling, J. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Labor/Analytik; Baron, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Motor- und Fahrzeuglaboratorium; Sauermann, P.; Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktentwicklung; Doermer, W. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktqualitaet

    2005-06-01

    With the launch of Ultimate 100 gasoline and Ultimate Diesel, motorists in Germany now have the opportunity to choose new advanced performance fuels designed to get the very best from their engines. This article gives details of the technical development behind these fuels, their wide range of benefits, and how it is possible to manufacture fuels which meet the considerable technical challenge of achieving both more performance and less pollution. (orig.)

  14. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-11-01

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm 3 . RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kW el . The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kW el with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the thorium- and low-enriched uranium fuel cycle in the OTTO pebble bed HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuchert, E; Maly, V

    1973-03-15

    From the study of the physical, technical and economical properties of the LOTTO and TOTTO fuel cycle the authors draw the conclusion that no fundamental reason can be found for a definite preference of one of the two cycles. Either of them can be developed to become a very attractive concept. The flexibility of this reactor allows the design performance in that way that the reactor becomes a safe system with reasonable economy. The decision for the preference of the LOTTO or TOTTO can be allowed to be governed by the requirements of the outer fuel cycle or by politics.

  16. Isotype by Otto Neurath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malysheva O. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the theoretical basis of the infographic and its practical impact on the person’s attention by the example of the book of Otto Neurath's about the international pictorial language. This shows the relevance of design methods of Isotype system and its influence on modern infographic.

  17. Scientists and professionals from all around the world in Karlsruhe. Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school 2013 on nuclear reactors 'Physics, Fuels and Systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.; Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Scientific Secretariat FJOHSS

    2014-02-15

    Every 2 years the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) organizes the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn (FJOH) Summer School together with the Commissariat a l'-Energie Atomique (CEA) since 1999. In 2013, the FJOH Summer School took place in Karlsruhe from 21 to 30 August. The topic of this year's school was 'Advanced Nuclear Systems with Transuranium Fuels'. Experts from internationally well recognized research institutions and Universities from USA, Japan, Asia and Europe gave lectures about the current status and trends on the related fields. (orig.)

  18. Otto Toeplitz Memorial Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A conference in operator theory and its applications commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of the distinguished German mathematician Otto Toeplitz, organized by the University of Tel Aviv together with German Mathematical Society, took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, from May 11th to 15th, 1981. I give here a broad very subjective overview of the proceedings of the conference for the benefit of readers of TTSP; for those interested in further details, a forthcoming volume in the Birkhaeuser series Operator Theory: Advances and Applications will consist of expanded written versions of most of the talks given at the conference

  19. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2007 - Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors, ''Physics, Fuels and Systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.

    2007-01-01

    For more than ten years, the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School has been organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache, in France. This year, the Summer School was held at the Center for Advanced Training in Technology and the Environment of the Karlsruhe Research Center on August 29 to September 7. The overarching topic of the event was the sustainability of nuclear power, including topical issues of generation-IV reactor concepts, transmutation and actinide separation, and geologic final storage. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA at Aix-en-Provence together with the Nuclear Safety Research Program of the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.)

  20. Numerical investigations of the fuel cycle for a 10 GW(TH)-OTTO-pebble-bed reactor with regard to high conversion ratio under special consideration of U-236 disconnexion through isotope-separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, H.

    1976-12-01

    A conversion ratio of near 1.0 can be achieved in a pebble-bed reactor using the OTTO (once through then out) loading scheme, having an economic burn-up of the fuel, an economic power density and a moderation ratio, which is considered realistically for the future. The flexibility of the reactor concept and of the fuel element design allows to recycle the fuel during full-power operation. In the present report first the criteria are shown, which are necessary to reach a high conversion ratio. Further it is presented that the conversion ratio increases considerably by closing the fuel cycle in consequence of the building-up of U-233. In this way the fuel inventory and the fuel consumption can considerably be diminished. It is demonstrated that the building-up and the accumulation of U-236 effects an important deterioration of the neutron economy. By taking the reprocessed uranium through an isotope separation (for example: ultra-gas-centrifugation) and by separation of U-236 from the other uranium isotopes it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption considerably. The expenditure and the cost which are necessary for the isotope separation are presented. (orig.) [de

  1. 'Pflanze, Otto, Bismarck'

    OpenAIRE

    Burgaud, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    La somme que l’historien américain O.P. consacra au ministre prussien puis chancelier d’Empire, Otto von Bismarck, parut en 1990, fruit de plusieurs décennies de travail. Traduite en allemand en 1997 chez Beck, elle connut un immense succès académique. La posture de l’auteur, en retrait des débats historiographiques sur le Sonderweg, son impartialité affichée, et surtout l’analyse équilibrée qu’il menait entre période prussienne et impériale (particulièrement lisible dans la version allemande...

  2. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of..., exhaust emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines fueled with either gasoline or liquefied petroleum gas, and intended...

  3. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2007 - Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors, 'Physics, Fuels and Systems'; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der 2007 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors 'Physics, Fuels and Systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U.; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit

    2007-12-15

    For more than ten years, the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School has been organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache, in France. This year, the Summer School was held at the Center for Advanced Training in Technology and the Environment of the Karlsruhe Research Center on August 29 to September 7. The overarching topic of the event was the sustainability of nuclear power, including topical issues of generation-IV reactor concepts, transmutation and actinide separation, and geologic final storage. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA at Aix-en-Provence together with the Nuclear Safety Research Program of the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.)

  4. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to calculate delivered fuel expenses must reflect the petitioner's delivered price of the alternate fuel and...

  5. Decommissioning of NS OTTO HAHN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettnin, H.K.J.; Viecenz, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    With NS OTTO HAHN for the first time a nuclear propelled merchant vessel has been regularly decommissioned after more than 10 years of successful operation. Based on the concept of the total decontamination about 1100 ts of contaminated and decontaminated components have been dismantled and removed from board ship. 260 ts of contaminated components packed in 10 ft containers and 400-liter drums and the 480 ts RPV unit are stored at the GKSS site for post investigations. A total mass of about 370 ts has been decontaminated by mechanical and chemical procedures below the required radiological limits. The nuclear status of OTTO HAHN has been removed by the competent licensing authority in June 1982 so that the vessel is now offered for sale for conventionel operations. 8 references, 11 figures

  6. The EBR-II fuel cycle story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    This volume on the history of the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR) program and the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) offers both the historical perspective and ''reasons why'' the project was so successful. The operation of the FCF in conjunction with the EBR-II was prepared because of the unique nature of the pyrmetallurgical processing system that was demonstrated at the time. Following brief descriptions and histories of the EBR-I and EBR-II reactors, the FCF and its process requirements are described. The seven principal process steps are presented, including for each one, the development, equipment used, operating procedures, results, problems and other data. Scrap and waste disposition, analytical control, safety, management, and cost of the FCF are also included

  7. Dr. Otto Heinrich Warburg—Survivor of Ethical Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970; not to be confused with the Zionist of the same name was a member of an illustrious Jewish family, known for some five centuries. From humble beginnings, the family became prominent in the world for their contributions to all aspects of society. The son of a German mother and a Jewish (converted father, Otto H. Warburg became a major contributor to medical science in the field of cancer research. Considered for Nobel Prize more than once, he finally received it in 1931 for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the cellular respiratory enzyme. Warburg’s personality was controversial: he was intolerant of opposing scientific views yet tolerant toward Nazi abuses. Accused of collaboration under the Nazi regime, Otto H. Warburg was nevertheless readmitted to the global scientific community after World War II. His contribution to cancer research remains influential to this day and has been superseded by discoveries that have built upon his work.

  8. Experience with advanced driver fuels in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahm, C.E.; Koenig, J.F.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is a complete nuclear power plant, incorporating a pool-type liquid-metal reactor (LMR) with a fuel-power thermal output of 62.5 MW and an electrical output of 20 MW. Initial criticality was in 1961, utilizing a metallic driver fuel design called the Mark-I. The fuel design has evolved over the last 30 yr, and significant progress has been made on improving performance. The first major innovations were incorporated into the Mark-II design, and burnup then increased dramatically. This design performed successfully, and fuel element lifetime was limited by subassembly hardware performance rather than the fuel element itself. Transient performance of the fuel was also acceptable and demonstrated the ability of EBR-II to survive severe upsets such as a loss of flow without scram. In the mid 1980s, with renewed interest in metallic fuels and Argonne's integral fast reactor (IFR) concept, the Mark-II design was used as the basis for new designs, the Mark-III and Mark-IV. In 1987, the Mark-III design began qualification testing to become a driver fuel for EBR-II. This was followed in 1989 by the Mark-IIIA and Mark-IV designs. The next fuel design, the Mark-V, is being planned to demonstrate the utilization of recycled fuel. The fuel cycle facility attached to EBR-II is being refurbished to produce pyroprocessed recycled fuel as part of the demonstration of the IFR

  9. The 2nd reactor core of the NS Otto Hahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manthey, H.J.; Kracht, H.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design of the 2nd reactor core are given, followed by a brief report summarising the operating experience gained with this 2nd core, as well as by an evaluation of measured data and statements concerning the usefulness of the knowledge gained for the development of future reactor cores. Quite a number of these data have been used to improve the concept and thus the specifications for the fuel elements of the 3rd core of the reactor of the NS Otto Hahn. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Otto Hahn achievement and responsibility

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Otto Hahn (1879-1968) was awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on atomic fission: his work in Berlin in the 1930s and 1940s with Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann led to the discovery that uranium nuclei bombarded by neutrons undergo spontaneous fission, releasing enormous energies. This work, conveyed to England and the US by scientific refugees from Nazi Germany, led to the instigation of the Manhattan Project and the development of the Atomic Bomb. Reviled by many after the war as one of the people responsible for the carnage at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hahn had already begun to reflect on the social responsibility of scientists for their fundamental discoveries and the subsequent applications of the knowledge they create. Already during the war, Hahn had protested Nazi restrictions on Universities and researchers, and after the War, he became actively involved in efforts to restrict the spread of nuclear weapons. In this volume Klaus Hoffmann discusses Hahn's contributions to science and...

  11. Characterization of spent EBR-II driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Operations and material control and accountancy requirements for the Fuel Conditioning Facility demand accurate prediction of the mass flow of spent EBR-II driver fuel into the facility. This requires validated calculational tools that can predict the burnup and isotopic distribution in irradiated Zr-alloy fueled driver assemblies. Detailed core-follow depletion calculations have been performed for an extensive series of EBR-II runs to produce a database of material inventories for the spent fuel to be processed. As this fuel is processed, comparison of calculated values with measured data obtained from samples of this fuel is producing a growing set of validation data. A more extensive set of samples and measurements from the initial processing of irradiated driver fuel has produced valuable estimates of the biases and uncertainties in both the measured and calculated values. Results of these comparisons are presented herein and indicate the calculated values adequately predict the mass flows

  12. HANARO fuel irradiation test (II): revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, D. S.; Kim, H.; Chae, H. T.; Lee, C. S.; Kim, B. G.; Lee, C. B

    2001-04-01

    In order to fulfill the requirement to prove HANARO fuel integrity when irradiated at a power greater than 112.8 kW/m, which was imposed during HANARO licensing, and to verify the irradiation performance of HANARO fuel, the in-pile irradiation test of HANARO fuel has been performed. Two types of test fuel, the un-instrumented Type A fuel for higher burnup irradiation in shorter period than the driver fuel and the instrumented Type B fuel for higher linear heat rate and precise measurement of irradiation conditions, have been designed and fabricated. The test fuel assemblies were irradiated in HANARO. The two Type A fuel assemblies were intended to be irradiated to medium and high burnup and have been discharged after 69.9 at% and 85.5 at% peak burnup, respectively. Type B fuel assembly was intended to be irradiated at high power with different instrumentations and achieved a maximum power higher than 120 kW/m without losing its integrity and without showing any irregular behavior. The Type A fuel assemblies were cooled for about 6 months and transported to the IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) for consequent evaluation. Detailed non-destructive and destructive PIE (Post-Irradiation Examination), such as the measurement of burnup distribution, fuel swelling, clad corrosion, dimensional changes, fuel rod bending strength, micro-structure, etc., has been performed. The measured results have been analysed/compared with the predicted performance values and the design criteria. It has been verified that HANARO fuel maintains proper in-pile performance and integrity even at the high power of 120 kw/m up to the high burnup of 85 at%. This report is the revision of KAERI/TR-1816/2001 on the irradiation test for HANARO fuel.

  13. HANARO fuel irradiation test(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, D. S.; Kim, H. R.; Chae, H. T.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, C. S.; Kim, B. G.; Lee, C. B.; Hwang, W

    2001-04-01

    In order to fulfill the requirement to prove HANARO fuel integrity when irradiated at a power greater than 112.8 kW/m, which was imposed during HANARO licensing, and to verify the irradiation performance of HANARO fuel, the in-pile irradiation test of HANARO fuel has been performed. Two types of test fuel, the un-instrumented Type A fuel for higher burnup irradiation in shorter period than the driver fuel and the instrumented Type B fuel for higher linear heat rate and precise measurement of irradiation conditions, have been designed and fabricated. The test fuel assemblies were irradiated in HANARO. The two Type A fuel assemblies were intended to be irradiated to medium and high burnup and have been discharged after 69.9 at% and 85.5 at% peak burnup, respectively. Type B fuel assembly was intended to be irradiatied at high power with different instrumentations and achieved a maximum power higher than 120 kW/m without losing its integrity and without showing any irregular behavior. The Type A fuel assemblies were cooled for about 6 months and transported to the IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) for consequent evaluation. Detailed non-destructive and destructive PIE (Post-Irradiation Examination), such as the measurement of burnup distribution, fuel swelling, clad corrosion, dimensional changes, fuel rod bending strength, micro-structure, etc., has been performed. The measured results have been analysed/compared with the predicted performance values and the design criteria. It has been verified that HANARO fuel maintains proper in-pile performance and integrity even at the high power of 120 kw/m up to the high burnup of 85 at%.

  14. Operational reliability testing of FBR fuel in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaga, Takeo; Ukai, Shigeharu; Nomura, Shigeo; Shikakura, Sakae

    1991-01-01

    The operational reliability testing of FBR fuel has been conducting in EBR-II as a DOE/PNC collaboration program. This paper reviews the achieved summary of Phase-I test as well as outline of progressing Phase-II test. In Phase-I test, the reliability of FBR fuel pins including 'MONJU' fuel was demonstrated at the event of operational transient. Continued operation of the failed pins was also shown to be feasible without affecting the plant operation. The objectives of the Phase-II test is to extend the data base relating with the operational reliability for long life fuel, and to supply the highly quantitative evaluation. The valuable insight obtained in Phase-II test are considerably expected to be useful toward the achievement of commercial FBR. (author)

  15. Experience with advanced driver fuels in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahm, C.E.; Koenig, J.F.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several metallic fuel element designs which have been tested and used as driver fuel in Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The most recent advanced designs have all performed acceptably in EBR-H and can provide reliable performance to high burnups. Fuel elements tested have included use of U-l0Zr metallic fuel with either D9, 316 or HT9 stainless steel cladding; the D9 and 316-clad designs have been used as standard driver fuel. Experimental data indicate that fuel performance characteristics are very similar for the various designs tested. Cladding materials can be selected that optimize performance based on reactor design and operational goals

  16. Performance of a cycle Otto engine using biogas; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto utilizando biogas como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Juliano de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jsouza@unioeste.br; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de, [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Machado, Paulo Romeu M [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    The rising of the oil prices is increasing the search for alternative fuels. Brazil has a great availability of biogas from anaerobic digestion in the rural area, urban waste in the landfills and treatment of the municipal sewer. In this work were evaluated in dynamometer a cycle Otto engine using biogas, and were obtained the characteristics curves of torque and power. First was done the evidence test with gasoline, biogas and natural gas, using commercial systems for this fuels, using as comparison for other tests. After has been done tests for some combinations of ignition point, mixer of gas and compression tax. By the analysis of the results has been concluded that the better results for power and torque using biogas as fuel were with a tax compression of 12,5:1, gas mixer long and ignition point advanced in 45 deg. (author)

  17. Irradiation experience with KNK II Fast Breeder Fuel Subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.

    1993-02-01

    During the operation of the second core of KNK II fuel pin failures occurred, which were caused by local cladding weakening due to mechanical interaction between fuel pins and pin spacers. The present report gives a summarizing presentation of the consequences of these interactions, of the experimental and theoretical investigations to clarify the reason for the interactions and of measures to reduce their consequences in the extended residence time of the second core of KNK II. This type of interaction is caused by thermo-elastic instabilities of the fuel pin bundle, and its strength depends sensitively on the geometry of the pin bundle and the pin power. Finally, measures are described, which were taken for the fuel subassemblies of the third core of KNK II to avoid the wear causing instabilities [de

  18. TRIGA Mark II Ljubljana - spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Dimic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The most important activity in 1999 was shipment of the spent fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal. This activity started already in 1998 with some governmental support. In July 1999 all spent fuel elements (219 pieces) from the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana were shipped back to the United Stated by the ship from the port Koper in Slovenia. At the same time shipment of the spent fuel from the research reactor in Pitesti, Romania, and the research reactor in Rome, Italy, was conducted. During the loading the radiation exposure to the workers was rather low. The loading and shipment of the spent nuclear fuel went very smoothly and according the accepted time table. During the last two years the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana has been in operation about 1100 hours per year and without any undesired shut-down. (authors)

  19. Results of tests with open fuel in KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, G.

    1987-03-01

    For the operation of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors with cladding failures the consequences of increased contamination by fission products and fuel and the possibility of failure propagation to adjacent fuel pins due to fuel swelling have to be envisaged. To clarify some of these problems a KNK II test program involving open fuel was defined with the first experiments of this program being performed between October 1981 and May 1984. After the description of the test equipment and of the test program, the results will be presented on delayed neutron measurements, fission gas measurements and post irradiation examinations. The report will conclude with a discussion of the results [de

  20. The continual fuel management modification in Qinshan project II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Guodong; Pan Zefei; Zhang Xingtian

    2010-01-01

    The fuel management strategy is the basis of the nuclear power plants. The performance of the fuel management strategy affects the plants' safety and economy indicators directly. The paper summarizes all the modifications on the fuel management work in Qinshan Project II since the plant was established. It includes the surveillance system of physics tests, fetching in high performance fuel assemblies, reloading pattern optimization, and the modifications of the final safety analysis report. At the same time, it evaluates the benefit of the modifications in the few years. The experience in this paper is much helpful and could be implemented on the same type plants. (authors)

  1. Otto Hahn (1944). Discovery of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Otto Hahn (Frankfurt-on-Main, 1879-Gotinga, 1968) is the discoverer of nuclear fission, which awarded him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944. After leaving Germany during the Second World War to settle in the United Kingdom, he returned to this country as a renown figure

  2. Otto Hahn (1944). Discovery of nuclear fission

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Otto Hahn (Frankfurt-on-Main, 1879-Gotinga, 1968) is the discoverer of nuclear fission, which awarded him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944. After leaving Germany during the Second World War to settle in the United Kingdom, he returned to this country as a renown figure.

  3. Otto Lanz, surgeon and art collector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, T. M.; Brummelkamp, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    Otto Lanz (1865-1935) was educated in Switzerland, where he was trained in the surgical clinic of Theodore Kocher. In 1902, he was appointed as a professor of surgery in Amsterdam, remaining there until his death. He was wellknown for his surgery of the thyroid gland and for his studies on the

  4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2007-04-15

    As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics and technologies. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies and so on, which makes the comparison of the options extremely complicated. Taking this into consideration, the paper analyzes all the four fuel cycle options using the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), methods of Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM), that support systematical evaluation of the cases with multi- goals or criteria and that such goals are incompatible with each other. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive.

  5. KUCA critical experiments using MEU fuel (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Shiroya, Seiji; Kobayashi, Keiji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Shibata, Toshikazu

    1983-01-01

    Due to mutual concerns in the USA and Japan about the proliferation potential of highly-enriched uranium (HEU), a joint study program I was initiated between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL and Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) in 1978. In accordance with the reduced enrichment for research and test reactor (RERTR) program, the alternatives were studied for reducing the enrichment of the fuel to be used in the Kyoto University High Flux Reactor (KUHFR). The KUHFR has a distinct feature in its core configuration it is a coupled-core. Each annular shaped core is light-water-moderated and placed within a heavy water reflector with a certain distance between them. The phase A reports of the joint ANL-KURRI program independently prepared by two laboratories in February 1979, 3,4 concluded that the use of medium-enrichment uranium (MEU, 45%) in the KUHFR is feasible, pending results of the critical experiments in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) 5 and of the burnup test in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor 6 (ORR). An application of safety review (Reactor Installation License) for MEU fuel to be used in the KUCA was submitted to the Japanese Government in March 1980, and a license was issued in August 1980. Subsequently, the application for 'Authorization before Construction' was submitted and was authorized in September 1980. Fabrication of MEU fuel-elements for the KUCA experiments by CERCA in France was started in September 1980, and was completed in March 1981. The critical experiments in the KUCA with MEU fuel were started on a single-core in May 1981 as a first step. The first critical state of the core using MEU fuel was achieved at 312 p.m. in May 12, 1981. After that, the reactivity effects of the outer side-plates containing boron burnable poison were measured. At Munich Meeting in Sept., 1981, we presented a paper on critical mass and reactivity of burnable poison in the MEU core. Since then we carried out the following experiments

  6. KUCA critical experiments using MEU fuel (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Keiji; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Shiroya, Seiji; Kobayashi, Keiji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Shibata, Toshikazu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan)

    1983-09-01

    Due to mutual concerns in the USA and Japan about the proliferation potential of highly-enriched uranium (HEU), a joint study program I was initiated between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL and Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) in 1978. In accordance with the reduced enrichment for research and test reactor (RERTR) program, the alternatives were studied for reducing the enrichment of the fuel to be used in the Kyoto University High Flux Reactor (KUHFR). The KUHFR has a distinct feature in its core configuration it is a coupled-core. Each annular shaped core is light-water-moderated and placed within a heavy water reflector with a certain distance between them. The phase A reports of the joint ANL-KURRI program independently prepared by two laboratories in February 1979, 3,4 concluded that the use of medium-enrichment uranium (MEU, 45%) in the KUHFR is feasible, pending results of the critical experiments in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) 5 and of the burnup test in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor 6 (ORR). An application of safety review (Reactor Installation License) for MEU fuel to be used in the KUCA was submitted to the Japanese Government in March 1980, and a license was issued in August 1980. Subsequently, the application for 'Authorization before Construction' was submitted and was authorized in September 1980. Fabrication of MEU fuel-elements for the KUCA experiments by CERCA in France was started in September 1980, and was completed in March 1981. The critical experiments in the KUCA with MEU fuel were started on a single-core in May 1981 as a first step. The first critical state of the core using MEU fuel was achieved at 312 p.m. in May 12, 1981. After that, the reactivity effects of the outer side-plates containing boron burnable poison were measured. At Munich Meeting in Sept., 1981, we presented a paper on critical mass and reactivity of burnable poison in the MEU core. Since then we carried out the following experiments

  7. EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, R.W.; Henslee, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    For approximately 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory was developed a fast reactor fuel cycle based on dry processing. When the US fast reactor program was canceled in 1994, the fuel processing technology, called the electrometallurgical technique, was adapted for treating unstable spent nuclear fuel for disposal. While this technique, which involves electrorefining fuel in a molten salt bath, is being developed for several different fuel categories, its initial application is for sodium-bonded metallic spent fuel. In June 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved a radiation demonstration program in which 100 spent driver assemblies and 25 spent blanket assemblies from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) will be treated over a three-year period. This demonstrated will provide data that address issues in the National Research Council's evaluation of the technology. The planned operations will neutralize the reactive component (elemental sodium) in the fuel and produce a low enriched uranium product, a ceramic waste and a metal waste. The fission products and transuranium elements, which accumulate in the electrorefining salt, will be stabilized in the glass-bonded ceramic waste form. The stainless steel cladding hulls, noble metal fission products, and insoluble residues from the process will be stabilized in a stainless steel/zirconium alloy. Upon completion of a successful demonstration and additional environmental evaluation, the current plans are to process the remainder of the DOE sodium bonded fuel

  8. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usang, M. D.; Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; M. Rawi M., Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  9. Preliminary neutronic design of high burnup OTTO cycle pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiadipura, T.; Zuhair; Irwanto, D.

    2015-01-01

    The pebble bed type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is among the interesting nuclear reactor designs in terms of safety and flexibility for co-generation applications. In addition, the strong inherent safety characteristics of the pebble bed reactor (PBR) which is based on natural mechanisms improve the simplicity of the PBR design, in particular for the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO) cycle PBR design. One of the important challenges of the OTTO cycle PBR design, and nuclear reactor design in general, is improving the nuclear fuel utilization which is shown by attaining a higher burnup value. This study performed a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt OTTO cycle PBR with high burnup while fulfilling the safety criteria of the PBR design.The safety criteria of the design was represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. The maximum burnup value was also limited by the tested maximum burnup value which maintained the integrity of the pebble fuel. Parametric surveys were performed to obtain the optimized parameters used in this study, which are the fuel enrichment, per-pebble heavy metal (HM) loading, and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum design with burnup value of 131.1 MWd/Kg-HM was achieved in this study which is much higher compare to the burnup of the reference design HTR-MODUL and a previously proposed OTTO-cycle PBR design. This optimum design uses 17% U-235 enrichment with 4 g HM-loading per fuel pebble. (author)

  10. Preliminary Neutronic Design of High Burnup OTTO Cycle Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Setiadipura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The pebble bed type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR is among the interesting nuclear reactor designs in terms of safety and flexibility for co-generation applications. In addition, the strong inherent safety characteristics of the pebble bed reactor (PBR which is based on natural mechanisms improve the simplicity of the PBR design, in particular for the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO cycle PBR design. One of the important challenges of the OTTO cycle PBR design, and nuclear reactor design in general, is improving the nuclear fuel utilization which is shown by attaining a higher burnup value. This study performed a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt OTTO cycle PBR with high burnup while fulfilling the safety criteria of the PBR design.The safety criteria of the design was represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. The maximum burnup value was also limited by the tested maximum burnup value which maintained the integrity of the pebble fuel. Parametric surveys were performed to obtain the optimized parameters used in this study, which are the fuel enrichment, per-pebble heavy metal (HM loading, and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum design with burnup value of 131.1 MWd/Kg-HM was achieved in this study which is much higher compare to the burnup of the reference design HTR-MODUL and a previously proposed OTTO-cycle PBR design. This optimum design uses 17% U-235 enrichment with 4 g HM-loading per fuel pebble

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  12. Degradation of EBR-II driver fuel during wet storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization data are reported for sodium bonded EBR-II reactor fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the 1981--1982 timeframe. Ten stainless steel storage containers, which had leaked water during storage due to improper sealing, were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage basin at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide sludge filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas sampling determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium 137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a concentrated caustic solution of NaOH

  13. Transient performance of EBR-II driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzell, J.A.; Hudman, G.D.; Porter, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The first phases of qualification of the EBR-II driver fuel for repeated transient overpower operation have recently been completed. The accomplishments include prediction of the transient fuel and cladding performance through ex-core testing and fuel-element modeling studies, localized in-core power testing during steady-state operation, and whole-core multiple transient testing. The metallic driver fuel successfully survived 56 transients, spaced over a 45-day period, with power increases of approx. 160% at rates of approx. 1%/s with a 720-second hold at full power. The performance results obtained from both ex-core and n-core tests indicate that the fuel is capable of repeated transient operation

  14. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. System modeling of spent fuel transfers at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imel, G.R.; Houshyar, A.

    1994-01-01

    The unloading of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for interim storage and subsequent processing in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is a multi-stage process, involving complex operations at a minimum of four different facilities at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) site. Each stage typically has complicated handling and/or cooling equipment that must be periodically maintained, leading to both planned and unplanned downtime. A program was initiated in October, 1993 to replace the 330 depleted uranium blanket subassemblies (S/As) with stainless steel reflectors. Routine operation of the reactor for fuels performance and materials testing occurred simultaneously in FY 1994 with the blanket unloading. In the summer of 1994, Congress dictated the October 1, 1994 shutdown of EBR-2. Consequently, all blanket S/As and fueled drivers will be removed from the reactor tank and replaced with stainless steel assemblies (which are needed to maintain a precise configuration within the grid so that the under sodium fuel handling equipment can function). A system modeling effort was conducted to determine the means to achieve the objective for the blanket and fuel unloading program, which under the current plan requires complete unloading of the primary tank of all fueled assemblies in 2 1/2 years. A simulation model of the fuel handling system at ANL-W was developed and used to analyze different unloading scenarios; the model has provided valuable information about required resources and modifications to equipment and procedures. This paper reports the results of this modeling effort

  16. IFR fuel cycle demonstration in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Benedict, R.W.; Carnes, M.D.; Herceg, J.E.; Holtz, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase which includes completion of facility modifications, and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the design and construction of the facility, the design and fabrication of the process equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation. (author)

  17. IFR fuel cycle demonstration in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Benedict, R.W.; Carnes, M.D.; Herceg, J.E.; Holtz, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase which includes completion of facility modifications, and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the design and construction of the facility, the design and fabrication of the process equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation. 5 refs., 4 figs

  18. Performance of advanced oxide fuel pins in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Jensen, S.M.; Hales, J.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Makenas, B.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of design and operating parameters on mixed-oxide fuel pin irradiation performance were established for the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) advanced oxide EBR-II test series. Fourteen fuel pins breached in-reactor with reference 316 SS cladding. Seven of the breaches are attributed to FCMI. Of the remaining seven breached pins, three are attributed to local cladding over-temperatures similar to the breach mechanism for the reference oxide pins irradiated in EBR-II. FCCI was found to be a contributing factor in two high burnup, i.e., 11.7 at. % breaches. The remaining two breaches were attributed to mechanical interaction of UO 2 fuel and fission products accumulated in the lower cladding insulator gap, and a loss of cladding ductility possibly due to liquid metal embrittlement. Fuel smear density appears to have the most significant impact on lifetime. Quantitative evaluations of cladding diameter increases attributed to FCMI, established fuel smear density, burnup, and cladding thickness-to-diameter ratio as the major parameters influencing the extent of cladding strain

  19. Performance Evaluation on Otto Engine Generator Using Gasoline and Biogas from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Husaini, T.; Sitio, A.; Sitorus, TB

    2017-06-01

    Biogas is a flammable gas produced from the fermentation of organic materials by anaerobic bacteria originating from household waste manure and organic waste including palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is mainly discharged from the sterilization unit of palm oil processing into crude palm oil. This study utilized biogas produced from liquid waste palm oil for use as fuel in the Otto engine generator 4 - stroke, type STARKE GFH1900LX with a peak power of 1.3 kW, 1.0 kW average power, bore 55 mm, stroke 40 mm, Vd 95 × 10-6 m3, Vc 10 × 10-6 m3, compression ratio of 10.5 : 1, and the number of cylinders = 1. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of Otto engine generator fueled with biogas that generated from POME, then comparing its performance fueled by gasoline. The performance included power, torque, specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, and the air-fuel ratio. Experiment was conducted by using a variation of the lamp load of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 W. The results revealed that the use of biogas as fuel decreased in power, torque, brake thermal efficiency, and air fuel ratio (AFR), while there is an increasing of value specific fuel consumption (SFC).

  20. Experience with EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Porter, D.L.; Walters, L.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The exceptional performance of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) metallic driver fuel has been demonstrated by the irradiation of a large number of elements under steady-state, transient overpower, and loss-of-flow conditions. High burnup with high reliability has been achieved by a close coupling of element design and materials selection. Quantification of reliability has allowed full utilization of element lifetime. Improved design and duct materials currently under test are expected to increase the burnup from 8 to 14 at.%

  1. EBR-II fuel handling console digital upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.G.; Wiege, D.D.; Christensen, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The main fuel handling console and control system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are being upgraded to a computerized system using high-end workstations for the operator interface and a programmable logic controller (PLC) for the control system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics will be provided for the operator which will show the relative position of under-sodium fuel handling equipment. This equipment is operated remotely with no means of directly viewing the transfer. This paper describes various aspects of the modification including reasons for the upgrade, capabilities the new system provides over the old control system, philosophies and rationale behind the new design, testing and simulation work, diagnostic features, and the advanced graphics techniques used to display information to the operator

  2. Computer imaging of EBR-II fuel handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.G.; Hansen, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional graphics application used to visualize the positions of remotely operated fuel handling equipment in the EBR-II reactor. A three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique is necessary to simulate direct visual observation of the transfers of fuel and experiments into and out of the reactor because the fuel handling equipment is submerged in liquid sodium and therefore is not visible to the operator. The system described in this paper uses actual signals to drive a three-dimensional computer-generated model in real-time in response to movements of equipment in the plant This paper will present details on how the 3D model of the intank equipment was created and how real-time dynamic behavior was added to each of the moving components

  3. Safety aspects of advanced fuels irradiations in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, W.K.

    1975-09-01

    Basic safety questions such as MFCI, loss-of-Na bond, pin behavior during design basis transients, and failure propagation were evaluated as they pertain to advanced fuels in EBR-II. With the exception of pin response to the unlikely loss-of-flow transient, the study indicates that irradiation of significant numbers of advanced fueled subassemblies in EBR-II should pose no safety problems. The analysis predicts, however, that Na boiling may occur during the postulated design basis unlikely loss-of-flow transient in subassemblies containing He-bonded fuel pins with the larger fuel-clad gaps. The calculations indicate that coolant temperatures at top of core in the limiting S/A's, containing the He bonded pins, would reach approximately 1480 0 F during the transient without application of uncertainty factors. Inclusion of uncertainties could result in temperature predictions which approach coolant boiling temperatures (1640 0 F). Further analysis of He-bonded pins is being done in this potential problem area, e.g., to apply best estimates of uncertainty factors and to determine the sensitivity of the preliminary results to gap conductance

  4. OTTO - the analysing system for spectra ver 9.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menningen, M.

    1989-10-01

    OTTO is an interactive command system for the analysis of one-dimensional spectra. OTTO includes basic functions for spectra handling, interactive arithmetic with variables and arrays (formula interpreter), as well as numerous graphic functions. In combination with the general functions more complex dedicated routines (physical routines) are available, e.g. to prepare the measured data or to transform them. There are several program versions including different physical routines. The most important feature of OTTO is a very variable fitting routine (least square fit). A large number of fitting functions is available. Additional functions may be supplied by the user. All operations may be executed also in procedures (command files). The procedure processor is capable of a set of control instructions (jumps, loops, if's). Thus extended procedures may be written in the OTTO command-language. OTTO is written in FORTRAN and was impelemented at VAX computers. (orig.) [de

  5. High ash fuels for diesel engines II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrmen, E.; Vestergren, R.; Svahn, P. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash, that is used in some geographically restricted areas, can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The Liekki 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants I and II have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuel with a very high ash content. The chemistry, sintering, melting, and corrosiveness of deposits from different part of the diesel engine and on different exhaust valve materials, as well as the chemistry in different depths of the deposit have been investigated. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. Additives changing the sintering/melting point and physical properties of the formed deposits have been screened. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both without deposit modifying fuel additive and with. The results have been used to verify the ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion) model, and the particle chemistry and morphology has been examined. Several tests, also high load endurance tests have been run in diesel engines with high ash fuels. (author)

  6. Performance of an Otto cycle motor with natural gas direct injection; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto com injecao direta de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga

    1997-07-01

    A Otto cycle engine with natural gas direct injection, during the inlet stroke, was submitted to runs with full power in a Foucaut dynamometer. The results obtained show a increase in the volumetric efficiency of the engine with natural gas direct injection when compared with natural gas injection applied in the inlet manifold, upstream of the throttle butterfly. In the conversion to natural gas direct injection, the technical characteristics were not changed. A kit for natural gas direct injection, with electronic management was located on the cylinder head of the test engine. Maintaining the pressure constant in the natural gas fuel line, using a reduction valve, the mass of fuel injected into the cylinder was regulated, varying the opening time of the solenoid valve fuel injector. Engine performance data is compared, emphasizing the factors that contribute to this increase in relative volumetric efficiency. Modifications are made to maximize the power of the engine with natural gas direct injection. (author)

  7. Preliminary neutronic study on Pu-based OTTO cycle pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiadipura, Topan; Zuhair [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Selatan (Indonesia). Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety; Irwanto, Dwi [Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia). Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group

    2017-12-15

    The neutron physics characteristic of Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) allows a better incineration of plutonium (Pu). An optimized design of simple PBR might give a symbiotic solution of providing a safe energy source, effective fuel utilization shown by a higher burnup value, and incineration of Pu stockpiles. This study perform a preliminary neutronic design study of a 200 MWt Once Through Then Out (OTTO) cycle PBR with Pu-based fuel. The safety criteria of the design were represented by the per-fuel-pebble maximum power generation of 4.5 kW/pebble. In this preliminary phase, the parametric survey is limited to the heavy metal (HM) loading per pebble and the average axial speed of the fuel. An optimum high burnup of 419.7 MWd/kg-HM was achieved in this study. This optimum design uses a HM loading of 2.5 g/pebble with average axial fuel velocity 0.5 cm/day.

  8. Renewable Fuel Pathways II Final Rule to Identify Additional Fuel Pathways under Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule describes EPA’s evaluation of biofuels derived from biogas fuel pathways under the RFS program and other minor amendments related to survey requirements associated with ULSD program and misfueling mitigation regulations for E15.

  9. Otto Graf Lambsdorff in memoriam / Wolter von Tiesenhausen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiesenhausen, Wolter von

    2010-01-01

    Baltisaksa päritolu liberaalsest saksa poliitikust Otto Graf Lambsdorff'ist, kes täitis mitmel korral Saksamaa majandusministri kohuseid. Lisaks baltisaksa päritolule olid tal Baltimaadega isiklikud poliitilised seosed, vend Hagen töötas Saksa saatkonnas Riias ja poeg Nikolaus teenis diplomaadina Tallinnas. President Lennart Meri omistas Otto Graf Lambsdorffile Maarjamaa risti I klassi teenetemärgi

  10. Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Fuel-Performance Test Facility (FPTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, J.A.; Brubaker, R.C.; Veith, D.J.; Giorgis, G.C.; Walker, D.E.; Seim, O.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Fuel-Performance Test Facility (FPTF) is the latest in a series of special EBR-II instrumented in-core test facilities. A flow control valve in the facility is programmed to vary the coolant flow, and thus the temperature, in an experimental-irradiation subassembly beneath it and coupled to it. In this way, thermal transients can be simulated in that subassembly without changing the temperatures in surrounding subassemblies. The FPTF also monitors sodium flow and temperature, and detects delayed neutrons in the sodium effluent from the experimental-irradiation subassembly beneath it. This facility also has an acoustical detector (high-temperature microphone) for detecting sodium boiling

  11. Results of Cesar II critical facility with low enriched fuel balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlet, G; Guerange, J; Laponche, B; Morier, F; Neef, R D; Bock, H J; Kring, F J; Scherer, W

    1972-06-15

    The Cesar facility has been transformed to load in its center a pebble bed fuel. This new Cesar assembly is called Cesar II. The program for the measurements with HTR type fuel balls is managed under a cooperation between physicists of CEA/CADARACHE and KFA/JUELICH. A description of the measuring zones of Cesar II and of the experimental results is given.

  12. Technical assessment of continued wet storage of EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Franklin, E.M.; Ebner, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    A technical assessment of the continued wet storage of EBR-II fuel has been made. Previous experience has shown that in-basin cladding failure occurs by intergranular attack of sensitized cladding, likely assisted by basin water chlorides. Subsequent fuel oxidation is rapid and leads to loss of configuration and release of fission products. The current inventory of EBR-II fuel stored in the ICPP basins is at risk from similar corrosion reactions

  13. Rediscovery of Otto Frank's contribution to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; Drake-Holland, Angela; Noble, Mark I M; Lohff, Brigitte; Schaefer, Jochen

    2018-06-01

    In the late 19th century, German physiologist Otto Frank (1865-1944) embarked on a near life-long research program of laying down the mathematical, methodological, and theoretical foundations in order to understand and define the performance of the heart and circulatory system in all their complexity. The existence of the "Frank-Starling law" testifies to this. Two of his seminal publications have been translated into English previously, introducing Frank's research on the dynamics of the heart and the arterial pulse to a wider audience. It is likely that there are a host of other comparable achievements and publications of Frank that are still unknown to the international scientific (cardiological and physiological) community. However, their influence can still be felt and seen in modern cardiology and cardio-physiology, such as in the development of modern interactive simulating and teaching programs. We have translated and commented on ten of these papers, which can be read in parallel with the German originals. These publications show a wealth of theoretical assumptions and projections regarding the importance of the sarcomere, the development of models of contraction, thermo-dynamical considerations for muscular activity, differences between cardiac and skeletal muscles, problems related to methodology and measurement, and the first pressure-volume diagram (published 120 years ago). These topics were envisioned by Frank long before they became a focus of subsequent modern research. Nowadays, frequent measurements of pressure-volume relationships are made in research using the pressure-volume conductance catheter technique. In commenting Frank's scientific topics, we try to show how interconnected his thinking was, and thus how it enabled him to cover such a wide range of subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. OTTO-PAP: An alternative option to the PBMR fuelling philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Teuchert, E.

    1997-01-01

    Once Through Then Out, Power Adjusted by Poison (OTTO-PAP) fuelling of a high temperature pebble-bed reactor offers a simple alternative to the MEDUL (Mehrfachdurchlauf = German for multi-pass) fuelling regime followed in pebble bed reactor designs to date. The prerequisite for a modular reactor unit of maximum power output, subject to observing passive safety characteristics is a sufficiently flat axial neutron flux profile. This is achieved by introducing B 4 C coated particles of pre-calculated size and packing density within the fuel spheres. In accordance with AVR operating practise the temperature profile is radially equalised by introducing a 2-zone core loading. Adding pure graphite spheres loosely into the centre column area of the core effectively reduced the maximum power in the middle. Increasing the reactor diameter is enabled by the introduction of noses. A 3-D geometric modeller developed in cylindrical co-ordinates enables a given flow description of the pebbles adjacent to the nose boundaries and in the vicinity of the shut down/control rods. After translation of the geometric data the neutronic behaviour of the reactor is followed in 3-D by the CITATION code. This study is aimed towards achieving an optimal core layout with a LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel cycle. Physical properties of the OTTO-PAP, 150 MWt reference design is reported, while computations performed observe results obtained by the reference HTR-MODUL design. (author)

  15. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2005 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at Karlsruhe; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2005'' in Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, V.H.; Fischer, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School annually organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarche, France, this year was held at the Karlsruhe Congress Center. In line with the mission of the School to disseminate nuclear competence an a broad basis among young scientists from all over the world, lectures covered reactor physics, nuclear fuels, and nuclear systems. Speakers from leading international research institutions presented introductions to their respective fields, outlined the current state of the art, and also highlighted areas in need of further development and, thus, likely to offer challenges to young scientists. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA and held at Cadarache, France. (orig.)

  16. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2005 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, V.H.; Fischer, U.

    2005-01-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School annually organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarche, France, this year was held at the Karlsruhe Congress Center. In line with the mission of the School to disseminate nuclear competence an a broad basis among young scientists from all over the world, lectures covered reactor physics, nuclear fuels, and nuclear systems. Speakers from leading international research institutions presented introductions to their respective fields, outlined the current state of the art, and also highlighted areas in need of further development and, thus, likely to offer challenges to young scientists. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA and held at Cadarache, France. (orig.)

  17. Off-normal performance of EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Fryer, R.M.; Koenig, J.F.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-09-01

    The off-normal performance of EBR-II Mark-II driver fuel has been more than satisfactory as demonstrated by robust reliability under repeated transient overpower and undercooled loss-of-flow tests, by benign run-beyond-cladding-breach behavior, and by forgiving response to fabrication defects including lack of bond. Test results have verified that the metallic driver fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events. This behavior has allowed EBR-II to operate in a combined steady-state and transient mode to provide test capability without limitation from the metallic driver fuel

  18. Fuel penetration of intersubassembly gaps in LMFBRs: a calculational method with the SIMMER-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVault, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Early fuel removal from the active core of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) undergoing a core-disruptive accident may reduce the potential for large energetics resulting from recriticalities. A possible avenue for early fuel removal in heterogeneous core LMFBRs is the failure of duct walls in disrupted driver subassemblies followed by fuel penetration into the gaps between blanket subassemblies. The SIMMER-II code was modified to simulate flow between subassembly gaps. Calculations with the modified SIMMER-II code indicate the capabilities of the method and the potential for fuel mass reduction in the active core

  19. New technology on Otto engines for reducing the exhaust emission toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikarovska, Vesna; Stojanovski, Vasko

    2003-01-01

    The exhaust emission from the Otto engines with internal combustion contains a lot of toxicant components for human being as well as for the surrounding. There are a lot of possibilities to realize the engine work with minimum emission of toxicant components. However, all solutions could not be racial, especially if the engine should work with minimum fuel consumption. The engineers look for the solutions where the reducing of the exhaust emission toxicity could be done with the total fuel utilization in the engine's cylinder, without additionally combustion in catalytic or thermal reactors. The paper describes the new technologies for detail investigation of the combustion processes and optimization of all influence parameters on exhaust gases emission. (Original)

  20. PWR Core II blanket fuel disposition recommendation of storage option study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    After review of the options available for current storage of T Plant Fuel the recommended option is wet storage without the use of chillers. A test has been completed that verifies the maximum temperature reached is below the industrial standard for storage of spent fuel. This option will be the least costly and still maintain the fuel in a safe environment. The options that were evaluated included dry storage with and without chillers, and wet storage with and without chillers. Due to the low decay heat of the Shippingport Core II Blanket fuel assemblies the fuel pool temperature will not exceed 100 deg. F

  1. Review of the KBS II plan for handling and final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Swedish utilities programme for disposal of spent nuclear fuel elements (KBS II) is summarized. Comments and criticism to the programme are given by experts from several foreign or international institutions. (L.E.)

  2. TREAT hodoscope interpretation. II. Fuel-state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.M.; Omberg, R.P.; Albrecht, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    By using the autoregressive-integrated-moving-average (ARIMA) process, the onset of fuel disposal and the restructured fuel states of a TREAT test can be unambiguously identified. The results of the ARIMA analyses on the TREAT L7 hodoscope data show the most probable time of the restructuring began at 14.038 seconds, and four restructured fuel states are required to interpret adequately the L7 hodoscope data

  3. Fuel Management Strategies for a Possible Future LEU Core of a TRIGA Mark II Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R.; Villa, M.; Steinhauser, G.; Boeck, H. [Vienna University of Technology-Atominstitut (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    The Vienna University of Technology/Atominstitut (VUT/ATI) operates a TRIGA Mark II research reactor. It is operated with a completely mixed core of three different types of fuel. Due to the US fuel return program, the ATI have to return its High Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel latest by 2019. As an alternate, the Low Enrich Uranium (LEU) fuel is under consideration. The detailed results of the core conversion study are presented at the RRFM 2011 conference. This paper describes the burn up calculations of the new fuel to predict the future burn up behavior and core life time. It also develops an effective and optimized fuel management strategy for a possible future operation of the TRIGA Mark II with a LEU core. This work is performed by the combination of MCNP5 and diffusion based neutronics code TRIGLAV. (author)

  4. Remote, under-sodium fuel handling experience at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Planchon, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The EBR-II is a pool-type design; the reactor fuel handling components and entire primary-sodium coolant system are submerged in the primary tank, which is 26 feet in diameter, 26 feet high, and contains 86,000 gallons of sodium. Since the reactor is submerged in sodium, fuel handling operations must be performed blind, making exact positioning and precision control of the fuel handling system components essential. EBR-II operated for 30 years, and the fuel handling system has performed approximately 25,000 fuel transfer operations in that time. Due to termination of the IFR program, EBR-II was shut down on September 30, 1994. In preparation for decommissioning, all fuel in the reactor will be transferred out of EBR-II to interim storage. This intensive fuel handling campaign will last approximately two years, and the number of transfers will be equivalent to the fuel handling done over about nine years of normal reactor operation. With this demand on the system, system reliability will be extremely important. Because of this increased demand, and considering that the system has been operating for about 32 years, system upgrades to increase reliability and efficiency are proceeding. Upgrades to the system to install new digital, solid state controls, and to take advantage of new visualization technology, are underway. Future reactor designs using liquid metal coolant will be able to incorporate imaging technology now being investigated, such as ultraviolet laser imaging and ultrasonic imaging

  5. Otto von Habsburg : III maailmasõda on läbi / Otto von Habsburg ; interv. Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habsburg, Otto von, 1912-2011

    2002-01-01

    Otto von Habsburg vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Euroopa konvendi presidendi teadet, et Türgi koht ei ole EL-is, Iraagi võimalikku ründamist, Hiina ja Venemaa suhteid, Tšetšeeniat, tshetsheene ja terrorismi, Venemaa, EL-i ja USA suhteid, III maailmasõda, Eesti Vabariigi tulevikku

  6. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this project is to continue collecting and reporting the data on the performance and costs of alternatively fueled public transit vehicles in the state in a consistent manner in order to keep the Bus Fuels Fleet Evaluation Tool (BuFFeT) c...

  7. Power and power-to-flow reactivity transfer functions in EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor II] fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1989-01-01

    Reactivity transfer functions are important in determining the reactivity history during a power transient. Overall nodal transfer functions have been calculated for different subassembly types in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Steady-state calculations for temperature changes and, hence, reactivities for power changes have been separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent terms. Axial nodal transfer functions separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent components are reported in this paper for a typical EBR-II fuel pin. This provides an improved understanding of the time dependence of these components in transient situations

  8. Evaluation of the ceramographies of the KNK II/1 test zone fuel assembly NY-202-IA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, F.

    1983-12-01

    From the 211 fuel pins of the KNK II/1 fuel assembly NY-202-IA six intact fuel pins were selected in addition to the defective pin for destructive post-irradiation examinations in the Hot Cells of the KfK Karlsruhe. The assembly had been unloaded due to a pin failure after 192 equivalent full-power days and a maximum burnup of 5.4 %. The main aspect of these investigations was to record the fuel and fuel pin behavior and thus to allow a comparison of the status before and after irradiation. The results can also be used for comparative calculations and adaptations of existing calculational models. This report documents in detailed form the results of the fuel and fuel pin examinations [de

  9. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for demonstrating a high-temperature electrometallurgical process for treating spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-11. Two waste forms will be produced and qualified for geologic disposal of the fission and activation products. Relatively pure uranium will be separated for storage. Following additional development, transuranium elements will be blended into one of the high-level waste streams. The spent fuel treatment program will help assess the viability of electrometallurgical technology as a spent fuel management option

  10. Electrolyzer for NASA Lunar Regenerative Fuel Cells, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water electrolyzer stacks are a key component of regenerative fuel cells, designed to replace batteries as a means of storing electric energy on the lunar surface....

  11. Scientists from all over the world attend the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at the Karlsruhe Research Center; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School im Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, V.

    2003-11-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School organized jointly by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique was held in Karlsruhe in 2003 for the third time. The main topics this year focused on recent developments and findings in the fields of fuels and materials for reactors. Applications of nuclear technology beyond the confines of electricity generation were covered in discussions shout methods of hydrogen production. Specialized seminars dealt with current aspects of fusion research and the activities of the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU). (orig.)

  12. Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergren, R; Normen, E; Hellen, G [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland); and others

    1997-10-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash are used in some geographically restricted areas. The ash components can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The LIEKKI 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants, Part I and II, have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuels with a very high ash content. The chemistry during combustion has been studied. The chemical and physical properties of the particles in the exhaust gas, of the deposits, and of exhaust valves have been investigated. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both with and without deposit modifying fuel additive. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. On the practical side two long time field tests are going on, one with an ash/deposit modifying fuel additive (vanadium chemistry alteration), one with fuel water washing (sodium removal). Seven different reports have been written. (orig.)

  13. NS OTTO HAHN - the first German nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The NS OTTO HAHN is the first and only European nuclear propelled cargo and research vessel. She entered service in 1968 and was operated for 11 years without any technical failure. The essential experience and know-how about the nuclear propulsion unit is available now. Therefore the ship was decommissioned in 1979. Until the end of 1981 all activated and contaminated components will be removed and decontaminated. The ship can then be released for conventional utilization. In this book the NS OTTO HAHN is described in detail and the experiences of operation as well as research and development activities are reported. All earlier publications of GKSS on the same subject are listed. (orig.) [de

  14. Reverse osmosis seawater test facility on board NS Otto Hahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Hilgendorff, W.; Kaschemekat, J.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of reverse osmosis membranes and prototype modules for the desalination of sea water under near technical conditions, a test station has been installed on board the nuclear research vessel NS Otto Hahn. A newly designed plate module with variable membrane area and favorable membrane exchange properties is being used as a test instrument for membranes and operating conditions. (orig./HK) [de

  15. Liivimaa orientalisti Otto Friedrich Richteri õpiaastad / Indrek Jürjo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürjo, Indrek, 1956-2009

    2006-01-01

    Richteri koduõpetajaks oli kuulus Venemaa ajaloolane ja Tartu ülikooli kauaaegne rektor Gustav Ewers. Kõigepealt saadeti Otto prantsuse ja vene keele õppimise eesmärgil Moskva ülikooli (1808). 1809. aasta sügisest jätkus haridustee Heidelbergis, järgnes tavapärasest haridusteest eristuv erastuudium Viinis, mis kulges iseseisvate õpingute ja vahetu läbikäimise tähe all mitme tolleaegse vaimusuurusega

  16. Otto Hahn - Research and responsibility. Conflicts of a scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The life of Otto Hahn is documented and the time where science started in the mysterious field of radioactivity. The main steps: Youth, studies, first practical experiences, research at Berlin university, first world war, success for atomic researchers, national socialism - night over Germany, fission of uranium atom, menace with the atomic bomb of Hitler, the American super explosive U235, hunting on atomic researchers, diplomacy with atomic bombs, in conflict with conscience and policy, against nuclear arm tests and atomic arm race. (GL)

  17. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  18. Whole-core damage analysis of EBR-II driver fuel elements following SHRT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Koenig, J.F.; Porter, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In the Shutdown Heat Removal Testing (SHRT) program in EBR-II, fuel element cladding temperatures of some driver subassemblies were predicted to exceed temperatures at which cladding breach may occur. A whole-core thermal analysis of driver subassemblies was performed to determine the cladding temperatures of fuel elemnts, and these temperatures were used for fuel element damage calculation. The accumulated cladding damage of fuel element was found to be very small and fuel element failure resulting from SHRT transients is unlikely. No element breach was noted during the SHRT transients. The reactor was immediately restarted after the most severe SHRT transient had been completed and no driver fuel breach has been noted to date. (orig.)

  19. Performance of commercially produced mixed-oxide fuels in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, J.W.; Lawrence, L.A.

    1980-11-01

    Commercially produced fuels for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) were irradiated in EBR-II under conditions of high cladding temperature (approx. 700 0 C) and low power (approx. 200 W/cm) to verify that manufacturing processes did not introduce variables which significantly affect general fuel performance. Four interim examinations and a terminal examination were completed to a peak burnup of 5.2 at. % to provide irradiation data pertaining to fuel restructuring and dimensional stability at low fuel temperature, fuel-cladding reactions at high cladding temperature and general fuel behavior. The examinations indicate completely satisfactory irradiation performance for low heat rates and high cladding temperatures to 5.2 at. % burnup

  20. Irradiation of a 19 pin subassembly with mixed carbide fuel in KNK II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithoff, D.; Mühling, G.; Richter, K.

    1992-06-01

    The presentation deals with the fabrication, irradiation and nondestructive postirradiation examinations of LMR fuel pins with mixed (U, Pu)-carbide fuels. The mixed carbide fuel was fabricated by the European Institute of Transuranium Elements using various fabrication procedures. Fuel composition varied therefore in a wide range of tolerances with respect to oxygen and phase content and microstructure. The 19 carbide pins were irradiated in the fast neutron flux of the KNK II reactor to a burn-up of about 7 at% without any failure in the centre of a KNK "carrier element" at a maximum linear rating of 800 W/cm. After dismantling in the Hot Cells of KfK nondestructive examinations were carried out comprising dimensional controls, radiography, γ-scanning and eddy-current testing. The results indicate differences in fuel behaviour with respect to composition of the fuel.

  1. Jet Propellant (JP)-8 Fuel Evaluation Test Mk II - Reset (Mk II R) Bridge Erection Boat (BEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    diesel engines (fig. 2 and 3) equipped with Delphi rotary fuel injection pumps. Figure 1. Mk II R BEB pushing a two-bay IRB raft. TR No. WF-E-83 2... nozzles . The new pump (serial No. 08813K7B) and gasket were installed. 24 May 07 51.0 50.4 44.9 103 Port Fuel Pump and Injectors Replaced. At the...part No. 3909356) were installed on the injector nozzles . The new pump (serial No. 59640HZB) and gasket were installed. 31 May 07 51.5 50.5 44.9 104

  2. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  3. Otto Hahn - Research and responsibility. Conflicts of a scientist; Otto Hahn - Forschung und Verantwortung. Konflikte eines Wissenschaftlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K.

    2005-07-01

    The life of Otto Hahn is documented and the time where science started in the mysterious field of radioactivity. The main steps: Youth, studies, first practical experiences, research at Berlin university, first world war, success for atomic researchers, national socialism - night over Germany, fission of uranium atom, menace with the atomic bomb of Hitler, the American super explosive U235, hunting on atomic researchers, diplomacy with atomic bombs, in conflict with conscience and policy, against nuclear arm tests and atomic arm race. (GL)

  4. In-reactor cladding breach of EBR-II driver-fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Einziger, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Knowledge of performance and minimum useful element lifetime of Mark-II driver-fuel elements is required to maintain a high plant operating capacity factor with maximum fuel utilization. To obtain such knowledge, intentional cladding breach has been obtained in four run-to-cladding-breach Mark-II experimental driver-fuel subassemblies operating under normal conditions in EBR-II. Breach and subsequent fission-product release proved benign to reactor operations. The breaches originated on the outer surface of the cladding in the root of the restrainer dimples and were intergranular. The Weibull distribution of lifetime accurately predicts the observed minimum useful element lifetime of 10 at.% burnup, with breach ensuing shortly thereafter

  5. X447 EBR-II Experiment Benchmark for Verification of Audit Code of SFR Metal Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moo-Hoon; Shin, Andong; Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety), to prepare audit calculation of PGSFR licensing review, the project has been started to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. To evaluate the fuel integrity and safety during an irradiation, the fuel performance code must be used for audit calculation. In this study, to verify the new code system, the benchmark analysis is performed. In the benchmark, X447 EBR-II experiment data are used. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis according to mass flux change of coolant is performed. In case of LWR fuel performance modeling, various and advanced models have been proposed and validated based on sufficient in-reactor test results. However, due to the lack of experience of SFR operation, the current understanding of SFR fuel behavior is limited. In this study, X447 EBR-II Experiment data are used for benchmark. The fuel composition of X447 assembly is U-10Zr and PGSFR also uses this composition in initial phase. So we select X447 EBR-II experiment for benchmark analysis. Due to the lack of experience of SFR operation and data, the current understanding of SFR fuel behavior is limited. However, in order to prepare the licensing of PGSFR, regulatory audit technologies of SFR must be secured. So, in this study, to verify the new audit fuel performance analysis code, the benchmark analysis is performed using X447 EBR-II experiment data. Also, the sensitivity analysis with mass flux change of coolant is performed. In terms of verification, it is considered that the results of benchmark and sensitivity analysis are reasonable.

  6. X447 EBR-II Experiment Benchmark for Verification of Audit Code of SFR Metal Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moo-Hoon; Shin, Andong; Suh, Namduk

    2016-01-01

    In KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety), to prepare audit calculation of PGSFR licensing review, the project has been started to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. To evaluate the fuel integrity and safety during an irradiation, the fuel performance code must be used for audit calculation. In this study, to verify the new code system, the benchmark analysis is performed. In the benchmark, X447 EBR-II experiment data are used. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis according to mass flux change of coolant is performed. In case of LWR fuel performance modeling, various and advanced models have been proposed and validated based on sufficient in-reactor test results. However, due to the lack of experience of SFR operation, the current understanding of SFR fuel behavior is limited. In this study, X447 EBR-II Experiment data are used for benchmark. The fuel composition of X447 assembly is U-10Zr and PGSFR also uses this composition in initial phase. So we select X447 EBR-II experiment for benchmark analysis. Due to the lack of experience of SFR operation and data, the current understanding of SFR fuel behavior is limited. However, in order to prepare the licensing of PGSFR, regulatory audit technologies of SFR must be secured. So, in this study, to verify the new audit fuel performance analysis code, the benchmark analysis is performed using X447 EBR-II experiment data. Also, the sensitivity analysis with mass flux change of coolant is performed. In terms of verification, it is considered that the results of benchmark and sensitivity analysis are reasonable

  7. Time Evolution of Selected Actinides in TRIGA MARK-II Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usang, M.D.; Naim Shauqi Hamzah; Mohamad Hairie Rabir

    2011-01-01

    Study is made on the evolution of several actinides capable of undergoing fission or breeding available on the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) TRIGA MARK-II fuel. Population distribution of burned fuel in the MNA reactor is determined with a model developed using WIMS. This model simulates fuel conditions in the hottest position in the reactor, thus the location where most of the burn up occurs. Theoretical basis of these nuclide time evolution are explored and compared with the population obtained from our models. Good agreements are found for the theoretical time evolution and the population of Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Uranium-238 and Plutonium-239. (author)

  8. EBR-II argon cooling system restricted fuel handling I and C upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Start, S.E.; Carlson, R.B.; Gehrman, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The instrumentation and control of the Argon Cooling System (ACS) restricted fuel handling control system at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is being upgraded from a system comprised of many discrete components and controllers to a computerized system with a graphical user interface (GUI). This paper describes the aspects of the upgrade including reasons for the upgrade, the old control system, upgrade goals, design decisions, philosophies and rationale, and the new control system hardware and software

  9. Fuel burnup analysis of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Pavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Pozzi, Stefano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Alloni, Daniele; Magrotti, Giovanni; Manera, Sergio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea; Cammi, Antonio; Zanetti, Matteo; Sartori, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A fuel evolution model for a TRIGA Mark II reactor has been developed. • Reproduction of nearly 50 years of reactor operation. • The model was used to predict the best reactor reconfiguration. • Reactor life was extended without adding fresh fuel elements. - Abstract: A time evolution model was developed to study fuel burnup for the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Pavia. The results were used to predict the effects of a complete core reconfiguration and the accuracy of this prediction was tested experimentally. We used the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 to reproduce system neutronics in different operating conditions and to analyze neutron fluxes in the reactor core. The software that took care of time evolution, completely designed in-house, used the neutron fluxes obtained by MCNP5 to evaluate fuel consumption. This software was developed specifically to keep into account some features that differentiate low power experimental reactors from those used for power production, such as the daily ON/OFF cycle and the long fuel lifetime. These effects can not be neglected to properly account for neutron poison accumulation. We evaluated the effect of 48 years of reactor operation and predicted a possible new configuration for the reactor core: the objective was to remove some of the fuel elements from the core and to obtain a substantial increase in the Core Excess reactivity value. The evaluation of fuel burnup and the reconfiguration results are presented in this paper.

  10. Optimization in the nuclear fuel cycle II: Surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Silva, A.X.; Lopes, J.M.; Carmo, A.S.; Fernandes, T.S.; Mello, C.R.; Kelecom, A.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization is one of the bases of radioprotection and aims to move doses away from the dose limit that is the borderline of acceptable radiological risk. This work aims to use the monitoring of surface contamination as a tool of the optimization process. 53 surface contamination points were analyzed at a nuclear fuel cycle facility. Three sampling points were identified with monthly mean values of contamination higher than 1 Bq ∙ cm -2 , points 28, 42 and 47. These points were indicated for the beginning of the optimization process

  11. Otto von Guericke and 17th century cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Eberhard

    Otto von Guericke's scientific method was based on reason and experimental science. His cosmology was embedded in theology and can be interpreted as a refutation of Descartes' worldview. He used Nicolaus Cusanus' theory of quantities in order to characterize space. The notion of space has to be distinguished from that of world or heaven. Forces play a crucial role in this respect described by Athanasius Kircher in his "Celestial Journey". Guericke read this work very diligently. In spite of some obvious similarities between Guericke's and Newton's scientific aims and methods there are crucial differences between the scientific convictions and results of these scholars.

  12. Breached fuel pin contamination from Run Beyond Cladding Breach (RBCB) tests in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.; Strain, R.V.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, I.

    1988-09-01

    Studies indicate there may be a large economic incentive to permit some continued reactor operation with breached fuel pin cladding. A major concern for this type of operation is the potential spread of contamination in the primary coolant system and its impact on plant maintenance. A study of the release and transport of contamination from naturally breached mixed oxide Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuel pins was performed as part of the US Department of Energy/Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (DOE/PNC) Run Beyond Cladding Breach (RBCB) Program at EBR-II. The measurements were made using the Breached Fuel Test Facility (BFTF) at EBR-II with replaceable deposition samplers located approximately 1.5 meters from the breached fuel test assemblies. The effluent from the test assemblies containing the breached fuel pins was routed up through the samplers and past dedicated instrumentation in the BFTF before mixing with the main coolant flow stream. This paper discusses the first three contamination tests in this program. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. FRM-II: status of construction, licensing fuel tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axmann, A.; Boening, K.; Nuding, M.; Didier, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The research reactor FRM-II of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen is now ready for the nuclear start-up, but still waiting for the operational license. The high-flux neutron-source FRM-II (8 x 10 14 n/(s cm 2 ) is a unique tool for solid state physics and materials research by neutron scattering, positron annihilation experiments and activation analysis, as well as for fundamental physics, isotope production, silicone doping, cancer therapy by irradiation with fission neutrons and for tomography with fast and thermal neutrons. Reactor built in facilities as a hot source, a cold source, an uranium loaded converter plate producing an intense beam of fission neutrons, allow to expand the range of usable neutron energies far beyond the thermal spectrum. In addition, a source providing an intense beam of fission products is planned to be constructed by the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen and a source of ultra cold neutrons is planned by the Physics Department of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. The reactor is already prepared for both of these facilities. (author)

  14. Metallographic examinations of the wear-marks on fuel pins of the KNK II/2 fuel assembly NY-308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, G.

    1987-12-01

    On the fuel pins and pin spacers of the fuel assembly NY-308 of the second core of KNK II pronounced wear marks had been found in the area of the contact points. In order to determine the exact form of the marks, metallographic investigations were performed on two test pieces of fuel pins in the Hot Cells of the KfK Karlsruhe. It was found that the wear marks did show the already observed stratified structure. Next to the unchanged cladding area there is a peripheral zone with modified grain structure, followed by a layer of moved material and finally there is a flake-like zone of accumulated cladding material at the lower end of the wear marks. Longitudinal cuts do not show grain deformations, which could indicate axial friction forces between pin and spacer. The wear marks are rapidly dropping to their maximum depth at the ends and the depth shows a relatively uniform pattern between both. The findings are confirming the picture, that a stirring movement of the fuel pins took place, which caused adhesive wear [de

  15. Coupled 3D neutronic and thermohydraulic calculations for a compact fuel element with disperse UMo fuel at FRM II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitkreutz, H.; Roehrmoser, A.; Petry, W.

    2010-01-01

    The newly developed X 2 program system is intended to be used for high-detail 3D calculations on compact research reactor cores. Using this system, the efforts to calculate scenarios for a new fuel element for FRM II using disperse UMo (8wt% Mo, 50% enrichment) are continued. By now, a radial symmetric core model with averaged built-in components for the D 2 O tank is used. Two different scenarios are compared: The minimum fuel density of 7.5 g U/cm 3 and 8.0 g U/cm 3 with 60 days cycle length. In addition, two 'flux loss compensating' scenarios based on 8.0 g U/cm 3 with 10% higher power/longer reactor cycles are regarded. (author)

  16. Model of automatic fuel management for the Atucha II nuclear central with the PUMA IV code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi G, J.F.; Tarazaga, A.E.; Romero, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Atucha II central is a heavy water power station and natural uranium. For this reason and due to the first floor reactivity excess that have this type of reactors, it is necessary to carry out a continuous fuel management and with the central in power (for the case of Atucha II every 0.7 days approximately). To maintain in operation these centrals and to achieve a good fuels economy, different types of negotiate of fuels that include areas and roads where the fuels displace inside the core are proved; it is necessary to prove the great majority of these managements in long periods in order to corroborate the behavior of the power station and the burnt of extraction of the fuel elements. To carry out this work it is of great help that a program implements the approaches to continue in each replacement, using the roads and areas of each administration type to prove, and this way to obtain as results the one regulations execution in the time and the average burnt of extraction of the fuel elements, being fundamental this last data for the operator company of the power station. To carry out the previous work it is necessary that a physicist with experience in fuel management proves each one of the possible managements, even those that quickly can be discarded if its don't fulfill with the regulatory standards or its possess an average extraction burnt too much low. For this it is of fundamental help that with an automatic model the different administrations are proven and lastly the physicist analyzes the more important cases. The pattern in question not only allows to program different types of roads and areas of fuel management, but rather it also foresees the possibility to disable some of the approaches. (Author)

  17. Evaluating Otto the Auto: Does Engagement in an Interactive Website Improve Young Children's Transportation Safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Johnston, Anna; Shen, Jiabin; Li, Peng

    2017-07-19

    Transportation-related injuries are a leading cause of pediatric death, and effective interventions are limited. Otto the Auto is a website offering engaging, interactive activities. We evaluated Otto among a sample of sixty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children, who participated in a randomized parallel group design study. Following baseline evaluation, children engaged with either Otto or a control website for 2 weeks and then were re-evaluated. Children who used Otto failed to show increases in transportation safety knowledge or behavior compared to the control group, although there was a dosage effect whereby children who engaged in the website more with parents gained safer behavior patterns. We conclude Otto may have some efficacy when engaged by children with their parents, but continued efforts to develop and refine engaging, effective, theory-driven strategies to teach children transportation safety, including via internet, should be pursued.

  18. COXPRO-II: a computer program for calculating radiation and conduction heat transfer in irradiated fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.A.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the computer program COXPRO-II, which was written for performing thermal analyses of irradiated fuel assemblies in a gaseous environment with no forced cooling. The heat transfer modes within the fuel pin bundle are radiation exchange among fuel pin surfaces and conduction by the stagnant gas. The array of parallel cylindrical fuel pins may be enclosed by a metal wrapper or shroud. Heat is dissipated from the outer surface of the fuel pin assembly by radiation and convection. Both equilateral triangle and square fuel pin arrays can be analyzed. Steady-state and unsteady-state conditions are included. Temperatures predicted by the COXPRO-II code have been validated by comparing them with experimental measurements. Temperature predictions compare favorably to temperature measurements in pressurized water reactor (PWR) and liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) simulated, electrically heated fuel assemblies. Also, temperature comparisons are made on an actual irradiated Fast-Flux Test Facility (FFTF) LMFBR fuel assembly

  19. LA CTE "OTTO PARELLADA" (TALLAPIEDRA COMO BASE MATERIAL DE ESTUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E Calvo González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis de las posibilidades que tiene la CTE" Otto Parellada" como elemento fundamental en la formación de ingenieros electricistas, así como para otras especialidades.Se expone el modo en que actualmente se le aprovecha para la carrera de Ingeniería Eléctrica en ladisciplina de Centrales Termoeléctricas, así como para la carrera de Ingeniería Mecánica en la asignatura homónimadel 1er. año. Se exponen otras posibilidades de la planta que podrían ser explotadas aún por otras carreras comoArquitectura, al tener características que la avalan como Patrimonio Industrial.  In this paper is presented the analysis of the possibilities like fundamental element that Otto Parellada SteamPower Plant has for the electrical, as well as other specialties engineers' syllabus. The way that at present time isused for the electrical engineers education, in the thermal engineering subjects is exposed, as well as for themechanical engineering in the 1st year. Other possibilities of the plant that could still be exploited by otherscareers like architecture, due to the characteristic that endorse it as Industrial Patrimony are also exposed.

  20. Calculation analysis of TRIGA MARK II reactor core composed of two types of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.

    1988-11-01

    The most important properties of mixed cores are treated for TRIGA MARK II reactor, composed of standard (20% enriched, 8.5w% U content) and FLIP (70% enriched, 8.5w% U content) fuel elements. Large difference in enrichment and presence of burnable poison in FLIP fuel have strong influence on the main core characteristics, such as: fuel temperature coefficient, power defect, Xe and Sm worth, power and flux distributions, etc. They are significantly different for both types of fuel. Optimal loading of mixed cores therefore strongly depends on the loading pattern of both types of fuel elements. Results of systematic calculational analysis of mixed cores are presented. Calculations on the level of fuel element are performed with WIMSD-4 computer code with extended cross-section library. Core calculations are performed with TRIGAP two-group 1-D diffusion code. Results are compared to measurements and physical explanation is provided. Special concern is devoted to realistic mixed cores, for which optimal in-core fuel management is derived. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Loads on pebble bed fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuchert, E.; Maly, V.

    1974-03-15

    A comparison is made of key parameters for multi-recycle pebbles and single-pass once-through (OTTO) pebbles. The parameters analyzed include heat transfer characteristics with burn-up, temperature profiles, power per element as a function of axial position in the core, and burn-up. For the OTTO-scheme, the comparisons addressed the use of the conventional fuel element and the advanced "shell ball" designed to reduce the peak fuel temperature in the center of the fuel element. All studies addressed the uranium-thorium fuel cycle.

  2. The KNK II/1 fuel assembly NY-205: Compilation of the irradiation history and the fuel and fuel pin fabrication data of the INTERATOM data bank system BESEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, G.; Geier, F.

    1988-01-01

    The fuel assembly NY-205 has been irradiated during the first and the second core of KNK II with a total residence time of 832 equivalent full-power days. A maximum burnup of 175.000 MWd/tHM or 18.6 % was reached with a maximum steel damage of 66 dpa-NRT. For the cladding the materials 1.4970 and 1.4981 have been used in different metallurgical conditions, and for the Uranium/Plutonium mixed- oxide fuel the most important variants of the major fabrication parameters had been realized. The assembly will be brought to the Hot Cells of the KfK Karlsruhe for post-irradiation examination in February 1988, so that the knowledge of the fabrication data is of interest for the selection of fuel pins and for the evaluation of the examination results. Therefore this report compiles the fuel and fuel pin fabrication data from the INTERATOM data bank system BESEX and additionally, an overview of the irradiation history of the assembly is given [de

  3. Criticality safety requirements for transporting EBR-II fuel bottles stored at INTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R. M.; Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    Two carrier/shipping cask options are being developed to transport bottles of EBR-II fuel elements stored at INTEC. Some fuel bottles are intact, but some have developed leaks. Reactivity control requirements to maintain subcriticality during the hypothetical transport accident have been examined for both transport options for intact and leaking bottles. Poison rods, poison sleeves, and dummy filler bottles were considered; several possible poison materials and several possible dummy filler materials were studied. The minimum number of poison rods or dummy filler bottles has been determined for each carrier for transport of intact and leaking bottles

  4. The investigation of fast reactor fuel pin start up behaviour in the irradiation experiment DUELL II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, D.; Geithoff, D.

    1988-04-01

    The irradiation experiments DUELL-II within the SNR-300 operational Transient Experimental Program deal with the investigation of fresh mixed oxide fuel behaviour at start-up. The irradiation has been carried out in the HFR Petten in four so-called DUELL capsules with two fuel pin samples each. The fuel pins with a total length of 453 mm contained a fuel column of 150 mm length, consisting of high dense (U,Pu)O 2-x fuel with an initial porosity of 4%, a Pu-content of 20.9%, and an O/Me ratio of 1.96. The fuel pellet diameter was 6.37 mm, the outer diameter of the SS cladding, material No. 1.4970, was 7.6 mm. The irradiation included four phases, consisting of preconditioning at 85% nominal power (corresponds to 550 W/cm), a following increase to full power, and two following full power periods of 1 and 10 days, respectively. Post irradiation examination showed incomplete fuel restructuring in the first capsules with central void diameters of 800 μm in the hot plane, complete restructuring in the last capsule, leading to central voids of approximately 1 mm diameter. The residual gaps between fuel and clad varied between 25 and 44 μm. The clad inner surface did not show any corrosion attack. The analysis of fuel restructuring has been carried out with the computer code SATURN-S showing good agreement with the PIE results. The analysis led to a series of model improvements, especially for crack volume and relocation modelling. (orig./GL) [de

  5. Carbonate-mediated Fe(II) oxidation in the air-cathode fuel cell: a kinetic model in terms of Fe(II) speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Cui, Yu-Zhi; Sun, Min; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-06-06

    Due to the high redox activity of Fe(II) and its abundance in natural waters, the electro-oxidation of Fe(II) can be found in many air-cathode fuel cell systems, such as acid mine drainage fuel cells and sediment microbial fuel cells. To deeply understand these iron-related systems, it is essential to elucidate the kinetics and mechanisms involved in the electro-oxidation of Fe(II). This work aims to develop a kinetic model that adequately describes the electro-oxidation process of Fe(II) in air-cathode fuel cells. The speciation of Fe(II) is incorporated into the model, and contributions of individual Fe(II) species to the overall Fe(II) oxidation rate are quantitatively evaluated. The results show that the kinetic model can accurately predict the electro-oxidation rate of Fe(II) in air-cathode fuel cells. FeCO3, Fe(OH)2, and Fe(CO3)2(2-) are the most important species determining the electro-oxidation kinetics of Fe(II). The Fe(II) oxidation rate is primarily controlled by the oxidation of FeCO3 species at low pH, whereas at high pH Fe(OH)2 and Fe(CO3)2(2-) are the dominant species. Solution pH, carbonate concentration, and solution salinity are able to influence the electro-oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) through changing both distribution and kinetic activity of Fe(II) species.

  6. Development of ceramics based fuel, Phase II; Razvoj goriva na bazi keramike, II faza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Laboratorija za reaktorske materijale, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-12-15

    Phase II of this task covers the following: testing the changes of UO{sub 2} properties during sintering; interpretation of results obtained from the analysis of the sintering process kinetics; fabrication of UO{sub 2} samples with cladding by vibrational compacting.

  7. Fuel element failure detection experiments, evaluation of the experiments at KNK II/1 (Intermediate Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Bruetsch, D

    1983-01-01

    In the frame of the fuel element failure detection experiments at KNK II with its first core the measurement devices of INTERATOM were taken into operation in August 1981 and were in operation almost continuously. Since the start-up until the end of the first KNK II core operation plugs with different fuel test areas were inserted in order to test the efficiency of the different measuring devices. The experimental results determined during this test phase and the gained experiences are described in this report and valuated. All three measuring techniques (Xenon adsorption line XAS, gas-chromatograph GC and precipitator PIT) could fulfil the expectations concerning their susceptibility. For XAS and GC the nuclide specific sensitivities as determined during the preliminary tests could be confirmed. For PIT the influences of different parameters on the signal yield could be determined. The sensitivity of the device could not be measured due to a missing reference measuring point.

  8. FRM-II project status and safety of its compact fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuding, M.; Rottmann, M.; Axmann, A.; Boening, K.

    2000-01-01

    The construction of the new research reactor FRM-II is close to completion and the nuclear start-up is scheduled to begin in January 2001. This contribution provides an overview on the concept of the facility and the safety features of the reactor. It also describes some of the tests performed during the licensing procedure of the compact fuel element and their results. At the end a short status report is given. (author)

  9. FRM-II project status and safety of its compact fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuding, M.; Rottmann, M.; Axmann, A.; Boening, K. [Technical University of Munich, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The construction of the new research reactor FRM-II is close to completion and the nuclear start-up is scheduled to begin in January 2001. This contribution provides an overview on the concept of the facility and the safety features of the reactor. It also describes some of the tests performed during the licensing procedure of the compact fuel element and their results. At the end a short status report is given. (author)

  10. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs in a Contaminated Soil With Type II Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    A study on the optimization of an ultrasonic extraction method for selected PAHs determination in soil contaminated by type II fuel and by using HPLC with fluorescence detector is presented. The main objective was optimize the analytical procedure, minimizing the volume of solvent and analysis time and avoiding possible loss by evaporation. This work was carried out as part of a project that investigated a remediation process of agricultural land affected by an accidental spillage of fuel (Plan Nacional I + D + i, CTM2007-64 537). The paper is structured as: Optimization of wavelengths in the chromatographic conditions to improve resolution in the analysis of fuel samples. Optimization of the main parameters affecting in the extraction process by sonication. Comparison of results with those obtained by accelerated solvent extraction. (Author) 3 refs.

  11. Vibrational effects of fuel elements detected during KNK II power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzel, F.; Vaeth, W.; Ansari, S.

    1982-08-01

    The reactivity signal of the KNK II reactor shows almost harmonic reactivity oscillations of Δρ≤0.5 cent. Sensitive correlation measurements, made during the regular plant operation with the normal out-of-core plant instrumentation, revealed that they are associated with individual fuel elements. Auxiliary measurements under various operational conditions and theoretical considerations showed that the oscillations are caused by flow-induced mechanical vibrations. Similar characteristics with respect to the frequencies of these oscillations have obviously not yet been observed for fuel element vibrations in other reactors and tests in out-of-core loops. Therefore efforts were made to classify the phenomenon and to identify the excitation mechanism by using only the normal plant instrumentation. It seems to be most likely a flow-induced vibration of whole fuel elements by vortex shedding or jet switching. This model can explain all observations without exception [de

  12. Metal waste forms from treatment of EBR-II spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstration of Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being conducted on irradiated, metallic driver fuel and blanket fuel elements from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho. The residual metallic material from the electrometallurgical treatment process is consolidated into an ingot, the metal waste form (MWF), by employing an induction furnace in a hot cell. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses have been performed on irradiated cladding hulls from the driver fuel, and on samples from the alloy ingots. This paper presents the microstructures of the radioactive ingots and compares them with observations on simulated waste forms prepared using non-irradiated material. These simulated waste forms have the baseline composition of stainless steel - 15 wt % zirconium (SS-15Zr). Additions of noble metal elements, which serve as surrogates for fission products, and actinides are made to that baseline composition. The partitioning of noble metal and actinide elements into alloy phases and the role of zirconium for incorporating these elements is discussed in this paper

  13. A quantum Otto engine with finite heat baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozas-Kerstjens, Alejandro; Brown, Eric G.; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.

    2018-01-01

    We study a driven harmonic oscillator operating an Otto cycle by strongly interacting with two thermal baths of finite size. Using the tools of Gaussian quantum mechanics, we directly simulate the dynamics of the engine as a whole, without the need to make any approximations. This allows us...... to understand the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of the engine not only from the perspective of the working medium, but also as it is seen from the thermal baths' standpoint. For sufficiently large baths, our engine is capable of running a number of perfect cycles, delivering finite power while operating very...... close to maximal efficiency. Thereafter, having traversed the baths, the perturbations created by the interaction abruptly deteriorate the engine's performance. Weadditionally study the correlations generated in the system, and, in particular, we find a direct connection between the build up of bath...

  14. Feedback components of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled compared to a U10Zr-fueled EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Calculated feedback components of the regional contributions of the power reactivity decrements (PRDs) and of the temperature coefficients of reactivity of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled and of a U10Zr-fueled Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are compared. The PRD components are also separated into power-to-flow dependent and solely power dependent parts. The effects of these values upon quantities useful for indicating the comparative potential inherent safety characteristics of these EBR-II loadings are presented

  15. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II; Estudio de barras combustibles de seccion eliptica II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboada, H; Marajofsky, A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Combustibles Nucleares

    1997-12-31

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Quantum degeneracy effect on performance of irreversible Otto cycle with ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Feng; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih; Guo Fangzhong; Li Qing

    2006-01-01

    An Otto cycle working with an ideal Bose gas is called a Bose Otto cycle. The internal irreversibility of the cycle is included in the factors of internal irreversibility degree. The quantum degeneracy effect on the performance of the cycle is investigated based on quantum statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Variations of the maximum work output ratio R W and the efficiency ratio y with temperature ratio τ are examined, which reveal the influence of the quantum degeneracy of the working substance on the performance of a Bose Otto cycle. It is shown that the results obtained herein are valid under both classical and quantum ideal gas conditions

  17. Transforming criticality control methods for EBR-II fuel handling during reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C.S.; Dean, E.M.; Angelo, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    A review of the Department of Energy (DOE) request to decommission the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) was conducted in order to develop a scope of work and analysis method for performing the safety review of the facility. Evaluation of the current national standards, DOE orders, EBR-II nuclear safeguards and criticality control practices showed that a decommissioning policy for maintaining criticality safety during a long term fuel transfer process did not exist. The purpose of this research was to provide a technical basis for transforming the reactor from an instrumentation and measurement controlled system to a system that provides both physical constraint and administrative controls to prevent criticality accidents. Essentially, this was done by modifying the reactor core configuration, reactor operations procedures and system instrumentation to meet the safety practices of ANS-8.1-1983. Subcritical limits were determined by applying established liquid metal reactor methods for both the experimental and computational validations

  18. No consensus for consensus's sake. Interview with DAtF-President Dr. Otto Majewski

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The German power industry is not prepared to make special sacrifices at the expense of its shareholders, staff and customers merely to cure the apparent internal problems of the German government coalition and help the Greens to regain lost votes. Unless the Federal Minister for the Environment rescinds his current cascade of conditions and requirements impeding the efforts on the part of operators to resume fuel transports, everything 'boils down to a court case'. That the French government, contrary to general expectations, had not given the green light this year for the construction of a first EPR plant was due primarily to internal political reasons, which had to be respected. It did not really matter whether that decision was taken in 2000 or 2001. The important thing was that the EPR was built at all, which was beyond any doubt. This is the gist of the statements by Dr. Otto Majewski, President of the German Atomic Forum and Chief Executive Officer of Bayernwerk AG, in the interview granted atw Editor-in-Chief Gerhard Kuebler and printed in this issue of 'Atomwirtschaft'. (orig.) [de

  19. Homogeneous charge compression ignition compared with Otto-Atkinson in a passenger car size engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Andreas

    2000-07-01

    The use of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) was investigated in an ordinary SI (spark ignition) engine, in this case a modified Volvo 850, working on one cylinder only, the others towed. The major purpose of this study was to examine whether there were the same kind of throttle losses in this engine as in a Diesel engine (Volvo TD 100). One reason for throttling is that HCCI causes very cold exhaust gases. The Diesel engine has a larger cylinder volume (1.6 compared to 0.5 litre), working at low engine speed (1000 rpm) and only two valves with comparably small area. The smaller Volvo 850 engine has four valves and was in this examination working at up to 3500 rpm. To make the engine run by HCCI following modifications were made. The compression was set to 20:1 by changing the piston. To affect the ignition an electrical heater was installed near the air inlet. Mixing iso-octane (ON 100) and N-heptane (ON 0) set the octane number. A couple of camshafts with different cam-profiles were used to achieve the right valve opening duration depending on which kind of combustion that was studied. There could then also be a comparison between Otto and HCCI combustion both working with wide-open throttle. To obtain comparable indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) the engine was working with late (LIVC) or early inlet valve closing (EIVC) at SI combustion. Measurements were taken involving in-cylinder pressure, temperature, speed, fuel-consumption, emissions etc. Regarding emissions there were special consideration taken to hydrocarbon and NO{sub x}, which are known to be extremely high respectively low with HCCI combustion. Important questions that should be answered were: * How does higher engine speed affect the combustion ?, * How does the engine size affect emissions ?, * How much is the valve area affecting gas exchange losses ?, and * How high is the efficiency with HCCI compared with Otto (LIVC/EIVC) ?. The best results are achieved at an indicated mean

  20. Preliminary Neutronic Design of High Burnup OTTO Cycle Pebble Bed Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Setiadipura, T; Irwanto, D; Zuhair, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    The pebble bed type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is among the interesting nuclear reactor designs in terms of safety and flexibility for co-generation applications. In addition, the strong inherent safety characteristics of the pebble bed reactor (PBR) which is based on natural mechanisms improve the simplicity of the PBR design, in particular for the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO) cycle PBR design. One of the important challenges of the OTTO cycle PBR design, and nuclear reactor ...

  1. System modelling to support accelerated fuel transfer rate at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imel, G.R.; Houshyar, A.; Planchon, H.P.; Cutforth, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) ia a 62.5 MW(th) liquid metal reactor operated by Argonne National Laboratory for The United States Department of Energy. The reactor is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the Argonne-West site (ANL-W). Full power operation was achieved in 1964,- the reactor operated continuously since that time until October 1994 in a variety of configurations depending on the programmatic mission. A three year program was initiated in October, 1993 to replace the 330 depleted uranium blanket subassemblies (S/As) with stainless steel reflectors. It was intended to operate the reactor during the three year blanket unloading program, followed by about a half year of driver fuel unloading. However, in the summer of 1994, Congress dictacted that EBR-II be shut down October 1, and complete defueling without operation. To assist in the planning for resources needed for this defueling campaign, a mathematical model of the fuel handling sequence was developed utilizing the appropriate reliability factors and inherent mm constraints of each stage of the process. The model allows predictions of transfer rates under different scenarios. Additionally, it has facilitated planning of maintenance activities, as well as optimization of resources regarding manpower and modification effort. The model and its application is described in this paper

  2. Behavior of EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements in simulated loss-of-flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Holland, J.W.; Kramer, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Three furnace heating tests were conducted with irradiated, HT9-clad and U-19wt%Pu-10wt%Zr-alloy, EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements to evaluate the behavior that could be expected during a loss-of-flow event in the reactor. In general, very significant safety margins for cladding breaching have been demonstrated in these tests, under conditions that would envelop a bounding unlikely loss-of-flow event in EBR-II. Highlights of the test results are presented, as are discussions of the cladding breaching mechanisms, axial fuel motion, and fuel surface liquefaction that were found in these tests. (orig.)

  3. The Pyramid and the Mosaic. Otto Neurath’s encyclopedism as a critical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alberto Dutto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Otto Neurath, one of the founding members of the Vienna Circle, took up a firm opposition in relation to his colleagues. Instead of searching for an ideal language, he asserted the possibility of a ‘universal empiricist slang’, including both everyday and scientific language. Particularly, Neurath conceives of a comprehensive theory of a unified science that postulates the necessity of orchestration within the discursive procedures in science, inspired by the model of encyclopedism.In the field of architecture, a similar encyclopedic endeavor was undertaken in Italy by Mario Ridolfi who, together with other leading exponents of architectural culture, conceived the Manuale dell’Architetto at the end of World War II. This construction handbook provided  support to engineers  during the intense period of post-war reconstruction. Unlike any previous attempt to document building culture, this collective work aspired to create a shared language able to cross the boundaries among the various fields of building science.Finally, encyclopedism is considered as a possible ‘foundation’ for building design as a shared practice, with a specific focus on Ridolfi’s late research on the relation between traditional construction methods and housing design, in the countryside around Umbria.

  4. Artificial Photosystem I and II: Highly Selective solar fuels and tandem photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuchen; Castellanos, Ignacio; Cerkovnik, Logan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, or generation of solar fuels from CO2/H2O, can provide an important alternative for rising CO2 emission and renewable energy generation. In our recent work, composite photocatalysts (CPCs) made from widebandgap nanotubes and different QDs were used to mimic Photosystem II (PS680) and I (PS700), respectively. By tuning the redox potentials using the size, composition and energy band alignment of QDs, we demonstrate highly selective (>90%) and efficient production of ethane, ethanol and acetaldehyde as solar fuels with different wavelengths of light. We also show that this selectivity is a result of precise energy band alignments (using cationic/anionic doping of nanotubes, QD size etc.), confirmed using measurements of electronic density of states, and alignment of higher redox potentials with hot-carriers can also lead to hot-carrier photocatalysis. This wavelength-selective CPCs can have important implications for inexpensive production of solar fuels including alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes and hydrogen, and making tandem structures (red, green, blue) with three CPCs, allowing almost full visible spectrum (410 ~ 730nm) utilization with different fuels produced simultaneously.

  5. 78 FR 36041 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: RFS Pathways II and Technical Amendments to the RFS 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Production, Transport and Tailpipe Emissions for Renewable Diesel and Naphtha C. Proposed Regulatory... and diesel fuel, or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities...

  6. Transient and steady-state analyses of an electrically heated Topaz-II Thermionic Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Xue, H.

    1992-01-01

    Transient and steady-state analyses of electrically heated, Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) for Topaz-II space power system are performed. The calculated emitter and collector temperatures, load electric power and conversion efficiency are in good agreement with reported data. In this paper the effects or Cs pressure, thermal power input, and load resistance on the steady-state performance of the TFE are also investigated. In addition, the thermal response of the ZrH moderator during a startup transient and following a change in the thermal power input is examined

  7. Multilevel quantum Otto heat engines with identical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. L.; Guo, D. Y.; Wu, S. L.; Yi, X. X.

    2018-02-01

    A quantum Otto heat engine is studied with multilevel identical particles trapped in one-dimensional box potential as working substance. The symmetrical wave function for Bosons and the anti-symmetrical wave function for Fermions are considered. In two-particle case, we focus on the ratios of W^i (i=B,F) to W_s, where W^B and W^F are the work done by two Bosons and Fermions, respectively, and W_s is the work output of a single particle under the same conditions. Due to the symmetrical of the wave functions, the ratios are not equal to 2. Three different regimes, low-temperature regime, high-temperature regime, and intermediate-temperature regime, are analyzed, and the effects of energy level number and the differences between the two baths are calculated. In the multiparticle case, we calculate the ratios of W^i_M/M to W_s, where W^i_M/M can be seen as the average work done by a single particle in multiparticle heat engine. For other working substances whose energy spectrum has the form of E_n˜ n^2, the results are similar. For the case E_n˜ n, two different conclusions are obtained.

  8. Control console conceptual design for sheet type fuels of Triga Mark-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Priyono; Kurnia Wibowo; Anang Susanto

    2016-01-01

    The control console conceptual design for sheet type fuel of TRIGA Mark-II reactor has been made. The control console conceptual design was made with refer study result of instrument and control system which is used in BATAN'S reactor i.e TRIGA-2000 Bandung, TRIGA Yogyakarta and MPR-30 Serpong. The control console conceptual design was made by using AutoCad software. The control console conceptual design reactor for sheet type fuel of TRIGA Mark-II reactor consist of 5 segments that is 3 segments for placing the computer monitors, 1 segment for placing bargraph displays and recorders and 1 segment for placing panel meters. There are the door on front and back position at each segment for enter and out devices in the console. The control console conceptual design is also equipped by the table along in front of console for placing reactor panel control and for writing, 3 drawers for 3 keyboards. The dimension of console will refer control room size and the components will be placed on console which will be detailed in detail design if this conceptual design has been approved. (author)

  9. Visual imagery and the user model applied to fuel handling at EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-06-01

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving visual display designs and the user`s perspective model of a system. The studies involved a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its use in expanding design choices which included the ``comfort parameters`` and ``perspective reality`` of the user`s model of the world. In developing visual displays for the EBR-II fuel handling system, the focus would be to incorporate the comfort parameters that overlap from each of the representation systems: visual, auditory and kinesthetic then incorporate the comfort parameters of the most prominent group of the population, and last, blend in the other two representational system comfort parameters. The focus of this informal study was to use the techniques of meta-modeling and synesthesia to develop a virtual environment that closely resembled the operator`s perspective of the fuel handling system of Argonne`s Experimental Breeder Reactor - II. An informal study was conducted using NLP as the behavioral model in a v reality (VR) setting.

  10. Visual imagery and the user model applied to fuel handling at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving visual display designs and the user's perspective model of a system. The studies involved a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its use in expanding design choices which included the ''comfort parameters'' and ''perspective reality'' of the user's model of the world. In developing visual displays for the EBR-II fuel handling system, the focus would be to incorporate the comfort parameters that overlap from each of the representation systems: visual, auditory and kinesthetic then incorporate the comfort parameters of the most prominent group of the population, and last, blend in the other two representational system comfort parameters. The focus of this informal study was to use the techniques of meta-modeling and synesthesia to develop a virtual environment that closely resembled the operator's perspective of the fuel handling system of Argonne's Experimental Breeder Reactor - II. An informal study was conducted using NLP as the behavioral model in a v reality (VR) setting

  11. Behavior of EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements in simulated loss-of-flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Holland, J.W.; Kramer, J.M.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses three furnace heating tests which were conducted with irradiated, HT9-clad and U-19wt.%Pu-l0wt.%Zr-alloy fuel, Mk-V-type fuel elements in the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois. In general, very significant safety margins for fuel-element cladding breaching have been demonstrated in these tests, under conditions that would envelop a bounding unlikely loss-of-flow event in EBR-II. Highlights of the test results will be given, as well as discussions of the cladding breaching mechanisms, axial fuel motion, and fuel surface liquefaction found in high-temperature testing of irradiated metallic fuel elements

  12. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  13. Otto Dix, Pablo Picasso y la pintura de guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Llorente Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Primera Guerra Mundial provocó desde su desencadenamiento cambios importantes en los países implicados que afectaron a todos los ámbitos de la vida de sus poblaciones. Algunos artistas sintieron especialmente la repercusión moral y la convulsión causadas por la guerra mecanizada en la que un número cada vez mayor de soldados morían en el frente, a la vez que se producían masacres en zonas de la retaguardia. El pintor expresionista alemán Otto Dix recogió en sus dibujos, hechos en primera línea de combate, la dureza de los enfrentamientos y de la vida de los combatientes en las trincheras del frente occidental y reflejó en grabados y pinturas posteriores a la Gran Guerra las penalidades y los horrores sufridas por aquellos. Sus obras son, además de testimonios de las atrocidades de los combates, condena y denuncia de todas las guerras. En el año 1937 el español Pablo Picasso pintó el mural Guernica, cuyo título alude al bombardeo de la localidad vasca del mismo nombre, ocurrido poco tiempo antes de que su autor lo comenzase. Ya desde su creación, el cuadro se convirtió en una de las obras artísticas principales del pasado siglo y en icono de la lucha por la paz. Ambos artistas emplearon lenguajes vanguardistas para crear formas nuevas, alejadas de las maneras tradicionales de representar la guerra en la cultura occidental. Dix se sirvió del expresionismo para mostrar en sus composiciones escenas verosímiles de una dureza difícil de soportar para quienes las contemplan. Picasso se apoyó sobre todo en el cubismo y el surrealismo para aludir a los efectos de la guerra moderna sobre la población indefensa.Countries involved in The Great War experienced dramatic changes in every aspect of their day to day life. Some artists were especially sensitive towards the moral convulsion caused by a mechanized war where an increasing number of soldiers were dying in the frontline and massacres were taking place in the rear. Through

  14. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi

  15. Revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta, Sternaspidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Sendall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, S. thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, S. affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, S. africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, S. andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, S. fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, S. islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, S. rietschi Caullery, 1944 from abyssal depths around Indonesia, S. scutata (Ranzani, 1817 from the Mediterranean Sea, S

  16. Revision of sternaspis otto, 1821 (polychaeta, sternaspidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Kelly; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2013-01-01

    To the memory of William Ronald Sendall Sternaspid polychaetes are common and often abundant in soft bottoms in the world oceans. Some authors suggest that only one species should be recognized, whereas others regard a few species as widely distributed in many seas and variable depths from the low intertidal to about 4400 m. There are some problems with species delineation and the distinctive ventro-caudal shield has been disregarded or barely used for identifying species. In order to clarify these issues, the ventral shield is evaluated in specimens from the same locality and its diagnostic potential is confirmed. On this basis, a revision of Sternaspis Otto, 1821 (Polychaeta: Sternaspidae) is presented based upon type materials, or material collected from type localities. The sternaspid body, introvert hooks and shield show three distinct patterns, two genera have seven abdominal segments and tapered introvert hooks, and one genus has eight abdominal segments and spatulate introvert hooks. The ventro-caudal shield has three different patterns: stiff with ribs, and sometimes concentric lines, stiff with feebly-defined ribs but no concentric lines, and soft with firmly adhered sediment particles. Sternaspis is restricted to include species with seven abdominal segments, falcate introvert hooks, and stiff shields, often exhibiting radial ribs, concentric lines or both. Sternaspis includes, besides the type species, Sternaspis thalassemoides Otto, 1821 from the Mediterranean Sea, Sternaspis affinis Stimpson, 1864 from the Northeastern Pacific, Sternaspis africana Augener, 1918, stat. n. from Western Africa, Sternaspis andamanensis sp. n. from the Andaman Sea, Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 from Japan, Sternaspis fossor Stimpson, 1853 from the Northwestern Atlantic, Sternaspis islandica Malmgren, 1867 from Iceland, Sternaspis maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, Sternaspis princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, Sternaspis rietschi Caullery

  17. Fuel and fuel pin behaviour in a high burnup fast breeder fuel subassembly: Results of destructive post-irradiation examinations of the KNK II/1 fuel subassembly NY-205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, G.

    1991-05-01

    The report gives a summarizing overview of the design characteristics, of the irradiation history and of the results of the destructive post-irradiation examinations of the fuel pins of the high-burnup fuel subassembly NY-205 of the KNK II first core. This element was operated for about 10 years and reached a maximum local burnup of 175 MWd/kg(HM) and a maximum neutron dose of 67 dpa-NRT. The main design data of this subassembly agree with those of the SNR 300 Mark-Ia, and it reached more than twice of the burnup and a similar neutron dose as foreseen for the SNR 300 fuel subassemblies [de

  18. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Swengel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988–2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others’ butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s. In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent

  19. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swengel, Ann B; Swengel, Scott R

    2013-11-20

    We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988-2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin), divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops) than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire) compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others' butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s). In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent need to identify

  20. Experimental studies of U-Pu-Zr fast reactor fuel pins in EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Hofman, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a generic reactor concept under development by Argonne National Laboratory. Much of the technology for the IFR is being demonstrated at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) on the Department of Energy site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The IFR concept relies on four technical features to achieve breakthroughs in nuclear power economics and safety: (1) a pool-type reactor configuration, (2) liquid sodium cooling, (3) metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle with on-site reprocessing. The purpose of this paper will be to summarize our latest results of irradiation testing uranium-plutonium-zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) fuel in the EBR-II. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Zr-rich layers electrodeposited onto stainless steel cladding during the electrorefining of EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Mariani, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent nuclear fuels. The initial demonstration of this process is being conducted on U-Zr alloy fuel elements irradiated in the experimental breeder reactor II (EBR-II). We report the first metallographic characterization of cladding hull remains for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent metallic fuel. During the electrorefining process, Zr-rich layers, with some U, deposit on all exposed surfaces of irradiated cladding segments (hulls) that originally contained the fuel alloy that was being treated. In some cases, not only was residual Zr (and U) found inside the cladding hulls, but a Zr-rind was also observed near the interior cladding hull surface. The Zr-rind was originally formed during the fuel casting process on the fuel slug. The observation of Zr deposits on all exposed cladding surfaces is explained with thermodynamic principles, when two conditions are met. These conditions are partial oxidation of Zr and the presence of residual uranium in the hulls when the electrorefining experiment is terminated. Comparisons are made between the structure of the initial irradiated fuel before electrorefining and the morphology of the material remaining in the cladding hulls after electrorefining. (orig.)

  2. EBR-II blanket fuel leaching test using simulated J-13 well water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonnesbeck, J. E.

    1998-05-15

    A pulsed-flow leaching test is being conducted using three EBR-II blanket fuel segments. These samples are immersed in simulated J-13 well water. The samples are kept at a constant temperature of 90 C. Leachate is exchanged weekly and analyzed for various nuclides which are of interest from a mobility and longevity point of view. Our primary interest is in the longer-lived species such as {sup 99}Tc, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 241}Am. In addition, the behavior of U, Pu, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs are being analyzed. During the course of this experiment, an interesting observation has been made involving one of the samples which could indicate the possible rapid ''anoxic'' oxidation of uranium metal to UO{sub 2}.

  3. Hydroprocessing and premium II refinery: a new refining philosophy for an era of clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgaudio, Caio Veiga Penna; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a brief history of Brazilian's emission and fuel specifications, since the appearance of PROCONVE until the late stages of the program for vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel. The development of the Brazilian refining is analyzed taking into account the emission and specification evolutions, and it can be perceived that the system's complexity increases while new constraints are imposed by the regulator. This aspect is even more apparent when the detailed scheme of the Premium II refinery and its main unit, the catalytic hydrocracker (HCC, which has not yet been part of PETROBRAS' refining park and will appear in three of the four new refineries of the company) is described. The new projects represent the culmination of the intensive use of energy and raw material for obtaining the products with the new specifications. There is a price for this development, both in investments and increased operating costs due to greater complexity of the system. To adapt to the era of clean fuels, refiners will present a series of challenges that will lead them to seek for more efficient processes and operational excellence (and ongoing efforts to reduce their emissions) in order to ensure positive refining margins. (author)

  4. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  5. EBR-II blanket fuel leaching test using simulated J-13 well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonnesbeck, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a pulsed-flow leaching test using simulated J-13 well water leachant. This test was performed on three blanket fuel segments from the ANL-W EBR-II nuclear reactor which were originally made up of depleted uranium (DU). This experiment was designed to mimic conditions which would exist if, upon disposal of this material in a geological repository, it came in direct contact with groundwater. These segments were contained in pressure vessels and maintained at a constant temperature of 90 C. Weekly aliquots of leachate were taken from the three vessels and replaced with an equal volume of fresh leachant. These weekly aliquots were analyzed for both 90 Sr and 137 Cs. The results of the pulsed-flow leach test showed the formation of uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and uranium hydride (UH 3 ) particulate with rapid release of the 137 Cs and 90 Sr to the leachant. On the fifth week of sampling, one of the vessels became over pressurized and vented gas when opened. The most reasonable explanation for the presence of gas in this vessel is that the unoxidized uranium metal in the blanket segment could have reacted with the surrounding water leachant to form hydrogen. However, an investigation is currently being undertaken to both qualify and quantify H 2 formation during uranium spent nuclear fuel corrosion in water

  6. Results of the critical experiments concerning OTTO loading at the critical HTR-test facility KAHTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drueke, V.; Litzow, W.; Paul, N.

    1982-12-01

    Critical experiments concerning OTTO loading are described. In the KAHTER facility an OTTO loading has been simulated, therefore the original KAHTER assembly was reconstructed. The determination of critical masses and reactivity worths of control rods and of additional absorber rods in the top reflector and in the upper cavity was of main interest for comparison with reactor following calculations. Besides this, reaction rates in different energy regions were measured in the upper part of the core, in the cavity and top reflector. (orig.) [de

  7. Eutectic penetration times in irradiated EBR-II driver fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.R.; Bottcher, J.H.; Seidel, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental test procedure employed the use of a high-temperature furnace which heated pre-irradiated elements to temperature and maintained the environment until element-cladding breach occurred. Pre-irradiated elements of the Mark-II design were first encapsulated in a close-fitting sealed tube that was instrumented with a pressure transducer at the top of the tube and a thermocouple at the element's top-of-fuel axial location. The volume of the capsule was evacuated in order to better identify the pressure pulse which would occur on breach and to minimize contaminants. Next, a three-zone fast-recovery furnace was heated and an axial temperature profile, similar to that experienced in the EBR-II core, was established. The encapsulated element was then quickly inserted into the furnace and remained there until clad breach occurred. The element was then removed from the furnace immediately. Visual and metallurgical examination of the rupture site was done later. A total of seven elements were tested in the above manner

  8. DIissolution of low enriched uranium from the experimental breeder reactor-II fuel stored at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively engaged in the development of electrochemical processing technology for the treatment of fast reactor fuels using irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as the primary test material. The research and development (R&D) activities generate a low enriched uranium (LEU) metal product from the electrorefining of the EBR-II fuel and the subsequent consolidation and removal of chloride salts by the cathode processor. The LEU metal ingots from past R&D activities are currently stored at INL awaiting disposition. One potential disposition pathway is the shipment of the ingots to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for dissolution in H-Canyon. Carbon steel cans containing the LEU metal would be loaded into reusable charging bundles in the H-Canyon Crane Maintenance Area and charged to the 6.4D or 6.1D dissolver. The LEU dissolution would be accomplished as the final charge in a dissolver batch (following the dissolution of multiple charges of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)). The solution would then be purified and the 235U enrichment downblended to allow use of the U in commercial reactor fuel. To support this potential disposition path, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a dissolution flowsheet for the LEU using samples of the material received from INL.

  9. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Otto-cycle HDE. (d) Every manufacturer of new motor vehicle engines subject to the standards prescribed... production of heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicle engines for model year 2008, except as explicitly allowed...

  10. Preliminary thermodynamic study of regenerative Otto based cycles with zero NOx emissions operating with adiabatic and polytropic expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Carril, Jose Carbia; Romero Gomez, Javier; Romero Gomez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient polytropic expansion based Otto cycle. • Thermal efficiency is due to the inherent regeneration. • Low temperature combustion with zero NOx emissions. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that a regenerative Otto cycle with adiabatic or polytropic expansion can achieve improved performance over traditional Otto engines, even exceeding the Carnot factor. Thus, the work deals with a novel regenerative Otto based internal combustion engine which differs from the conventional Otto thermal cycles in that the process of heat conversion into mechanical work is performed obeying a polytropic path function instead of the conventional adiabatic expansion without regeneration. Design characteristics concern the fact that combustion at constant volume is carried out undergoing large air excess so that the top combustion temperature is significantly lower than in conventional Otto cycles and consequently NOx emissions are neglected. Furthermore, during the polytropic expansion based path function, heat is absorbed by being submitted to a controlled heat flow rate, to achieve the desired polytropic expansion. The analysis of the regenerative Otto based on polytropic expansion is presented and results are compared with a regenerative Otto based on the adiabatic expansion and CF. The results show that a relevant advantage of the proposed regenerative Otto with polytropic expansion over the regenerative Otto cycle with adiabatic expansion involves performance enhancement within a wide range of combustion pressures, temperatures and regeneration capacities. Thus, thermal efficiency and specific work as function of the top combustion pressure ranges are of 71.95–58.43% and 143.5–173.6 kJ/kg respectively, when combustion pressures vary between 105 kPa and 200 kPa and CF is 60.8% (lower than the thermal efficiency). The successful results involving a compact engine structure, technically and economically viable, promises a new generation

  11. Experience gathered from the transport of a fuel element prototype of the CNA-II (Atucha-II nuclear power plant) type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorini, A.; Belinco, C.G.; El Bis, E.D.; Sacchi, M.A.; Mayans, C.O.; Martin Ghiselli, A.; Marcora, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the needs to materialize the transport of a fuel element prototype of the CNA-II (Atucha-II nuclear power plant) type, under special conditions, from the Fabrication Pilot Plant sited at the Constituyentes Atomic Center and the Ezeiza Atomic Center, for its subsequent analysis at the High Pressure Experimental Loop. The special conditions under which the transport has been made responded to the fact that the prototype presents a fragile adjustment between rods and separators, necessary to be preserved. (Author) [es

  12. Review of behavior of mixed-oxide fuel elements in extended overpower transient tests in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A.

    1994-10-01

    From a series of five tests conducted in EBR-II, a substantial data base has been established on the performance of mixed-oxide fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor under slow-ramp transient overpower conditions. Each test contained 19 preirradiated fuel elements with varying design and prior operating histories. Elements with aggressive design features, such as high fuel smear density and/or thin cladding, were included to accentuate transient effects. The ramp rates were either 0.1 or 10% ΔP/P/s and the overpowers ranged between ∼60 and 100% of the elements' prior power ratings. Six elements breached during the tests, all with aggressive design parameters. The other elements, including all those with moderate design features for the reference or advanced long-life drivers for PNC's prototype fast reactor Monju, maintained their cladding integrity during the tests. Posttest examination results indicated that fuel/cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) was the most significant mechanism causing the cladding strain and breach. In contrast, pressure loading from the fission gas in the element plenum was less important, even in high-burnup elements. During an overpower transient, FCMI arises from fuel/cladding differential thermal expansion, transient fuel swelling, and, significantly, the gas pressure in the sealed central cavity of elements with substantial centerline fuel melting. Fuel performance data from these tests, including cladding breaching margin and transient cladding strain, are correlatable with fuel-element design and operating parameters. These correlations are being incorporated into fuel-element behavior codes. At the two tested ramp rates, fuel element behavior appears to be insensitive to transient ramp rate and there appears to be no particular vulnerability to slow ramp transients as previously perceived

  13. Scientists from all over the world attend the ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Fischer, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School'' is organized each year alternately by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache. This year's Summer School, the 15th since its foundation, was run at the Advanced Training Center (FTU) of KIT Campus Nord on August 26 to September 4. The key topic this year was ''The Challenges in Implementing Fast Reactor Technology.'' These are the items discussed: Principles and challenges of future fast reactor designs, Fuels, fuel cycle, and recycling of minor actinides, Innovative cladding tube and structural materials, Special aspects of coolants and the challenges they pose, Fast reactor safety. Experts from 8 leading international research establishments and universities presented and discussed with the 58 participants from 16 countries the current state of the art and the latest development trends in the topics listed above. (orig.)

  14. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  15. Empire, Nationalism and the Jewish Question: Victor Adler and Otto Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Maderthaner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the life and thought of two important figures in the history of Austrian socialism—Victor Adler and Otto Bauer—as a prism through which to examine the complex relationship between German nationalism, the Jewish Question and pro-Habsburgism among the early leadership of the Austrian Social Democratic Party.

  16. J. Randvere Ruth ja Otto Weiningeri Geschlecht und Charakter / Mirjam Hinrikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinrikus, Mirjam, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Naise kirjeldus J. Randvere "Ruthis" ja Otto Weiningeri "Geschlecht und Charakter'is". Andmed autori kohta lk. 202. Ilmunud ka kogumikus: J. Randvere "Ruth" 19.-20. sajandi vahetuse kultuuris / koost. Mirjam Hinrikus. Tallinn : Underi ja Tuglase Kirjanduskeskus, 2006, lk. 145-169

  17. Otto Peters on Distance Education: The Industrialization of Teaching and Learning. Routledge Studies in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains new and previously published translations of 11 essays and articles about the industrialization of teaching and learning in distance education that were originally published in German by Otto Peters between 1965 and 1993. A "Preface" (Desmond Keegan) and an introduction placing Peters' writings in their historical…

  18. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THINKING BEFORE THE COGNITIVE REVOLUTION : Otto Selz on Problems, Schemas, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, Michel

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Wurzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper,

  19. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  20. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  1. PECITIS-II, a computer program to predict the performance of collapsible clad UO2 fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.K.; Anantharaman, K.; Sarda, V.

    1978-01-01

    The Indian power programme envisages the use of PHWRs, which use collapsible clad UO 2 fuel elements. A computer code, PECITIS-II, developed for the analysis of this type of fuel is described in detail. The sheath strain and fission gas pressure are evaluated by this method. The pellet clad gap conductance is calculated by Ross and Solute model. The pellet thermal expansion is calculated by assuming a two zone model, i.e. a plastic core surrounded by an elastic cracked annulus. (author)

  2. Safety analysis and optimization of the core fuel reloading for the Moroccan TRIGA Mark-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacir, B.; Boulaich, Y.; Chakir, E.; El Bardouni, T.; El Bakkari, B.; El Younoussi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Additional fresh fuel elements must be added to the reactor core. • TRIGA reactor could safely operate around 2 MW power with 12% fuel elements. • Thermal–hydraulic parameters were calculated and the safety margins are respected. • The 12% fuel elements will have no influence on the safety of the reactor. - Abstract: The Moroccan TRIGA MARK II reactor core is loaded with 8.5% in weight of uranium standard fuel elements. Additional fresh fuel elements must periodically be added to the core in order to remedy the observed low power and to return to the initial reactivity excess at the End Of Cycle. 12%-uranium fuel elements are available to relatively improve the short fuel lifetime associated with standard TRIGA elements. These elements have the same dimensions as standards elements, but with different uranium weight. The objective in this study is to demonstrate that the Moroccan TRIGA reactor could safely operate, around 2 MW power, with new configurations containing these 12% fuel elements. For this purpose, different safety related thermal–hydraulic parameters have been calculated in order to ensure that the safety margins are largely respected. Therefore, the PARET model for this TRIGA reactor that was previously developed and combined with the MCNP transport code in order to calculate the 3-D temperature distribution in the core and all the most important parameters like the axial distribution of DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) across the hottest channel. The most important conclusion is that the 12% fuel elements utilization will have no influence on the safety of the reactor while working around 2 MW power especially for configurations based on insertions in C and D-rings

  3. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs in a Contaminated Soil With Type II Fuel; Metodo Optimizado de Extraccion por Ultrasonidos para la Determinacion de PAHs Seleccionados en un Suelo Contaminado con Fuel de Tipo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2010-10-21

    A study on the optimization of an ultrasonic extraction method for selected PAHs determination in soil contaminated by type II fuel and by using HPLC with fluorescence detector is presented. The main objective was optimize the analytical procedure, minimizing the volume of solvent and analysis time and avoiding possible loss by evaporation. This work was carried out as part of a project that investigated a remediation process of agricultural land affected by an accidental spillage of fuel (Plan Nacional I + D + i, CTM2007-64 537). The paper is structured as: Optimization of wavelengths in the chromatographic conditions to improve resolution in the analysis of fuel samples. Optimization of the main parameters affecting in the extraction process by sonication. Comparison of results with those obtained by accelerated solvent extraction. (Author) 3 refs.

  4. Mechanistic Model for Atomization of Superheated Liquid Jet Fuel, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As air-breathing combustion applications advance, increased use of fuel for cooling, combined with cycle advancements, leads to a situation where the fuel can become...

  5. The birth of the fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Don

    2001-12-01

    Everyone knows that Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, Alexander Graham Bell the telephone and that the Otto and Diesel engines were invented by two Germans bearing those names. But who invented the fuel cell? Fuel cells generate electricity with virtually zero pollution by combining gaseous fuels and air. There are different types generally described as high temperature or low temperature fuel cells. Here, Don Prohaska delves into a recently published book: The Birth of the Fuel Cell, by a descendant of one of the fathers of the fuel cell, and sheds new light on the early days of this technology. (Author)

  6. Underwater Nuclear Fuel Disassembly and Rod Storage Process and Equipment Description. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The process, equipment, and the demonstration of the Underwater Nuclear Fuel Disassembly and Rod Storage System are presented. The process was shown to be a viable means of increasing spent fuel pool storage density by taking apart fuel assemblies and storing the fuel rods in a denser fashion than in the original storage racks. The assembly's nonfuel-bearing waste is compacted and containerized. The report documents design criteria and analysis, fabrication, demonstration program results, and proposed enhancements to the system

  7. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumentation and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. A general discussion is given of instrumentation and measurement techniques which are presently used being considered for fuel fabrication facilities. Those aspects which are most significant from the point of view of satisfying regulatory constraints have been emphasized. Sensors and measurement devices have been discussed, together with their interfacing into a computerized system designed to permit real-time data collection and analysis. Estimates of accuracy and precision of measurement techniques have been given, and, where applicable, estimates of associated costs have been presented. A general description of material control and accounting is also included. In this section, the general principles of nuclear material accounting have been reviewed first (closure of material balance). After a discussion of the most current techniques used to calculate the limit of error on inventory difference, a number of advanced statistical techniques are reviewed. The rest of the section deals with some regulatory aspects of data collection and analysis, for accountability purposes, and with the overall effectiveness of accountability in detecting diversion attempts in fuel fabrication facilities. A specific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility is given. The effect of random and systematic errors on the total material uncertainty has been discussed, together with the effect on uncertainty of the length of the accounting period

  8. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumentation and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. A general discussion is given of instrumentation and measurement techniques which are presently used being considered for fuel fabrication facilities. Those aspects which are most significant from the point of view of satisfying regulatory constraints have been emphasized. Sensors and measurement devices have been discussed, together with their interfacing into a computerized system designed to permit real-time data collection and analysis. Estimates of accuracy and precision of measurement techniques have been given, and, where applicable, estimates of associated costs have been presented. A general description of material control and accounting is also included. In this section, the general principles of nuclear material accounting have been reviewed first (closure of material balance). After a discussion of the most current techniques used to calculate the limit of error on inventory difference, a number of advanced statistical techniques are reviewed. The rest of the section deals with some regulatory aspects of data collection and analysis, for accountability purposes, and with the overall effectiveness of accountability in detecting diversion attempts in fuel fabrication facilities. A specific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility is given. The effect of random and systematic errors on the total material uncertainty has been discussed, together with the effect on uncertainty of the length of the accounting period.

  9. Kaks maastikuvaadet Karl Otto Gerhard von Kügelgenilt: romantismi kaja biidermeierlikus sarmis = Two Landscape Views by Otto Gerhard von Kügelgen: Echo of Romanticism in Biedermeier Charm / Kadi Polli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Polli, Kadi, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    2010. aastal Frankfurdis H. W. Fichteri kunstigaleriis müüki tulnud kümnest kunstiteosest, sh. Eesti Kunstimuuseumi poolt omandatud kahest Karl Otto Gerhard von Kügelgeni tööst. Franz Gerhard von Kügelgeni noorema poja Karl Otto Gerhard von Kügelgeni elust, loomingust ja tema akvarellidest "Perekond Vinni mõisas" ja "Rändur metsas"

  10. Behavior of EBR-II Mk-V-type fuel elements in simulated loss-of-flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Kramer, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The next step in the development of metal fuels for the integral fast reactor (IFR) is the conversion of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) core to one containing the ternary U-20 Pu-10 Zr alloy clad with HT-9 cladding, i.e., the Mk-V core. This paper presents results of three hot-cell furnace simulation tests on irradiated Mk-V-type fuel elements (U-19 Pu-10 Zr/HT-9), which were performed to support the safety case for the Mk-V core. These tests were designed to envelop an umbrella (bounding) unlikely loss-of-flow (LOF) event in EBR-II during which the calculated peak cladding temperature would reach 776 degree C for < 2 min. The principal objectives of these tests were (a) demonstration of the safety margin of the fuel element, (b) investigation of cladding breaching behavior, and (c) provision of data for validation of the FPIN2 and LIFE-METAL codes

  11. Calculation of DND-signals in case of fuel pin failures in KNK II with the computer code FICTION III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuck, I.

    1990-11-01

    In KNK II two delayed neutron detectors are installed for quick detection of fuel subassembly cladding failures. They record the release of the precursors of the emitters of delayed neutrons into the sodium. The computer code FICTION III calculates the expected delayed neutron signals for certain fuel pin failures, where the user has to set the boundary conditions interactively. In view of FICTION II the advancement of FICTION III consists of the following items: application of the data sets of 105 isotopes, distinction of thermal and fast neutron induced fission, partitioning of the sodium flow into two circuits, consideration of the specific fission rates in 10 fuel pin sections, elaboration of the user's interaction possibilities for input/ output. The capability of FICTION III is shown by means of two applications (UNi-test pin on position 100 and the third KNK fuel subassembly cladding failure). Object of further evaluations will be among other things the analysis of increased delayed neutron signals in regard to the fault location and dimension

  12. Scientists from all over the world attend the ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT); Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' am Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie (KIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Campus Nord/Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Tech. (INR), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School'' is organized each year alternately by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache. This year's Summer School, the 15th since its foundation, was run at the Advanced Training Center (FTU) of KIT Campus Nord on August 26 to September 4. The key topic this year was ''The Challenges in Implementing Fast Reactor Technology.'' These are the items discussed: Principles and challenges of future fast reactor designs, Fuels, fuel cycle, and recycling of minor actinides, Innovative cladding tube and structural materials, Special aspects of coolants and the challenges they pose, Fast reactor safety. Experts from 8 leading international research establishments and universities presented and discussed with the 58 participants from 16 countries the current state of the art and the latest development trends in the topics listed above. (orig.)

  13. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (Part II) - Reactor physics design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Choi, Hang Bok; Rhee, Bo Wook; Roh, Gyu Hong; Kim, Do Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The compatibility analysis of the DUPIC fuel in a CANDU reactor has been assessed. This study includes the fuel composition adjustment, comparison of lattice properties, performance analysis of reactivity devices, determination of regional over-power (ROP) trip setpoint, and uncertainty estimation of core performance parameters. For the DUPIC fuel composition adjustment, three options have been proposed, which can produce uniform neutronic characteristics of the DUPIC fuel. The lattice analysis has shown that the characteristics of the DUPIC fuel is compatible with those of natural uranium fuel. The reactivity devices of the CANDU-6 reactor maintain their functional requirements even for the DUPIC fuel system. The ROP analysis has shown that the trip setpoint is not sacrificed for the DUPIC fuel system owing to the power shape that enhances more thermal margin. The uncertainty analysis of the core performance parameter has shown that the uncertainty associated with the fuel composition variation is reduced appreciably, which is primarily due to the fuel composition adjustment and secondly the on-power refueling feature and spatial control function of the CANDU reactor. The reactor physics calculation has also shown that it is feasible to use spent PWR fuel directly in CANDU reactors without deteriorating the CANDU-6 core physics design requirements. 29 refs., 67 figs., 60 tabs. (Author)

  14. Fuel Modelling at Extended Burnup (Fumex-II). Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    to fuel licensing. This report describes the results of the coordinated research project on fuel modelling at extended burnup (FUMEX-II). This programme was initiated in 2000 and completed in 2006. It followed previous programmes on fuel modelling, D-COM which was conducted between 1982 and 1984, and the FUMEX programme which was conducted between 1993 and 1996. The participants used a mixture of data, derived from actual irradiation histories, in particular those with PIE measurements from high burnup commercial and experimental fuels, combined with idealized power histories intended to represent possible future extended dwell, commercial irradiations, to test code capabilities at high burnup. All participants have carried out calculations on the six priority cases selected from the 27 cases identified to them at the first research coordination meeting (RCM). At the second RCM, three further priority cases were identified and have been modelled. These priority cases have been chosen as the best available to help determine which of the many high burnup models used in the codes best reflect reality. The participants are using the remaining cases for verification and validation purposes as well as inter-code comparisons. The codes participating in the exercise have been developed for a wide variety of purposes, including predictions for fuel operation in PWR, BWR, WWER, the pressurized HWR type, CANDU and other reactor types. They are used as development tools as well as for routine licensing calculations, where code configuration is strictly controlled.

  15. Progress of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis (II) - thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-03-01

    Thermal-hydraulic compatibility of the DUPIC fuel bundle with a 713 MWe Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU-6) reactor was studied by using both the single channel and sub-channel analysis methods. The single channel analysis provides the fuel channel flow rate, pressure drop, critical channel power, and the channel exit quality, which are assessed against the thermal-hydraulic design requirements of the CANDU-6 reactor. The single channel analysis by the NUCIRC code showed that the thermal-hydraulic performance of the DUPIC fuel is not different from that of the standard CANDU fuel. Regarding the local flow characteristics, the sub-channel analysis also showed that the uncertainty of the critical channel power calculation for the DUPIC fuel channel is very small. As a result, both the single and sub-channel analyses showed that the key thermal-hydraulic parameters of the DUPIC fuel channel do not deteriorate compared to the standard CANDU fuel channel.

  16. V strane piramid : zhizn i trudõ Otto Friedricha von Richtera / Sergei Stadnikov ; tõlk. Veronika Einberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnikov, Sergei, 1956-

    2003-01-01

    Vastse-Kuustest pärit egüptoloogist Otto Friedrich von Richter'ist (1791-1816). Richteri ja Lindmani Egiptuse-Nuubia ekspeditsioonist, Tartu Ülikooli Muinasteaduse muuseumile annetatud kollektsioonist

  17. Mechanical behaviors of the dispersion nuclear fuel plates induced by fuel particle swelling and thermal effect II: Effects of variations of the fuel particle diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shurong; Wang Qiming; Huo Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    In order to predict the irradiation mechanical behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the total burnup is divided into two stages: the initial stage and the increasing stage. At the initial stage, the thermal effects induced by the high temperature differences between the operation temperatures and the room temperature are mainly considered; and at the increasing stage, the intense mechanical interactions between the fuel particles and the matrix due to the irradiation swelling of fuel particles are focused on. The large-deformation thermo-elasto-plasticity finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the effects of particle diameters on the in-pile mechanical behaviors of fuel elements. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the fuel particle diameters; the effects of particle diameters on the maximum first principal stresses vary with burnup, and the considered case with the largest particle diameter holds the maximum values all along; (2) at the cladding near the interface between the fuel meat and the cladding, the Mises stresses and the first principal stresses undergo major changes with increasing burnup, and different variations exist for different particle diameter cases; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles rise with the particle diameters.

  18. Scientists from all over the world attended the 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2011' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Victor H.; Fischer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Commissariat r leEnergie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Cadarache, alternate in organizing the annual 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School.' This year's event, the 17th since its inception, was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on August 25 to September 3. Its topic was 'High-fidelity Modeling for Nuclear Reactors: Challenges and Prospects.' Here is a list of the subjects covered: - Status and perspectives of modeling and its role in design, operation, and safety. - Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactors and simulation of 2 phase flows. - Structural mechanics, structure? fluid interaction, and seismic safety. - Advanced simulation in neutronics and reactor physics. - Progress in simulating fuel and materials behavior. - Multiphysics and uncertainty analysis methods. Experts from eight leading international research institutions and universities presented, and discussed with the 59 participants from 19 countries, the current state of the art and most recent development trends in the subjects listed above. (orig.)

  19. Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project (SPAR-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    As storage of spent fuel has become a key technology in spent fuel management, wet and dry storage have become mature technologies and continue to demonstrate good performance. Increased spent fuel storage capacity in combination with longer storage durations will be needed over the foreseeable future as many countries have delayed their decision on spent fuel disposal or reprocessing. Extended spent fuel storage is, and will remain, an important activity for all countries with nuclear power programmes. A number of countries are planning or have already initiated research programmes on spent fuel storage performance, and there is a continuing benefit in exchanging spent fuel storage experience of the Member States in order to build a comprehensive technology knowledge base. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during wet storage are uniform corrosion, pitting, galvanic, and microbiologically-influenced corrosion. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during dry storage and subsequent handling and transportation operations are air oxidation, thermal creep, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride re-orientation, hydrogen migration and re-distribution. Investigations carried out so far indicate that from the degradation mechanisms that may affect the integrity of spent fuel assembly/bundle structure during interim storage, hydride re-orientation has the potential to impair the ability of the cladding to effectively withstand potentially adverse mechanical challenges resulting from handling or transportation accidents. Fuel integrity issues are related to the definition and criteria of fuel integrity, failure classification, packaging and retrieval of damaged fuel and transport of damaged fuel assemblies. Various monitoring technologies have been developed and used to confirm the continued spent fuel integrity during storage or to provide an early indication of developing

  20. Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project (SPAR-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    As storage of spent fuel has become a key technology in spent fuel management, wet and dry storage have become mature technologies and continue to demonstrate good performance. Increased spent fuel storage capacity in combination with longer storage durations will be needed over the foreseeable future as many countries have delayed their decision on spent fuel disposal or reprocessing. Extended spent fuel storage is, and will remain, an important activity for all countries with nuclear power programmes. A number of countries are planning or have already initiated research programmes on spent fuel storage performance, and there is a continuing benefit in exchanging spent fuel storage experience of the Member States in order to build a comprehensive technology knowledge base. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during wet storage are uniform corrosion, pitting, galvanic, and microbiologically-influenced corrosion. Potential degradation mechanisms that may affect cladding integrity during dry storage and subsequent handling and transportation operations are air oxidation, thermal creep, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride re-orientation, hydrogen migration and re-distribution. Investigations carried out so far indicate that from the degradation mechanisms that may affect the integrity of spent fuel assembly/bundle structure during interim storage, hydride re-orientation has the potential to impair the ability of the cladding to effectively withstand potentially adverse mechanical challenges resulting from handling or transportation accidents. Fuel integrity issues are related to the definition and criteria of fuel integrity, failure classification, packaging and retrieval of damaged fuel and transport of damaged fuel assemblies. Various monitoring technologies have been developed and used to confirm the continued spent fuel integrity during storage or to provide an early indication of developing

  1. Analysis of reactivity worths of highly-burnt PWR fuel samples measured in LWR-PROTEUS Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Peter; Murphy, Michael F.; Jatuff, Fabian; Seiler, Rudolf [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The reactivity loss of PWR fuel with burnup has been determined experimentally by inserting fresh and highly-burnt fuel samples in a PWR test lattice in the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II programme. Seven UO{sub 2} samples irradiated in a Swiss PWR plant with burnups ranging from approx40 to approx120 MWd/kg and four MOX samples with burnups up to approx70 MWd/kg were oscillated in a test region constituted of actual PWR UO{sub 2} fuel rods in the centre of the PROTEUS zero-power experimental facility. The measurements were analyzed using the CASMO-4E fuel assembly code and a cross section library based on the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The results show close proximity between calculated and measured reactivity effects and no trend for a deterioration of the quality of the prediction at high burnup. The analysis thus demonstrates the high accuracy of the calculation of the reactivity of highly-burnt fuel. (authors)

  2. Micro-/nanoscaled irreversible Otto engine cycle with friction loss and boundary effects and its performance characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Wenjie; Liao, Qinghong; Zhang, ChunQiang; He, Jizhou

    2010-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of the micro-/nanoscaled Otto engine cycle with internal friction loss is established. The general expressions of the work output and efficiency of the cycle are calculated based on the finite system thermodynamic theory, in which the quantum boundary effect of gas particles as working substance and the mechanical Casimir effect of gas system are considered. It is found that, for a micro-/nanoscaled Otto cycle devices, the work output W and efficiency η of the cycle can be expressed as the functions of the temperature ratio τ of the two heat reservoirs, the volume ratio r V and the surface area ratio r A of the two isochoric processes, the dimensionless thermal wavelength λ and other parameters of cycle, while for a macroscaled Otto cycle devices, the work output W 0 and efficiency η 0 of the cycle are independent of the surface area ratio r A and the dimensionless thermal wavelength λ. Further, the influence of boundary of cycle on the performance characteristics of the micro-/nanoscaled Otto cycle are analyzed in detail by introducing the output ratio W/W 0 and efficiency ratio η/η 0 . The results present the general performance characteristics of a micro-/nanoscaled Otto cycle and may serve as the basis for the design of a realistic Otto cycle device in micro-/nanoscale.

  3. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of the SIMMER-II analyses of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor core-disruptive accident fuel escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVault, G.P.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Early fuel removal from the active core of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor undergoing a core-disruptive accident may reduce the potential for large energetics resulting from recriticalities. This paper presents a review of analyses with the SIMMER-II computer program of the effectiveness of possible fuel escape paths. Where possible, how SIMMER-II compares with or is validated against experiments that simulated the escape paths also is discussed

  5. The 50th anniversary of the N.S. Otto Hahn. When nuclear power said 'Ahoy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    In September 1963 the construction of the only German nuclear ship to date, NS Otto Hahn, started in Kiel. For the 50 th anniversary, atw remembers an important part of nuclear technology history in Germany: The research and freight ship shows one thing above all in retrospect: The technology ran reliably. But cost pressure and reservations shattered the dream of a nuclear power shipping era. Until it was decommissioned in 1979 the ship travelled a total of 650,000 sea miles and called at 33 harbours in 22 countries. On the research level, the 'Otto Hahn' could satisfy expectations, however, it could not ring in an era of nuclear shipping - the atomic boat could never cover its operating costs with its freight trips and permission to call at foreign ports were rare. However, on the one hand, the ship's journeys, sometimes under hard weather conditions, demonstrated just how robust and durable the 'progressive pressurized water reactor' on board was, on the other hand, the 'Otto Hahn' had by all means been a prototype which under other market conditions could have been a model for nuclear container ships. In any case, it proved the performance capacity of the then still young German and European nuclear technology industry, that did not need to hide behind the Russian and American competition. (orig.)

  6. Symposium proceedings: environmental aspects of fuel conversion technology, II, December 1975, Hollywood, Florida. [34 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, F.A. (comp.)

    1976-06-01

    The report covers EPA's second symposium on the environmental aspects of fuel conversion technology. Its main objective was to review and discuss environmentally related information in the field of fuel conversion technology. Specific topics were environmental problem definition, process technology, control technology, and process measurements. Thirty-four papers were abstracted and indexed separately.

  7. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the

  8. Reactivity Measurements On Burnt And Reference Fuel Samples In LWR-PROTEUS Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R.; Luethi, A.; Van Geemert, R.; Brogli, R.; Chawla, R.; Meier, G.; Berger, H.-D.

    2003-01-01

    During the year 2002, the PROTEUS research reactor was used to make a series of reactivity measurements on Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) burnt fuel samples, and on a series of specially prepared standards. These investigations have been made in two different neutron spectra. In addition, the intrinsic neutron emissions of the burnt fuel samples have been determined. (author)

  9. Development of metal fuel and study of construction materials (I-IV), Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlovic, A.

    1965-11-01

    The studies were devoted to problems related to application of metal uranium as fuel in heavy water reactors. Influence of thermal treatment on material texture and recrystallization of cast uranium was investigated. Structural changes of uranium alloys with molybdenum and niobium were tested during different heat treatments. A review of the possibilities for using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors is included

  10. Closed-Loop Pure Oxygen Static Feed Fuel Cell for Lunar Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to address the NASA lunar mission, DESC proposes to develop a proton exchange membrane (PEM) closed-loop pure oxygen fuel cell for application to lunar...

  11. ISLSCP II Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels, Cement, and Gas Flaring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains decadal (1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1995) estimates of gridded fossil-fuel emissions, expressed in 1,000 metric tons C per...

  12. ISLSCP II Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels, Cement, and Gas Flaring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains decadal (1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1995) estimates of gridded fossil-fuel emissions, expressed in 1,000 metric tons C per year per one...

  13. Fuel depletion analyses for the HEU core of GHARR-1: Part II: Fission product inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anim-Sampong, S.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Boadu, H.O.; Intsiful, J.D.K.; Osae, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fission product isotopic inventories have been estimated for a 90.2% highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel lattice cell of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) using the WIMSD/4 transport lattice code. The results indicate a gradual decrease in the Xe 135 inventory, and saturation trend for Sm 149 , Cs 134 and Cs 135 inventories as the fuel is depleted to 10,000 MWd/tU. (author)

  14. Proceedings - Alternate Fuels II: The disposal and productive use of industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain 26 papers dealing with the following topics: fuels (biomass, coal, petroleum coke, landfill gas, hazardous and toxic wastes, liquid wastes, and digester gas); combustion systems; plant systems (pollution control, combustion control, and materials handling systems); external factors (public relations, markets, hazardous waste, vitrification for waste management); and case histories of resource recovery facilities, process heating plants, and retrofits to alternative fuels. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Laser-enhanced chemical reactions and the liquid state. II. Possible applications to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Rofer-DePoorter, C.K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser photochemistry is surveyed as a possible improvement upon the Purex process for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. Most of the components of spent nuclear fuel are photochemically active, and lasers can be used to selectively excite individual chemical species. The great variety of chemical species present and the degree of separation that must be achieved present difficulties in reprocessing. Lasers may be able to improve the necessary separations by photochemical reaction or effects on rates and equilibria of reactions

  16. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  17. OTTO VON BISMARCK – CHAMPION DE LA DISCORDE!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel CRUCEANU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Le „Chancelier de Fer” a été sans dout le plus in fluent homme d’État européen de la seconde moitié du XIX e siècle. Dans une carière politique de 28 ans, il a croisé nombreuses personnalités de son temps. Ayant un remarquable talent de narrateur et un esprit critique pénétrant, Bismarck a légué à la posterité une large gamme d’opinions sur ses contemporains. De temps à autre, il avait l’air doux, même lyrique, mais le plus souvent il s’avérait impérieux, arrogant, sans merci... Aurait-il été spontané ou il jouait sans cesse dans une pièce bien mise en scene? Tout cela nous parvient de le correspondance officielle des dimplomates français accréditès en Allemagne par le Ministère des Affaires Étrangères de Paris. Les informations se retrouvent en toute leur splendeur dans la collection Documents Diplomatiques Français (1871-1914, 1 resérie (1871-1900, tome II (1 er juillet1875-31 décembre 1879, tome III (2 janvier 1880-13 mai 1881, tome IV (13 mai 1881-20 février 1883, tome V (23 février 1883-9 avril 1885, tome VI (8 avril 1885-30 décembre1887, tome VI bis (4 mars 1885-29 décembre 1887, tome VII (1er janvier 1888-19 mars 1890 et tome VIII (20 mars 1890-28 août 1891. En faissant référence au contenu, mais aussi au pittoresque des entretiens avec Bismarck, l’ambassadeur Raymond de Saint-Vallier notait qu’elles représentaient „une mine inépuisable” d’informations et que, s’il avait insisté davantag e sur les détails, „il aurait des volumes à écrire”

  18. Postirradiation results and evaluation of helium-bonded uranium--plutonium carbide fuel elements irradiated in EBR-II. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, T.W.; Barner, J.O.; Kerrisk, J.F.; Green, J.L.

    1976-02-01

    An evaluation was made of the performance of 74 helium-bonded uranium-plutonium carbide fuel elements that were irradiated in EBR-II at 38-96 kW/m to 2-12 at. percent burnup. Only 38 of these elements have completed postirradiation examination. The higher failure rate found in fuel elements which contained high-density (greater than 95 percent theoretical density) fuel than those which contained low-density (77-91 percent theoretical density) fuel was attributed to the limited ability of the high-density fuel to swell into the void space provided in the fuel element. Increasing cladding thickness and original fuel-cladding gap size were both found to influence the failure rates for elements containing low-density fuel. Lower cladding strain and higher fission-gas release were found in high-burnup fuel elements having smear densities of less than 81 percent. Fission-gas release was usually less than 5 percent for high-density fuel, but increased with burnup to a maximum of 37 percent in low-density fuel. Maximum carburization in elements attaining 5-10 at. percent burnup and clad in Types 304 or 316 stainless steel and Incoloy 800 ranged from 36-80 μm and 38-52 μm, respectively. Strontium and barium were the fission products most frequently found in contact with the cladding but no penetration of the cladding by uranium, plutonium, or fission products was observed

  19. On LMFBR corrosion. Part II: Consideration of the in-reactor fuel-cladding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Pickering, S.; Walker, C.T.; Whitlow, W.H.

    1976-05-01

    The scientific and technological aspects of LMFBR cladding corrosion are discussed in detail. Emphasis is placed on the influence of the irradiation environment and the effect of fuel and filler-gas impurities on the corrosion process. These studies are complemented by a concise review of out-of-pile simulation experiments that endeavour to clarify the role of the aggressive fission products cesium, tellurium and iodine. The principal models for cladding corrosion are presented and critically assessed. Areas of uncertainty are exposed and some pertinent experiments are suggested. Consideration is also given to some new observations regarding the role of stress in fuel-cladding reactions and the formation of ferrite in the corrosion zone of the cladding during irradiation. Finally, two technological solutions to the problem of cladding corrosion are proposed. These are based on the use of an oxygen buffer in the fuel and the application of a protective coating to the inner surface of the cladding

  20. Status of RBCB testing of LMR oxide fuel in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, R.V.; Bottcher, J.H.; Gross, K.C.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Ukai, S.; Nomura, S.; Shikakura, S.; Katsuragawa, M.

    1991-01-01

    The status is given of the the American-Japanese collaborative program in Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 to determine the run-beyond-cladding-breach performance of (UPu)O 2 fuel pins for liquid-metal cooled reactors. Phase 1 of the collaboration involved eighteen irradiation tests over 1981--86 with 5.84-mm pins in 316 or D9 stainless steel. Emphasis in Phase 2 tests from 1989 onwards is with larger diameter (7.5mm) pins in advanced claddings. Results include delayed neutron and fission gas release data from breached pins, the impact of fuel-sodium reaction product formation on pin performance, and fuel and fission product contamination from failures. 13 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. The Test for Flow Characteristics of Tubular Fuel Assembly(II) - Experimental results and CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, H. T.; Park, C.; Kim, H.

    2006-12-01

    A test facility had been established for the experiment of velocity distribution and pressure drop in a tubular fuel. A basic test had been conducted to examine the performance of the test loop and to verify the accuracy of measurement by pitot-tube. In this report, test results and CFD analysis for the hydraulic characteristics of a tubular fuel, following the previous tests, are described. Coolant velocities in all channels were measured using pitot-tube and the effect of flow rate change on the velocity distribution was also examined. The pressure drop through the tubular fuel was measured for various flow rates in range of 1 kg/s to 21 kg/s to obtain a correlation of pressure drop with variation of flow rate. In addition, a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis was also done to find out the hydraulic characteristics of tubular fuel such as velocity distribution and pressure drop. As the results of CFD analysis can give us a detail insight on coolant flow in the tubular fuel, the CFD method is a very useful tool to understand the flow structure and phenomena induced by fluid flow. The CFX-10, a commercial CFD code, was used in this study. The two results by the experiment and the CFD analysis were investigated and compared with each other. Overall trend of velocity distribution by CFD analysis was somewhat different from that of experiment, but it would be reasonable considering measurement uncertainties. The CFD prediction for pressure drop of a tubular fuel shows a tolerably good agreement with experiment within 8% difference

  2. Revista Espinhaço entrevistaDra. Bette Otto Bliesner(NCAR Boulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Behzadian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dra. Bette Otto Bliesner foi entrevistada pela Revista Espinhaço durante o BIARI 2016, que ocorreu em Providence (EUA na Brown University. Para este volume especial da Revista Espihaço, a Dra. Bette, pesquisadora do National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR e especialista em modelagem climática e paleo-climatologia, traz reflexões sobre seu recente trabalho no IPCC.Esta entrevista foi conduzida por Kourosh Behzadian (University of West London, Douglas Sathler (FIH/Cegeo/UFVJM and Lorena Fleury (UFRGS.

  3. L'insegnamento dell'evoluzione nei manuali scolastici di otto paesi costieri del Mediterraneo

    OpenAIRE

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clément, Pierre; Valente, Adriana; Selmaoui, Sabah

    2012-01-01

    I manuali scolastici di biologia di otto paesi mediterranei affrontano il tema dell'evoluzione in modi molto differenti. In Algeria e in Libano, l'argomento non viene trattato o non più. In Tunisia, il tema è trattato nella classe terminale (ovvero nell'ultima classe del Liceo n.d.R.), ma senza un capitolo specifico sull'evoluzione umana. In Maroccco, l'evoluzione è stata appena reintrodotta in classe terminale ma senza l'evoluzione umana. Il tema è più ampiamente coperto a Cipro e a Malta, e...

  4. Pyroprocessing of oxidized sodium-bonded fast reactor fuel - An experimental study of treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, S.D.; Gese, N.J. [Separations Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Wurth, L.A. [Zinc Air Inc., 5314-A US Hwy 2 West, Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electro-metallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. In the absence of zirconium or sodium oxide, the electrolytic reduction of MnO showed nearly complete conversion to metal. The electrolytic reduction of a blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but only 8.5% of the zirconium was found in the metal phase. The electrolytic reduction of the same blend of MnO-ZrO{sub 2} in LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O - 6.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O showed substantial reduction of manganese, but zirconium reduction was even less at 2.4%. This study concluded that ZrO{sub 2} cannot be substantially reduced to metal in an electrolytic reduction system with LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O at 650 C. degrees due to the perceived preferential formation of lithium zirconate. This study also identified a possible interference that sodium oxide may have on the same system by introducing a parasitic and cyclic reaction of dissolved sodium metal between oxidation at the anode and reduction at the cathode. When applied to oxidized sodium-bonded EBR-II fuel (e.g., U-10Zr), the prescribed electrolytic reduction system would not be expected to substantially reduce zirconium oxide, and the accumulation of sodium in the electrolyte could interfere with the reduction of uranium oxide, or at least render it less efficient.

  5. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs by HPLC in a Type 2 Fuel; Evaluacion Analitica de 4 Metodos de Determinacion de PAHs medianteHPLC en un Fuel de Tipo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2009-05-21

    An evaluation of analytical parameters to determine selected PAHs in a fuel oil type II by HPLC coupled to fluorescence and diode detectors is presented. The study was focused on four conventional treatments of these kinds of oil samples and the main objective was giving a measure of confidence level of PAH results in the fuel oil. This study was performed in the frame of the project Assessment of natural attenuation of PAHs in agricultural soil contaminated with fuel from an accidental spill (Spanish National Plain I+D+I, CTM2007-64537). This paper is presented as follows: Analysis of reference material 1582 (NIST) by using the four kinds of sample treatments of interest. Application of variance analysis to compare results obtained from type II fuel by using each sample treatment and chromatographic detector. Finally, a statistic calculation was performed to measure uncertainty components in chromatographic analysis. (Author)

  6. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume II. BNFP: utilization alternatives, evaluations, and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Descriptions and status of the Barnwell separations facility and related fuel cycle facilities are given. Alternative uses other than reprocessing, evaluation of uses for reprocessing alternatives, resource utilization and its relationship to U.S. security objectives, and evaluation of ownership-management options are discussed

  7. IFPE/RISOE-II, Fuel Performance Data from Transient Fission Gas Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Description: The RISO National Laboratory in Denmark have carried out three irradiation programs of slow ramp and hold tests, so called 'bump tests' to investigate fission gas release and fuel microstructural changes. The second project took place between 1982 and 1986 and was called 'The RISO Transient Fission Gas Project'. The fuel used in the project was from: IFA-161 irradiated in the Halden BWR (27 to 42 MWd/kgUO 2 ) and GE BWR fuel irradiated in the Millstone 1 reactor 14 to 29 MWd/kgUO 2 . Using the re-fabrication technique, it was possible to back fill the test segment with a choice of gas and gas pressure and to measure the time dependence of fission gas release by continuous monitoring of the plenum pressure. The short length of the test segment was an advantage because, depending on where along the original rod the section was taken, burnup could be chosen variable, and during the test the fuel experienced a single power

  8. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption

  9. Stationary liquid fuel fast reactor SLFFR — Part II: Safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Jung, Y.S.; Yang, W.S., E-mail: yang494@purdue.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA is developed for SLFFR transient analyses. • MUSA is verified against the SYS4A/SASSYS-1 code by simulating the ULOF accident for the advanced burner test reactor. • It is shown that SLFFR has a passive shutdown capability for double-fault, beyond-design-basis accidents UTOP, ULOHS and ULOF. - Abstract: Safety characteristics have been evaluated for the stationary liquid fuel fast reactor (SLFFR) proposed for effective burning of hazardous TRU elements of used nuclear fuel. In order to model the geometrical configuration and reactivity feedback mechanisms unique to SLFFR, a multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA was developed. MUSA solves the time-dependent coupled neutronics and thermal-fluidic problems. The thermal-fluidic behavior of the core is described by representing the core with one-dimensional parallel channels. The primary heat transport system is modeled by connecting compressible volumes by liquid segments. A point kinetics model with six delayed neutron groups is used to represent the fission power transients. The reactivity feedback is estimated by combining the temperature and density variations of liquid fuel, structural material and sodium coolant with the corresponding axial distributions of reactivity worth in each individual thermal-fluidic channel. Preliminary verification tests with a conventional solid fuel reactor agreed well with the reference solutions obtained with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code. Transient analyses of SLFFR were performed for unprotected transient over-power (UTOP), unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accidents. The results showed that the thermal expansion of liquid fuel provides sufficiently large negative feedback reactivity for passive shutdown of UTOP and ULOHS. The ULOF transient is also terminated passively with the negative reactivity introduced by the gas expansion modules installed at the core periphery

  10. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... to Otto-cycle engines used in such MDPVs, except as specified in subpart S of this part. The term... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  11. Preliminary design study of pebble bed reactor HTR-PM base using once-through-then-out fuel recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topan Setiadipura; Jupiter S Pane; Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is one of the advanced reactor type implementing strong passive safety feature. In this type of design has the potential to do a cogeneration useful for the treatment of various minerals in various islands in Indonesia. The operation of the PBR can be simplified by implementing once-through-then-out (OTTO) fuel recirculation scheme in which pebble fuel only pass the core once time. The purpose of this research is to understand quantitative influence of the changing of fuel element recirculation on the PBR core performance and to find preliminary optimization design of PBR type reactor with OTTO recirculation scheme. PEBBED software was used to find PBR equilibrium core. The calculation result gives quantitative data on the impact of implementing a different fuel recirculation, especially using OTTO scheme. Furthermore, an early optimized PBR design based on HTR-PM using OTTO scheme was obtained where the power must be downgraded into 115 MWt in order to preserve the safety feature. The simplicity of the reactor operation and the reduction of reactor component with OTTO scheme still make this early optimized design an interesting alternative design, despite its power reduction from the reference design. (author)

  12. Equilibrium core layout for the 1000 MW direct cycle HTR (HHT) with hexagonal monolith moulded fuel blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworak, A

    1973-03-15

    The aim of this survey is to calculate an equilibrium Thorium fuel cycle for a 1000 MW HHT-core in off-load refuelling with hexagonal monolith moulded fuel blocks. It was tried to achieve an axial power distribution similar to the advanced pebble-bed reactors (OTTO) by introducing three axial core zones with different heavy metal content and initial enrichment.

  13. Centro Multiusos en Mannheim. Frei Otto. Doblando la malla hasta hacer una concha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Pino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En 2015 Frei Otto recibió el Premio Pritzker. Como homenaje a este importante arquitecto del siglo XX este escrito busca profundizar en el Centro Polivalente de Mannheim como uno de los principales ejemplos de la arquitectura resuelta con la técnica Grid Shell, que consiste en una manera de doblar una superficie plana hecha con una malla de madera lo suficientemente flexible como para transformarse en una superficie ondulada que podría ofrecer un espacio complejo y rico, listo para ser usado. En clara oposición a los proyectos conocidos del estadio Olímpico de Munich o el Pabellón en la Exposición Universal de Montreal, con este edificio Frei Otto explora una estructura de compresión que sigue la geometría y la organización de las estructuras de la naturaleza. Este campo de experimentación e investigación acerca de las estructuras naturales es el centro en torno al que giró su trabajo durante toda su vida en el Instituto de Estructuras Ligeras en Stuttgart. La experimentación con maquetas y con técnicas de fotogrametría para extraer datos fidedignos relativos al estudio con las superficies de pompas de jabón, así como los estudios con pesos colgados de finas cadenas para obtener las formas finales de sus proyectos, caracterizan su trabajo.

  14. Current activities on improving storage conditions of the research reactor RA spent fuel - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Kopecni, M.; Vukadin, Z.; Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Sotic, O.; Marinkovic, N.

    1998-01-01

    To minimize further corrosion and preserve integrity of aluminum barrels and the stainless steel channel-type containers that were found to contain leaking spent fuel, actions to improve conditions in the existing spent fuel storage pool at the RA research reactor were initiated. Technology was elaborated and equipment was produced and applied for removal of sludge and other debris from the bottom of the pool, filtration of the pool water, sludge conditioning in cement matrix and disposal at the low and medium waste repository at VINCA site. More sophisticated operations are to be performed together with foreign experts. Safety measures and precautions were determined. Subcriticality was proved under normal and/or possible abnormal conditions. (author)

  15. Recent advances during the treatment of spent EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Vaden, D.E.; Sherman, S.R.; Li, S.X.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Several recent advances have been achieved for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. In anticipation of production operations at Argonne National Laboratory-West, development of both electrorefining and metal processing has been ongoing in the post-demonstration phase in order to further optimize the process. These development activities show considerable promise. This paper discusses the results of recent experiments as well as plans for future investigations

  16. Probabilistic risk assessment on maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation (Part II: Ship collision probability)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Robby; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to assess and reduce risks of maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation with a probabilistic approach. Event trees detailing the progression of collisions leading to transport casks’ damage were constructed. Parallel and crossing collision probabilities were formulated based on the Poisson distribution. Automatic Identification System (AIS) data were processed with the Hough Transform algorithm to estimate possible intersections between the shipment route and the marine traffic. Monte Carlo simulations were done to compute collision probabilities and impact energies at each intersection. Possible safety improvement measures through a proper selection of operational transport parameters were investigated. These parameters include shipment routes, ship's cruise velocity, number of transport casks carried in a shipment, the casks’ stowage configuration and loading order on board the ship. A shipment case study is presented. Waters with high collision probabilities were identified. Effective range of cruising velocity to reduce collision risks were discovered. The number of casks in a shipment and their stowage method which gave low cask damage frequencies were obtained. The proposed methodology was successful in quantifying ship collision and cask damage frequency. It was effective in assisting decision making processes to minimize risks in maritime spent nuclear fuel transportation. - Highlights: • Proposes a probabilistic framework on the safety of spent nuclear fuel transportation by sea. • Developed a marine traffic simulation model using Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) algorithm. • A transportation case study on South Korean waters is presented. • Single-vessel risk reduction method is outlined by optimizing transport parameters.

  17. Fast breeder fuel pin bundle tests in the KNK II-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.; Bojarsky, E.

    1986-11-01

    Three variants of ring elements with test bundles will be reported in this paper: In a first step a ring element was built with a permanently integrated test bundle (19 carbide pins of the Karlsruhe reference concept) while the proven fuel element components have been largely maintained. This irradiation will be completed in autumn 1986 after 380 full power days of operation. The central topic of this paper will be the technique of reloadable ring elements with replaceable test bundles. A first experiment, TOAST, is in preparation. For this experiment, above all the components of the fuel element head and foot had to be newly developed and tested. A special version of double-walled replaceable test bundles to be used in the TETRA temperature transient experiments will be briefly mentioned. It is envisaged in these experiments to vary in a defined manner the coolant flow at remotely assembled test bundles consisting of 19 KNK pins each having undergone a high burnup and to use a measuring and control plug placed on the test bundle so that a variety of fuel pin temperature programs can be realized. Finally, some additional aspects of bundle design will be indicated. (orig./GL) [de

  18. Post-irradiation examinations on the KNK II/1 fuel element NY-203 with 400 equivalent full-power days residence time and 10 % burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, G.; Geier, F.

    1984-09-01

    The fuel assembly NY-203 has been irradiated in the first core of KNK II up to a burnup of about 10 % and a residence time of 400 equivalent full-power days. The assembly contained 211 fuel pins with 6.0 mm outer diameter and fuel pellets with the composition (U 0 .7Pu 0 .3)O 2 .00. The cladding material was the austenitic steel 1.4988 lg. Some selected pins were examined in the hot cells of the KfK Karlsruhe. The post-irradiation examinations did not reveal any critical design aspects [de

  19. The new area monitoring system and the fuel database of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, M.; Boeck, H.; Hofbauer, M.; Schwarz, V.

    2004-01-01

    The 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor operates since March 1962 at the Atominstitut, Vienna, Austria. Its main tasks are nuclear education and training in the fields of neutron- and solid state physics, nuclear technology, reactor safety, radiochemistry, radiation protection and dosimetry, and low temperature physics and fusion research. Academic research is carried out by students in the above mentioned fields coordinated and supervised by about 70 staff members with the aim of a masters- or PhD degree in one of the above mentioned areas. After 25 years of successful operation, it was necessary to exchange the old area monitoring system with a new digital one. The purpose of the new system is the permanent control of the reactor hall, the primary and secondary cooling system and the monitoring of the ventilation system. The paper describes the development and implementation of the new area monitoring system. The second topic in this paper describes the development of the new fuel database. Since March 7th, 1962, the TRIGA Mark II reactor Vienna operates with an average of 263 MWh per year, which corresponds to a uranium burn-up of 13.7 g per year. Presently we have 81 TRIGA fuel elements in the core, 55 of them are old aluminium clad elements from the initial criticality while the rest are stainless steel clad elements which had been added later to compensate the uranium consumption. Because 67 % of the elements are older than 40 years, it was necessary to put the history of every element in a database, to get an easy access to all the relevant data for every element in our facility. (author)

  20. Alternate form and placement of short lived reactor waste and associated fuel hardware for decommissioning of EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planchon, H.P.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Upon the termination of EBR-II operation in 1994, the mission has progressed to decommissioning and waste cleanup of the facility. The simplest method to achieve this goal is to bury the raw fuel and activated steel in an approved burial ground or deep geologic repository. While this might be simple, it could be very expensive, consume much needed burial space for other materials, and leave large amounts of fissile easily available to future generations. Also, as with any operation, an associated risk to personnel and the public from the buried waste exists. To try and reduce these costs and risks, alternatives to burial are sought. One alternative explored here for EBR-II is to condition the fuel and store the fission products and steel either permanently or temporarily in the sealed primary boundary of the decommissioned reactor. The first problem is to identify which subassemblies are going to be conditioned and their current composition and decay time. The next problem is to identify the conditioning process and determine the composition and form of the waste streams. The volume, mass, heat, and curie load of the waste streams needs to be determined so a waste-assembly can be designed. The reactor vessel and internals need to be analyzed to determine if they can handle these loads. If permanent storage is the goal, then mechanisms for placing the waste-assembly in the reactor vessel and sealing the vessel are needed. If temporary storage is the goal, then mechanisms for waste-assembly placement and retrieval are needed. This paper answers the technical questions of volume, mass, heat, and curie loads while just addressing the other questions found in a safety analysis. The final conclusion will compare estimated risks from the burial option and this option.

  1. Evaluation of Synthetic Fuel for Army Ground Applications Tasks II-VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-29

    84760 23819 31 PAHZZ 2910013638782 84760 28986 32 PABZZ 4730004596077 84760 15228 33 PAHZZ 5360011886693 78514 27003 33 PAHZZ 5360013181894 84760...SUPERSEDES: EDmON NO.: 15 DATED: OT-31-0S DEPT. OF DEFSNSE (1.2 CST MIN. FUEL) NOTE; THIS SPECIFICATION DEVt:LOPED WITH ISO LONG INI. t:T STUD... ISO 4093: .083" (1.6 mmliD X 25" {636 mml LONG. 2. CAUSRATIN~ INJECTORS ........ ’SAE Jlii66/ ISO 7440: 0.5 mm ORIFICE PLATE NOP: 3000 PSI (207 &ARl

  2. Fossil fuel produced radioactivities and their effect on the food chain (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of radioactivities released from fossil fuel burning are examined. Main radioactivities are 210 Pb and 210 Po. Revised values of the dose due to the intake of leafy vegetables and seafoods are presented. The dose from natural gas from the Northern Sea is shown to be much lower than the dose from coal. This conclusion can probably apply to other natural gas except for that from the North American continent. The dose due to coal burning is found to be much higher than that due to marine disposal of nuclear waste

  3. Fossil fuel produced radioactivities and their effect on the food chain (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

    1982-03-01

    The effects of radioactivities released from fossil fuel burning are examined. Main radioactivities are /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po. Revised values of the dose due to the intake of leafy vegetables and seafoods are presented. The dose from natural gas from the Northern Sea is shown to be much lower than the dose from coal. This conclusion can probably apply to other natural gas except for that from the North American continent. The dose due to coal burning is found to be much higher than that due to marine disposal of nuclear waste.

  4. Waste management analysis for the nuclear fuel cycle. II. Recycle preparation for wastewater streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.; Navratil, J.D.; Plock, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle preparation methods were evaluated for secondary aqueous waste streams likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. Adsorption, reverse osmosis, and ozonization methods were evaluated on a laboratory scale for their application to the treatment of wastewater. Activated carbon, macroreticular resins, and polyurethanes were tested to determine their relative capabilities for removing detergents and corrosive anions from wastewater. Conceptual flow sheets were constructed for purifying wastewater by reverse osmosis. In addition, the application of ozonization techniques for water recycle preparation was examined briefly

  5. Dynamical Simulation of Recycling and Particle Fueling in TJ-II Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Bruna, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Tabares, F. L.; Castejon, F.; Guasp, J.

    2007-01-01

    With the aim of improving the calculation tools for transport analysis in TJ-II plasmas, in this work we analyze the simplified model for a kinetic equation that ASTRA uses to calculate the neutral particle distribution in the plasma. Next, we act on the boundary conditions for this kinetic equation (particularly on the neutral density in the plasma boundary) so we can simulate the recycling conditions for the TJ-II in a simple way. With the resulting transport models we can easily analyze the sensibility of these plasmas to the cold gas puffing depending on the recycling conditions. These transport models evidence the problem of density control in the TJ-II. Likewise, we estimate the importance of recycling in the plasmas heated by energetic neutral beam injection. The experimentally observed increments in density when the energetic neutrals are injected would respond, according to the calculations here presented, to a large increment of the neutrals influx that cannot be explained by the beam itself. (Author) 22 refs

  6. Development of the elementary technology and the stack manufacturing process of solid oxide fuel cell (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.A.; Seo, I.Y.; Lee, S.H. [Ssangyong Research Center (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Most of the SOFC components are composed of ceramics. Energy efficiency of SOFC can be obtained up to 80% with co-generation system and is higher than the traditional electricity generation system (30%). SOFC has having highest efficient among the several fuel cell system and is called {sup T}he 3 rd Generation Fuel Cell`. So the every developed countries are competing to develop this high technology. Key points to develop SOFCs are to select a materials having the similar thermal expansion behaviors and to construct a stable design. At present, three common stack configurations have been proposed and fabricated for SOFCs : sealess tubular design, flat-plat design, monolithic design. Although having disadvantages in the stability of performance and structure, the flat-plate design is commonly adopted rather than tubular design in recent SOFC R and D because of economical merit of commercial scale fabrication. In this study flat-plat design is adopted to develop SOFC in this study. The purpose of this study, the 2 nd year of Phase I, was to apply and progress the fabrication technology of 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} sized unit cell that was developed in 1 st year and to develop elementary technologies of stack manufacturing, i. e., design and fabrication of separator, sealing materials and gas sealing technology. (author) 66 refs., 48 tabs., 195 figs.

  7. Initial results for electrochemical dissolution of spent EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. X.

    1998-01-01

    Initial results are reported for the anode behavior of spent metallic nuclear fuel in an electrorefining process. The anode behavior has been characterized in terms of the initial spent fuel composition and the final composition of the residual cladding hulls. A variety of results have been obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Some of the process variables considered are average and maximum cell voltage, average and maximum anode voltage, amount of electrical charge passed (coulombs or amp-hours) during the experiment, and cell resistance. The main goal of the experiments has been the nearly complete dissolution of uranium with the retention of zirconium and noble metal fission products in the cladding hulls. Analysis has shown that the most indicative parameters for determining an endpoint to the process, recognizing the stated goal, are the maximum anode voltage and the amount of electrical charge passed. For the initial experiments reported here, the best result obtained is greater than 98% uranium dissolution with approximately 50% zirconium retention. Noble metal fission product retention appears to be correlated with zirconium retention

  8. Treatment of waste salt from the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (II) : optimum immobilization condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Lee, Jae Hee; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2004-01-01

    Since zeolite is known to be stable at a high temperature, it has been reported as a promising immobilization matrix for waste salt. The crystal structure of dehydrated zeolite A breaks down above 1060 K, resulting in the formation of an amorphous solid and re-crystallization to beta-Cristobalite. This structural degradation depends on the existence of chlorides. When contacted to HCl, zeolite 4A is not stable even at 473 K. The optimum consolidation condition for LiCl salt waste from the oxide fuel reduction process based on the electrochemical method (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) has been studied using zeolite A since 2001. Actually the constituents of waste salt are water-soluble. And, alkali halides are known to be readily radiolyzed to yield interstitial halogens and metal colloids. For disposal in a geological repository, the waste salt must meet the acceptance criteria. For a waste form containing chloride salt, two of the more important criteria are leach resistance and waste form durability. In this work, we prepared some samples with different mixing ratios of LiCl salt to zeolite A, and then compared some characteristics such as thermal stability, salt occlusion, free chloride content, leach resistance, mixing effect, etc

  9. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... for the current CARB categories of heavy-duty vehicles are within-the-scope of the previously granted...) (Diesel) and 53 FR 7022 (March 4, 1988) (Otto-cycle). \\3\\ 69 FR 59920 (October 6, 2004). CARB's current... threshold test of materiality and * * * thereafter assess such material evidence against a standard of proof...

  10. Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816 / Vladimir Sazonov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sazonov, Vladimir, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Briefe aus dem Morgenland - Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814-1816, hrsg. von Indrek Jürjo, Sergei Stadnikov, Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Bd. 20. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač 2013, 313 lk.

  11. Feasibility of processing the experimental breeder reactor-II driver fuel from the Idaho National Laboratory through Savannah River Site's H-Canyon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to evaluate the potential to receive and process the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) uranium (U) recovered from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel through the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) H-Canyon as a way to disposition the material. INL recovers the uranium from the sodium bonded metallic fuel irradiated in the EBR-II reactor using an electrorefining process. There were two compositions of EBR-II driver fuel. The early generation fuel was U-5Fs, which consisted of 95% U metal alloyed with 5% noble metal elements “fissium” (2.5% molybdenum, 2.0% ruthenium, 0.3% rhodium, 0.1% palladium, and 0.1% zirconium), while the later generation was U-10Zr which was 90% U metal alloyed with 10% zirconium. A potential concern during the H-Canyon nitric acid dissolution process of the U metal containing zirconium (Zr) is the explosive behavior that has been reported for alloys of these materials. For this reason, this evaluation was focused on the ability to process the lower Zr content materials, the U-5Fs material.

  12. Uranium accountability for ATR fuel fabrication: Part II. A computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, C.A.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Vegors, S.H. Jr.; Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    A stochastic computer model has been designed to simulate the material control system used during the production of fuel plates for the Advanced Test Reactor. Great care has been taken to see that this model follows the manufacturing and measuring processes used. The model is designed so that manufacturing process and measurement parameters are fed in as input; hence, changes in the manufacturing process and measurement procedures are easily simulated. Individual operations in the plant are described by program subroutines. By varying the calling sequence of these subroutines, variations in the manufacturing process may be simulated. By using this model values for MUF and LEMUF may be calculated for predetermined plant operating conditions. Furthermore the effect on MUF and LEMUF produced by changing plant operating procedures and measurement techniques may also be examined. A sample calculation simulating one inventory period of the plant's operation is included

  13. Relative bioavailability and toxicity of fuel oils leaking from World War II shipwrecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Daling, Per; Altin, Dag; Dolva, Hilde; Fosbæk, Bjørn; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2015-05-15

    The Norwegian Authorities have classified 30 WWII shipwrecks to have a considerable potential for pollution to the environment, based on the location and condition of the wreck and the types and amount of fuel. Oil thus far has been removed from eight of these shipwrecks. The water accommodated fractions of oils from two British wrecks and two German wrecks have been studied with special emphasis on chemistry and biological effects (algae growth (Skeletonema costatum) and copepod mortality (Calanus finmarchicus)). Chemical analyses were also performed on three additional German wreck oils. The results from these studies show that the coal based oils from German WWII shipwrecks have higher toxicity to marine organisms than the mineral oils from the British shipwrecks. The potential for higher impact on the marine environment of coal based oils has resulted in an altering of the priority list for oil recovery from WWII wrecks by the authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization in the nuclear fuel cycle II: Concentration of alpha emitters in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Silva, A.X.; Lopes, J.M.; Carmo, A.S.; Mello, C.R.; Fernandes, T.S.; Kelecom, A.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization is one of the bases of radioprotection and aims to move doses away from the dose limit that is the borderline of acceptable radiological risk. The work aims to use the monitoring of the concentration of alpha emitters in the air as a tool of the optimization process. We analyzed 27 sampling points of airborne alpha concentration in a nuclear fuel cycle facility. The monthly averages were considered statistically different, the highest in the month of February and the lowest in the month of August. All other months were found to have identical mean activity concentration values. Regarding the sampling points, the points with the highest averages were points 12, 15 and 9. These points were indicated for the beginning of the optimization process. Analysis of the production of the facility should be performed to verify possible correlations between production and concentration of alpha emitters in the air

  15. Low-threshold optical bistability with multilayer graphene-covering Otto configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hengliang; Wu, Jipeng; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Wen, Shuangchun; Guo, Jun; Jiang, Leyong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified Otto configuration to realize tunable and low-threshold optical bistability at terahertz frequencies by attaching multilayer graphene sheets to a nonlinear substrate interface. Our work demonstrates that the threshold of optical bistability can be markedly reduced (three orders of magnitude) by covering the nonlinear substrate with multilayer graphene sheets, due to strong local field enhancement with the excitation of surface plasmons. We present the influences of the Fermi energy of graphene, the incident angle, the thickness of air gap and the relaxation time of graphene on the hysteresis phenomenon and give a way to optimize the surface plasmon resonance, which will enable us to further lower the minimal power requirements for realizing optical bistability due to the strong interaction of light with graphene sheets. These results are promising for realization of terahertz optical switches, optical modulators and logical devices. (paper)

  16. A través de la lente: Otto Moll González

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Urrea Uyabán

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La fotografía arquitectónica de Otto Moll se encanta con las propuestas de las firmas que despuntan en el decenio de 1950 y que conformarán ese Cali de verdad moderno. Un aire estadounidense que no necesariamente se integra al entorno natural. Resaltan los proyectos sobre ese terreno que antaño fue un bosque seco. La arquitectura es el objeto; más allá del juego de luces y sombras y de la técnica. Moll como ningún otro para entonces, saca a la luz la propuesta que despunta con estos proyectos. Serán la representación del "Movimiento Moderno" y quienes encargan los trabajos al fotógrafo van también a la vanguardia.

  17. Person-Environment Mergence and Separation: Otto Rank's Psychology of Emotion, Personality, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Between 1924 and 1939 Otto Rank put forward three major elements of a comprehensive theoretical edifice that has yet to be fully articulated. These are conceptually linked by the fundamental importance of person-environment mergence and separation. Rank's theory of emotions highlights anxiety as the affect of separation, and guilt as the feeling that binds the individual to others. His personality theory distinguishes between the partialist, who responds to life fear with identification, and the totalist, who responds to death fear with projection. His cultural psychology contrasts primal collectivism with contemporary individualism, which orients the person toward individual immortality striving. Individualism has produced problematic self-consciousness and neuroticism, in the face of which Rank struggled to find a new psychology.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  19. Feasibility study on commercialization of fast breeder reactor cycle systems interim report of phase II. Technical study report for nuclear fuel cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Koji; Amamoto, Ippei; Inoue, Akira

    2004-06-01

    As a part of the feasibility study on commercialization of fast breeder reactor cycle systems, the plant concept concerning the fuel cycle systems (combination of the reprocessing and the fuel fabrication) has been constructed to reduce their total cost by the introduction of various innovative techniques and to apply their utmost superior efficiency from such standpoints of a decrease in the environmental burden, better resource utilization and proliferation resistance improvement by the low decontamination transuranium element (TRU) recycle. This interim report of Phase II describes the results of an on-going study which will cover a five-year period. For oxide fuels, the system which combines the use of the advanced aqueous reprocessing using three main methods such as the crystallization method, the simplified solvent extraction method, and the extraction chromatography method for minor actinide (MA) recovery, as well as the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication which rationalized a powder mixing process etc., has abundant current results and a high technical feasibility for the basic process. Though this system faces difficulties in the technical development of control technology of the extraction chromatography and the fabrication technology of low decontamination TRU fuel etc., its expected practical use is possible at an early stage. As for the super-critical direct extraction reprocessing, it is necessary to fulfill more basic data although further economical improvement of an advanced aqueous reprocessing is expected. The system which combines the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the gelation sphere packing fuel fabrication has the advantage of lesser dispersion of the fine powder due to the use of solution and granule in the fuel fabrication process. However, this system will shoulder additional cost for the reagent recovery process and the waste liquid treatment process due to need to dispose of a large bulk of process waste liquid. The system which

  20. New York City Police Department Automated Fuel Monitoring System. Volume II. Documentation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-16

    toward solving troublesome problems. In addition, the private sector market has been stimulated to respond to system needs identified during the course of...8 -3Q .ifL I.N’ p uii3NLIE- __-U3 7/11 Ud-.i T01 LNI TERM ON-LN 151 071 328- ______ 33N.________ -~R~ NLINE 2141 53 07/11 16-ttl 145 INS TERM ON-LINE...4Z-46 131 LN4 TERM NLINE --3o56a 55 O7ALL-ZU _1 L. N ~Ii8ILON-~ik 1559 53 01/17 eZ-4.8 137 INN TERM4 ON-LINE " . " - 7 - M -1 ------------- - . 7 .Dm

  1. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzarri, J. I.; Kesler, O.

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes.

  2. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarri, J.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2008-01-21

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes. (author)

  3. The downstream side of the nuclear fuel cycle. Tome II: Electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Galley, R.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Office's continuing work in the nuclear field, Mr. Christian Bataille and Mr. Robert Galley, Members of Parliament for the Nord and Aube departements respectively, published in June 1998 the first part of their investigation into the downstream side of the nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the work done in application of the law of 30 December 1991 concerning research into radioactive waste management. This document supplements that initial technical approach with a technical and economic study of the costs of generating electricity. To begin with, the performance of existing nuclear generating plant is examined, in particular the past, present and future contributions of this plant to the growth and competitiveness of the French economy. Secondly, the competitiveness of the different generating systems is analysed with a view to the construction of new facilities, using the method of discounted average costs which is at present the standard approach governing investment decisions, and identifying the different ways in which the said systems are dealt with as regards the cost categories considered. The potential contributions of external factor analysis and the calculation of external costs are then reviewed in order to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the different electricity generating systems on a more global basis. The report includes more than a hundred tables of data and cost curves upon which the Rapporteurs base their comments, conclusions and recommendations

  4. Development of computer code SIMPSEX for simulation of FBR fuel reprocessing flowsheets: II. additional benchmarking results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Koganti, S.B.

    2003-07-01

    Benchmarking and application of a computer code SIMPSEX for high plutonium FBR flowsheets was reported recently in an earlier report (IGC-234). Improvements and recompilation of the code (Version 4.01, March 2003) required re-validation with the existing benchmarks as well as additional benchmark flowsheets. Improvements in the high Pu region (Pu Aq >30 g/L) resulted in better results in the 75% Pu flowsheet benchmark. Below 30 g/L Pu Aq concentration, results were identical to those from the earlier version (SIMPSEX Version 3, code compiled in 1999). In addition, 13 published flowsheets were taken as additional benchmarks. Eleven of these flowsheets have a wide range of feed concentrations and few of them are β-γ active runs with FBR fuels having a wide distribution of burnup and Pu ratios. A published total partitioning flowsheet using externally generated U(IV) was also simulated using SIMPSEX. SIMPSEX predictions were compared with listed predictions from conventional SEPHIS, PUMA, PUNE and PUBG. SIMPSEX results were found to be comparable and better than the result from above listed codes. In addition, recently reported UREX demo results along with AMUSE simulations are also compared with SIMPSEX predictions. Results of the benchmarking SIMPSEX with these 14 benchmark flowsheets are discussed in this report. (author)

  5. Electrical supervisory control and data acquisition system for Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Facility (PREFRE-II) at Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.; Kaushik, S.; Haneef, K.K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Facility (PREFRE II) is a radio-chemical plant located at Tarapur. The electric power supply to PREFRE-II plant has been provided from a 33 KV Sub-station located in PREFRE-II complex to meet the O and M requirement of plant. The major equipment of the substation includes HT switch board, dry type transformer, LT switch board, Diesel Generator (DG) set and Un-interrupted Power Supply (UPS) System. The power supply to the plant is provided at 415 V voltage level with the help of Power Distribution Boards (PDBs) and Motor Control Centres (MCCs) located at different floors of the plant. The parameters of the electrical equipment of substation and plant are recorded in each shift in the log-book, manually by the operator. To maintain the log-book, the operator needs to go closer to the individual equipment in radioactive area of the plant to read the parameters. The log-book method of monitoring is a cumbersome method and does not include fault event records, trends and diagnostic behavior of the equipment. Electrical Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (E-SCADA) system has been increasingly used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) for control and monitoring of electrical parameters of plant and switchyard equipment. E-SCADA system has been designed, developed and implemented for PREFRE-II plant for remote monitoring of parameters of electrical equipment. E-SCADA system provides monitoring of electrical equipment and renders complete guidance and information with the help of Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the operator to take necessary action during normal and abnormal conditions. E-SCADA with intelligent communication features helps in reducing cabling from field equipment which enhances the fire safety of plant. As a result engineering, operation and maintenance efforts for monitoring are reduced considerably in terms of requirement of skilled man power and accurate data logging of electrical parameters. This system also helps to

  6. Impact of fuel composition on emissions and performance of GTL kerosene blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.; Bogers, P.F.; Bauldreay, J.; Wahl, C.R.M.; Kapernaum, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    International jet fuel specifications permit up to 50% volume Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosines (FT-SPKs), such as Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) Kerosine, in Jet A-1. Higher SPK-content fuels could, however, produce desirable fuels: lower density, higher SPK-content fuels may have benefits for

  7. Putini sõprade käes on Riia ja peagi võibolla ka Seim / Otto Ozols ; intervjueerinud Taavi Minnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ozols, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Intervjuu Läti kirjaniku ja publitsisti Otto Ozolsiga lõunanaabrite juures toimuvast ning sellest, kuidas on viimaste aastate arengud Euroopas ja Venemaal puudutanud Läti poliitikat ning ühiskonda

  8. Válka jako stav provizoria (Na příkladu Čechů ve Francii 1914-1918: František Kupka, Otto Gutfreund)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brouček, Stanislav

    33 /75/, č. 1 (2016), s. 15-31 ISSN 1211-8117 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : emigration * Czechs in France * František Kupka * Otto Gutfreund * resistance movement abroad Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Otto Mennicke (1876-) and the first description of skull base anomalies causing cerebellar tonsillar ectopia: one of the first mentions of the Chiari I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Fabian N; Hendrix, Philipp; Brinker, Titus J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-05-01

    Although Hans Chiari made significant and meaningful contributions to our understanding and classification of hindbrain herniations, others have also contributed to this knowledge. One figure who has been lost to history is Otto Mennicke. Herein, we discuss his role in our understanding of tonsillar ectopia and his life and connection to Hans Chiari. Our knowledge of what is now known as the Chiari malformations has been shaped by several clinicians including Otto Mennicke.

  10. The 50{sup th} anniversary of the N.S. Otto Hahn. When nuclear power said 'Ahoy'; Als die Kernenergie 'Ahoi' rief. NS Otto Hahn. Nuklearbetriebenes Forschungs- und Frachtschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, Jerome [atw-Redaktion, Hattingen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    In September 1963 the construction of the only German nuclear ship to date, NS Otto Hahn, started in Kiel. For the 50{sup th} anniversary, atw remembers an important part of nuclear technology history in Germany: The research and freight ship shows one thing above all in retrospect: The technology ran reliably. But cost pressure and reservations shattered the dream of a nuclear power shipping era. Until it was decommissioned in 1979 the ship travelled a total of 650,000 sea miles and called at 33 harbours in 22 countries. On the research level, the 'Otto Hahn' could satisfy expectations, however, it could not ring in an era of nuclear shipping - the atomic boat could never cover its operating costs with its freight trips and permission to call at foreign ports were rare. However, on the one hand, the ship's journeys, sometimes under hard weather conditions, demonstrated just how robust and durable the 'progressive pressurized water reactor' on board was, on the other hand, the 'Otto Hahn' had by all means been a prototype which under other market conditions could have been a model for nuclear container ships. In any case, it proved the performance capacity of the then still young German and European nuclear technology industry, that did not need to hide behind the Russian and American competition. (orig.)

  11. Practice of the Education for the Principle of Otto Cycle by the E-Learning CG-Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoaki; Nagaoka, Keizo; Oguchi, Kosei

    A CG-animation content which supports the learning of the Otto cycle was developed. This content has a piston assembly and the diagrams of PV, VS, TP and TS. The each diagram has a pointer which moves along the line of the graph and they are synchronized with the movement of the piston. The learners can operate this content directly on the e-learning system. While watching the movements of the piston assembly, the learners can confirm the state of the engine about temperature, pressure, volume, and entropy by the synchronized pointer on the diagrams. This content was used for the class of the machining practice exercise. The learning effect of the content was examined by the score of the short test. As the result of this examination, the CG-animation content was effective in the learning of the Otto cycle.

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  13. Development of metal fuel and study of construction materials (I-IV), Part II; Razvoj metalnog goriva i ispitivanje konstrukcionih materijala (I-VI deo); II deo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihajlovic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    The studies were devoted to problems related to application of metal uranium as fuel in heavy water reactors. Influence of thermal treatment on material texture and recrystallization of cast uranium was investigated. Structural changes of uranium alloys with molybdenum and niobium were tested during different heat treatments. A review of the possibilities for using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors is included.

  14. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume II: Preliminary Design of a Fixed-Base LFP/SOFC Power System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veyo, S

    1997-01-01

    .... Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy contained in fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, or coal gas into electricity at high efficiency with no intermediate...

  15. Design report for an annular fuel element for accommodation of a carbide test bundle on the ring position of the KNK II/2 test zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes an annular oxide element with Mark II rods for accommodation of a 19-pin carbide test bundle on position 201 in the test zone of the second core of KNK II as well as its behavior during the period of operation. The ring element comprises within a driver wrapper in three rows of pins 102 fuel pins of 7.6 mm diameter and six structural rods for fixing the spark eroded spacers. The report deals with the ring element with its individual components fuel rod, bundle, wrappers, head and foot and describes methods, criteria and results concerning the design. The carbide test bundle to be accommodated by the annular carrier element will be treated in a separate report. The loadability of the annular element with its components is demonstrated by generally valid standards for strength criteria

  16. The Otto-Atkinson engine. A study of fluid flow and combustion with early and late inlet valve closing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Henrik

    1999-10-01

    This report contains results of measurements on an Otto engine. The purpose for this work has been to do measurements of the flow in the cylinder but also measurements of the cylinder pressure have been performed. The flow measurements are made with the method Laser Doppler Velocimetry, LDV. The reason why these measurements are made at all are the pump losses that implies a lower efficiency for the Otto engine at part load. In this work two alternative ways that highly reduces the pump losses are examined. These are early inlet valve closing and late inlet valve closing. To further increase the efficiency at part load an increased compression ratio has been used together with the different valve strategies. With these two ways of operation, at a part load of about 4 - 5 IMEP{sub net}, increases of about 20% of the net indicated efficiency has been obtained. Additionally this report contains a chapter about the possible use of a variable valve actuation or timing system, VVA or VVT. Many conditions for the Otto cycle can be improved by the use of a variable valve actuation and in this chapter it is dealt with the most important ones.

  17. Review article Assessment of personality according to Otto Kernberg’s conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Izdebska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the model of personality developed by Otto Kernberg and the research tools designed on the basis of that conception. The paper presents the spectrum of diagnostic methods differing in terms of the level of structuralizing and the form in which they are applied. The first one constructed, the Structural Interview, due to the high requirements within psychoanalytical knowledge and clinical abilities for the individuals who apply it, initiated the development of subsequent methods. They include: the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO, inventory methods, and a clinician-rated instrument referred to as the Personality Organization Diagnostic Form (PODF. Within the scope of inventory methods, two principal tools for which Polish adaptations have been developed are presented, namely: the Inventory of Personality Organization of Kernberg and collaborators, and the Borderline Personality Inventory of Leichsenring. The existence of a broad spectrum of assessment methods of the personality structure makes it possible to take advantage of the conception of Kernberg in the realms of clinical diagnosis, scientific research, and recently also forensic psychology.

  18. Angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine based on coherent dipole-dipole coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan-He; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jin-Can; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule have been widely observed in biological systems and exhibit broad application for molecular structural studies. Quantum delocalization of molecular dipole moments has inspired researchers to explore new avenues to utilize this physical effect for energy harvesting devices. Herein, we propose a simple model of the angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine which seeks to facilitate the conversion of heat to work. Unlike previous studies, the adiabatic processes are accomplished by varying only the directions of the magnetic field. We show that the heat engine continues to generate power when the angle relative to the vector r joining the centres of coupled dipoles departs from the magic angle θm where the static coupling vanishes. A significant improvement in the device performance has to be attributed to the presence of the quantum delocalized levels associated with the coherent dipole-dipole coupling. These results obtained may provide a promising model for the biomimetic design and fabrication of quantum energy generators.

  19. Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank: debates and confrontations about anxiety and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro Obaid, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    The publication of Otto Rank's The Trauma of Birth (1924) gave rise to an intense debate within the secret Committee and confronted Freud with one of his most beloved disciples. After analyzing the letters that the Professor exchanged with his closest collaborators and reviewing the works he published during this period, it is clear that anxiety was a crucial element among the topics in dispute. His reflections linked to the signal anxiety concept allowed Freud to refute Rank's thesis that defined birth trauma as the paradigmatic key to understanding neurosis, and, in turn, was a way of confirming the validity of the concepts of Oedipus complex, repression and castration in the conceptualization of anxiety. The reasons for the modifications of anxiety theory in the mid-1920s cannot be reduced, as Freud would affirm officially in his work of 1926, to the detection of internal contradictions in his theory or to the desire to establish a metapsychological version of the problem, for they gain their essential impulse from the debate with Rank. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  20. A point of view on Otto cycle approach specific for an undergraduate thermodynamics course in CMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memet, F.; Preda, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper refers to the description of the way in which can be presented to future marine engineers the analyzis of the performance of an Otto cycle, in a manner which is beyond the classic approach of the course of thermodynamics in Constanta Maritime University. The conventional course of thermodynamics is dealing with the topic of performance analysis of the cycle of the internal combustion engine with isochoric combustion for the situation in which the working medium is treated as such a perfect gas. This type of approach is viable only when are considered relatively small temperature differences. But this is the situation when specific heats are seen as constant. Instead, the practical experience has shown that small temperature differences are not viable, resulting the need for variable specific heat evaluation. The presentation bellow is available for the adiabatic exponent written as a liniar function depending on temperature. In the section of this paper dedicated to methods and materials, the situation in which the specific heat is taken as constant is not neglected, additionaly being given the algorithm for variable specific heat.For the both cases it is given the way in which it is assessed the work output. The calculus is based on the cycle shown in temperature- entropy diagram, in which are also indicated the irreversible adiabatic compression and expansion. The experience achieved after understanding this theory will allow to future professionals to deal successfully with the design practice of internal combustion engines.

  1. The psychology of thinking before the cognitive revolution: Otto Selz on problems, schemas, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hark, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Würzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper, it is argued that Selz's emphasis on the role of problems and schemas in the direction of thought processes and creativity sets him apart from the program of the Würzburg School. On the other hand, by developing a theory of thinking that is exclusively at the intentional level, Selz also differs from psychologists that take physics as a model for psychology, such as the Gestalt psychology of Wolfgang Kihler. Special emphasis is given in this paper to Selz's use of the concept of problem or task and the concept of the schema. It is further argued that the concept of the schema is the result of Selz's adaptation of the theory of relations as developed by the philosopher Meinong. The paper begins with a sketch of Selz's life that ended so tragically.

  2. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumntation, and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities, P.O.1236909. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. Some of the material included has appeared elswhere and it has been summarized. An extensive bibliography is included. A spcific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility which is based on the Westinghouse Anderson design

  3. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumntation, and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities, P. O. 1236909. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. Some of the material included has appeared elswhere and it has been summarized. An extensive bibliography is included. A spcific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility which is based on the Westinghouse Anderson design.

  4. EUBIONET II. Efficient trading of biomass fuels and analysis of fuel supply chains and business models for market actors by networking. Final result-oriented report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.; Wiik, C.; Vesterinen, P. (and others)

    2008-02-15

    The project aimed to increase deployment of biomass fuels into European market and match technology uptake by means of market and policy analysis and other well-defined tasks to meet European policy targets in renewable energy sector. The project is to result as increased use of biomass fuels and market uptake of innovative bioenergy technologies. The objectives of the project were the following: 1) To give a clear outlook on current and future biomass fuel market trends. 2) To give feedback on the suitability of CEN 335 biofuel standard for trading of solid biofuels. 3) To provide well-analysed estimation on techno-economic potential of the biomass fuel volumes until 2010 based on the existing studies and experts opinions. Regarding the forest biomass sector, co-operation will be done with forest industry stakeholders to find proper balance between forest industry raw material and bioenergy usage. 4) To enhance biomass fuel trade and technology transfer by networking among different actors. 5) To analyse, select and describe the most suitable trading and business models for small- and largescale biofuel supply chains for heat and power production by taking into account the environmental aspects and sustainability. 6) To enhance biomass usage by the means of co-operation and information dissemination among different market actors in the fuel-utilisation chain. Target groups were biomass fuel traders and users, fuel producers and suppliers of different scales, policy makers in both current and new member states. Key associations, i.e. AEBIOM and CEPI, were participating in the project and disseminating information to various groups. The project has been structured in 5 workpackages. Project was carried out by 16 partners, which are the key national bioenergy organisations in the European countries and have a long co-operation relationship in previous bioenergy networks. The project has published summary reports and national report of each WP and this report is

  5. Thorium utilization in a small long-life HTR. Part II: Seed-and-blanket fuel blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ming, E-mail: dingming@hrbeu.edu.cn [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Harbin Engineering University, Nantong Street 145, 150001 Harbin (China); Kloosterman, Jan Leen [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Seed-and-blanket (S and B) fuel blocks are proposed for a small block-type HTR. • S and B fuel blocks consist of a seed region (UO{sub 2}) and a blanket region (ThO{sub 2}). • The neutronic performance of S and B fuel blocks are analyzed using SCALE 6. • Three S and B fuel blocks with a reactivity swing of 0.1 Δk are recommended. • S and B fuel blocks are compared with thorium MOX fuel blocks. - Abstract: In order to utilize thorium in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTRs), the concept of seed-and-blanket (S and B) fuel block is introduced into the U-Battery, which is a long-life block-type HTR with a thermal power of 20 MWth. A S and B fuel block consists of a seed region with uranium in the center, and a blanket region with thorium. The neutronic performance, such as the multiplication factor, conversion ratio and reactivity swing, of a typical S and B fuel block was investigated by SCALE 6.0 by parametric analysis of the composition parameters and geometric parameters of the fuel block for the U-Battery application. Since the purpose of U-235 in the S and B fuel block is to ignite the fission reactions in the fuel block, 20% enriched uranium is recommended for the S and B fuel block. When the ratio of the number of carbon to heavy metal atoms changes with the geometric parameters of the fuel block in the range of 200–250, the reactivity swing reaches very small values. Furthermore, for a reactivity swing of 0.1 Δk during 10 effective full power years, three configurations with 36, 54 and 78 UO{sub 2} fuel rods are recommended for the application of the U-Battery. The comparison analysis of the S and B fuel block with the Th/U MOX fuel block shows that the former has a longer lifetime and a lower reactivity swing.

  6. Scientists from all over the world attended the 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2011' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT); Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2011' am Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Victor H.; Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (DE). Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR)

    2011-12-15

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Commissariat r leEnergie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Cadarache, alternate in organizing the annual 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School.' This year's event, the 17th since its inception, was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on August 25 to September 3. Its topic was 'High-fidelity Modeling for Nuclear Reactors: Challenges and Prospects.' Here is a list of the subjects covered: - Status and perspectives of modeling and its role in design, operation, and safety. - Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactors and simulation of 2 phase flows. - Structural mechanics, structure? fluid interaction, and seismic safety. - Advanced simulation in neutronics and reactor physics. - Progress in simulating fuel and materials behavior. - Multiphysics and uncertainty analysis methods. Experts from eight leading international research institutions and universities presented, and discussed with the 59 participants from 19 countries, the current state of the art and most recent development trends in the subjects listed above. (orig.)

  7. New Nuclear Materials Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    One of the major aims of the International Atomic Energy Agency in furthering the peaceful uses of atomic energy is to encourage the development of economical nuclear power. Certainly, one of the more obvious methods of producing economical nuclear power is the development of economical fuels that can be used at high temperatures for long periods of time, and which have sufficient strength and integrity to operate under these conditions without permitting the release of fission products. In addition it is desirable that after irradiation these new fuels be economically reprocessed to reduce further the cost of the fuel cycle. As nuclear power becomes more and more competitive with conventional power the interest in new and more efficient higher-temperature fuels naturally increases rapidly. For these reasons, the Agency organized a Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non-Metallic Fuel Elements, which was held from 1 to 5 July 1963 at the International Hotel, Prague, with the assistance and co-operation of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. A total of 151 scientists attended, from 23 countries and 4 international organizations. The participants heard and discussed more than 60 scientific papers. The Agency wishes to thank the scientists who attended this Conference for their papers and for many spirited discussions that truly mark a successful meeting. The Agency wishes also to record its gratitude for the assistance and generous hospitality accorded the Conference, the participants and the Agency's staff by the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and by the people of Prague. The scientific information contained in these Proceedings should help to quicken the pace of progress in the fabrication of new and m ore economical fuels, and it is hoped that these proceedings will be found useful to all workers in this and related fields

  8. Investigation of evaporation and biodegradation of fuel spills in Antarctica: II-extent of natural attenuation at Casey Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Ian; Ferguson, Susan H; Harvey, Paul McA; Riddle, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    In many temperate regions, fuel and oil spills are sometimes managed simply by allowing natural degradation to occur, while monitoring soils and groundwater to ensure that there is no off-site migration or on-site impact. To critically assess whether this approach is suitable for coastal Antarctic sites, we investigated the extent of evaporation and biodegradation at three old fuel spills at Casey Station. Where the contaminants migrated across frozen ground, probably beneath snow, approximately half the fuel evaporated in the first few months prior to infiltration at the beginning of summer. Once in the ground, however, evaporation rates were negligible. In contrast, minor spills from fuel drums buried in an abandoned waste disposal site did not evaporate to the same extent. Biodegradation within all three spill sites is generally very minor. We conclude that natural attenuation is not a suitable management strategy for fuel-contaminated soils in Antarctic coastal regions.

  9. CSER 94-014: Storage of metal-fuel loaded EBR-II casks in concrete vault on PFP grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation is presented to permit EBR-2 spent fuel casks loaded with metallic fuel rods to be stored in an 8-ft diameter, cylindrical concrete vault inside the PFP security perimeter. The specific transfer of three casks with Pu alloy fuel from the Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment from the burial grounds to the vault is thus covered. Up to seven casks may be emplaced in the casing with 30 inches center to center spacing. Criticality safety is assured by definitive packaging rules which keep the fissile medium dry and at a low effective volumetric density

  10. Otto Rank, the Rankian circle in Philadelphia, and the origins of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCarvalho, R J

    1999-05-01

    Otto Rank's will therapy helped shape the ideas and techniques of relationship therapy developed by the Philadelphia social workers Jessie Taft, Virginia Robinson, and Frederick Allen in the 1930s. Rank's work and these ideas and techniques in turn strongly influenced the formulation of Carl Rogers' person-centered psychotherapy. This article compares and contrasts will, relationship, and person-centered approaches to psychotherapy and discusses the social factors--primarily the professional conflicts between a male-dominated psychiatry and female social workers over the independent practice of psychotherapy--that were crucial in the dissemination of Rank's psychological thought and the early popularity of Rogers.

  11. Effect of a time varying power level in EBR-II on mixed-oxide fuel burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, I.Z.; Jost, J.W.; Baker, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    A refined prediction of burnup of mixed-oxide fuel in EBR-2 is compared with measured data. The calculation utilizes a time-varying power factor and results in a general improvement to previous calculations

  12. Decay heat and activity of the structural materials of the fuel and blanket assemblies of the second and third core of KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterhagen, D.

    1986-06-01

    The decay heat and activity caused by structural materials have been calculated for the fuel assemblies of KNK II (second and third core) with a residence time of 720 equivalent full-power days (efpd) and the blanket assemblies with 1880 efpd. The values are given for the different zones of the assemblies (head, active zone, fission gas plenum, foot and stellite area) for decay times from 1 to 20 years. For decay times beyond 2 years more than 80 % of the decay heat are caused by the Co60-decay, more than 60 % of which result from the stellite in the foot area [de

  13. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 2. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with cerium(IV) and ISO 7097-1 uses a titration with potassium dichromate

  14. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 1. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for the determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with potassium dichromate and ISO 7097-2 uses a titration with cerium(IV)

  15. Fission product release from nuclear fuel II. Validation of ASTEC/ELSA on analytical and large scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A wide range of experiments is presented for the ASTEC/ELSA code validation. • Analytical tests such as AECL, ORNL and VERCORS are considered. • A large-scale experiment, PHEBUS FPT1, is considered. • The good agreement with measurements shows the efficiency of the ASTEC modelling. • Improvements concern the FP release modelling from MOX and high burn-up UO 2 fuels. - Abstract: This article is the second of two articles dedicated to the mechanisms of fission product release from a degraded core. The models of fission product release from nuclear fuel in the ASTEC code have been described in detail in the first part of this work (Brillant et al., this issue). In this contribution, the validation of ELSA, the module of ASTEC that deals with fission product and structural material release from a degraded core, is presented. A large range of experimental tests, with various temperature and conditions for the fuel surrounding atmosphere (oxidising and reducing), is thus simulated with the ASTEC code. The validation database includes several analytical experiments with both bare fuel (e.g. MCE1 experiments) and cladded fuel (e.g. HCE3, VERCORS). Furthermore, the PHEBUS large-scale experiments are used for the validation of ASTEC. The rather satisfactory comparison between ELSA calculations and experimental measurements demonstrates the efficiency of the analytical models to describe fission product release in severe accident conditions

  16. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust duct excludes the length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall be minimized... exhaust manifold, immediately after exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length of pipe representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or (iv) Partial dilution of the exhaust gas prior to entering the...

  17. Flow sheet development for the dissolution of unirradiated Mark 42 fuel tubes in F-Canyon, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two dissolution flow sheets were tested for the desorption of unirradiated Mark 42 fuel tubes. Both the aluminum (from the can, cladding, and fuel core) and the plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) are dissolved simultaneously, i.e., a co-dissolution flow sheet. In the first series of tests, 0.15 and 0.20 molar (M) potassium fluoride (KF) solutions were used and the dissolution extended over several days. In the other series of tests, solutions with higher concentrations of fluoride (0.25 to 0.30 M) were used. Calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) was used in those tests as the fluoride source

  18. Kajian Eksperimental Perbandingan Performansi Mesin Otto Bahan Bakar Premium dengan Bahan Bakar LPG

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Jefferson

    2013-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels led to a variety of ideas how to solve this problem. LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) is one alternative fuel that can be used in trending engine, one of which is a gasoline engine generator sets in 4-stroke. By modifying the carburetor so the engine can work as when using gasoline. Although the performance of the machine tends to not give optimal results such as engine performance when using gasoline, but has the advantage of LPG fuel, the emissions p...

  19. Conventional engine technology. Volume 1: Status of OTTO cycle engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    Federally-mandated emissions standards have led to major changes in automotive technology during the last decade. Efforts to satisfy the new standards were directed more toward the use of add-on devices, such as catalytic converters, turbochargers, and improved fuel metering, than toward complete engine redesign. The resulting changes are described and the improvement brought about by them in fuel economy and emissions levels are fully documented. Four specific categories of gasoline-powered internal combustion engines are covered, including subsystem and total engine development. Also included are the results of fuel economy and exhaust emissions tests performed on representative vehicles from each category.

  20. Water activities in Forsmark (Part II). The final disposal facility for spent fuel: water activities above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Ridderstolpe, Peter

    2010-09-01

    The construction of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark is associated with a number of measures above ground that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Swedish Environmental Code. This report, which is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment, describes these water operations, their effects and consequences, and planned measures

  1. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later...

  2. Nuclear fuel element design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of Wolsung-1, 600 MWe CANDU-PHWR (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, H.C; Lee, J.C.; Suh, K.S.; Yuk, K.E.; Whang, W.; Park, J.S.; Eim, J.S.; Bang, K.H.; Eim, M.S.; Rim, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    The main objective of the present thermal hydraulic analysis is to determine the thermal hydraulic characteristics of Wolsung-1 600 MWe CANDU-PHW reactor under normal operation. This is to verify and expedite the development of the nuclear fuel design and fabrication as well as the management. The computer program package developed for the stated objective are DOD81, CANREPP, PLOC81 and COBRA-CANDU. (Author)

  3. Reactivity and neutron emission measurements of burnt PWR fuel rod samples in LWR-PROTEUS phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M. F.; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R.; Brogli, R.; Meier, G.; Berger, H. D.; Chawla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the reactivity effects and the neutron emission rates of uranium oxide and mixed oxide burnt fuel samples having a wide range of burnup values and coming from a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). The reactivity measurements have been made in a PWR lattice moderated in turn with: water, a water and heavy water mixture, and water containing boron. An interesting relationship has been found between the neutron emission rate and the measured reactivity. (authors)

  4. Development of methods for theoretical analysis of nuclear reactors (Phase II), I-V, Part IV, Fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1962-10-01

    This report includes the analysis of plutonium isotopes from U 238 depletion chain. Two theoretical approaches for solving the depletion of fuel are shown. One results in the system of differential equations that can be solved only by using electronic calculators and the second, Machinari-Goto method enables obtaining analytical equations for approximative values of particular nuclei. In addition, differential equations are given for different approximation levels in calculating Pu 239 , as well as relations between the released energy and irradiation [sr

  5. Carbon deposition thresholds on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes II. Steam:carbon ratio and current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2015-03-01

    For the second part of a two part publication, coking thresholds with respect to molar steam:carbon ratio (SC) and current density in nickel-based solid oxide fuel cells were determined. Anode-supported button cell samples were exposed to 2-component and 5-component gas mixtures with 1 ≤ SC ≤ 2 and zero fuel utilization for 10 h, followed by measurement of the resulting carbon mass. The effect of current density was explored by measuring carbon mass under conditions known to be prone to coking while increasing the current density until the cell was carbon-free. The SC coking thresholds were measured to be ∼1.04 and ∼1.18 at 600 and 700 °C, respectively. Current density experiments validated the thresholds measured with respect to fuel utilization and steam:carbon ratio. Coking thresholds at 600 °C could be predicted with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations when the Gibbs free energy of carbon was appropriately modified. Here, the Gibbs free energy of carbon on nickel-based anode support cermets was measured to be -6.91 ± 0.08 kJ mol-1. The results of this two part publication show that thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with appropriate modification to the Gibbs free energy of solid-phase carbon can be used to predict coking thresholds on nickel-based anodes at 600-700 °C.

  6. Comics Journalism and Fine Art: War, Massacre, and The Individual, in works of Pieter Bruegel, Joe Sacco and Otto Dix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Owj

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a pioneer of Comics Journalism, Joe Sacco’s works have been linked to conflict studies, migration, education, and so on. But despite references that Sacco makes to 16th Century master painter, Pieter Bruegel, and 20th century New Objectivity painter Otto Dix in his interviews, there have been few studies on the potential link between comics of Sacco and works of these masters of fine art. In this study I explore this connection by examining the questions of war, individuality and portrayal of massacre in paintings of Bruegel and Dix and journalistic comics of Sacco. My greater aim is to demonstrate the potential of further comparative studies between arts and comics journalism, especially between Renaissance and modern artists.

  7. Patrimonio fotográfico del Valle del Cauca: el archivo de Otto Moll González

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Eusse González

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El Departamento Red de Bibliotecas, a través del Área Cultural de Cali, adquirió en 2009 el archivo fotográfico de Otto Moll González (Cúcuta, 1904-Cali, 1988. Este archivo, conformado por alrededor de 30.000 documentos entre negativos blanco y negro (en película y vidrio y fotografías blanco y negro en papel de diferentes formatos, constituye una de las colecciones de imágenes más valiosas que tiene el Valle del Cauca para los decenios de 1950 a 1980 y es un aporte importante a las colecciones documentales de la Red de Bibliotecas sobre el suroccidente y otras regiones del país.

  8. Thermal-hydraulic design calculations for the annular fuel element with replaceable test bundles (TOAST) on the test zone position 205 of KNK II/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.

    1984-10-01

    Annular fuel elements are foreseen in KNK II as carrier elements for irradiation inserts and test bundles. For the third core a reloadable annular element on position 205 is foreseen, in which replaceable 19-pin test bundles (TOAST) shall be irradiated. The present report deals with the thermal-hydraulic design of the annular carrier element and the test bundle, whereby the test bundle required additional optimization. The code CIA has been used for the calculations. Start of irradiation of the subassembly is planned at the beginning of the third core operation. After optimization of the pin-spacer geometry in the test bundle, design calculations for both bundles were performed, whereby thermal coupling between both was taken into account. The calculated mass-flows and temperature distributions are given for the nominal and the eccentric element configuration. The calculated bundle pressure losses have been corrected according to experimental results [de

  9. Geological and environmental observations in the Sunchales Creek and Tonco River , Don Otto uranium mine, Salta Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorustovich, S.; Guidi, F.; Bárbaro, N.; Nievas, H.; Tomellini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Results of geological and environmental observations made by professionals of the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) down streams Don Otto uranium mine on the Sunchales creek, from Los Guanacos strait down to the Tonco river mouth, and from river mouth down to narrow pass named Salto Grande, are presented in this report. La Yesera, Las Curtiembres and Los Blanquitos Formations of the Pirgua Subgroup, and Lecho and Yacoraite Formations of the Balbuena Subgroup crops out in that area (Salta Group, Cretaceous- Middle Eocene). Water stream analyses have given uranium contents between 890 μg/L and 1,100 μg/L, and uranium in stream sediments between 4 μg/g and 14 μg/g; radimetric anomalias up to 1,500 c/s in discoloured facies of the Las Curtiembres Formation, and 2,000 c/s in dark pelitic sediments of the Yacoraite Formation. A new zone with uranium traces in Curtiembres Formation belonging to the Pirgua Subgroup has been identified in the Alemanía cretaceous basin, which is stratigraphically similar to Cajoncillo, Las Abritas and El Fraile deposits. Those traces in addition to the other ones localized in the upper third of the Yacoraite Formation would have been originated by the geochemical uranium anomalies in waters and stream sediments by uranium leaching of rocks. The geochemical uranium anomalies in water and sediments are not a consequence of the antropic activity of the uranium mining carried out in Don Otto mine (1961-1982). (authors) [es

  10. Fuel consumption in an air blower for agricultural use under different operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Robson L. da

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of fuel consumption in internal combustion engines (ICE) of agricultural machinery and equipment is important in determining the performance under various operating conditions, especially when using biofuels. This study consisted of experimental evaluation of the gasoline (petrol)/ethanol consumption in a two-stroke 1-cylinder ICE, Otto cycle, functioning as an air blower for agriculture and related applications. A methodology for tests of non-automotive ICE, based on ABNT...

  11. Fundamental Study of Electron Beam Welding of AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy for Nuclear Fuel Plate Assembly (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soosung; Lee, Haein; Lee, Donbae; Park, Jongman; Lee, Yoonsang

    2013-01-01

    Certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes posses the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the nuclear fuel plate fabrication and assembly, a fundamental EBW experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using a electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. In this experiment, a feasibility test was carried out by tensile tester, bead-on-plate welding and metallographic examination to comply with the aluminum welding procedure. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the fuel plate assembly has been also studied by the mechanical testing and microstructure examinations. This study was carried out to determine the suitable welding process and to investigate tensile strength of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. In the present experiment, satisfactory EBW of the square butt weld specimens was developed. In comparison with the rolling directions of test specimens, the tensile strengths were no difference between the longitudinal and transverse welds. Based on this fundamental study, fabrication and assembly of the nuclear fuel plates will be provided for the future Kijang research reactor project

  12. Pelletised fuel production from coal tailings and spent mushroom compost - Part II. Economic feasibility based on cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Changkook; Khor, Adela; Sharifi, Vida N.; Swithenbank, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Due to the growing market for sustainable energy, in order to increase the quality of the fuels, pellets are being produced from various materials such as wood and other biomass energy crops, and municipal waste. This paper presents the results from an economic feasibility study for pellet production using blends of two residue materials: coal tailings from coal cleaning and spent mushroom compost (SMC) from mushroom production. Key variables such as the mixture composition, raw material haulage and plant scale were considered and the production costs were compared to coal and biomass energy prices. For both wet materials, the moisture content was the critical parameter that influenced the fuel energy costs. The haulage distance of the raw materials was another factor that can pose a high risk. The results showed that the pellet production from the above two materials can be viable when a less energy-intensive drying process is utilised. Potential market outlets and ways to lower the costs are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  13. Engine fuel trends in the 90ies. Kraftstoff-Trends in den 90er Jahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, J.

    1990-06-01

    The operating behaviour of internal combustion engines is greatly dependent from the properties and compositions of the fuels. Increasing demands made on engine technology for improved cost-effectiveness, service life and pollutivity will result in greater demands on the vehicle fuel quality. A number of papers whose contents are briefly reported by the author, deal with today's requirements of the automative industry on vehicle fuels (table: characteristics, requirements, limits, comments) and with the prospects of alternative fuels. Another paper discussed the influence of the fuel on particulate emission by diesel engines. Another paper presented the calculation of physical fuel data from the carburettor substance analysis and its significance, the environmentally relevant effects of fuel additives in enginer, and optimized additive systems to meet greater quality demands on otto-engine fuels. (HWJ).

  14. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in reactivity-initiated accident fuel modeling: synthesis of organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD/nuclear energy agency (NEA benchmark on reactivity-initiated accident codes phase-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Marchand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of OECD/NEA Working Group on Fuel Safety, a RIA fuel-rod-code Benchmark Phase I was organized in 2010–2013. It consisted of four experiments on highly irradiated fuel rodlets tested under different experimental conditions. This benchmark revealed the need to better understand the basic models incorporated in each code for realistic simulation of the complicated integral RIA tests with high burnup fuel rods. A second phase of the benchmark (Phase II was thus launched early in 2014, which has been organized in two complementary activities: (1 comparison of the results of different simulations on simplified cases in order to provide additional bases for understanding the differences in modelling of the concerned phenomena; (2 assessment of the uncertainty of the results. The present paper provides a summary and conclusions of the second activity of the Benchmark Phase II, which is based on the input uncertainty propagation methodology. The main conclusion is that uncertainties cannot fully explain the difference between the code predictions. Finally, based on the RIA benchmark Phase-I and Phase-II conclusions, some recommendations are made. Keywords: RIA, Codes Benchmarking, Fuel Modelling, OECD

  15. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Volume II. The environment (Deliverable No. 27). [Baseline environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The proposed site of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant (IFGDP) is located on a small peninsula extending eastward into Lake McKeller from the south shore. The peninsula is located west-southwest of the City of Memphis near the confluence of Lake McKeller and the Mississippi River. The environmental setting of this site and the region around this site is reported in terms of physical, biological, and human descriptions. Within the physical description, this report divides the environmental setting into sections on physiography, geology, hydrology, water quality, climatology, air quality, and ambient noise. The biological description is divided into sections on aquatic and terrestrial ecology. Finally, the human environment description is reported in sections on land use, demography, socioeconomics, culture, and visual features. This section concludes with a discussion of physical environmental constraints.

  16. Mechanical behaviour of a fuel cell stack under vibrating conditions linked to aircraft applications part II: Three-dimensional modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouss, Vicky; Charon, Willy [M3M, University of Technology Belfort - Montbeliard (France); FCLAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort, Cedex (France); Candusso, Denis [INRETS, The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research (France); FCLAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort, Cedex (France)

    2008-11-15

    The implementation of fuel cells (FC) in transportation systems such as airplanes requires better understanding of their mechanical behaviour in vibrating environment. To this end, a FC stack was tested on a vibrating platform for all three orthogonal axes. The experimental procedure is described in the first part of the paper. This second part of the paper demonstrates how the experimental data collected can be used to create a three-dimensional, multi-input and multi-output model based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. Indeed FCs are nonlinear mechanical systems, difficult to be physically modelled. The ANN methodology which depends strictly on raw data is a particularly interesting alternative solution to model FCs, for example, for monitoring purpose. The ANN model is described along with the training, pruning and validation stages. The results are exposed and commented. (author)

  17. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  18. Simulation of thermal stresses in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Part II: Loss of gas-tightness, electrical contact and thermal buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Arata; Wuillemin, Zacharie; Van herle, Jan; Favrat, Daniel

    Structural stability issues in planar solid oxide fuel cells arise from the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the components. The stress state at operating temperature is the superposition of several contributions, which differ depending on the component. First, the cells accumulate residual stresses due to the sintering phase during the manufacturing process. Further, the load applied during assembly of the stack to ensure electric contact and flatten the cells prevents a completely stress-free expansion of each component during the heat-up. Finally, thermal gradients cause additional stresses in operation. The temperature profile generated by a thermo-electrochemical model implemented in an equation-oriented process modelling tool (gPROMS) was imported into finite-element software (ABAQUS) to calculate the distribution of stress and contact pressure on all components of a standard solid oxide fuel cell repeat unit. The different layers of the cell in exception of the cathode, i.e. anode, electrolyte and compensating layer were considered in the analysis to account for the cell curvature. Both steady-state and dynamic simulations were performed, with an emphasis on the cycling of the electrical load. The study includes two different types of cell, operation under both thermal partial oxidation and internal steam-methane reforming and two different initial thicknesses of the air and fuel compressive sealing gaskets. The results generated by the models are presented in two papers: Part I focuses on cell cracking. In the present paper, Part II, the occurrences of loss of gas-tightness in the compressive gaskets and/or electrical contact in the gas diffusion layer were identified. In addition, the dependence on temperature of both coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the metallic interconnect (MIC) were implemented in the finite-element model to compute the plastic deformation, while the possibilities of thermal buckling

  19. Demonstration and evaluation of dual-fuel technology; Demonstration och utvaerdering av dual-fuel-tekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalhammar, Per; Erlandsson, Lennart; Willner, Kristina (AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (Sweden)); Johannesson, Staffan (Ecoplan AB (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    There is an increased interest for Dual Fuel (methane-Diesel) applications in Sweden since this technology is seen as one of the more interesting options for a fast and cost effective introduction of biomethane as fuel for HD engines. The Dual Fuel technology has been used for many years, mainly for stationary purpose (generators, pumps and ships) while the Spark Ignited (SI) 'Otto' technology has been used for trucks and busses. One obstacle for introducing Dual Fuel technology for busses and trucks is the EU legislation that don't allow for HD on road certification of Dual Fuel applications. Challenges with the Dual Fuel technology is to develop cost effective applications that is capable of reaching low emissions (especially CH{sub 4} and NO{sub x}) in combination with high Diesel replacement in the test cycles used for on road applications. AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (hereinafter called AVL) has on commission by SGC (Swedish Gas technical Centre) carried out this project with the objectives to analyze the Dual Fuel (Diesel-methane) technology with focus on emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges. One important part of this project was to carry out emission tests on selected Dual Fuel applications in Sweden and to compile experiences from existing Dual Fuel technology. This report also summarizes other commonly used technologies for methane engines and compares the Dual Fuel with conventional Diesel and Otto technologies. The major challenges with Dual Fuel applications for on road vehicles will be to develop robust and cost effective solutions that meet the emission legislations (with aged catalysts) and to increase the Diesel replacement to achieve reasonable reduction of green house gases (GHG). This is especially important when biomethane is available as fuel but not Bio-Diesel. It will probably be possible to reach EURO V emission limits with advanced Dual Fuel systems but none of the tested systems reached EURO V emission levels

  20. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. SR-97-Post-closure safety. Main Report. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.

    1999-11-01

    In preparation for coming site investigations for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Government and nuclear regulatory authorities have requested an assessment of the repository's long-term safety. The purpose is to demonstrate whether the risk of harmful effects in individuals in the vicinity of the repository complies with the acceptance criterion formulated by the Swedish regulatory authorities, i.e. that the risk may not exceed 10 -6 per year. Geological data are taken from three sites in Sweden to shed light on different conditions in Swedish granitic bedrock. The future evolution of the repository system is analyzed in the form of five scenarios. The first is a base scenario where the repository is postulated to be built entirely according to specifications and where present-day conditions in the surroundings are postulated to persist. The four other scenarios show how the evolution of the repository differs from that in the base scenario if the repository contains a few initially defective canisters, in the event of climate change, earthquakes, and future inadvertent human intrusion. The time horizon for the analyses is at most one million years, in accordance with preliminary regulations. By means of model studies and calculations, the base scenario analyzes how the radioactivity of the fuel declines with time, the repository's thermal evolution as a result of the decay heat in the fuel, the hydraulic evolution in buffer and backfill when they become saturated with water, and the long-term groundwater flow in the geosphere on the three sites. The overall conclusion of the analyses in the base scenario is that the copper canisters isolating capacity is not threatened by either the mechanical or chemical stresses to which it is subjected. The safety margins are great even in a million-year perspective. The internal evolution in initially defective canisters and the possible resultant migration of radionuclides in buffer, geosphere

  1. DESEMPENHO DE MOTOR-GERADOR DE CICLO OTTO OPERADO COM GASOLINA E BIOGÁS PROVENIENTE DE SUINOCULTURA / PERFORMANCE MOTOR-GENERATOR OPERATED WITH OTTO CYCLE GASOLINE AND BIOGAS FROM THE PIG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rossetto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A busca por novas fontes energéticas que não poluam o meio ambiente, bem como a mitigação dos impactos ambientais gerados pelo aumento da população, abre uma nova perspectiva no campo da pesquisa do biogás provenientes do resultado de tratamento de efluentes. O processo de transformação de energia gerada pela combustão do biogás para energia em motores no ciclo Otto e posterior transformação em energia elétrica é de fácil realização sendo necessárias algumas adaptações no motor, neste trabalho foi realizada apenas a substituição do carburador por um misturador de ar/combustível tipo Venturi. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de motor-gerador ciclo Otto alimentado com biogás proveniente de suinocultura. Como testemunha foram utilizados ensaios com gasolina, simulando diferentes condições de trabalho, com cargas de 0; 0,250 kW (10 % da carga; 0,500 kW (20 % da carga; 0,750 kW (30 % da carga; 1 kW (40 % da carga; 1,250 kW (50 % da carga; 1,500 kW (60 % da carga; 1,750 kW (70 % da carga; 2 kW (80 % da carga; 2,250 kW (90 % da carga e 2,500 kW (100 % da carga. Onde foram avaliadas as emissões de dióxido de carbono (CO2, monóxido de carbono (CO e oxido de nitrogênio (NOx, e analisado o rendimento do motor-gerador que foi baixo em torno de 76 % menor quando comparado com gasolina, sendo necessários ajustes para o melhor desempenho. 

  2. Physical and welding metallurgy of Gd-enriched austenitic alloys for spent nuclear fuel applications. Part II, nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Michael, Joseph Richard; Williams, David Brian; Dupont, John Neuman; Robino, Charles Victor

    2004-01-01

    The physical and welding a metallurgy of gadolinium- (Gd-) enriched Ni-based alloys has been examined using a combination of differential thermal analysis, hot ductility testing. Varestraint testing, and various microstructural characterization techniques. Three different matrix compositions were chosen that were similar to commercial Ni-Cr-Mo base alloys (UNS N06455, N06022, and N06059). A ternary Ni-Cr-Gd alloy was also examined. The Gd level of each alloy was ∼2 wt-%. All the alloys initiated solidification by formation of primary austenite and terminated solidification by a Liquid γ + Ni 5 Gd eutectic-type reaction at ∼1270 C. The solidification temperature ranges of the alloys varied from ∼100 to 130 C (depending on alloy composition). This is a substantial reduction compared to the solidification temperature range to Gd-enriched stainless steels (360 to 400 C) that terminate solidification by a peritectic reaction at ∼1060 C. The higher-temperature eutectic reaction that occurs in the Ni-based alloys is accompanied by significant improvements in hot ductility and solidification cracking resistance. The results of this research demonstrate that Gd-enriched Ni-based alloys are excellent candidate materials for nuclear criticality control in spent nuclear fuel storage applications that require production and fabrication of large amounts of material through conventional ingot metallurgy and fusion welding techniques

  3. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. SR-97-Post-closure safety. Main Report. Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, A [ed.

    1999-11-01

    In preparation for coming site investigations for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Government and nuclear regulatory authorities have requested an assessment of the repository's long-term safety. The purpose is to demonstrate whether the risk of harmful effects in individuals in the vicinity of the repository complies with the acceptance criterion formulated by the Swedish regulatory authorities, i.e. that the risk may not exceed 10{sup -6} per year. Geological data are taken from three sites in Sweden to shed light on different conditions in Swedish granitic bedrock. The future evolution of the repository system is analyzed in the form of five scenarios. The first is a base scenario where the repository is postulated to be built entirely according to specifications and where present-day conditions in the surroundings are postulated to persist. The four other scenarios show how the evolution of the repository differs from that in the base scenario if the repository contains a few initially defective canisters, in the event of climate change, earthquakes, and future inadvertent human intrusion. The time horizon for the analyses is at most one million years, in accordance with preliminary regulations. By means of model studies and calculations, the base scenario analyzes how the radioactivity of the fuel declines with time, the repository's thermal evolution as a result of the decay heat in the fuel, the hydraulic evolution in buffer and backfill when they become saturated with water, and the long-term groundwater flow in the geosphere on the three sites. The overall conclusion of the analyses in the base scenario is that the copper canisters isolating capacity is not threatened by either the mechanical or chemical stresses to which it is subjected. The safety margins are great even in a million-year perspective. The internal evolution in initially defective canisters and the possible resultant migration of radionuclides in buffer

  4. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. SR-97-Post-closure safety. Main Report. Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, A. [ed.

    1999-11-01

    In preparation for coming site investigations for siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Government and nuclear regulatory authorities have requested an assessment of the repository's long-term safety. The purpose is to demonstrate whether the risk of harmful effects in individuals in the vicinity of the repository complies with the acceptance criterion formulated by the Swedish regulatory authorities, i.e. that the risk may not exceed 10{sup -6} per year. Geological data are taken from three sites in Sweden to shed light on different conditions in Swedish granitic bedrock. The future evolution of the repository system is analyzed in the form of five scenarios. The first is a base scenario where the repository is postulated to be built entirely according to specifications and where present-day conditions in the surroundings are postulated to persist. The four other scenarios show how the evolution of the repository differs from that in the base scenario if the repository contains a few initially defective canisters, in the event of climate change, earthquakes, and future inadvertent human intrusion. The time horizon for the analyses is at most one million years, in accordance with preliminary regulations. By means of model studies and calculations, the base scenario analyzes how the radioactivity of the fuel declines with time, the repository's thermal evolution as a result of the decay heat in the fuel, the hydraulic evolution in buffer and backfill when they become saturated with water, and the long-term groundwater flow in the geosphere on the three sites. The overall conclusion of the analyses in the base scenario is that the copper canisters isolating capacity is not threatened by either the mechanical or chemical stresses to which it is subjected. The safety margins are great even in a million-year perspective. The internal evolution in initially defective canisters and the possible resultant migration of radionuclides in

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I)--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENTIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE UNITS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FUEL SYSTEM COMPARISONS, (2) FUEL SYSTEM SUPPLY COMPONENTS, (3) FUEL SUPPLY SECTION MAINTENANCE, (4) FUNCTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL,…

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART III), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, II--RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) MORE ABOUT THE CUMMINS FUEL SYSTEM, (2) CALIBRATING THE PT FUEL PUMP, (3) CALIBRATING THE FUEL INJECTORS, (4) UNDERSTANDING THE SHUTTER SYSTEM, (5) THE…

  7. Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety Benchmark-Phase II-E. Impact of Isotopic Inventory Changes due to Control Rod Insertions on Reactivity and the End Effect in PWR UO2 Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuber, Jens Christian; Tippl, Wolfgang; Hemptinne, Gwendoline de; Maes, Philippe; Ranta-aho, Anssu; Peneliau, Yannick; Jutier, Ludyvine; Tardy, Marcel; Reiche, Ingo; Kroeger, Helge; Nakata, Tetsuo; Armishaw, Malcom; Miller, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The report describes the final results of the Phase II-E Burn-up Credit Criticality Benchmark conducted by the Expert Group on Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety. The objective of Phase II of the Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety programme is to study the impact of axial burn-up profiles of PWR UO 2 spent fuel assemblies on the reactivity of PWR UO 2 spent fuel assembly configurations. The objective of the Phase II-E benchmark was to study the impact of changes on the spent nuclear fuel isotopic composition due to control rod insertion during depletion on the reactivity and the end effect of spent fuel assemblies with realistic axial burn-up profiles for different control rod insertion depths ranging from 0 cm (no insertion) to full insertion (i.e. to the case that the fuel assemblies were exposed to control rod insertion over their full active length). For this purpose two axial burn-up profiles have been extracted from an AREVA-NP-GmbH-owned 17x17-(24+1) PWR UO 2 spent fuel assembly burn-up profile database. One profile has an average burn-up of 30 MWd/kg U, the other profile is related to an average burn-up of 50 MWd/kg U. Two profiles with different average burn-up values were selected because the shape of the burn-up profile is affected by the average burn-up and the end effect depends on the average burn-up of the fuel. The Phase II-E benchmark exercise complements the Phase II-C and Phase II-D benchmark exercises. In Phase II-D different irradiation histories were analysed using different control rod insertion histories during depletion as well as irradiation histories without control rod insertion. But in all the histories analysed a uniform distribution of the burn-up and hence a uniform distribution of the isotopic composition were assumed; and in all the histories including any usage of control rods full insertion of the control rods was assumed. In Phase II-C the impact of the asymmetry of axial burn-up profiles on the reactivity and the end effect of

  8. Úloha a význam Otto von Bismarcka v mezinárodních vztazích

    OpenAIRE

    Bucifalová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    In this bachelors thesis is analyzed a personality of Otto von Bismarck and his role and importance in international relations. The thesis is focused on the period from the German unification by iron and blood in 1871 to the beginning of the World War One. It includes the process of the unification of the German empire, international relations in the 19th century and the change of German foreign policy from the Realpolitik to Weltpolitik after Bismarcks abdication.

  9. Development of optimized advanced austenitic steels (II). Evaluation of out-of-pile testing results of the test fuel claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Mizuta, Shunji; Ukai, Shigeharu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-03-01

    14Cr-25Ni optimized advanced austenitic steels have been developed to improve the swelling resistance of 15Cr-20Ni austenitic stainless steels used for FBR fuel cladding. In this improvement, Ti, Nb, V and P were dissolved into 14Cr-25Ni matrix by means of the high-temperature solution treatment to make finely distributed and stabilized precipitates in the operation. Furthermore, at the final stage of cold-working, cold-working level increased and residual stress was reduced. In this study, as fabricated microstructure observation, solubility of alloying elements and grain size test in the manufacturing process were evaluated. Following results were obtained. (1) Spherical precipitates were observed in the grain. Most of them were identified as complexed carbide-nitride [Ti,Nb(C,N)] by EDX analysis. (2) The dissolved percentages of Ti and Ni in the matrix were about 70% and 30% respectively. Undissolved Ti and Nb may react with undissolved carbon and precipitate as MC carbides. (3) High-temperature solution treatment is effective for the sufficient solubility of alloying elements, but it is likely to induce very large grains, which is the cause of defective signal in the ultrasonic alloy testing. The results of the grain size test showed that the large grain size is reduced in low Nb (0.1wt%) alloy compared with the standard alloy (0.2wt% Nb), and the effectiveness for the grain size control by reducing the Nb content was confirmed. Also, it was suggested that the intermediate heat treatment and cold work conditions would possibly avoid the occurrence of the large grain at the final heat treatment. (author)

  10. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5) Fossil

  11. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  12. [The Swiss archaeologist Otto Hauser. His skeletal findings and hypothesis on the evolution of man and his extensive activities in the development of prehistorical research and evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drössler, Rudolf; Drössler, Sigrid; Freyberg, Manuela

    2006-03-01

    New investigations on Otto Hauser's skeleton findings and the excavations of this Swiss citizen in Southwest France from 1906 until 1914 placed the activities of this archaeologist again in the focus of scientific and public interest. This paper describes life and oeuvre of Otto Hauser and discusses the importance of the skeletons found by him and Hermann Klaatsch as well as the consequences of their discovery. The efforts of Otto Hauser to publish his discoveries, to present and spread his view concerning the evolution of man were remarkably manifold as well as the parallels between ancient man and contemporary ethnic groups living on a low technological level drawn by him and to wake and to promote the interest in prehistory. Many books, brochures, articles and public lectures contributed to this intention as well as co-operation with local historians and scientists of other disciplines, and also many films, teaching and illustrative materials. The scientific collection of the authors of this article comprises more than 6,500 written documents and photos.

  13. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part II: Prismatic Reactor Cross Section Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent Descotes

    2011-03-01

    The deep-burn prismatic high temperature reactor is made up of an annular core loaded with transuranic isotopes and surrounded in the center and in the periphery by reflector blocks in graphite. This disposition creates challenges for the neutronics compared to usual light water reactor calculation schemes. The longer mean free path of neutrons in graphite affects the neutron spectrum deep inside the blocks located next to the reflector. The neutron thermalisation in the graphite leads to two characteristic fission peaks at the inner and outer interfaces as a result of the increased thermal flux seen in those assemblies. Spectral changes are seen at least on half of the fuel blocks adjacent to the reflector. This spectral effect of the reflector may prevent us from successfully using the two step scheme -lattice then core calculation- typically used for light water reactors. We have been studying the core without control mechanisms to provide input for the development of a complete calculation scheme. To correct the spectrum at the lattice level, we have tried to generate cross-sections from supercell calculations at the lattice level, thus taking into account part of the graphite surrounding the blocks of interest for generating the homogenised cross-sections for the full-core calculation. This one has been done with 2 to 295 groups to assess if increasing the number of groups leads to more accurate results. A comparison with a classical single block model has been done. Both paths were compared to a reference calculation done with MCNP. It is concluded that the agreement with MCNP is better with supercells, but that the single block model remains quite close if enough groups are kept for the core calculation. 26 groups seems to be a good compromise between time and accu- racy. However, some trials with depletion have shown huge variations of the isotopic composition across a block next to the reflector. It may imply that at least an in- core depletion for the

  14. Design of reactor internals in larger high-temperature reactors with spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, C.

    1981-01-01

    In his paper, the author analyzes and summarizes the present state of the art with emphasis on the prototype reactor THTR 300 MWe, because in addition to spherical fuel elements, this type includes other features of future HTR design such as the same flow direction of cooland gas through the core. The paper on hand also elaborates design guidelines for reactor internals applicable with large HTR's of up to 1200 MWe. Proved designs will be altered so as to meet the special requirements of larger cores with spherical elements to be reloaded according to the OTTO principle. This paper is furthermore designed as a starting point for selective and swift development of reactor internals for large HTR's to be refuelled according to the OTTO principle. (orig./GL) [de

  15. Experiencing memory museums in Berlin. The Otto Weidt Workshop for the Blind Museum and the Jewish Museum Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Souto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores memory studies from the audience’s perspective, focusing on the perception of Holocaust narratives in two museums in Berlin. This research builds on and contributes to a number of emerging issues on memory studies, tourism perception and museum design: the debate on experiential authenticity, Dark Tourism, as well as the analysis of memory studies from the perspective of the user. The main data facilitating the analysis is based on responses shared on TripAdvisor; the case studies being the Otto Weidt Workshop for the Blind Museum and the Jewish Museum Berlin. The analysis of these museums, focusing on their narratives, design features and comments from visitors, will highlight a potential shift from the traditional object-focused museum, to a phenomenological subject-focused one. It will be argued, then, that the understanding and consumption of authenticity encompasses a very flexible definition, not only based on the nature of the objects exhibited, but on the production of authentic experiences.

  16. Analyses of thermodynamic performance for the endoreversible Otto cycle with the concepts of entropy generation and entransy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; YanQiu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,power the the and endoreversible the Otto cycle is analyzed with the entropy generation minimization objectives,and the the entransy theory.of The output power,the heat-work conversion efficiency are taken as the optimization rate,and relationships the output heat-work conversion efficiency,entransy the entropy generation and the entropy generation rate numbers,the work entransy are loss rate,The entransy loss of coefficient,the dissipation rate the entransy variation associated with discussed.applicability entropy the entropy generation minimization and the entransy theory while to the analyses is also analyzed.It is found do that smaller generation rate does not always lead to larger output our power,smaller entropy entransy generation loss numbers and not always lead to larger heat-work conversion efficiency,either.larger the In calculations,power,both larger larger rate larger entransy variation heat-work rate associated with work correspond also to that output while entransy is loss coefficient suitable results the in larger conversion developed efficiency.It is found concept of entransy dissipation not always for analyses because it was for heat transfer.

  17. Re-evaluation of the criticality experiments of the ''Otto Hahn Nuclear Ship'' reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengar, I.; Snoj, L.; Rogan, P.; Ravnik, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    Several series of experiments with a FDR reactor (advanced pressurized light water reactor) were performed in 1972 in the Geesthacht critical facility ANEX. The experiments were performed to test the core prior to its usage for the propulsion of the first German nuclear merchant ship ''Otto-Hahn''. In the present paper a calculational re-evaluation of the experiments is described with the use of the up-to date computer codes (Monte-Carlo code MCNP5) and nuclear data (ENDF/B-VI release 6). It is focused on the determination of uncertainties in the benchmark model of the experimental set-up, originating mainly from the limited set of information still available about the experiments. Effects of the identified uncertainties on the multiplication factor were studied. The sensitivity studies include parametric variation of material composition and geometry. The combined total uncertainty being found 0.0050 in k{sub eff}, the experiments are qualified as criticality safety benchmark experiments. (orig.)

  18. On the Hierarchy of Saints on Altars. Visitation Records of Otto Friedrich Buchheim, the Bishop of Ljubljana (1641–1664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrič, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The visitation records of Otto Friedrich Buchheim, the Bishop of Ljubljana from 1641–1664, offer an insight into the rules governing the disposition of saintly figures in altar retables. The central place was accorded to the titular saint, while companion saints are positioned in pairs (separately for each level of the retable in such a way that those of higher rank are placed on the more distinguished gospel side, whereas those of lower rank stand on the subordinate epistle side. The priority of one saint over another was not a matter of a random choice, but of a fixed hierarchical order which was created over the course of centuries in the Litany of All Saints and also in the hymns of the officium for All Saints Day; this hierarchy, as Buchheim remarks, is "in agreement with the general feeling of the Catholic Church". Ecclesiastical art in Slovenia shows that in the Gothic period the hierarchical principle governing the disposition of saintly figures was not yet firmly fixed, but it was fully established in the late Renaissance and Baroque periods, which coincides with the period of unification of the Litany of All Saints for the entire Catholic Church. Later it started to loosen again, yet it remained in force up to the 20th century.

  19. Multi-unit inertial fusion plants based on HYLIFE-II, with shared heavy-ion RIA driver and target factory, producing electricity and hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, G.; Moir, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-05

    Following is a modification of the IFEFUEL systems code, called IFEFUEL2, to treat specifically the HYLIFE-II target chamber concept. The same improved Recirculating Induction Accelerator (RIA) energy scaling model developed recently by Bieri is used in this survey of the economics of multi-unit IFE plants producing both electricity and hydrogen fuel. Reference cases will assume conventional HI-indirect target gains for a 2 mm spot, and improved HYLIFE-II BoP models as per Hoffman. Credits for improved plant availability and lower operating costs due to HYLIFE-II`s 30-yr target chamber lifetime are included, as well as unit cost reductions suggested by Delene to credit greater {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} benefits for the duplicated portions of a multi-unit plant. To illustrate the potential impact of more advanced assumptions, additional {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} cases will consider the possible benefits of an MHD + Steam BoP, where direct MHD conversion of plasma from baseball-size LiH target blanket shells is assumed to be possible in a new (as yet undesigned) liquid Flibe-walled target chamber, together and separately, with advanced, higher-gain heavy-ion targets with Fast Ignitors. These runs may help decide the course of a possible future {open_quotes}HYLIFE-III{close_quotes} IFE study. Beam switchyard and final focusing system costs per target chamber are assumed to be consistent with single-sided illumination, for either {open_quotes}conventional{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} indirect target gain assumptions. Target costs are scaled according to the model by Woodworth. In all cases, the driver energy and rep rate for each chosen number of target chambers and total plant output will be optimized to minimize the cost of electricity (CoE) and the associated cost of hydrogen (CoH), using a relationship between CoE and CoH to be presented in the next section.

  20. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 1, final report. Conceptual design, demand and fuel projections and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-08

    The Phase I Report, Grid ICES, presented the broad alternatives and implications for development of an energy system satisfying thermal demand with the co-generation of electric power, all predicated on the use of solid fuels. Participants of the system are the University of Minnesota, operator and primary thermal user, and Northern States Power Company, primary electrical user; with St. Mary's Hospital, Fairview Hospital, and Augsburg College as Add-on Customers for the thermal service (Option I). Included for consideration are the Options of (II) solid waste disposal by the Pyrolysis Method, with heat recovery, and (III) conversion of a portion of the thermal system from steam to hot water distribution to increase co-generation capability and as a demonstration system for future expansion. This report presents the conceptual design of the energy system and each Option, with the economic implications identified so that selection of the final system can be made. Draft outline of the Environmental Assessment for the project is submitted as a separate report.

  1. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; DiVita, Vincent [Jacobs Consultancy Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  2. Small-scale bio fuelled heat and power - requirements for standardized technical and fuel solutions from a systems perspective; Smaaskalig biobraenslebaserad kraftvaerme - foerutsaettningar foer standardiserade loesningar med avseende paa teknik och braenslen i ett systemperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Olle; Johansson, Kent; Steinwall, Pontus [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Different techniques for small-scale heat and power generation have been investigated. The included cycles are steam turbine, diesel engine, Otto engine, Stirling engine, gas turbine and organic Rankine cycle (ORC). For steam turbines, Stirling engine, and indirectly fired gas turbines, the combustion can be placed in a relatively conventional furnace, which gives a fairly free choice of fuel. In other cycles like the traditional gas turbine cycle, diesel engine and Otto engine, the fuel should be in the gas or liquid phase. Experiments are in progress to use wood pf (pulverised fuel) as fuel. The technique for plants based on steam turbine, diesel engine, Otto engine, conventional gas turbine and ORC based on different forms of bio fuel exist already today. For Stirling engine, gas turbine with HAT cycle (Humid Air Turbine) and indirectly fired gas turbine further development is needed before the technique will be commercially available using bio fuel. An interesting process coupling is a gas engine combined with a gasifier. This coupling can be a competitive choice to the other processes if the problems with gas cleaning can be solved.

  3. Long-term experiences in the use of rapeseed oil fuel in tractors of the emissions levels I and II; Langzeiterfahrungen zum Einsatz von Rapsoelkraftstoff in Traktoren der Abgasstufe I und II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberger, Peter; Thuneke, Klaus; Remmele, Edgar

    2013-06-01

    The operational behavior as well as the emission behavior should be clarified in long-term use by means of tractors which are powered by rapeseed oil fuel. This is based on the following measures: review of the quality of rapeseed oil fuel used; testing of the quality of the engine oil on a random basis; documentation of failures, maintenance and repair work; measurement of performance and fuel economy; measurement of exhaust emissions; diagnosis of engines.

  4. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  5. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  6. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIV, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM PART III--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR/ALTERNATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) INJECTION TIMING CONTROLS, (2) GOVERNOR, (3) FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE TIPS, (4) THE CHARGING SYSTEM, (5) REGULATING THE GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR, AND (6) CHARGING SYSTEM SERVICE…

  8. Development of Monte Carlo-based pebble bed reactor fuel management code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiadipura, Topan; Obara, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new Monte Carlo-based fuel management code for OTTO cycle pebble bed reactor was developed. • The double-heterogeneity was modeled using statistical method in MVP-BURN code. • The code can perform analysis of equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase. • Code-to-code comparisons for Once-Through-Then-Out case were investigated. • Ability of the code to accommodate the void cavity was confirmed. - Abstract: A fuel management code for pebble bed reactors (PBRs) based on the Monte Carlo method has been developed in this study. The code, named Monte Carlo burnup analysis code for PBR (MCPBR), enables a simulation of the Once-Through-Then-Out (OTTO) cycle of a PBR from the running-in phase to the equilibrium condition. In MCPBR, a burnup calculation based on a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, MVP-BURN, is coupled with an additional utility code to be able to simulate the OTTO cycle of PBR. MCPBR has several advantages in modeling PBRs, namely its Monte Carlo neutron transport modeling, its capability of explicitly modeling the double heterogeneity of the PBR core, and its ability to model different axial fuel speeds in the PBR core. Analysis at the equilibrium condition of the simplified PBR was used as the validation test of MCPBR. The calculation results of the code were compared with the results of diffusion-based fuel management PBR codes, namely the VSOP and PEBBED codes. Using JENDL-4.0 nuclide library, MCPBR gave a 4.15% and 3.32% lower k eff value compared to VSOP and PEBBED, respectively. While using JENDL-3.3, MCPBR gave a 2.22% and 3.11% higher k eff value compared to VSOP and PEBBED, respectively. The ability of MCPBR to analyze neutron transport in the top void of the PBR core and its effects was also confirmed

  9. "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making": Correction to Otto et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making" by Ashley S. Otto, Joshua J. Clarkson and Frank R. Kardes ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 2016[Jul], Vol 111[1], 1-16). In the article, the main heading for Experiment 3 was missing due to a production error, and the first sentence of the first paragraph of Experiment 3 should begin as follows: Experiment 2 offered support for the hypothesis that those seeking closure engage in decision sidestepping to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-30159-001.) We all too often have to make decisions—from the mundane (e.g., what to eat for breakfast) to the complex (e.g., what to buy a loved one)—and yet there exists a multitude of strategies that allows us to make a decision. This work focuses on a subset of decision strategies that allows individuals to make decisions by bypassing the decision-making process—a phenomenon we term decision sidestepping. Critical to the present manuscript, however, we contend that decision sidestepping stems from the motivation to achieve closure. We link this proposition back to the fundamental nature of closure and how those seeking closure are highly bothered by decision making. As such, we argue that the motivation to achieve closure prompts a reliance on sidestepping strategies (e.g., default bias, choice delegation, status quo bias, inaction inertia, option fixation) to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. In support of this framework, five experiments demonstrate that (a) those seeking closure are more likely to engage in decision sidestepping, (b) the effect of closure on sidestepping stems from the bothersome nature of decision making, and (c) the reliance on sidestepping results in downstream consequences for subsequent choice. Taken together, these findings offer unique insight into the cognitive

  10. Steady- and transient-state analysis of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel with randomly dispersed tristructural isotropic particles via two-temperature homogenized model-II: Applications by coupling with COREDAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Cho, Bum Hee; Cho, Nam Zin

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, the two-temperature homogenized model for the fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel, in which tristructural isotropic particles are randomly dispersed in a fine lattice stochastic structure, was discussed. In this model, the fuel-kernel and silicon carbide matrix temperatures are distinguished. Moreover, the obtained temperature profiles are more realistic than those obtained using other models. Using the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of uranium nitride and the silicon carbide matrix, temperature-dependent homogenized parameters were obtained. In Part II of the paper, coupled with the COREDAX code, a reactor core loaded by fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel in which tristructural isotropic particles are randomly dispersed in the fine lattice stochastic structure is analyzed via a two-temperature homogenized model at steady and transient states. The results are compared with those from harmonic- and volumetric-average thermal conductivity models; i.e., we compare keff eigenvalues, power distributions, and temperature profiles in the hottest single channel at a steady state. At transient states, we compare total power, average energy deposition, and maximum temperatures in the hottest single channel obtained by the different thermal analysis models. The different thermal analysis models and the availability of fuel-kernel temperatures in the two-temperature homogenized model for Doppler temperature feedback lead to significant differences

  11. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  12. Carl Ottos forbryderhoveder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anja Skaar

    2004-01-01

    Frenologiens fremkomst i Danmark i første halvdel af 1800-tallet er en spændende og ikke mindst underholdende historie, fordi den involverer mange fremtrædende personer i datidens medicinske og videnskabelige kredse samt i det københavnske samfund mere generelt. Diskussionerne omkring denne ”vide...

  13. Two-dimensional calculation by finite element method of velocity field and temperature field development in fast reactor fuel assembly. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, J.

    1985-11-01

    A package of updated computer codes for velocity and temperature field calculations for a fast reactor fuel subassembly (or its part) by the finite element method is described. Isoparametric triangular elements of the second degree are used. (author)

  14. Actinide production in different HTR-fuel cycle concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Hecker, R.; Mirza, N.; Rueckert, M.

    1978-01-01

    At the 'Institut fuer Reaktorentwicklung der Kernforschungsanlage Juelich' the production of α-activities in the following HTR-OTTO cycle concepts were studied: 1. standard HTR cycle (U-Th); 2. low enriched HTR cycle (U-Pu); 3. near breeder HTR cycle (U-Th); 4. combined system (conventional and near breeder HTR). The production of α-activity in HTR Uranium-Thorium fuel cycles has been investigated and compared with the standard LWR cycles. The production of α-activity in HTR Uranium-Thorium fuel cycles has been investigated and compared with the standard LWR cycles. The calculations were performed by the short depletion code KASCO and the well-known ORIGEN program

  15. Josef Ježek a Otto Bláha – cesta dvou četnických generálů před Národní soud

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klečacký, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2014), s. 155-187 ISSN 1210-6860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/12/0468 Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : gendarmerie * National court * Josef Ježek * Otto Bláha Subject RIV: AB - History

  16. International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris – March 4-7, 2013: Closing Session. Summary of Sustainability of Advanced Fuel Cycles Panel Session II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability was discussed in terms of the social, environment and economic perspectives, which arise from the original Brundtland definition of sustainability. The panel presented their perspectives of the need to move towards a sustainable future, involving better use of uranium, reductions in high-level radioactive waste, safe, secure and economic operation of nuclear reactors and the fuel cycle. In all cases, it was considered that sustainability in the long-term must involve fast reactors and a closed nuclear fuel cycle, although both Korea and the IAEA pointed out that these are clearly national decisions and there will not be a single solution for all countries

  17. FRM-II research neutron source commissioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    On March 2, 2004, the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source (FRM-II) generated neutrons for the first time. This marked the most important step on the way to using FRM-II for scientific purposes. On this occasion, this unique research facility in the world was dedicated in a ceremony attended by approximately 1000 representatives of politics, industry, and science. The keynote speaker, Federal Minister of the Interior Otto Schily; Bavarian Minister President Edmund Stoiber; Professor Claus Weyrich (Member of the Executive Board of Siemens AG); Dr. Thomas Goppel (Bavarian State Minister for Science, Research, and Arts); Professor Wolfgang A. Herman (President of the Technical University of Munich); Hannelore Gabor (2nd Mayor of the host municipality of Garching); and Professor Winfried Petry (Scientific Director of FRM-II) underlined the great importance of FRM-II for science, research, medicine, and technology. FRM-II will not only fill the 'neutron gap', but create extremely brilliant working conditions thanks to its considerably higher neutron flux compared to that of its predecessor, the legendary Atomic Egg. After the first conceptual design studies starting in 1980, the ground breaking ceremony in August 1996, and the third partial permit issued at Easter of 2003, a unique tool is now available for modern science and for medical and technical applications. (orig.) [de

  18. CIEMAT’s contribution to the phase II of the OECD-NEA RIA benchmark on thermo-mechanical fuel codes performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagrado, I.C.; Vallejo, I.; Herranz, L.E.

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the international efforts devoted to validate and/or update the current fuel safety criteria, the OECD-NEA has launched a second phase of the RIA benchmark on thermomechanical fuel codes performance. CIEMAT contributes simulating the ten scenarios proposed with FRAPTRAN and SCANAIR. Both codes lead to similar predictions during the heating-up; however, during the cooling-down significant deviations may appear. They are mainly caused by the estimations of gap closure and re-opening and the clad to water heat exchange approaches. The uncertainty analysis performed for the SCANAIR estimations leads to uncertainty ranges below 15% and 28% for maximum temperatures and deformations, respectively. The corresponding sensitivity analysis shows that, in addition to the injected energy, special attention should be paid to fuel thermal expansion and clad yield stress models. (Author)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 6. Development of fuel cell of pure hydrogen fueled solid polymer type; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 6. Junsuiso kyokyu kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for research and development Task-6. The objective is to verify performance and reliability, by means of field tests, of a power generation plant using fuel cells of pure hydrogen fueled solid polymer type with power transmission terminal efficiency of 45% and output of 30 kW. The fuel cells were developed by using the cathode humidification process as a humidification method suitable for operation at high utilization rates. With a three-cell stack made by using this humidification process (having an effective area of 289 cm{sup 2}), verification was made on the current density of 0.2A/cm{sup 2}, the characteristics of 0.75V or higher, and the uniform voltage distribution performance being the immediate targets. In order to mitigate the hydrogen utilization in the fuel cells, discussions were given on the serial flow system that divides the laminated cells into two blocks. Thus, operation was found possible with the utilization rate in each block reduced to about 80% by selecting an adequate division rate even if the hydrogen utilization rate is 96% in the entire stack. Stable operation has been performed in the 5-kW class power generation test using the cathode interior humidifying system. Specifications for 30-kW class power plant, system configuration, safety, and material balance were discussed. The basic design was made on the hydrogen gas humidity adjusting system. (NEDO)

  20. Water activities in Forsmark (Part II). The final disposal facility for spent fuel: water activities above ground; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del II). Slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle: Vattenverksamheter ovan mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [EmpTec (Sweden); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden); Ridderstolpe, Peter [WRS Uppsala AB (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    The construction of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark is associated with a number of measures above ground that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Swedish Environmental Code. This report, which is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment, describes these water operations, their effects and consequences, and planned measures

  1. Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuel Production - BLGMF II - A techno-economic feasibility study on catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for synthetic diesel production in comparison with methanol and DME as transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekbom, Tomas; Berglin, Niklas; Loegdberg, Sara [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The present project presents additional results to the former BLGMF project, which investigate Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuels (BLGMF) production. The objectives were to investigate, based on the KAM 2 program Ecocyclic Pulp Mill (2,000 ADt/day of pulp) the feasibility of synthetic fuels production. Specifically the route to Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels is investigated as comparison to earlier work on methanol/DME. As modern kraft pulp mills have a surplus of energy, they could become key suppliers of renewable fuels. It is thus of great interest to convert the spent cooking product 'black liquor' to an energy carrier of high value. The resulting biomass-to-fuel energy efficiency when only biomass is used as an external energy source was 43% for FTD or 65% for FT products compared with 66% for methanol and 67% for DME. The FTD calculation is considerably more complicated and based on assumptions, therefore the uncertainty is higher. Would the diesel be taken out with a T95% of 320 deg C the FTD efficiency would be 45%. FT synthesis also opens up a possibility to produce e.g. lube oils from waxes produced. The total net FT-products output equals 4115 barrels/day. The FTD production cost is calculated as the energy share of the total production cost and assumes an offset of naphtha covering its own costs, where it is essential that it finds a market. Assuming same petrol (methanol) and diesel (DME, FTD) costs for the consumer the payback time were 2.6, 2.9 and 3.4 years with an IRR of 40%, 45% and 30%, respectively. In conclusion, there are necessary resources and potential for large-scale methanol (or DME, FTD) production and substantial economic incentive for making plant investments and achieving competitive product revenues.

  2. Hüpped modernismi poole II : 20. sajandi eesti kirjandusteadus Euroopa kirjandusteaduse taustal : 16. loeng : pagulasaastad II. Institutsioonid ja kirjanikulood / Tiit Hennoste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hennoste, Tiit, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Vaadeldakse positivismi piiridesse jäävaid kirjaniku- ja kirjanduslugusid, keskmeks Rootsis toimunu ja ilmunu. Pikemalt Bernard Kangro, Arvo Mägi, Karl Ristikivi, Helmi Elleri, Herbert Salu, Henno Jänese, Otto Alexander Webermanni, Peeter Lindsaare poolt kirjutatud kirjanikelugudest. Kirjanduslugudest käsitletakse põhjalikumalt Arvo Mägi uurimusi "Lühike eesti kirjanduslugu I-II", "Viron kirjallisuuden historia" ja "Estonian Literature. An Outline" ning Henno Jänese "Geschichte der estnischen Literatur". Eksiilkirjanduse ajalugudest vaadeldakse Ants Orase teost "Estonian literature in exile" ning Arvo Mägi, Karl Ristikivi ja Bernard Kangro raamatut "Eesti kirjandus paguluses 1944-1972"

  3. Factors controlling metal fuel lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of metal fuel elements is determined by a fuel burnup at which a statistically predicted number of fuel breaches would occur, the number of breaches determined by the amount of free fission gas which a particular reactor design can tolerate. The reliability is therefore measured using experimentally determined breach statistics, or by modelling fuel element behavior and those factors which contribute to cladding breach. The factors are fuel/cladding mechanical and chemical interactions, fission gas pressure, fuel phase transformations involving volume changes, and fission product effects on cladding integrity. Experimental data for EBR-II fuel elements has shown that the primary, and perhaps the only significant factor affecting metal fuel reliability, is the pressure-induced stresses caused by fission gas release. Other metal fuel/cladding systems may perform similarly

  4. Natural analogues to the spent fuel behaviour of radioactive wastes (MATRIX, FASES I y II projects); Analogos naturales de la liberacion y migracion del UO2 y elementos metalicos asociados (Proyecto MATRIX, FASES I y II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villa, L.; Campos, R.; Garralon, A.; Crespo, M. T.; Quejido, J. A.; Cozar, J. S.; Arcos, D.; Bruno, J.; Grive, M.; Domenech, C.; Duro, L.; Ruiz Sanchez-Prro, J.; Marin, F.; Izquierdo, A.; Cattetero, G.; Ortuno, F.; Floria, E.

    2005-07-01

    Uranium ore deposits have been extensively studied as natural analogues to the spent fuel behaviour of radioactive wastes. These investigations constitute an essential element of both national and international research programmes applied to the assessment of HLNW repositories and their interaction with the environment. The U ore deposit of Mina Fe (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) is hosted in highly fractured schistose rocks, a geological setting that has not been envisaged in the ENRESA option for nuclear waste disposal. However, the processes occurring at Mina Fe maintain some analogies with those occurring in a HLNW repository: The existence of large U concentrations as pitchblende (UO{sub 2}+x), which is chemically analogous to the main component of spent nuclear fuel, which has an oxidation degree of 2.25 < x < 2.66 as a result of radiolytic oxidation. The solubility behaviour of pitchblende as a result of interaction with groundwaters of varying chemical composition can be used to validate predictive models for spent fuel stability under severe alteration conditions. Some of the weathering products of pitchblende are similar to those that have been identified during the experimental oxidative dissolution of UO{sub 2}, Sim fuel, as well as natural uraninite and pitchblende. This is a subject that has been previously investigated in other research projects. Fe(III)-oxy hydroxides in the oxidised zone of the deposit could be similar to the spent fuel container corrosion products that could be formed under redox transition conditions. These corrosion products may act as radionuclide and trace metal scavengers. (Author)

  5. Texas Disasters II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assist the Texas Forest Service in Mapping and Analyzing Fuel Loads and Phenology in Texas Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Michael; Williams, Meredith; Fenn, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The risk of severe wildfires in Texas has been related to weather phenomena such as climate change and recent urban expansion into wild land areas. During recent years, Texas wild land areas have experienced sequences of wet and dry years that have contributed to increased wildfire risk and frequency. To prevent and contain wildfires, the Texas Forest Service (TFS) is tasked with evaluating and reducing potential fire risk to better manage and distribute resources. This task is made more difficult due to the vast and varied landscape of Texas. The TFS assesses fire risk by understanding vegetative fuel types and fuel loads. To better assist the TFS, NASA Earth observations, including Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Specrtoradiometer (MODIS) data, were analyzed to produce maps of vegetation type and specific vegetation phenology as it related to potential wildfire fuel loads. Fuel maps from 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 fire seasons, created by the Texas Disasters I project, were used and provided alternating, complementary map indicators of wildfire risk in Texas. The TFS will utilize the end products and capabilities to evaluate and better understand wildfire risk across Texas.

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

  7. Part I. Fuel-motion diagnostics in support of fast-reactor safety experiments. Part II. Fission product detection system in support of fast reactor safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devolpi, A.; Doerner, R.C.; Fink, C.L.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Braid, T.H.; Boyar, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    In all destructive fast-reactor safety experiments at TREAT, fuel motion and cladding failure have been monitored by the fast-neutron/gamma-ray hodoscope, providing experimental results that are directly applicable to design, modeling, and validation in fast-reactor safety. Hodoscope contributions to the safety program can be considered to fall into several groupings: pre-failure fuel motion, cladding failure, post-failure fuel motion, steel blockages, pretest and posttest radiography, axial-power-profile variations, and power-coupling monitoring. High-quality results in fuel motion have been achieved, and motion sequences have been reconstructed in qualitative and quantitative visual forms. A collimated detection system has been used to observe fission products in the upper regions of a test loop in the TREAT reactor. Particular regions of the loop are targeted through any of five channels in a rotatable assembly in a horizontal hole through the biological shield. A well-type neutron detector, optimized for delayed neutrons, and two GeLi gamma ray spectrometers have been used in several experiments. Data are presented showing a time history of the transport of Dn emitters, of gamma spectra identifying volatile fission products deposited as aerosols, and of fission gas isotopes released from the coolant

  8. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Chemical Technology

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second

  9. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second and third

  10. Fuel temperature influence on the performance of a last generation common-rail diesel ballistic injector. Part II: 1D model development, validation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Carreres, M.; De la Morena, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1D model of a solenoid common-rail ballistic injector is implemented in AMESim. • A detailed dimensional and a hydraulic characterization lead to a fair validation. • Fuel temperature influence on injector dynamics is assessed through 1D simulations. • Temperature impacts through changes in inlet orifice regime and viscous friction. • Cold fuel temperature leads to a slower injection opening due to high viscosity. - Abstract: A one-dimensional model of a solenoid-driven common-rail diesel injector has been developed in order to study the influence of fuel temperature on the injection process. The model has been implemented after a thorough characterization of the injector, both from the dimensional and the hydraulic point of view. In this sense, experimental tools for the determination of the geometry of the injector lines and orifices have been described in the paper, together with the hydraulic setup introduced to characterize the flow behaviour through the calibrated orifices. An extensive validation of the model has been performed by comparing the modelled mass flow rate against the experimental results introduced in the first part of the paper, which were performed for different engine-like operating conditions involving a wide range of fuel temperatures, injection pressures and energizing times. In that first part of the study, an important influence of the fuel temperature was reported, especially in terms of the dynamic behaviour of the injector, due to its ballistic nature. The results from the model have allowed to explain and further extend the findings of the experimental study by analyzing key features of the injector dynamics, such as the pressure drop established in the control volume due to the control orifices performance or the forces due to viscous friction, also assessing their influence on the needle lift laws.

  11. IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation

  12. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  13. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part II; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  14. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  15. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  16. Performance limits of coated particle fuel. Part II. Mechanical failure of coated particles due to internal gas pressure and kernel swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hick, H.; Nabielek, H.; Harrison, T. A.

    1973-10-15

    This report presents a summary of experimental results and their theoretical explanation with regard to the "Pressure Failure" of coated particle fuel. While the experimental results refer mainly to the Dragon Reference Particle as proposed for typical Low Enriched Homogeneous Prismatic Steam Cycle HTR Power Reactors, the theoretical understanding of the phenomena and the mathematical models for their description are not limited to a specific design line.

  17. Proceedings of the Sixth Arab Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Vol.II. Scientific Presentation (Reactors, Materials, Fuel Cycles and Nuclear Safety)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for researching dealing with health protection during work with Human needs of Nuclear Science and applications. The book consists of the following chapters: Personnel and working environment monitoring; analytical techniques; radiation protection harmonized and integrated policy for the arab country; Nuclear safety; fuel cycles; nuclear medicine; accelerators; medical applications; radiation chemistry; hydrology; environmental studies; biological effects of ionizing radiation on agriculture; radiation accidents

  18. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part II: Interpretation of the experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Barrachin, M., E-mail: marc.barrachin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ducher, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gavillet, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); De Bremaecker, A. [Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel bundle and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 mm and 900 mm) of the test section previously reported are interpreted in the present paper. Solid state interactions between fuel and cladding have been compared with the characteristics of interaction identified in the previous separate-effect tests. Corium resulting from the interaction between fuel and cladding was formed. The uranium concentration in the corium is compared to analytical tests and a scenario for the corium formation is proposed. The analysis showed that, despite the rather low fuel burn up, the conditions of temperature and oxygen potential reached during the starvation phase are able to give an early very significant release fraction of caesium. A significant part (but not all) of the molybdenum was segregated at grain boundaries and trapped in metallic inclusions from which they were totally removed in the final part of the experiment. During the steam starvation phase, the conditions of oxygen potential were favourable for the formation of simple Ba and BaO chemical forms but the temperature was too low to provoke their volatility. This is one important difference with out-of-pile experiments such as VERCORS for which only a combination of high temperature and low oxygen potential induced a significant barium release. Finally another significant difference with analytical out-of-pile experiments comes from the formation of foamy zones due to the fission gas presence in FPT2-type experiments which give an additional possibility for the formation of stable fission product compounds.

  19. Proceedings of the Sixth Arab Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Vol.II. Scientific Presentation (Reactors, Materials, Fuel Cycles and Nuclear Safety)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for researching dealing with health protection during work with Human needs of Nuclear Science and applications. The book consists of the following chapters: Personnel and working environment monitoring; analytical techniques; radiation protection harmonized and integrated policy for the arab country; Nuclear safety; fuel cycles; nuclear medicine; accelerators; medical applications; radiation chemistry; hydrology; environmental studies; biological effects of ionizing radiation on agriculture; radiation accidents.

  20. Part II: Oxidative Thermal Aging of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/CexOy-ZrO2 in Automotive Three Way Catalysts: The Effects of Fuel Shutoff and Attempted Fuel Rich Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pd component in the automotive three way catalyst (TWC experiences deactivation during fuel shutoff, a process employed by automobile companies for enhancing fuel economy when the vehicle is coasting downhill. The process exposes the TWC to a severe oxidative aging environment with the flow of hot (800 °C–1050 °C air. Simulated fuel shutoff aging at 1050 °C leads to Pd metal sintering, the main cause of irreversible deactivation of 3% Pd/Al2O3 and 3% Pd/CexOy-ZrO2 (CZO as model catalysts. The effect on the Rh component was presented in our companion paper Part I. Moderate support sintering and Pd-CexOy interactions were also experienced upon aging, but had a minimal effect on the catalyst activity losses. Cooling in air, following aging, was not able to reverse the metallic Pd sintering by re-dispersing to PdO. Unlike the aged Rh-TWCs (Part I, reduction via in situ steam reforming (SR of exhaust HCs was not effective in reversing the deactivation of aged Pd/Al2O3, but did show a slight recovery of the Pd activity when CZO was the carrier. The Pd+/Pd0 and Ce3+/Ce4+ couples in Pd/CZO are reported to promote the catalytic SR by improving the redox efficiency during the regeneration, while no such promoting effect was observed for Pd/Al2O3. A suggestion is made for improving the catalyst performance.

  1. Dynamical Simulation of Recycling and Particle Fueling in TJ-II Plasmas; Simulacion Dinamica del Reciclado y de la Inyeccion de Particulas en los Plasmas del TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bruna, D; Ferreira, J A; Tabares, F L; Castejon, F; Guasp, J

    2007-07-20

    With the aim of improving the calculation tools for transport analysis in TJ-II plasmas, in this work we analyze the simplified model for a kinetic equation that ASTRA uses to calculate the neutral particle distribution in the plasma. Next, we act on the boundary conditions for this kinetic equation (particularly on the neutral density in the plasma boundary) so we can simulate the recycling conditions for the TJ-II in a simple way. With the resulting transport models we can easily analyze the sensibility of these plasmas to the cold gas puffing depending on the recycling conditions. These transport models evidence the problem of density control in the TJ-II. Likewise, we estimate the importance of recycling in the plasmas heated by energetic neutral beam injection. The experimentally observed increments in density when the energetic neutrals are injected would respond, according to the calculations here presented, to a large increment of the neutrals influx that cannot be explained by the beam itself. (Author) 22 refs.

  2. Irradiation performance of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Porter, D.L.; Batte, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has been working for the past five years to develop and demonstrate the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The concept involves a closed system for fast-reactor power generation and on-site fuel reprocessing, both designed specifically around the use of metallic fuel. The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) has used metallic fuel for all of its 25-year life. In 1985, tests were begun to examine the irradiation performance of advanced-design metallic fuel systems based on U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr fuels. These tests have demonstrated the viable performance of these fuel systems to high burnup. The initial testing program will be described in this paper. 2 figs

  3. FRESCO-II: A computer program for analysis of fission product release from spherical HTGR-fuel elements in irradiation and annealing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, H.; Finken, R.

    1983-06-01

    The modular computer code FRESCO has been developed to describe the mechanism of fission product release from a HTGR-Core under accident conditions. By changing some program modules it has been extended to take into account the transport phenomena (i.e. recoil) too, which only occur under reactor operating conditions and during the irradiation experiments. For this report, the release of cesium and strontium from three HTGR-fuel elements has been evaluated and compared with the experimental data. The results show that the measured release can be described by the considered models. (orig.) [de

  4. Eddy-current testing and analysis of a sample of Zircaloy fuel cladding for the OECD Halden 'Round-Robin' exercise (Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, P.C.; Cross, M.T.

    1987-02-01

    Two samples of Zircaloy fuel cladding were supplied, one containing pre-measured defects of known type and size, and the other containing unknown defects. Eddy-current testing techniques were used to ascertain the nature of the unknown defects. By using a high resolution encircling coil and a probe coil and then processing digitally the data with specially prepared software, nine internal defects, of volume 0.18 to 0.86 mm 3 were located positively and identified, despite interference from heavily fluctuating background signals. (author)

  5. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of a Turbine/Rotary Combustion Compound Engine for a Subsonic Transport. [fuel consumption and engine tests of turbofan engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Kraft, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel consumption of a modern compound engine with that of an advanced high pressure ratio turbofan was compared. The compound engine was derived from a turbofan engine by replacing the combustor with a rotary combustion (RC) engine. A number of boost pressure ratios and compression ratios were examined. Cooling of the RC engine was accomplished by heat exchanging to the fan duct. Performance was estimated with an Otto-cycle for two levels of energy lost to cooling. The effects of added complexity on cost and maintainability were not examined and the comparison was solely in terms of cruise performance and weight. Assuming a 25 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representative of current experience), the best compound engine gave a 1.2 percent improvement in cruise. Engine weight increased by 23 percent. For a 10 percent Otto-cycle cooling loss (representing advanced insulation/high temperature materials technology), a compound engine with a boost PR of 10 and a compression ratio of 10 gave an 8.1 percent lower cruise than the reference turbofan.

  7. DETAILS OF OPERATIONS PERFORMED BY THE REMOTE CONTROL ROBOT (CONCEPT TO THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNEL DURING DECOMMISSIONING PHASE OF NUCLEAR REACTOR CALANDRIA STRUCTURE. PART II: INSIDE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin POPESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors contribution to this paper is to present a concept solution of a remote control robot (RCR used for decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels pressure tube in the CANDU nuclear reactor. In this paper the authors highlight few details of geometry, operations, constraints by kinematics and dynamics of the robot movement inside of the reactor fuel channel. Inside operations performed has as the main steps of dismantling process the followings: unblock and extract the channel closure plug (from End Fitting - EF, unblock and extract the channel shield plug (from Lattice Tube - LT, cut the ends of the pressure tube, extract the pressure tube and cut it in small parts, sorting and storage extracted items in the safe robot container. All steps are performed in automatic mode. The remote control robot (RCR represents a safety system controlled by sensors and has the capability to analyze any error registered and decide next activities or abort the inside decommissioning procedure in case of any risk rise in order to ensure the environmental and workers protection.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of liquid fuel by phosphotungstic acid encapsulated in a interpenetrating amine-functionalized Zn(II)-based MOF as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzalinia, Ahmad; Mirzaie, Abbas; Nikseresht, Ahmad; Musabeygi, Tahereh

    2017-01-01

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) of liquid fuels performed with a novel heterogeneous highly dispersed Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid (H 3 PW 12 O 40 , PTA) catalyst that encapsulated into an amino-functionalized MOF (TMU-17-NH 2 ). The prepared composite exhibits high catalytic activity and reusability in oxidative desulfurization of model fuel. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) is a new way to performed oxidation reaction of sulfur-contain compounds rapidly, economically, environment-friendly and safely, under mild conditions. Ultrasound waves can be apply as an efficient tool to decrease the reaction time and improves oxidative desulfurization system performance. PTA@TMU-17-NH 2 could be completely performed desulfurization of the model oil by 20mg of catalyst, O/S molar ratio of 1:1 in presence of MeCN as extraction solvent. The obtained results indicated that the conversions of DBT to DBTO 2 achieve 98% after 15min in ambient temperature. In this work, we prepared TMU-17-NH 2 and PTA/TMU-17-NH 2 composite by ultrasound irradiation for first time and employed in UAOD process. Prepared catalyst exhibit an excellent reusability without PTA leaching and loss of activity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 1319 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories include: NAICS \\1\\ Examples of... they are produced as well as the cost associated with transporting these fuels to the U.S. Of the... II.E, we believe that the 1.0 billion gallon standard can indeed be met. Since biodiesel has an...

  10. Solid state protonic conductors II for fuel cells and sensors. Proceedings of the European workshop on solid state materials for low to medium temperature fuel cells and monitors, with special emphasis on proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, J B; Jensen, J; Kleitz, M [eds.

    1983-01-01

    Solid electrolytes for chemical sensing, energy storage and conversion have been actively researched and developed since the early sixties. The zirconia fuel-cell electrolyser, the sodium-sulphur rechargeable battery, the oxygen sensor and lithium batteries can all be cited as significant developments from the field. Although of great potential the solid protonic conductors have somehow been ignored by comparison to the great interest that has been shown in, e.g., the lithium conductors. The long absence of any good, stable protonic conductors could easily explain this. The presence of water in the protonic conductors eliminates the possibility of high-temperature preparation and hence of conventional ceramic processing. Since solid electrolytes are used as dense ceramic membranes, difficulties with the fabrication of protonic electrilytes has been a strong disincentive. However, techniques have been developed for fabricating dense composite membranes; these contain free, but immobilized water that is lost at relatively low temperatures. Framework hydrates hold their water to higher temperatures. Although low-temperature ion-exchange preparations are possible, they yield weak ceramics. Nevertheless, their support on strong substrates, as reported in this conference, may provide an alternate way forward. A second workshop was organised on this theme at Hindsgavl Castle, Denmark, 1982. The aim was to compare the progress made in laboratories in Denmark, France and U.K. and also to review present and and future applications of fuel cells in a broader sense. Thirty scientists and representatives from the Commission of the European Communities, European Space Agency and the Daish Ministry of Energy participated. The proceedings cover all the papers of the workshop and the main comments and suggestions proposed during the discussions.

  11. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  12. Optimization in the nuclear fuel cycle II: Concentration of alpha emitters in the air; Otimização no ciclo do combustível nuclear II: concentração de alfa emissores no ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S., E-mail: pereiras@gmail.com [Universidade Veiga de Ameida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X.; Lopes, J.M.; Carmo, A.S.; Mello, C.R.; Fernandes, T.S., E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Optimization is one of the bases of radioprotection and aims to move doses away from the dose limit that is the borderline of acceptable radiological risk. The work aims to use the monitoring of the concentration of alpha emitters in the air as a tool of the optimization process. We analyzed 27 sampling points of airborne alpha concentration in a nuclear fuel cycle facility. The monthly averages were considered statistically different, the highest in the month of February and the lowest in the month of August. All other months were found to have identical mean activity concentration values. Regarding the sampling points, the points with the highest averages were points 12, 15 and 9. These points were indicated for the beginning of the optimization process. Analysis of the production of the facility should be performed to verify possible correlations between production and concentration of alpha emitters in the air.

  13. Development of methods for theoretical analysis of nuclear reactors (Phase II), I-V, Part IV, Fuel depletion; Razrada metoda teorijske analize nuklearnih reaktora (II faza), I-V, IV Deo, Promena izotopnog sastava goriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-10-15

    This report includes the analysis of plutonium isotopes from U{sup 238} depletion chain. Two theoretical approaches for solving the depletion of fuel are shown. One results in the system of differential equations that can be solved only by using electronic calculators and the second, Machinari-Goto method enables obtaining analytical equations for approximative values of particular nuclei. In addition, differential equations are given for different approximation levels in calculating Pu {sup 239}, as well as relations between the released energy and irradiation. Ova faza obuhvata analizu stvaranja izotopa plutonijuma u lancu U{sup 238}. Prikazana su dva teorijska pristupa resavanju problema 'konverzije goriva', jedan dovodi do sistema diferecijalnih jednacina za cije je resavanje neophodno koriscenje elektronskih racunskih masina, i drugi, Machinari-Goto metod koji omogucava da se dobiju analiticki izrazi vrednosti aproksimacije pojedinih jezgara. Osim toga date su diferencijalne jednacine raznih stepena aproksimacije u racunanju Pu {sup 239}, kao i veze izmedju oslobodjene energije i ozracivanja.

  14. FRM-II research neutron source commissioned; Eroeffnung der Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz - FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    On March 2, 2004, the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source (FRM-II) generated neutrons for the first time. This marked the most important step on the way to using FRM-II for scientific purposes. On this occasion, this unique research facility in the world was dedicated in a ceremony attended by approximately 1000 representatives of politics, industry, and science. The keynote speaker, Federal Minister of the Interior Otto Schily; Bavarian Minister President Edmund Stoiber; Professor Claus Weyrich (Member of the Executive Board of Siemens AG); Dr. Thomas Goppel (Bavarian State Minister for Science, Research, and Arts); Professor Wolfgang A. Herman (President of the Technical University of Munich); Hannelore Gabor (2nd Mayor of the host municipality of Garching); and Professor Winfried Petry (Scientific Director of FRM-II) underlined the great importance of FRM-II for science, research, medicine, and technology. FRM-II will not only fill the 'neutron gap', but create extremely brilliant working conditions thanks to its considerably higher neutron flux compared to that of its predecessor, the legendary Atomic Egg. After the first conceptual design studies starting in 1980, the ground breaking ceremony in August 1996, and the third partial permit issued at Easter of 2003, a unique tool is now available for modern science and for medical and technical applications. (orig.) [German] Am 2. Maerz 2004 hat die Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) erstmals Neutronen erzeugt. Damit war der wichtigste Schritt erreicht, der den Weg zur wissenschaftlichen Nutzung des FRM-II einleitet. Aus diesem Anlass wurde unter Teilnahme von rund 1 000 Vertretern aus Politik, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft diese weltweit einmalige Forschungseinrichtung eroeffnet und ihrer Bestimmung uebergeben. Die Festredner, Bundesinnenminister Otto Schily, der bayerische Ministerpraesident Edmund Stoiber, Professor Claus Weyrich (Mitglied des Vorstands der Siemens AG), Dr

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  17. Pebble bed reactor fuel cycle optimization using particle swarm algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavron, Barak, E-mail: btavron@bgu.ac.il [Planning, Development and Technology Division, Israel Electric Corporation Ltd., P.O. Box 10, Haifa 31000 (Israel); Shwageraus, Eugene, E-mail: es607@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Particle swarm method has been developed for fuel cycle optimization of PBR reactor. • Results show uranium utilization low sensitivity to fuel and core design parameters. • Multi-zone fuel loading pattern leads to a small improvement in uranium utilization. • Thorium mixes with highly enriched uranium yields the best uranium utilization. - Abstract: Pebble bed reactors (PBR) features, such as robust thermo-mechanical fuel design and on-line continuous fueling, facilitate wide range of fuel cycle alternatives. A range off fuel pebble types, containing different amounts of fertile or fissile fuel material, may be loaded into the reactor core. Several fuel loading zones may be used since radial mixing of the pebbles was shown to be limited. This radial separation suggests the possibility to implement the “seed-blanket” concept for the utilization of fertile fuels such as thorium, and for enhancing reactor fuel utilization. In this study, the particle-swarm meta-heuristic evolutionary optimization method (PSO) has been used to find optimal fuel cycle design which yields the highest natural uranium utilization. The PSO method is known for solving efficiently complex problems with non-linear objective function, continuous or discrete parameters and complex constrains. The VSOP system of codes has been used for PBR fuel utilization calculations and MATLAB script has been used to implement the PSO algorithm. Optimization of PBR natural uranium utilization (NUU) has been carried out for 3000 MWth High Temperature Reactor design (HTR) operating on the Once Trough Then Out (OTTO) fuel management scheme, and for 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) operating on the multi-pass (MEDUL) fuel management scheme. Results showed only a modest improvement in the NUU (<5%) over reference designs. Investigation of thorium fuel cases showed that the use of HEU in combination with thorium results in the most favorable reactor performance in terms of

  18. Pebble bed reactor fuel cycle optimization using particle swarm algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavron, Barak; Shwageraus, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Particle swarm method has been developed for fuel cycle optimization of PBR reactor. • Results show uranium utilization low sensitivity to fuel and core design parameters. • Multi-zone fuel loading pattern leads to a small improvement in uranium utilization. • Thorium mixes with highly enriched uranium yields the best uranium utilization. - Abstract: Pebble bed reactors (PBR) features, such as robust thermo-mechanical fuel design and on-line continuous fueling, facilitate wide range of fuel cycle alternatives. A range off fuel pebble types, containing different amounts of fertile or fissile fuel material, may be loaded into the reactor core. Several fuel loading zones may be used since radial mixing of the pebbles was shown to be limited. This radial separation suggests the possibility to implement the “seed-blanket” concept for the utilization of fertile fuels such as thorium, and for enhancing reactor fuel utilization. In this study, the particle-swarm meta-heuristic evolutionary optimization method (PSO) has been used to find optimal fuel cycle design which yields the highest natural uranium utilization. The PSO method is known for solving efficiently complex problems with non-linear objective function, continuous or discrete parameters and complex constrains. The VSOP system of codes has been used for PBR fuel utilization calculations and MATLAB script has been used to implement the PSO algorithm. Optimization of PBR natural uranium utilization (NUU) has been carried out for 3000 MWth High Temperature Reactor design (HTR) operating on the Once Trough Then Out (OTTO) fuel management scheme, and for 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) operating on the multi-pass (MEDUL) fuel management scheme. Results showed only a modest improvement in the NUU (<5%) over reference designs. Investigation of thorium fuel cases showed that the use of HEU in combination with thorium results in the most favorable reactor performance in terms of

  19. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  20. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  1. 10 year Chernobyl Aid programmes of the Otto Hug Strahleninstitut-MHM: treatment and research projects on thyroid pathologies in republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Frenzel, Ch.; Lengfelder, E.; Frenzel, Ch.; Demidchik, E.P.; Demidchik, J.E.; Sidorov, J.D.; Birukova, L.W.; Gamolina, L.I.; Prigoschaja, T.I.; Rabes, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The unexpected serious increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer following the reactor accident in Chernobyl has led to considerable efforts from abroad to support Belarus in order to mitigate these heath problems. Otto Hug Radiation Institute started several long-term treatment and research projects on thyroid cancer and other diseases of this organ in 1991. Since 1993, the project 'Thyroid Centre Gomel has had more than 70,000 patients from this province for diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases including cancer. Starting in 1995 the project of the 'Histopathological Laboratory', is situated in the Oncological Dispensary in Minsk, where all children and juvenile and many adult thyroid cancers of Belarus are operated. More than 6,500 thyroid tumors were diagnosed with over 30,000 pathological slides preparing according to the internationally accepted standards. Additionally, this clinic has been supplied since 1997, so they can test for thyroid blood parameters. In 1997 the project of 'Radioiodine Therapy' started in Gomel, providing treatment for more than 450 patients since that time

  2. Protistology Conferences: The Beginnings. The First International Protozoology Conference (Prague 1961) and the Tribute to Otto Jírovec, its Spiritual Father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vávra, Jiří

    2018-01-27

    Two events have helped to shape protozoology/protistology as a specific scientific discipline. The first such event was the creation of the Society of Protozoologists in the U.S. in 1947 (and of its Journal of Protozoology, first published in 1954), the second event was the First International Conference on Protozoology, held in 1961 in Prague. The history of the Society of Protozoologists was comprehensively treated by Corliss (1998); the history of the Prague Conference is presented here as reminiscences and personal interpretation of events of the author, who was one of the conference organizers and a member of the organization committee. Special attention is given to the personality and scientific accomplishments of Otto Jírovec, the 1961 conference spiritual father and president. It is concluded that the Prague Conference, while establishing the tradition of protistology meetings, helped protistology to attain its present status as a fundamental science discipline, which discovers and interprets the web of life at one of its, basic, "microbial" levels. Protists literally permeate the earth biosphere and in a way represent the "dark matter" of the living world, still awaiting many discoveries. © 2018 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2018 International Society of Protistologists.

  3. A Crítica de Otto Klineberg aos testes de inteligência. O Brasil como laboratório racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Chor Maio

    Full Text Available Resumo Otto Klineberg, professor de psicologia social na Universidade de Columbia, assegurou que os testes de inteligência eram uma ferramenta para legitimar hierarquias raciais. Ele conduziu numerosos estudos sobre as relações entre negros, brancos, índios e grupos de imigrantes nos Estados Unidos e na Europa na qual ressaltou que os aspectos ambientais superavam os fatores raciais. Klineberg concebia o Brasil como um ambiente privilegiado para demonstrar que os testes de inteligência não tinham qualquer base científica. O presente artigo tem um foco triplo: três estudos realizados por Klineberg entre 1927 e 1935; suas experiências no Brasil de 1945 a 1947 como professor da Universidade de São Paulo, quando ele tentou investigar a relação entre testes de inteligência e condições socioeconômicas em escolas do Rio de Janeiro; e sua atuação inicial na Unesco, após a 2a Guerra Mundial, quando muitos ainda estavam convencidos que os testes de inteligência eram uma forma adequada para medir as chamadas habilidades inatas.

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. High-performance electrodes for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte. II. La(Sr)CoO 3 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toru; Miura, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Maric, Radenka; Ohara, Satoshi; Zhang, Xinge; Mukai, Kazuo; Fukui, Takehisa

    The reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with 0.5 mm thick La 0.9Sr 0.1Ga 0.8Mg 0.2O 3- α (LSGM) electrolyte, La 0.6Sr 0.4CoO 3- δ (LSCo) cathode, and Ni-(CeO 2) 0.8(SmO 1.5) 0.2 (SDC) cermet anode showed an excellent initial performance, and high maximum power density, 0.47 W/cm 2, at 800°C. The results were comparable to those for the conventional SOFC with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, La(Sr)MnO 3-YSZ cathode and Ni-YSZ cermet anode at 1000°C. Using an LSCo powder prepared by spray pyrolysis, and selecting appropriate sintering temperatures, the lowest cathodic polarization of about 25 mV at 300 mA/cm 2 was measured for a cathode prepared by sintering at 1000°C. Life time cell test results, however, showed that the polarization of the LSCo cathode increased with operating time. From EPMA results, this behavior was considered to be related to the interdiffusion of the elements at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Calcination of LSCo powder could be a possible way to suppress this interdiffusion at the interface.

  6. U.S. Department Of Energy's nuclear engineering education research: highlights of recent and current research-II. 5. Automation of Nuclear Fuel Pellet Quality Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvan, Shahla; Song, Xiaolong

    2001-01-01

    At the present time, nuclear fuel pellet inspection is performed by humans using the naked eye for judgment and decision making as to whether to accept or reject the pellet. Unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets will be costly, and having too many low-quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. The current practice of pellet inspection by humans is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. In addition, manual inspection is cumbersome since the inspector must keep the pellet at arm's length and must wear glasses to protect the lenses of his or her eyes. The pellets are taken from a pellet sizing machine, dumped onto a rack, and shaken into rows; they are then viewed as a group. The entire group is rotated 90 deg four times to provide the inspector with a 360-deg view of each pellet. The pellets are examined for certain types of cracks, chips, and unusual markings, i.e., water stains and machine banding. These defects appear at any location on the pellet surface image with different intensity, size, shape, and background noise. Figure 1 shows typical defective fuel pellets with chip, banded, and end defects. The goal of this work is to automate the pellet inspection process. A prototype of such an inspection system is developed. The system examines photographic images of pellets using various artificial intelligence techniques for image analysis and defect classification. Figure 2 shows the user interface of this inspection system, which is built using Java programming language. A total of 252 pellets with various defects was available for this research. Each pellet was photographed four times at rotations of 90 deg. The resultant black-and-white negatives were scanned into the computer in 256 gray scale mode. The inspection of a fuel pellet by image analysis involves several steps, as described in Fig. 3 and as follows: Step 1-On-line image conversion: This process involves on-line digitization of the input image. Step 2-Reference model: The second

  7. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  8. [Fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. II. Analysis of the factors affecting flame length and residence time and related prediction models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2012-11-01

    Taking fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth as controlling factors, the fuel beds of Mongolian oak leaves in Maoershan region of Northeast China in field were simulated, and a total of one hundred experimental burnings under no-wind and zero-slope conditions were conducted in laboratory, with the effects of the fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth on the flame length and its residence time analyzed and the multivariate linear prediction models constructed. The results indicated that fuel moisture content had a significant negative liner correlation with flame length, but less correlation with flame residence time. Both the fuel loading and the fuel bed depth were significantly positively correlated with flame length and its residence time. The interactions of fuel bed depth with fuel moisture content and fuel loading had significant effects on the flame length, while the interactions of fuel moisture content with fuel loading and fuel bed depth affected the flame residence time significantly. The prediction model of flame length had better prediction effect, which could explain 83.3% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 7.8 cm and a mean relative error of 16.2%, while the prediction model of flame residence time was not good enough, which could only explain 54% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 9.2 s and a mean relative error of 18.6%.

  9. Analysis of lubricant oil contamination and degradation and wear of a biogas-fed otto cycle engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovian Bertinatto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of biodigesters for the treatment of waste on farms and the use of the biogas generated in the production of energy have highlighted the need for knowing the influence of this fuel on internal combustion engines. This study aimed to analyze the influence of filtrated biogas on lubricant oil contamination and degradation, as well as on engine wear and corrosion. Lubricant oil samples were collected every 75 engine operating hours (EOH and then correlated between each other and with a sample of new oil, determining the elements present in the biogas that contribute to lubricant oil contamination and degradation, as well as lubricant oil performance in the course of EOH and engine wear. The results demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide affects the performance of the lubricant oil and engine wear. Among the metals, we observed that the copper concentration exceeded the maximum limit recommended in the literature. As for the additives, the variation in concentrations of magnesium impacted on lubricant performance. By monitoring lubricant oil quality were able to extend the engine oil change interval of this study by 50%, what resulted in a savings of 33.3% in the cost of lubricant per hour worked.

  10. Improvements in fabrication of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, D.B.; Henslee, S.P.; Dodds, N.E.; Longua, K.J.

    1989-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is currently developing a new liquid- metal cooled breeder reactor known as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). IFR fuels represent the state-of-the-art in metal-fueled reactor technology. Improvements in the fabrication of metal fuel, to be discussed below, will support the fully remote fuel cycle facility that as an integral part of the IFR concept will be demonstrated at the EBR-II site. 3 refs

  11. Enlarged Halden programme group meeting on high burn-up fuel performance, safety and reliability and degradation of in-core materials and water chemistry effects and man-machine systems research. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Academy of Sciences, KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, the N.V. KEMA, the Netherlands, the Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', the Slovakian VUJE - Nuclear Power Plant Research Institute, and from USA: the ABB Combustion Engineering Inc., the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the General Electric Co. The right to utilise information originating from the research work of the Halden Project is limited to persons and undertakings specifically given this right by one of these Project member organisations. The activities in the area of fuel and materials performance are based on extensive in-reactor measurements. The programmes are expanding in the areas of fuel performance at extended burn-ups, waterside corrosion and material testing in general. Development of in-core instruments is an important activity in support of the experimental programmes. The research programme at the Halden Project addresses the research needs of the nuclear industry in connection with introduction of digital I and C systems in NPPs. The programme provides information supporting design and licensing of upgraded, computer-based control room systems, and demonstrates the benefits of such systems through validation experiments in Halden's experimental research facility, HAMMLAB and pilot installations in NPPs. The Enlarged Halden Programme Group Meeting at Loen, Norway, was arranged to provide an opportunity to present results of work carried out at Halden and within participating organisations, and to encourage comments and impulses related to future Halden Project work. This HPR-351 relates to the fuel and materials part of the meeting and is divided in two volumes, HPR-351 Volume I and HPR-351 Volume II. The corresponding collection of papers in the man-machine area are given in one volume, HPR-352 Volume I. The overall programme of the Loen Enlarged Meeting covering the Fuel and Materials Research is given in the following pages. The papers with denomination HWR have

  12. Recent metal fuel safety tests in TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Bauer, T.H.; Lo, R.K.; Robinson, W.R.; Palm, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    In-reactor safety tests have been performed on metal-alloy reactor fuel to study its response to transient-overpower conditions, in particular, the margin to cladding breach and the axial self-extrusion of fuel within intact cladding. Uranium-fissium EBR-II driver fuel elements of several burnups were tested, some to cladding breach and others to incipient breach. Transient fuel motions were monitored, and time and location of breach were measured. The test results and computations of fuel extrusion and cladding failure in metal-alloy fuel are described

  13. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  14. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  15. Thermal Cycling of Uranium Dioxide - Tungsten Cermet Fuel Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripshover, P.J.; Peterson, J.H.

    1969-12-08

    In phase I tungsten clad cermet fuel specimens were thermal cycled, to study the effects of fuel loading, fuel particle size, stablized fuel, duplex coatings, and fabrication techniques on dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In phase II the best combination of the factors studies in phase I were combined in one specimen for evaluation.

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  17. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of power generation using fuel cells. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell (II-2, text of the achievement); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (II-2, kenkyu seika no honbun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The effort aims at developing a 1000kW-class power plant and also at using gasified coal as fuel in the future. The fuel system facilities include a high-temperature blower. The exhaust heat recovery facilities comprise a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a turbine compressor. As for the electrical system facilities, an inverter is installed, tested, and adjusted. Control system facilities are also tested and adjusted. In relation with the operation of the plant, coordination is conducted about technological and process-related matters with the Kawagoe thermal power station of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., where the fuel cell power plant is to be constructed, which is for the smooth execution of a test run. Ceramic-based cathode materials are being developed, which is for the fabrication of stacks improved in performance, higher in current density, longer in life, and lower in cost. Also exerted are efforts at developing multiple-function electrolyte plates and metallic materials (for example for separator plating). The extent of the acceptability of impurities concentration and gas refining systems are also under study, which is to prepare for future coal gasification. Reference is also made to the study of a total system. (NEDO)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of power generation using fuel cells. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell (II-2, text of the achievement); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (II-2, kenkyu seika no honbun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The effort aims at developing a 1000kW-class power plant and also at using gasified coal as fuel in the future. The fuel system facilities include a high-temperature blower. The exhaust heat recovery facilities comprise a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a turbine compressor. As for the electrical system facilities, an inverter is installed, tested, and adjusted. Control system facilities are also tested and adjusted. In relation with the operation of the plant, coordination is conducted about technological and process-related matters with the Kawagoe thermal power station of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., where the fuel cell power plant is to be constructed, which is for the smooth execution of a test run. Ceramic-based cathode materials are being developed, which is for the fabrication of stacks improved in performance, higher in current density, longer in life, and lower in cost. Also exerted are efforts at developing multiple-function electrolyte plates and metallic materials (for example for separator plating). The extent of the acceptability of impurities concentration and gas refining systems are also under study, which is to prepare for future coal gasification. Reference is also made to the study of a total system. (NEDO)

  20. IAEA programme on nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The coordinated research project on Improvement of Models Used For Fuel Behaviour Simulation (FUMEX II) is also presented

  1. Effects of different potting growing media for Petunia grandiflora and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto on photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petunia grandiflora Juss. and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto are two of the most widely spread plants on the market for annual potted ornamental plants. In order to identify the most adequate substrate formula we analyzed the effects of different potting growing media used for P. hybrida grandiflora 'Bravo' and N. alata 'Dinamo' on their photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential. Optimization of growing media formula for petunia and ornamental tobacco was performed by preparing four growing media mixing fallow soil (FS, Biolan peat (BP, acid peat (AP, leaf compost (C, and perlite (P in different proportions. The physiological potential of petunia and ornamental tobacco was investigated by photosynthesis and respiration rate and chlorophyll pigments in leaves, while the vegetative and flowering phenological stages were evaluated by number of leaves per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant and leaf area/flowers ratio. These measurements were significantly influenced by the different potting growing media used in this study. In the flowering stage, the highest photosynthesis rates (8.612 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 as well as leaf area (1.766 dm² of petunias were obtained on growing media with 60% biolan peat, 30% acid peat and 10% perlite (BP60-AP30-P10. Flowering responses to growing conditions vary greatly among plants and the biggest number of ornamental tobacco flowers (22 flowers plant-1 was registered as an effect of BP60-AP30-P10 media. Growing media with the BP60-AP30-P10 formula seem to be the most adequate growth substrate to develop profitable crops for petunias and ornamental tobacco with high decorative value.

  2. Fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  4. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  5. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  6. Fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel pellet for insertion into a cladding tube in order to form a fuel element or a fuel rod. The fuel pellet has got a belt-like projection around its essentially cylindrical lateral circumferential surface. The upper and lower edges in vertical direction of this belt-like projection are wave-shaped. The projection is made of the same material as the bulk pellet. Both are made in one piece. (orig.) [de

  7. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  8. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A new fuel can with a loose bottom and head is described. The fuel bar is attached to the loose bottom and head with two grid poles keeping the distance between bottom and head. A bow-shaped handle is attached to the head so that the fuel bar can be lifted from the can

  9. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-matrix fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willit, J.L.; Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; McPheeters, C.C.; Laidler, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment process described in this paper builds on our experience in treating spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). The work is also to some degree, a spin-off from applying electrometallurgical treatment to spent fuel from the Hanford single pass reactors (SPRs) and fuel and flush salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in treating EBR-II fuel, we recover the actinides from a uranium-zirconium fuel by electrorefining the uranium out of the chopped fuel. With SPR fuel, uranium is electrorefined out of the aluminum cladding. Both of these processes are conducted in a LiCl-KCl molten-salt electrolyte. In the case of the MSRE, which used a fluoride salt-based fuel, uranium in this salt is recovered through a series of electrochemical reductions. Recovering high-purity uranium from an aluminum-matrix fuel is more challenging than treating SPR or EBR-II fuel because the aluminum- matrix fuel is typically -90% (volume basis) aluminum

  10. Review of the IAEA nuclear fuel cycle and material section activities connected with nuclear fuel including WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, F.

    2001-01-01

    Program activities on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials cover the areas of: 1) raw materials (B.1.01); 2) fuel performance and technology (B.1.02); 3) pent fuel (B.1.03); 4) fuel cycle issues and information system (B.1.04); 5) support to technical cooperation activities (B.1.05). The IAEA activities in fuel performance and technology in 2001 include organization of the fuel experts meetings and completion of the Co-ordinate Research Projects (CRP). The special attention is given to the advanced post-irradiation examination techniques for water reactor fuel and fuel behavior under transients and LOCA conditions. An international research program on modeling of activity transfer in primary circuit of NPP is finalized in 2001. A new CRP on fuel modeling at extended burnup (FUMEX II) has planed to be carried out during the period 2002-2006. In the area of spent fuel management the implementation of burnup credit (BUC) in spent fuel management systems has motivated to be used in criticality safety applications, based on economic consideration. An overview of spent fuel storage policy accounting new fuel features as higher enrichment and final burnup, usage of MOX fuel and prolongation of the term of spent fuel storage is also given

  11. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  12. Taxing carbon in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Rob

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that both the Climate Change Levy and the fuel duty tax are outdated even before they are implemented. Apparently, the real problems are not in the bringing of road fuels into the scope of the Climate Change Levy but in introducing reforms to improve integration of greenhouse gases and taxation. Both fuel duty and the Levy are aimed at maximising efficiency and reducing air pollution. The system as it stands does not take into account the development of a market where the management and trading of carbon and greenhouse gases may jeopardise the competitiveness of UK businesses. It is argued that an overhaul of climate and emissions-related law is necessary. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) a fixation on energy; (ii) no focus on CO 2 ; (iii) carbon markets - beyond the levy and (iv) tax structure. (UK)

  13. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  14. Estudio e implementación de un sistema Dual para optimizar la combustión de un motor Otto mediante el uso de gas de Brown (HHO)

    OpenAIRE

    Cujilema Cujilema, José Sebastián; Ramírez Gonzaga, Carlos Manuel

    2011-01-01

    La implementación de un sistema Dual para optimizar la combustión de un motor Otto surge debido a que existen millones de vehículos a gasolina circulando por el mundo y cada uno de ellos es una fuente de contaminación y consumo. En ciudades grandes la contaminación de estos vehículos presentan altos índices de gases nocivos para la salud y el medio ambiente. Los altos índices de emisiones contaminantes están determinados por algunos factores como la mala calidad del combustible, la falta d...

  15. LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnas, F.X.; Jeuland, N.; Fouquet, J.P.; Lauraire, S.; Coroller, P.

    2005-01-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  17. Fuel Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.

    1982-09-01

    FRAGEMA has developed most types of inspection equipments to work on irradiated fuel assemblies and on single fuel rods during reactor outages with an efficiency compatible with the utilities operating priorities. In order to illustrate this statement, two specific examples of inspection equipments are shortly described: the on-site removable fuel rod assembly examination stand, and the fuel assembly multiple examination device. FRAGEMA has developed techniques for the identifiction of the leaking fuel rods in the fuel assembly and the tooling necessary to perform the replacement of the faulted element. These examples of methods, techniques and equipments described and the experience accumulated through their use allow FRAGEMA to qualify for offering the supply of the corresponding software, hardware or both whenever an accurate understanding of the fuel behaviour is necessary and whenever direct intervention on the assembly and associated components is necessary due to safety, operating or economical reasons

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  19. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  20. The nuclear fuel cycle: (2) fuel element manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, J.

    1976-01-01

    Large-scale production of nuclear fuel in the United Kingdom is carried out at Springfields Works of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., a company formed from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority in 1971. The paper describes in some detail the Springfields Works processes for the conversion of uranium ore concentrate to uranium tetrafluoride, then conversion of the tetrafluoride to either uranium metal for cladding in Magnox to form fuel for the British Mk I gas-cooled reactors, or to uranium hexafluoride for enrichment of the fissile 235 U isotope content at the Capenhurst Works of BNFL. Details are given of the reconversion at Springfields Works of this enriched uranium hexafluoride to uranium dioxide, which is pelleted and then clad in either stainless steel or zircaloy containers to form the fuel assemblies for the British Mk II AGR or advanced gas-cooled reactors or for the water reactor fuels. (author)

  1. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  2. EBR-II: search for the lost subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Buschman, H.W.; Poloncsik, J.; Remsburg, J.S.; Sine, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been operating for nearly 20 years as part of the foundation of the US Department of Energy's LMFBR development program. During that time, the EBR-II fuel-handling system has performed extremely well, especially considering the conditions under which much of the system operates and the reliability required to maintain the high plant factor routinely demonstrated by EBR-II. Since EBR-II is a pool-type reactor, much of the fuel handling is done remotely within the sodium-filled primary tank at 371 0 C. Activities involved in locating a misplaced fuel subassembly in the primary tank are described

  3. Irradiation performance of full-length metallic IFR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A.

    1992-07-01

    An assembly irradiation of 169 full-length U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel pins was successfully completed in FFTF to a goal burnup of 10 at.%. All test fuel pins maintained their cladding integrity during the irradiation. Postirradiation examination showed minimal fuel/cladding mechanical interaction and excellent stability of the fuel column. Fission-gas release was normal and consistent with the existing data base from irradiation testing of shorter metallic fuel pins in EBR-II

  4. Fact reactor fuel alloys: Retrospective and prospective views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevitt, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the physical metallurgy of the EBR-II metallic fuel, U-5% Fs, and its performance in the reactor are described. An understanding of these relationships, along with the optimal matching of fuel properties to fuel-element design, have been essential in the 23 year successful utilization of the fuel. The knowledge and experience gained are being employed in the current development of a new U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel for a proposed advanced reactor (orig./MM)

  5. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  6. Modifications to HFEF/S for IFR fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Forrester, R.J.; Carnes, M.D.; Rigg, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Modifications have begun to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) in order to demonstrate the technology of the integral fast reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. This paper describes the status of the modifications to the facility and briefly reviews the status of the development of the process equipment. The HFEF/S was the demonstration facility for the early Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) melt refining/injection-casting fuel cycle. Then called the Fuel Cycle Facility, ∼400 EBR-II fuel assemblies were recycled in the two hot cells of the facility during the 1964-69 period. Since then it has been utilized as a fuels examination facility. The objective of the IFR fuel cycle program is to upgrade HFEF/S to current standards, install new process equipment, and demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the IFR pyroprocess fuel cycle

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  11. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  12. Irradiation behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Metallic fuels were the first fuels chosen for liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMR's). In the late 1960's world-wide interest turned toward ceramic LMR fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel was realized. However, during the 1970's the performance limitations of metallic fuel were resolved in order to achieve a high plant factor at the Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The 1980's spawned renewed interest in metallic fuel when the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept emerged at Argonne National Laboratory. A fuel performance demonstration program was put into place to obtain the data needed for the eventual licensing of metallic fuel. This paper will summarize the results of the irradiation program carried out since 1985

  13. "Os quatro cavaleiros de um íntimo apocalipse" e suas biografias vicárias: Fernando Sabino, Otto Lara Resende, Hélio Pellegrino e Paulo Mendes Campos na escrita de perfis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kvacek Betella

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fernando Sabino, Otto Lara Resende, Hélio Pellegrino e Paulo Mendes Campos traçaram retratos de pessoas com as quais conviveram ao longo de suas vidas por meio de perfis concisos, seja na forma de elegias seja mesmo de necrológios. Embora esses textos sejam imprescindíveis para fundamentar o estilo de cada um dos escritores mineiros, eles também carregam a síntese de cada experiência pessoal, que é fundamental para a análise da crônica, gênero que o quarteto praticou e no qual podem ser enquadrados os perfis examinados neste ensaio.Fernando Sabino, Otto Lara Resende, Hélio Pellegrino and Paulo Mendes Campos wrote portraits of people with whom they were intimate along their lives by means of short profiles, either in the form of elegies or even of necrologies. Although these texts are necessary in order to set up the style of each one of these writers from Minas Gerais, they also carry the synthesis of each personal experience, which is fundamental for the analysis of the chronicle, a literary genre that the quartet of writers practiced and within which the profiles examined in this essay can be classified.

  14. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  15. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  16. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  19. Fuel management inside the reactor. Project AZ-101 (ININ). Report of the generation of the nuclear bank 'L1PG3826' of the assemblies GE5 and GE9B 'collapsed' of the CNLV for the FCS-II program of the FMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.; Torres A, C.

    1991-06-01

    In order to be able to carry out studies but next to the operation of the reactor of the CNLV with the program FCS-II of the package of codes for the fuel management FMS, it was generated a 'collapsed' nuclear bank integrating the generated information with RECORD of each one of those assemblies of the initial load and of the first recharge. To generate the bank, the different ones RECORD 'cells' that compose each assemble were 'collapsed' to an alone one, representing this, to the one complete assemble in what refers to the fuel bars distribution and enrichments. The one collapsed of each assemble it is made averaging the content of UO 2 and Gd 2 O 3 in each fuel bar by the volumetric fraction occupied by each axial section of the fuel bar where the content of UO 2 and Gd 2 O 3 were constant, by this way the x-y fuel bars arrangement is conserved but a representative fuel cell of all the assemble is obtained. Of the five different assemblies that will be load in the reactor of the CNLV (3 of the initial load and 2 of the first recharge), only 4 were collapsed; the remaining one to be totally formed by natural uranium it was not necessary to collapse. From the collapsing process new enrichment values in U-235 and in content of Gd 2 O 3 for each fuel bar, for what according to the generation procedure of nuclear information it was generated the required information by RECORD for each fuel bar with Gd 2 O 3 with the ECLIPSE code. Once generated this information it was proceeded to generate the homogenized nuclear information, with RECORD, for the whole cell. According to the requirements of nuclear information of FCS-II, the nuclear Information generated with RECORD only was of the defined type as series 1 in the procedure of generation of nuclear banks '6F3/1/CN029/90/P1'; that which means that only it was generated nuclear information as function of the burnup of the fuel and of the vacuum in the fuel cell. Although the nuclear bank was generated (identified as 'L1

  20. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1963-11-01

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  1. Status of IFR fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The next major step in Argonne's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program is demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle, in conjunction with continued operation of EBR-II. The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is being readied for this mission. This paper will address the status of facility systems and process equipment, the initial startup experience, and plans for the demonstration program

  2. Fabrication of preliminary fuel rods for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Woo, Youn Myung; Kim, Ki Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Metal fuels was selected for fueling many of the first reactors in the US, including the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho, the FERMI-I reactor, and the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) in the UK. Metallic U.Pu.Zr alloys were the reference fuel for the US Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Metallic fuel has advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant and inherent passive safety. U-Zr-Pu alloy fuels have been used for SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for SFR has been in development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. For the final goal of SFR fuel rod fabrication with good performance, recently, three preliminary fuel rods were fabricated. In this paper, the preliminary fuel rods were fabricated, and then the inspection for QC(quality control) of the fuel rods was performed

  3. Etsi Otto -Android-sovellus

    OpenAIRE

    Vehmas, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Työssä kuvataan sovelluskehitysprosessi, jonka tavoitteena oli luoda sovellus Android-käyttöjärjestelmälle Java-ohjelmointikielellä käyttäen Android Studio -kehitysympäristöä. Työssä käytetään hyväksi mm. tietojen lukemista internetistä, JSON-tiedostomuotoa, Google Maps -karttaelementtiä ja sen sisältämiä lisäominaisuuksia, sekä Googlen Firebasen tarjoamia mainosominaisuuksia.

  4. Sangaste loss / Otto Pius Hippius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hippius, Otto Pius, 1826-1883

    1996-01-01

    esmakordselt mainitud 13. saj. Sangaste mõisa omanik Berg, Friedrich Wilhelm (1794-1874). Lossi interjöörid, fotod 1920-ndatest aastatest, lossi välisvaade, foto 1920-ndatest aastatest, lk. 335. Loss, vaade esifassaadile, värv., lk. 336-337, Vaade lossile üle tiigi metsapargist, värv., lk. 338. Ballisaal, salong, värv.

  5. Irradiation test and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S.

    2002-05-01

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  6. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  7. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  8. Fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.A.R.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Santen, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The principles and present-day embodiments of fuel cells are discussed. Nearly all cells are hydrogen/oxygen ones, where the hydrogen fuel is usually obtained on-site from the reforming of methane or methanol. There exists a tension between the promise of high efficiency in the conversion of

  9. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  10. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  11. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  12. Weighting comparison of the production of α-emitters in HTR-fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckert, M.; Hecker, R.; Migenda, J.; Mirza, N.

    1976-03-01

    This study compares three fuel-cycles of the OTTO-Pebble-Bed High-Temperature Reactor to each other and as a reference to a Light-Water Reactor with regard to the 'Theoretical Environmental Risk' of their heavy-metal production. For the weighting of the α-activity those water- and air masses are used, which according to the recommendations of the 'International Committee for Radiation Protection' are necessary for the dilution of radioactive substances in the cycle. The Th/U-cycles are better than the U/Pu-cycles; one has to put into account, however, that in the Th/U-cycles the Ra which comes up after long time period increases the 'Theoretical Environmental Risk'. (orig.) [de

  13. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  14. Water channel reactor fuels and fuel channels: Design, performance, research and development. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) recommended holding a Technical Committee Meeting on Water Channel Reactor Fuel including into this category fuels and pressure tubes/fuel channels for Atucha-I and II, BWR, CANDU, FUGEN and RBMK reactors. The IWGFPT considered that even if the characteristics of Atucha, CANDUs, BWRs, FUGEN and RBMKs differ considerably, there are also common features. These features include materials aspects, as well as core, fuel assembly and fuel rod design, and some safety issues. There is also some similarity in fuel power history and operating conditions (Atucha-I and II, FUGEN and RBMK). Experts from 11 countries participated at the meeting and presented papers on technology, performance, safety and design, and materials aspects of fuels and pressure tubes/fuel channels for the above types of water channel reactors. Refs, figs, tabs.

  15. Water channel reactor fuels and fuel channels: Design, performance, research and development. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) recommended holding a Technical Committee Meeting on Water Channel Reactor Fuel including into this category fuels and pressure tubes/fuel channels for Atucha-I and II, BWR, CANDU, FUGEN and RBMK reactors. The IWGFPT considered that even if the characteristics of Atucha, CANDUs, BWRs, FUGEN and RBMKs differ considerably, there are also common features. These features include materials aspects, as well as core, fuel assembly and fuel rod design, and some safety issues. There is also some similarity in fuel power history and operating conditions (Atucha-I and II, FUGEN and RBMK). Experts from 11 countries participated at the meeting and presented papers on technology, performance, safety and design, and materials aspects of fuels and pressure tubes/fuel channels for the above types of water channel reactors

  16. Analysis of fuel cycles with natural uranium, Phase I, Economic analysis of plutonium recycling in BHWR; Analiza gorivnih ciklusa sa prirodnim uranom, II faza - Ekonomska analiza recikliranja plutonijuma u BHWR reaktorima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N; Bosevski, T [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za fiziku i dinamiku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-11-15

    The objective of this analysis was establishing a method for determination of the fuel price fraction in the total cost of nuclear power production. Special attention was devoted to recycling of plutonium in natural uranium reactors, plutonium to be used in the same reactor type. The adopted method would enable economic comparison of different types of fuel cycles for different reactors.

  17. Fuel behavior in advanced water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolme, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel rod behavior of advanced pressurized water reactors under steady state conditions has been investigated in this study. System-80+ and Westinghouse Vantage-5 fuels have been considered as advanced pressurized water reactor fuels to be analyzed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the sensitivity of ditferent models and the effect of selected design parameters on the overall fuel behavior. FRAPCON-II computer code has been used for the analyses. Different modelling options of FRAPCON-II have also been considered in these analyses. Analyses have been performed in two main parts. In the first part, effects of operating conditions on fuel behavior have been investigated. First, fuel rod response under normal operating conditions has been analyzed. Then, fuel rod response to different fuel ratings has been calculated. In the second part, in order to estimate the effect of design parameters on fuel behavior, parametric analyses have been performed. In this part, the effects of initial gap thickness, as fabricated fuel density, and initial fill gas pressure on fuel behavior have been analyzed. The computations showed that both of the fuel rods used in this study operate within the safety limits. However, FRAPCON-II modelling options have been resulted in different behavior due to their modelling characteristics. Hence, with the absence of experimental data, it is difficult to make assesment for the best fuel parameters. It is also difficult to estimate error associated with the results. To improve the performance of the code, it is necessary to develop better experimental correlations for material properties in order to analyze the eftect ot considerably different design parameters rather than nominal rod parameters

  18. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This document describes the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South (HFEF/S). The proposed action, to modify the existing HFEF/S at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, would allow important aspects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, offering potential advantages in nuclear safety and economics, to be demonstrated. It would support fuel cycle experiments and would supply fresh fuel to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the INEL. 35 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This document describes the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South (HFEF/S). The proposed action, to modify the existing HFEF/S at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, would allow important aspects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, offering potential advantages in nuclear safety and economics, to be demonstrated. It would support fuel cycle experiments and would supply fresh fuel to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the INEL. 35 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs

  1. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and...-0299; FRL-9149-9] RIN 2060-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY... streamline the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative fuel conversion systems may demonstrate...

  2. Fuel performance experience at TVO nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    TVO nuclear power plant consists of two BWR units of ASEA-ATOM design. The fuel performance experience extending through six cycles at TVO I and four cycles at TVO II is reported. The experience obtained so far is mainly based on ASEA-ATOM 8 x 8 fuel and has been satisfactory. Until autumn 1984 one leaking fuel assembly had been identified at TVO I and none at TVO II. Most of the problems encountered have been related to leaf spring screws and channel screws. The experience indicates that satisfactory fuel performance can be achieved when utilizing strict operational rules and proper control of fuel design and manufacture. (author)

  3. Correlation of creep and swelling with fuel pin performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.J.; Washburn, D.F.; Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1975-09-01

    The HEDL PNL-11 experiment described was one in a series of fueled subassemblies irradiated in EBR-II to demonstrate the adequacy of the FFTF fuel pin design. The cladding material, dimensions, and fuel density are prototypic of FFTF. Because neutron flux in EBR-II is lower than in FFTF, the uranium enrichment is higher in these experimental fuel pins, irradiated in EBR-II, than the FFTF enrichment for comparable linear heat rates. Some pertinent oprating conditions for the center fuel pin in this experiment are listed. This 37-pin subassembly represents, at 110,000 MWd/MTM, the highest burnup yet attained by a prototypic FFTF subassembly. Similarly, this is the highest fluence presently attained by prototypic fuel pins. A cladding breach occurred in one fuel pin which is presently being examined. Results are presented and discussed

  4. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  5. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Analysis of fuel cladding chemical interaction in mixed oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.W.; Dutt, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the observed interaction between mixed oxide 75 wt percent UO 2 --25 wt percent PuO 2 fuel and 316--20 percent CW stainless steel cladding in LMFBR type fuel pins irradiated in EBR-II. A description is given of the test pins and their operating conditions together with, metallographic observations and measurements of the fuel/cladding reaction, and a correlation equation is developed relating depth of cladding attack to temperature and burnup. Some recent data on cladding reaction in fuel pins with low initial O/M in the fuel are given and compared with the correlation equation curves

  7. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  8. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  9. A method for the preparation of a fuel, by the addition of one or more components to a base fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for the preparation of a fuel, by the addition of one or more components to a base fuel, wherein the method comprises the following steps: i) providing a base fuel; ii) withdrawing aromatic components from a styrene / propylene ox ide production plant; iii)

  10. Fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, M.; Matus, L.; Vigassy, J.

    1987-11-01

    A short summary of the main critical points in fuel performance of nuclear power reactors from chemical and mechanical point of view is given. A schedule for a limited research program is included. (author) 17 refs

  11. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  13. Advances in AGR fuel fabrication - now and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleasdale, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    To date, over 3 million AGR fuel pins have been manufactured at Springfields for the UK AGR programme. During this time, AGR fuel design and manufacture has developed and evolved in response to the needs of the reactor operators to enhance fuel reliability and performance. More recently, major advances have been made in the systems and organisational culture which support fuel manufacture at Fuel Division. The introduction of MRP II in 1989 into Fuel Division enabled significant reductions in stock and work-in-progress, together with reductions in manufacturing lead times. Other successful initiatives introduced into Fuel Division have been Just-in-Time (JIT) and AST (Additional Skills Training) which have built on the success of MRP II. All of these initiatives are evidence of Fuel Division's ''Total Quality'' approach to fabricating fuel. Fuel Division is currently in the final stages of commissioning the New Oxide Fuels Complex (NOFC) where both AGR and PWR fuel will be manufactured to the highest standards of quality, safety and environmental protection. NOFC is a totally integrated plant which represents a Pound 200M investment, demonstrating Fuel Division's commitment to building on its 40+ years of fuel fabrication experience and ensuring secure supply of fuel to its customers for years to come. (author)

  14. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  15. Fuel-sodium reaction product formation in breached mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, J.H.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, S.

    1988-01-01

    The run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) operation of mixed-oxide LMR fuel pins has been studied for six years in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as part of a joint program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The formation of fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP), Na 3 MO 4 , where M = U/sub 1-y/Pu/sub y/, in the outer fuel regions is the major phenomenon governing RBCB behavior. It increases fuel volume, decreases fuel stoichiometry, modifies fission-product distributions, and alters thermal performance of a pin. This paper describes the morphology of Na 3 MO 4 observed in 5.84-mm diameter pins covering a variety of conditions and RBCB times up to 150 EFPD's. 8 refs., 1 fig

  16. Direct electrical heating of irradiated metal fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept proposed by Argonne National Laboratory utilizes a metal fuel core. Reactor safety analysis requires information on the potential for fuel axial expansion during severe thermal transients. In addition to a comparatively large thermal expansion coefficient, metallic fuel has a unique potential for enhanced pre-failure expansion driven by retained fission gas and ingested bond sodium. In this paper, the authors present preliminary results from three direct electrical heating (DEH) experiments performed on irradiated metal fuel to investigate axial expansion behavior. The test samples were from Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel ML-11 irradiated to 8 at.% burnup. Preliminary analysis of the results suggest that enhanced expansion driven by trapped fission gas can occur

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  18. Sistema de otto-codificação modificado para endereçamento de redes hidrográficas An improved stream network addressing system: the modified pfafstetter coding scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael dos Santos Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Há, no âmbito do gerenciamento de recursos hídricos, uma carência por sistemas de aplicação global que referenciem, indiquem e identifiquem, de forma única e eficiente, a organização espacial das bacias hidrográficas e respectivas redes de drenagem. Neste trabalho, propôs-se uma modificação no sistema de endereçamento originalmente concebido por Otto Pfafstetter. A nova metodologia utiliza tão-somente as redes de drenagem no formato vetorial e considera, em vez da área das bacias, o comprimento dos seus cursos d'água para codificá-los. Essa estratégia elimina o elevado ônus associado à obtenção de dados de altimetria e à derivação dos respectivos modelos digitais de elevação, imprescindíveis à correta determinação das áreas de contribuição das bacias hidrográficas. Adicionalmente, elimina-se o esforço computacional das operações baseadas em localização espacial, uma vez que agora é possível realizá-las exclusivamente por atributos. Com base nessa metodologia, desenvolveu-se o aplicativo Otto-Sys, utilizando a linguagem de programação AML, nativa do sistema de informações geográficas Arc/INFO workstation. Para exemplificar os resultados da otto-codificação por comprimento dos cursos d'água, apresentou-se um estudo de caso utilizando a rede de drenagem do rio Caeté, afluente do rio Iaco, pertencente à bacia do rio Purus, no Estado do Amazonas. O detalhamento dessa hidrografia vetorial implicou cinco níveis de codificação. Tendo-se codificado toda a rede hidrográfica, qualquer sistema de informações geográficas, mesmo aqueles que não dispõem de recursos específicos para análises e navegação em redes, poderá oferecer serviços de navegação topológica, organização, estruturação, endereçamento e gerenciamento dessas bases de dados. Desse modo, o acesso em tempo real a tais procedimentos poderá ser perfeitamente estendido a qualquer dispositivo capaz de acessar os sistemas web

  19. Fuel cladding mechanical interaction during power ramps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between fuel and cladding may occur as a consequence of two types of phenomenon: i) fuel swelling especially at levels of caesium accumulation, and ii) thermal differential expansion during power changes. Slow overpower ramps which may occur during incidental events are of course one of the circumstances responsible for this second type of fuel cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI). Experiments and analysis of this problem that have been done at C.E.A. allow to determine the main parameters which will fix the level of stress and the risk of damage induced by the fuel in the cladding during overpower transients

  20. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content