WorldWideScience

Sample records for otter restoration project

  1. 78 FR 62361 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service... issuance of a new license for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project No. 2558. The programmatic agreement... Agreement would be incorporated into any Order issuing a license. Green Mountain Power Corporation, as...

  2. Data management for interdisciplinary field experiments: OTTER project support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of investigators of an interdisciplinary science project to properly manage the data that are collected during the experiment is critical to the effective conduct of science. When the project becomes large, possibly including several scenes of large-format remotely sensed imagery shared by many investigators requiring several services, the data management effort can involve extensive staff and computerized data inventories. The OTTER (Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research) project was supported by the PLDS (Pilot Land Data System) with several data management services, such as data inventory, certification, and publication. After a brief description of these services, experiences in providing them are compared with earlier data management efforts and some conclusions regarding data management in support of interdisciplinary science are discussed. In addition to providing these services, a major goal of this data management capability was to adopt characteristics of a pro-active attitude, such as flexibility and responsiveness, believed to be crucial for the effective conduct of active, interdisciplinary science. These are also itemized and compared with previous data management support activities. Identifying and improving these services and characteristics can lead to the design and implementation of optimal data management support capabilities, which can result in higher quality science and data products from future interdisciplinary field experiments.

  3. Data management for support of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, J. W.; Angelici, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    Management of data collected during projects that involve large numbers of scientists is an often overlooked aspect of the experimental plan. Ecosystem science projects like the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project that involve many investigators from many institutions and that run for multiple years, collect and archive large amounts of data. These data range in size from a few kilobytes of information for such measurements as canopy chemistry and meteorological variables, to hundreds of megabytes of information for such items as views from multi-band spectrometers flown on aircraft and scenes from imaging radiometers aboard satellites. Organizing and storing data from the OTTER Project, certifying those data, correcting errors in data sets, validating the data, and distributing those data to other OTTER investigators is a major undertaking. Using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Pilot Land Data System (PLDS), a Support mechanism was established for the OTTER Project which accomplished all of the above. At the onset of the interaction between PLDS and OTTER, it was not certain that PLDS could accomplish these tasks in a manner that would aid researchers in the OTTER Project. This paper documents the data types that were collected under the auspices of the OTTER Project and the procedures implemented to store, catalog, validate, and certify those data. The issues of the compliance of investigators with data-management requirements, data use and certification, and the ease of retrieving data are discussed. We advance the hypothesis that formal data management is necessary in ecological investigations involving multiple investigators using many data gathering instruments and experimental procedures. The issues and experience gained in this exercise give an indication of the needs for data management systems that must be addressed in the coming decades when other large data-gathering endeavors are undertaken by the ecological

  4. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  5. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project final report: Monitoring for evaluation of recovery and restoration of injured nearshore resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Kloecker, Kim; Dean, Tom; Colettie, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, we completed three consecutive years of full field sampling in WPWS for EVOS Restoration Project 10100750. Nearshore monitoring was conducted in collaboration with the NPS SWAN I&M program and, beginning in 2012, as part of the EVOSTC GWA program. Data collection was done in accordance with standard operating procedures set forth to monitor marine water chemistry and quality, marine intertidal invertebrates, kelps and seagrasses, marine birds, black oystercatchers, and sea otters. Summer sampling in 2012 represented the fourth year of sampling in WPWS (an initial year of sampling was done in WPWS in 2007; EVOS Restoration Project 070750). Based on our monitoring of nearshore species in WPWS, and comparisons of data from WPWS and other areas within the Gulf of Alaska, we have no evidence of continued injury to biological resources at the spatial scales we are monitoring. A key finding is that recovery of the sea otter population is no longer constrained by exposure to lingering oil; this is consistent with related EVOSTC studies on harlequin ducks (Restoration Project 12120114-Q). We anticipate continued annual nearshore monitoring in WPWS and at KATM and KEFJ under GWA, with data summaries and analyses including all three areas to provide a larger spatial and temporal context to the understanding of processes and patterns in nearshore ecosystems of the GOA which were impacted by the EVOS of 1989.

  6. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  7. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  8. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  9. Project Rio Blanco: site restoration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco was a joint Government-industry experiment using nuclear explosives to stimulate the flow of natural gas from low permeability formations which could not be economically produced through conventional methods. The project consisted of the simultaneous detonation of three nuclear explosives on May 17, 1973, in a 7,000 foot well in northwestern Colorado. Gas production testing and project evaluation continued through June 1976. The site cleanup and restoration planning phase began in December 1975 and was concluded with the issuance of an operational plan, Project Rio Blanco Site Cleanup and Restoration Plan, NVO-173, in May 1976. Actual site restoration activities were conducted during the period from July to November 1976. The activities throughout the restoration period are summarized and the final site status, including the disposition of all project facilities and the status of all project related wells after plug and abandonment and recompletion work are described

  10. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  11. Integrating ecological restoration into CDM forestry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Maohua; Haapanen, Toni; Singh, Ram Babu; Hietala, Reija

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concerns and issues in sustainability of CDM forestry projects are reviewed. • Ecological restoration is suggested to be integrated in the CDM framework. • As an ecosystem supporting service, soil restoration on degraded land is of primary importance. • Regenerating forests naturally rather than through monoculture plantations is suggested. • Potential social impacts of ecological restoration are discussed. - Abstract: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development. CDM forestry projects should contribute to mitigation of climate change through afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities on degraded land in developing countries. However, like other types of CDM projects, the forestry projects have encountered a number of concerns and critiques. Appropriate approaches and concrete aims to achieve long-term sustainability have been lacking, and reforms have therefore been called for. The aims of this paper are to examine the published information relevant to these concerns, and frame appropriate approaches for a more sustainable CDM. In this review, as a first step to tackle some of these issues, ecological restoration is suggested for integration into the CDM framework. Essentially, this involves the restoration of ecosystem supporting service (soil restoration), upon which forests regenerate naturally rather than establishing monoculture plantations. In this way, forestry projects would bring cost-effective opportunities for multiple ecosystem services. Potential approaches, necessary additions to the monitoring plans, and social impacts of ecological restoration in CDM projects are discussed

  12. Fisheries Restoration Grant Program Projects [ds168

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This shapefile (FRGP_All_020209.shp) represents the locations of all ongoing and completed salmonid restoration projects in California with existing records in the...

  13. South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project was a resounding success in that the primary goal of : developing commercial sources of native seed has been substantially met. By the conclusion of the project : on August 31, 2011, 20 native seed sou...

  14. Leadership success within disaster restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Randy R; Baroudi, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values.Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)'s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which

  15. Environmental Restoration Project - Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.

    1998-06-01

    This Environmental Restoration (ER) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes relevant Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) management processes and shows how they implement systems engineering. The objective of this SEMP is to explain and demonstrate how systems engineering is being approached and implemented in the ER Project. The application of systems engineering appropriate to the general nature and scope of the project is summarized in Section 2.0. The basic ER Project management approach is described in Section 3.0. The interrelation and integration of project practices and systems engineering are outlined in Section 4.0. Integration with sitewide systems engineering under the Project Hanford Management Contract is described in Section 5.0

  16. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  17. How is success or failure in river restoration projects evaluated? Feedback from French restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Bertrand; Piégay, Hervé; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Vaudor, Lise

    2014-05-01

    Since the 1990s, French operational managers and scientists have been involved in the environmental restoration of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive (2000) highlights the need for feedback from restoration projects and for evidence-based evaluation of success. Based on 44 French pilot projects that included such an evaluation, the present study includes: 1) an introduction to restoration projects based on their general characteristics 2) a description of evaluation strategies and authorities in charge of their implementation, and 3) a focus on the evaluation of results and the links between these results and evaluation strategies. The results show that: 1) the quality of an evaluation strategy often remains too poor to understand well the link between a restoration project and ecological changes; 2) in many cases, the conclusions drawn are contradictory, making it difficult to determine the success or failure of a restoration project; and 3) the projects with the poorest evaluation strategies generally have the most positive conclusions about the effects of restoration. Recommendations are that evaluation strategies should be designed early in the project planning process and be based on clearly-defined objectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Otter Brook Lake, New Hampshire Connecticut River Basin, Flood Control Project, Solid Waste Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... This plan provides guidance to establish policies, and responsibilities, procedures, and instructions for proper handling, storage, disposal and recycling of solid waste generated at the flood control project...

  19. Management systems for environmental restoration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbert, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the success fo large environmental restoration projects depends on sound management systems to guide the team of organizations and individuals responsible for the project. Public concern about and scrutiny of these environmental projects increase the stakes for those involved in the management of projects. The Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) uses a system approach to performing and improving the work necessary to meet FUSRAP objectives. This approach to preforming and improving the work necessary to meet FUSRAP objectives. This approach is based upon management criteria embodied in DOE cost and schedule control system and the quality assurance requirements. The project team used complementary criteria to develop a system of related parts and processes working together to accomplish the goals of the project

  20. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  1. Canopy Chemistry (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy characteristics: leaf chemistry, specific leaf area, LAI, PAR, IPAR, NPP, standing biomass--see also: Meteorology (OTTER) for associated...

  2. Richland Environmental Restoration Project Baseline Multi Year Work Plan Volume 1 Richland Environmental Restoration Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintczak, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project specification is to provide an overall scoping and document for the Environmental Restoration project, and to provide a link between the overall Hanford Site scope and the ER project. The purpose of this project specification is to provide an overall scoping document for the ER Project, and to provide a link between the overall Hanford Site scope and the ER Project. Additionally, this specification provides an integrated and consolidated source of information for the Richland ER Project. It identifies the ER Project vision, mission, and goals, as well as the operational history of the Hanford Site, along with environmental setting and hazards. This ER Project Specification is part of the overall ER Project baseline

  3. Uranium mining environmental restoration project (PRAMU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) started its activities 50 years ago and obtained significant results. At the present time, the CNEA is defined as an Institution of research and development in the nuclear field. It is also responsible for the management of radioactive wastes and the dismantling of nuclear and radioactive facilities. Mining and milling activities have been carried out during the past 40 years and at present the CNEA is undertaking the Uranium Mining Environmental Restoration Project (PRAMU). The aim of this project is to restore the environment as much as is possible in all places where uranium mining and milling activities were developed when taking into consideration both economic and technical reality. First, the characteristics of the problems in each site are determined through appropriate studies which identify the existing or potential impacts, the possible pathways of contamination, etc. The sites being studied are: MALARGUE (Mendoza Province), CORDOBA (Cordoba Province), LOS GIGANTES (Cordoba Province), HUEMUL (Mendoza Province), PICHINAN (Chubut Province), TONCO (Salta Province), LA ESTELA (San Luis Province), LOS COLORADOS (La Rioja Province). PRAMU seeks to improve the current conditions of the tailings deposits and mines and to ensure the long term protection of people and the environment. The CNEA is required to comply with all legislation that is in force and is under the control of various national, provincial and local State institutions. The main objectives of the project for the various sites are: (a) Malargue site: to implement the actions necessary for environmental restoration and management of the tailings derived from the uranium ores processed in the industrial plant; (b) Cordoba and Los Gigantes sites: to design, engineer and execute the activities required for closure of the sites; (c) Other sites (Huemul, Pichinan, Tonco, La Estela, Los Colorados): to develop an environmental evaluation and, on the basis of

  4. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  5. Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  6. 78 FR 26063 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...-100-00-0-0, CUPCA00] Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Final... Creek Restoration Project. These two agencies have determined that the proposed [[Page 26064

  7. Prioritization of forest restoration projects: Tradeoffs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Vogler; Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Michael Jennings; John D. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine...

  8. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  9. An otter tragedy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    Otters appear to be the most vulnerable of all marine mammals to oil; oil reduces the insulating value of their fur by as much as 70% and otters are extremely vulnerable to oil poisoning through inhalation of hydrocarbon fumes, ingestion of petroleum, and absorption through the skin. After the Exxon Valdez accident in Alaska's Prince William Sound, dramatic efforts were made to rescue and rehabilitate otters and other sea animals. One hundred ninety seven of the treated otters were released back into the wild. However, soon after the release, wildlife biologist Lisa Rotterman reported an unprecidented die-off of never-oiled otters. Many of the treated otters may have carried a potentially novel herpesvirus, but whether this caused the die-off is controversial. It is also hard to separate symptoms of sickness, stress, and fear from oil toxicity. Overall the findings suggest a generic regimen for all oiled otters: antibiotics, vitamin and mineral supplements, and prompt administration of fluids. Assessing which animals need care is an urgent need. Strict quarantine, short captivity time, and protected handling of oiled animals are further suggestions

  10. Genetic diversity and landscape genetic structure of otter (Lutra lutra) populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucci, Nadia; Arrendal, Johanna; Ansorge, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Eurasian otter populations strongly declined and partially disappeared due to global and local causes (habitat destruction, water pollution, human persecution) in parts of their continental range. Conservation strategies, based on reintroduction projects or restoration of dispersal corridors...... and landscape genetic analyses however indicate that local populations are genetically differentiated, perhaps as consequence of post-glacial demographic fluctuations and recent isolation. These results delineate a framework that should be used for implementing conservation programs in Europe, particularly...

  11. Giant Otters in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk C.; Staib E.

    1992-01-01

    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  12. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  13. Social Science Methods Used in the RESTORE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Cristy Watkins; Paul H. Gobster; Liam Heneghan; Kristen Ross; Laurel Ross; Madeleine Tudor; Alaka Wali; David H. Wise; Joanne Vining; Moira. Zellner

    2014-01-01

    The RESTORE (Rethinking Ecological and Social Theories of Restoration Ecology) project is an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional research endeavor funded by the National Science Foundation's Dynamics of Coupled Natural Human Systems program. The goal of the project is to understand the links between organizational type, decision making processes, and...

  14. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  15. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines

  16. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines.

  17. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  18. A Function-Based Framework for Stream Assessment & Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report lays out a framework for approaching stream assessment and restoration projects that focuses on understanding the suite of stream functions at a site in the context of what is happening in the watershed.

  19. Adaptively Addressing Uncertainty in Estuarine and Near Coastal Restoration Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Ronald M.; Williams, Greg D.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Laufle, Jeffrey C.; Glasoe, Stuart

    2005-03-01

    Restoration projects have an uncertain outcome because of a lack of information about current site conditions, historical disturbance levels, effects of landscape alterations on site development, unpredictable trajectories or patterns of ecosystem structural development, and many other factors. A poor understanding of the factors that control the development and dynamics of a system, such as hydrology, salinity, wave energies, can also lead to an unintended outcome. Finally, lack of experience in restoring certain types of systems (e.g., rare or very fragile habitats) or systems in highly modified situations (e.g., highly urbanized estuaries) makes project outcomes uncertain. Because of these uncertainties, project costs can rise dramatically in an attempt to come closer to project goals. All of the potential sources of error can be addressed to a certain degree through adaptive management. The first step is admitting that these uncertainties can exist, and addressing as many of the uncertainties with planning and directed research prior to implementing the project. The second step is to evaluate uncertainties through hypothesis-driven experiments during project implementation. The third step is to use the monitoring program to evaluate and adjust the project as needed to improve the probability of the project to reach is goal. The fourth and final step is to use the information gained in the project to improve future projects. A framework that includes a clear goal statement, a conceptual model, and an evaluation framework can help in this adaptive restoration process. Projects and programs vary in their application of adaptive management in restoration, and it is very difficult to be highly prescriptive in applying adaptive management to projects that necessarily vary widely in scope, goal, ecosystem characteristics, and uncertainties. Very large ecosystem restoration programs in the Mississippi River delta (Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration

  20. Evaluating Stream Restoration Projects: What Do We Learn from Monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Rubin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two decades since calls for stream restoration projects to be scientifically assessed, most projects are still unevaluated, and conducted evaluations yield ambiguous results. Even after these decades of investigation, do we know how to define and measure success? We systematically reviewed 26 studies of stream restoration projects that used macroinvertebrate indicators to assess the success of habitat heterogeneity restoration projects. All 26 studies were previously included in two meta-analyses that sought to assess whether restoration programs were succeeding. By contrast, our review focuses on the evaluations themselves, and asks what exactly we are measuring and learning from these evaluations. All 26 studies used taxonomic diversity, richness, or abundance of invertebrates as biological measures of success, but none presented explicit arguments why those metrics were relevant measures of success for the restoration projects. Although changes in biodiversity may reflect overall ecological condition at the regional or global scale, in the context of reach-scale habitat restoration, more abundance and diversity may not necessarily be better. While all 26 studies sought to evaluate the biotic response to habitat heterogeneity enhancement projects, about half of the studies (46% explicitly measured habitat alteration, and 31% used visual estimates of grain size or subjectively judged ‘habitat quality’ from protocols ill-suited for the purpose. Although the goal of all 26 projects was to increase habitat heterogeneity, 31% of the studies either sampled only riffles or did not specify the habitats sampled. One-third of the studies (35% used reference ecosystems to define target conditions. After 20 years of stream restoration evaluation, more work remains for the restoration community to identify appropriate measures of success and to coordinate monitoring so that evaluations are at a scale capable of detecting ecosystem change.

  1. The use of genetic methods to study Eurasian otters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Gettová, Lenka; Sládkovičová, V.; Zemanová, Barbora

    Supp., - (2011), s. 102 ISSN 0394-1914. [International Otter Colloquium /11./. 30.08.2011-04.09.2011, Pavia] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930804; GA MŽP SP/2D4/16/08; GA ČR GA206/03/0757 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Eurasian otter * genetic analyses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.internationalottercolloquium2010.eu/files/proceedings_iucn_xi_ioc_2011.pdf

  2. 78 FR 2685 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Central Utah Project Completion Act; East Hobble Creek Restoration Project Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... assessment for the East Hobble Creek Restoration Project is available for public review and comment. The...

  3. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  4. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.; Brigham, C.A.; Schwartz, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  5. Emergency Fish Restoration Project; Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCaire, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt is a 151-mile impoundment created by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam during the early 1940's. The construction of the dam permanently and forever blocked the once abundant anadromous fish runs to the upper Columbia Basin. Since the construction of Grand Coulee Dam in 1943 and Chief Joseph Dam in 1956 this area is known as the blocked area. The blocked area is totally dependant upon resident fish species to provide a subsistence, recreational and sport fishery. The sport fishery of lake Roosevelt is varied but consists mostly of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) Small mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Currently, Bonneville Power Administration funds and administers two trout/kokanee hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt. The Spokane Tribe of Indians operates one hatchery, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife the other. In addition to planting fish directly into Lake Roosevelt, these two hatcheries also supply fish to a net pen operation that also plants the lake. The net pen project is administered by Bonneville Power funded personnel but is dependant upon volunteer labor for daily feeding and monitoring operations. This project has demonstrated great success and is endorsed by the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe of Indians, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, local sportsmen associations, and the Lake Roosevelt Forum. The Lake Roosevelt/Grand Coulee Dam area is widely known and its diverse fishery is targeted by large numbers of anglers annually to catch rainbow trout, kokanee salmon, small mouth bass and walleye. These anglers contribute a great deal to the local economy by fuel, grocery, license, tackle and motel purchases. Because such a large portion of the local economy is dependant upon the Lake Roosevelt fishery and tourism, any unusual operation of the Lake Roosevelt system may have a

  6. Mummy Restoration Project Among the Anga of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Ronald G; Nelson, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We report on a unique Mummy restoration project among the anga of papua new guinea. Moimango was a village leader who had gone through the smoked body mummification process about 50 years ago. His smoked body has been displayed, alongside other ancestors, on a cliff niche gallery 308 m (1011 feet) above Koke Village. Although somewhat protected by an overhang, Moimango suffered a great deal of deterioration as he has been unprotected and exposed to the elements. The goals of our 2010 expedition to Koke Village was to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts applied to Moimango initiated by the authors and villagers of Koke in 2008. The restoration process used materials native to the local jungles. We examined Moimango for additional restoration challenges that may have arisen since the 2008 expedition. We discovered that many of the restoration techniques developed and applied in 2008 held up well. We found that the anatomical supports developed from native tapa and kumaka sap were still in place and effective, as well as our lichen eradication method of a suca slurry applied in 2008. Of particular importance was the stability of Moimago's head, which prior to restoration, was held in place by only the mummified muscle and integument of the lateral and posterior neck region. Endoscopic evaluation demonstrated disarticulated C1 and C2 vertebrae. New restoration challenges included construction of a new display chair, realignment and securing of the mandible, replacing and securing a loose tooth, repatching, and recoating with ritualistic red ochre clay. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David; Aronsuu, Kimmo; Jackson, Aaron

    2003-07-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993, Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers (Moser et al. 2002), thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin (Moser and Close in press). Adult Pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River (Close and Jackson 2001). In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River (Close 1999). To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2002.

  8. How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM

  9. OTTER, Resolution Style Theorem Prover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: OTTER (Other Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyper-resolution, UR-resolution, and binary para-modulation. These inference rules take as small set of clauses and infer a clause. If the inferred clause is new and useful, it is stored and may become available for subsequent inferences. Other capabilities are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, and evaluable functions and predicates. 2 - Method of solution: For its inference process OTTER uses the given-clause algorithm, which can be viewed as a simple implementation of the set of support strategy. OTTER maintains three lists of clauses: axioms, sos (set of support), and demodulators. OTTER is not automatic. Even after the user has encoded a problem into first-order logic or into clauses, the user must choose inference rules, set options to control the processing of inferred clauses, and decide which input formulae or clauses are to be in the initial set of support and which, if any, equalities are to be demodulators. If OTTER fails to find a proof, the user may try again different initial conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5000 characters in an input string, 64 distinct variables in a clause, 51 characters in any symbol. The maxima can be changed by finding the appropriate definition in the header.h file, increasing the limit, and recompiling OTTER. There are a few constraints on the order of commands

  10. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data

  11. Managing trade-offs in landscape restoration and revegetation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Martine; Cockfield, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Landscape restoration projects often have multiple and disparate conservation, resource enhancement, and sometimes economic objectives, since projects that seek to meet more than one objective tend to be viewed more positively by funding agencies and the community. The degree to which there are trade-offs among desired objectives is an important variable for decision makers, yet this is rarely explicitly considered. In particular, the existence of ecological thresholds has important implications for decision-making at both the project level and the regional level. We develop a model of the possibilities and choices for an agency seeking to achieve two environmental objectives in a region through revegetation of a number of sites. A graphical model of the production possibilities sets for a single revegetation project is developed, and different trade-off relationships are discussed and illustrated. Then the model is used to demonstrate the possibilities for managing all such projects within a region. We show that, where there are thresholds in the trade-off relationship between two objectives, specialization (single- or dominant-objective projects) should be considered. This is illustrated using a case study in which revegetation is used to meet avian biodiversity and salinity mitigation objectives. We conclude that where there are sufficient scientific data, explicit consideration of different types of trade-offs can assist in making decisions about the most efficient mix and type of projects to better achieve a range of objectives within a region.

  12. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  13. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  14. Technology integration project: Environmental Restoration Technologies Department Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Technologies Department is developing environmental restoration technologies through funding form the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science and Technology. Initially, this technology development has been through the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). It is currently being developed through the Contaminant Plume containment and Remediation Focus Area, the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area, and the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Cross-Cutting Program. This Technology Integration Project (TIP) was responsible for transferring MWLID-developed technologies for routine use by environmental restoration groups throughout the DOE complex and commercializing these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID's technology transfer/commercialization successes were achieved by involving private industry in development, demonstration, and technology transfer/commercialization activities; gathering and disseminating information about MWLID activities and technologies; and promoting stakeholder and regulatory involvement. From FY91 through FY95, 30 Technical Task Plans (TTPs) were funded. From these TTPs, the MWLID can claim 15 technology transfer/commercialization successes. Another seven technology transfer/commercialization successes are expected. With the changeover to the focus areas, the TIP continued the technology transfer/commercialization efforts begun under the MWLID

  15. Technology integration project: Environmental Restoration Technologies Department Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies; Allen, C.A. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Technologies Department is developing environmental restoration technologies through funding form the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Science and Technology. Initially, this technology development has been through the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). It is currently being developed through the Contaminant Plume containment and Remediation Focus Area, the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area, and the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Cross-Cutting Program. This Technology Integration Project (TIP) was responsible for transferring MWLID-developed technologies for routine use by environmental restoration groups throughout the DOE complex and commercializing these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID`s technology transfer/commercialization successes were achieved by involving private industry in development, demonstration, and technology transfer/commercialization activities; gathering and disseminating information about MWLID activities and technologies; and promoting stakeholder and regulatory involvement. From FY91 through FY95, 30 Technical Task Plans (TTPs) were funded. From these TTPs, the MWLID can claim 15 technology transfer/commercialization successes. Another seven technology transfer/commercialization successes are expected. With the changeover to the focus areas, the TIP continued the technology transfer/commercialization efforts begun under the MWLID.

  16. The optimized baseline project: Reinventing environmental restoration at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, J.D.; Janaskie, M.T.; Kleinen, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) is using a strategic planning effort (termed the Optimized Baseline Project) to develop a new approach to the Hanford Environmental Restoration program. This effort seeks to achieve a quantum leap improvement in performance through results oriented prioritization of activities. This effort was conducted in parallel with the renegotiation of the Tri-Party Agreement and provided DOE with an opportunity to propose innovative initiatives to promote cost effectiveness, accelerate progress in the Hanford Environmental Restoration Program and involve stakeholders in the decision-making process. The Optimized Baseline project is an innovative approach to program planning and decision-making in several respects. First, the process is a top down, value driven effort that responds to values held by DOE, the regulatory community and the public. Second, planning is conducted in a way that reinforces the technical management process at Richland, involves the regulatory community in substantive decisions, and includes the public. Third, the Optimized Baseline Project is being conducted as part of a sitewide Hanford initiative to reinvent Government. The planning process used for the Optimized Baseline Project has many potential applications at other sites and in other programs where there is a need to build consensus among diverse, independent groups of stakeholders and decisionmakers. The project has successfully developed and demonstrated an innovative approach to program planning that accelerates the pace of cleanup, involves the regulators as partners with DOE in priority setting, and builds public understanding and support for the program through meaningful opportunities for involvement

  17. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  18. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project : FY 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None given

    2000-12-01

    The Moses Lake Project consists of 3 phases. Phase 1 is the assessment of all currently available physical and biological information, the collection of baseline biological data, the formulation of testable hypotheses, and the development of a detailed study plan to test the hypotheses. Phase 2 is dedicated to the implementation of the study plan including data collection, hypotheses testing, and the formulation of a management plan. Phase 3 of the project is the implementation of the management plan, monitoring and evaluation of the implemented recommendations. The project intends to restore the failed recreational fishery for panfish species (black crappie, bluegill and yellow perch) in Moses Lake as off site mitigation for lost recreational fishing opportunities for anadromous species in the upper Columbia River. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1 investigations and presents the study plan directed at initiating Phase 2 of the project. Phase 1of the project culminates with the formulation of testable hypotheses directed at investigating possible limiting factors to the production of panfish in Moses Lake. The limiting factors to be investigated will include water quality, habitat quantity and quality, food limitations, competition, recruitment, predation, over harvest, environmental requirements, and the physical and chemical limitations of the system in relation to the fishes.

  19. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 1997 (NODC Accession 0037159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  20. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 2005 (NODC Accession 0057025)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  1. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 1998 (NODC Accession 0037160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  2. 77 FR 65167 - Blacksmith Ecological Restoration Project, Eldorado National Forest, Placer and El Dorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Blacksmith Ecological Restoration Project, Eldorado... comments to 7600 Wentworth Springs Rd., Georgetown, CA 95634 Attention: Blacksmith Ecological Restoration... (PSD). In preparation for prescribed fire, perimeter line construction would be needed where roads...

  3. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 1996 (NODC Accession 0015544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  4. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  5. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Planning Phase at Southern Eden Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will complete the design and permits to restore 1,300 acres of tidal wetlands, provide 3.5 miles shoreline protection, and accelerate wetlands restoration at the Eden Landing Ecological Reserve.

  6. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 2006 (NODC Accession 0058096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  7. Genetic consequences of population decline in Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) populations in the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gettová, Lenka; Hájková, Petra

    Supp., - (2011), s. 102 ISSN 0394-1914. [International Otter Colloquium /11./. 30.08.2011-04.09.2011, Pavia] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Eurasian otter * population size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.internationalottercolloquium2010.eu/files/proceedings_iucn_xi_ioc_2011.pdf

  8. Project No. 10 - Partial restoration of Ignalina NPP territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At present Ignalina NPP territory makes a total of 2544 ha of land. Due to termination of construction activity development and due to the decision taken to shutdown unit 1 the need in such a territory fell off. For normal and safe operation of Ignalina NPP 1440 ha is enough, including 1237 ha for of Ignalina NPP administrative area and 203 ha for auxiliary objects. Ignalina NPP will have to rearrange territory, forestry that was damaged during the construction activities of the plant and to restore the damaged farmlands and to pass the rearranged forestry that belonged to the Ignalina NPP to the Ministry of Forestry. The total estimated cost of the project is about 1.042 M EURO

  9. Results From a Channel Restoration Project: Hydraulic Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, K.F.; Densmore, R.V.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Techniques for the hydraulic restoration of placer-mined streams and floodplains were developed in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The two-year study at Glen Creek focused on a design of stream and floodplain geometry using hydraulic capacity and shear stress equations. Slope and sinuosity values were based on regional relationships. Design requirements included a channel capacity for a bankfull discharge and a floodplain capacity for a 1.5- to 100-year discharge. Several bio-engineering techniques using alder and willow, including anchored brush bars, streambank hedge layering, seedlings, and cuttings, were tested to dissipate floodwater energy and encourage sediment deposition until natural revegetation stabilized the new floodplains. Permanently monumented cross-sections installed throughout the project site were surveyed every one to three years. Nine years after the project began, a summer flood caused substantial damage to the channel form, including a change in width/depth ratio, slope, and thalweg location. Many of the alder brush bars were heavily damaged or destroyed, resulting in significant bank erosion. This paper reviews the original hydraulic design process, and describes changes to the channel and floodplain geometry over time, based on nine years of cross-section surveys.

  10. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  11. The Role of Anthropogenic Stratigraphy in River Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. E.; Webb, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a river restoration project and removal of a low-head dam on the Ottawa River (northwestern Ohio and southeastern Michigan) in 2007, a longer-term project was initiated to assess anthropogenic changes of the Ottawa River fluvial system. A composite stratigraphic section 4.5 m in length was constructed by stratigraphic correlation from three trenches up to 2.5 m in depth and 14 vibracores up to 2.5 m in length, all within a small region (tires, intact or pieces of glass bottles, and one horizon of displaced railroad ties. Age control for the composite section is provided by 4 14C dates, 6 OSL dates, and one bottle with a date stamp. Two prominent flood horizons are indicated in multiple trenches or cores, and identified as the historic floods of 1913 and 1959. The data show the following major changes in the fluvial system over time: (1) prior to approximately 5 Ka, the river system was transporting mineral-rich sediment and formed meandering point-bar sequences approximately 1.5 m thick; (2) between approximately 5 Ka and 200 YBP, the river system was transporting organic-rich sediment (i.e., blackwater stream) bordered by riparian wetlands accumulating peat (part of the regional "Great Black Swamp" discovered by settlers from eastern North America); (3) between approximately 200 YBP and the early 1960s the river system was transporting mineral-rich sediment (i.e., brownwater stream), probably sourced from extensive land clearance for agriculture, which backfilled and overtopped the previous riparian wetlands and produced an series of thin channel fills interpreted as rapidly shifting avulsional channels; (4) since the early 1960s, sediment supply has exceeded sediment conveyance capacity, leading to vertical aggradation of approximately 1.7 m, creating the fill-terrace morphology evident today; and (5) overlapping with the previous stage, channel incision and lateral channel migration has produced a fluvial system dominated by bank erosion, logjams due

  12. 75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...-02] RIN 0648-ZC05 NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of supplemental funding for NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Projects. SUMMARY...

  13. 76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project Environmental Impact... improve the health of the ecosystem and reach the desired future condition. DATES: Comments concerning the... Ecosystem Restoration Project EIS, P.O. Box 180, 11 Casey Rd., North Fork, ID 83466. Comments may also be...

  14. Nuclear criticality safety program for environmental restoration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is located on a 1050 acre site approximately twenty miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The production area of the site covers approximately 136 acres in the central portion of the site. Surrounding the core production area is a buffer consisting of leased grazing land, reforested land, and unused areas. The uranium processing facility was designed and constructed in the early 1950s. During the period from 1952 to 1989 the site produced uranium feed material and uranium products used in the United States weapons complex. Production at the site ended in 1989, when the site was shut down for what was expected to be a short period of time. However, the FUTC was permanently shut down in 1991, and the site's mission was changed from production to environmental restoration. The objective of this paper is to give an update on activities at the Fernald Site and to describe the Nuclear Criticality Safety issues that are currently being addressed

  15. Habitat networking: a new chance for the otter in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Reuther

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main problems for otter protection in Germany as well as in Europe is the fragmentation and isolation of populations. In Germany a thriving population exists in the eastern parts of the country while in the central parts only isolated populations remain, and in the western parts the species is extirpated. On the basis of this situation a habitat network program is in progress with the aim to protect and restore not only those habitats where the otter still remains but also those habitats which can function as a network to connect the thriving with the isolated populations. This network focuses on existing protected wetlands or rivers and restoration activities in wetlands or rivers. The situation of the otter in Europe (excluding Scandinavia and the British Isles is comparable to that in Germany. There are stable or thriving populations in the eastern and western parts while in Central Europe only isolated populations remain. Following the German otter habitat network program possibilities are shown and discussed to establish a habitat network program for the otter on a European level. Riassunto Ripristino di una rete di ambienti favorevoli alla lontra: una nuova possibilità per la specie in Europa? - Uno dei principali problemi riguardanti la conservazione della lontra (Lutra lutra in Germania, come del resto in Europa, è la frammentazione e l'isolamento delle popolazioni. In Germania, una cospicua popolazione esiste nella parte orientale, mentre in quella centrale sono presenti nuclei isolati; nella porzione occidentale del paese la specie è invece praticamente estinta. Tenendo presente questa situazione, è stato avviato un programma di ricostruzione di una rete di ambienti favorevoli alla lontra con l'obiettivo di proteggere e ripristinare non solo gli ambienti in cui la specie è attualmente presente, ma anche quelli che possono funzionare come rete di

  16. From repairing the damaged landscape to restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Granjou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts an empirical sociological approach to analyse how the objectives behind the revegetation of ski trails and runs in the French alpine resort of Alpe d’Huez have evolved since the 1970s. A revegetation programme was first introduced to repair the scars left by the works conducted to equip the resort with infrastructures, and then, over time, it became a more complex restoration project. At first, revegetation techniques were developed to fight soil erosion, but soon also became associated with the idea of “turning the mountain green again”. Now, 40 years later, revegetation is aimed at restoring both a natural ecosystem and a cultural landscape. The ski resort’s managers, local farmers, technicians, and those conducting research in the area share a common desire to promote autochthony, which in some cases runs the risk of reproducing folklore. Far from adopting an overriding ethical perspective, the study suggests that the area’s physical characteristics, specific history and configuration of local actors have shaped and continue to shape both the manner in which ecological restoration is implemented, through political choices and technical decisions, and the debates it gives rise to. The study concludes by examining the specificity of the findings for Alpe d’Huez and discussing their validity for other alpine ski resorts.A partir d’une approche sociologique empirique, ce texte propose une analyse de la mise en œuvre de la revégétalisation sur la station de l’Alpe d’Huez depuis les années 1970. Il montre comment la revégétalisation est passée d’un objectif de réparation des cicatrices provoquées par les aménagements à une entreprise plus complexe de restauration. S’il s’agissait au départ de répondre à un objectif technique de lutte contre l’érosion, la revégétalisation a pris rapidement une tournure paysagère (reverdissement ; elle a ensuite été pensée dans une perspective de

  17. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  18. An overview of sea otter studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; DeGange, Anthony R.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    The Exxron Valdez oil spill (EVOS) on 24 March 1989 threatened extensive areas of prime sea otter (Enhydra lutris) habitat along the coasts of south-central Alaska. The spill occurred in northeastern Prince William Sound (PWS), and oil moved rapidly south and west through PWS into the Gulf of Alaska. Much of the coastline of western PWS was heavily oiled, and the slick eventually spread as far southwest as Kodiak Island and the Alaska Peninsula (Galt and Payton 1990; Morris and Loughlin, Chapter 1). All coastal waters affected by the spill were inhabited by sea otters.Concern for the survival of sea otters following the oil spill was immediate and well founded. Sea otters are particularly vulnerable to oil contamination because they rely on pelage rather than blubber for insulation, and oiling drastically reduces the insulative value of the fur (Costa and Kooyman 1982; Siniff et al. 1982; Geraci and Williams 1990). Within days of the spill, recovery of oiled live otters and carcasses began. During the several months following the spill, sea otters became symbolic of the mortality associated with the spilled oil, and of the hope for rescue and recovery of injured wildlife (Batten 1990).An extensive sea otter rescue and rehabilitation effort was mounted in the weeks and months following the spill. Handling and treatment of the captive sea otters posed an enormous and difficult challenge, given the large number of otters held at the facilities and minimal prior experience in caring for oiled sea otters. Rehabilitation of sea otters was a separate effort from the postspill studies designed to evaluate injury to the otter populations and is not addressed in this chapter only as it relates to evaluation of damage assessment studies. Detailed information on the rehabilitation effort is presented in Bayha and Kormendy (1990) and Williams and Davis (1990).Sea otters retained a high profile in the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) studies largely because the initial

  19. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  20. A visual progression of the Fort Valley Restoration Project treatments using remotely sensed imagery (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Crouse; Peter Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    The landscape surrounding the Fort Valley Experimental Forest in northern Arizona has changed dramatically in the past decade due to the Fort Valley Restoration Project, a collaboration between the Greater Flagstaff Forest Partnership, Coconino National Forest, and Rocky Mountain Research Station. Severe wildfires in 1996 sparked community concern to start restoration...

  1. Hangman Restoration Project Year-End Report FY2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeur d' Alene Tribe Department of Natural Resources.

    2008-11-12

    This report covers the main goals of FY2008 from which the Work Elements were derived. The goals and products are listed by heading and the associated work elements are referenced in the text. A list of the FY2008 Work Elements is included as Appendix A. FY2008 witnessed the completion of the hntkwipn Management Plan and the first substantive efforts to restore the important habitats encompassed by the mitigation properties in the Upper Hangman Watershed. Native grasses were planted and germination was evaluated. Also, drain tiles that greatly altered the hydrologic function of the Sheep and Hangman Creek Flood Plains were removed and/or disrupted. Preparation for future restoration efforts were also made in FY2008. Designs were produced for the realignment of Sheep Creek and the decommissioning of seven drainage ditches within hntkwipn. A prioritization plan was drafted that greatly expands the area of focus for restoring native fish population in Hangman Creek.

  2. System Safety Program Plan for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    This System Safety Program Plan (SSPP) outlines the safety analysis strategy for project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.'' Project W-314 will provide capital improvements to Hanford's existing Tank Farm facilities, with particular emphasis on infrastructure systems supporting safe operation of the double-shell activities related to the project's conceptual Design Phase, but is planned to be updated and maintained as a ''living document'' throughout the life of the project to reflect the current safety analysis planning for the Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations upgrades. This approved W-314 SSPP provides the basis for preparation/approval of all safety analysis documentation needed to support the project

  3. Great Basin Research and Management Project: Restoring and maintaining riparian ecosystem integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2000-01-01

    The Great Basin Research and Management Project was initiated in 1994 by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station’s Ecology, Paleoecology, and Restoration of Great Basin Watersheds Project to address the problems of stream incision and riparian ecosystem degradation in central Nevada. It is a highly interdisciplinary project that is being conducted in...

  4. Project Gasbuggy well plugging and site restoration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The operational plan for conducting the final restoration work at the site of the first U.S. underground nuclear experiment for the stimulation of low-productivity natural gas reservoirs is given. The plan includes well plugging procedures, surface facilities decontamination and removal procedures, radiological guidelines, and environmental considerations

  5. Prairie Restoration Project: Alternatives for Identifying Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Katie E.; Rule, Audrey C.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    An authentic, challenging curriculum engaged middle school students from an urban district in exploratory work related to restoring a small prairie at the school. Integrated science-literacy-arts activities were coupled with a system of thinking skills that helped students view issues from different perspectives. Impassioned guest speakers and an…

  6. The Environmental Restoration Project Style and Resources Guide; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. J. Forbes

    1999-01-01

    This Style Guide identifies the wide and flexible array of support services/resources that are available to ER project and functional organizations through Publication and Graphic Services. The Style Guide describes how ER Project groups can complete virtually any kind of information project without any costs charged to their budgets. Another purpose of the Style Guide is to provide ER project and functional organizations with the ability to determine when to request capabilities/resources for information projects, and when to complete such projects on their own

  7. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration programs at DOE facilities. An integral part of this mission involves the safe and cost-effective environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. For over 40 years the Hanford Site supported United States national defense programs, largely through the production of nuclear materials. One legacy of historical Hanford Site operations is a significant waste inventory of radioactive and/or regulated chemical materials. Releases of these materials have, in some cases, contaminated the Hanford Site environment. The DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for protecting human health and the environment from potential Hanford Site environmental hazards by identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks posed by contaminated sites

  8. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration programs at DOE facilities. An integral part of this mission involves the safe and cost-effective environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. For over 40 years the Hanford Site supported United States national defense programs, largely through the production of nuclear materials. One legacy of historical Hanford Site operations is a significant waste inventory of radioactive and/or regulated chemical materials. Releases of these materials have, in some cases, contaminated the Hanford Site environment. The DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for protecting human health and the environment from potential Hanford Site environmental hazards by identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks posed by contaminated sites.

  9. OTTER 3.3 Reference Manual

    OpenAIRE

    McCune, William

    2003-01-01

    OTTER is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyperresolution, UR-resolution, and binary paramodulation. Some of its other abilities and features are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, evaluable functions and predicates, Knuth-Bendix completion, and the hints strategy. O...

  10. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  11. INVENTORY OF ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION PROJECTS - PUBLISHED ON THE OFFICE OF WATER WEB PAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory working jointly with the Office of Water, has developed an Internet-accessible database of ecosystem restoration projects within the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) region. This article informs project owners of the i...

  12. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundertmark, Charles [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. and University of Phoenix (United States); Hoopes, Jack [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (United States); Flowers, Len [Roy F. Weston Company (United States); Jackson, David G [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  13. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundertmark, Charles; Hoopes, Jack; Flowers, Len; Jackson, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  14. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  15. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis to Support Nearshore Restoration Projects in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal exchange and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Skagit River estuary, State of Washington, USA, a diked agriculture farm land along the Skagit Bay front is proposed to be restored to a fully functional tidal wetland. The complex and dynamic Skagit River estuarine system calls for the need of a multi-facet and multi-dimensional analysis using observed data, numerical and analytical methods. To assist the feasibility study of the restoration project, a hydrodynamic modeling analysis was conducted using a high-resolution unstructured-grid coastal ocean model to evaluate the hydrodynamic response to restoration alternatives and to provide guidance to the engineering design of a new levee in the restoration site. A set of parameters were defined to quantify the hydrodynamic response of the nearshore restoration project, such as inundation area, duration of inundation, water depth and salinity of the inundated area. To assist the design of the new levee in the restoration site, the maximum water level near the project site was estimated with consideration of extreme high tide, wind-induced storm surge, significant wave height and future sea-level rise based on numerical model results and coastal engineering calculation.

  16. The effects of oil contamination and cleaning on sea otters (Enhydra lutris); II. Metabolism, thermoregulation, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R W; Williams, T M; Thomas, J A; DasSelein, R A; Cornell, L H [Hubbs marine Research Center, San Diego, CA (USA)

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method to clean and rehabilitate sea otters that might become contaminated during an oil spill and to determine which physiological and behavioral factors were important in restoring the insulation provided by the fur. Tests were conducted on 12 sea otters; measurements of average metabolic rate, core body temperature, behavior, and squalene concentration on the fur were made before oiling 1-3 days after 20% of the body surface area was covered with fresh crude oil, and after cleaning. Under base-line conditions in water at 13{degrees}C, average metabolic rate was 8.0 W/kg, core body temperature was 38.9{degrees}C, and whole body thermal conductance was 10.7 W/(m2/{degrees}C). The squalene concentration on the fur averaged 3.7 mg/g fur. Oiling increased thermal conductance 1.8 times. To compensate for the loss of insulation and maintain a normal core body temperature (39{degrees}C), the otters increased average metabolic rate (1.9 times) through voluntary activity and shivering; the time spent grooming and swimming increased 1.7 times. Using detergent, the oiled fur could be cleaned during 40 min. of washing and rinsing. Grooming activity by the otters was essential for restoring the water-repellent quality of the fur. Core body temperature, average metabolic rate, and thermal conductance returned to base-line levels 3-6 days after cleaning. Squalene was removed by cleaning and did not return to normal levels in the oiled area after 7 days. Veterinary care was important to keep the otters healthy. At least 1-2 weeks should be allowed for otters to restore the insulation of their fur and for recovery from the stress of oiling and cleaning. 29 ref., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  18. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999-2000. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin.

  19. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  20. Patterns of otter (Lutra Lutra) distribution and man-otter conflicts in river Sado basin : conservation implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Teresa Marta Pacheco de Sales Luís Sampaio, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), a protected predator, competes with man for water, in drier regions, and for fish in important fish rearing areas. This thesis addresses man-otter conflicts, by examining: i) otter distribution and persistence in a waterscape facing natural water shortage, yet aggravated by human activities; and ii) otter damages in fish rearing areas, to further understand the l...

  1. Functions and requirements for tank farm restoration and safe operations, Project W-314. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Functions and Requirements document (FRD) establishes the basic performance criteria for Project W-314, in accordance with the guidance outlined in the letter from R.W. Brown, RL, to President, WHC, ''Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Documentation Methodology,'' 94-PRJ-018, dated 3/18/94. The FRD replaces the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) as the project technical baseline documentation. Project W-314 will improve the reliability of safety related systems, minimize onsite health and safety hazards, and support waste retrieval and disposal activities by restoring and/or upgrading existing Tank Farm facilities and systems. The scope of Project W-314 encompasses the necessary restoration upgrades of the Tank Farms' instrumentation, ventilation, electrical distribution, and waste transfer systems

  2. Do the Principles of Ecological Restoration Cover EU LIFE Nature Cofunded Projects in Denmark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Morsing

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is becoming a main component in nature management; hence, its definitions and interpretations of the underlying principles are widely discussed. In Denmark, restoration has been implemented for decades, and the LIFE Nature program has contributed to several large-scale projects. Our aim was to indicate tendencies in Danish nature policy by analyzing a representative sample of nature management projects. Using qualitative document analyses of official reports, we investigated how well 13 LIFE Nature cofinanced projects undertaken in Denmark fit with the principles of ecological restoration, as formulated in the nine attributes of the Society for Ecological Restoration's Primer on Ecological Restoration, and based on the five myths of ecological restoration. Objectives of the analyzed projects were divided into three categories: conservation of a single or a group of species; restoration of set-aside areas, mainly on abandoned agricultural land; and habitat management of Natura 2000 areas. Despite this grouping, improvement in living conditions for certain species associated with specific nature types was in focus in all projects. No projects considered or fulfilled all nine attributes. It seems that attributes associated with fundamental requirements for the existence of target species or habitats were more often fulfilled than attributes associated with continuity of the ecosystem as a whole, which indicated a focus on ecosystem structures rather than on processes. We found that the two assumptions of a predictable single endpoint (the myth of the Carbon Copy and that nature is controllable (the myth of Command and Control were notably frequent in the Danish projects. Often, the target ecosystem was associated with a semicultural landscape, and management focused on keeping the vegetation low and preventing overgrowth of colonizing trees. The results indicated that nature policy in Denmark and the LIFE Nature program are

  3. A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project : Biennial Report 1996-97.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LRK Communications; Wildlife Habitat Institute; Pocket Water, Inc.

    2003-07-01

    The Red River has been straightened and the riparian vegetation corridor eliminated in several reaches within the watershed. The river responded by incision resulting in over-steepened banks, increased sedimentation, elevated water temperatures, depressed groundwater levels, reduced floodplain function, and degraded fish habitat. The Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project is a multi-phase ecosystem enhancement effort that restores natural physical and biological processes and functions to stabilize the stream channel and establish high quality habitats for fish and wildlife. A natural channel restoration philosophy guides the design and on the ground activities, allowing the channel to evolve into a state of dynamic equilibrium. Two years of planning, two years of restoration in Phases I and II, and one year post-restoration monitoring are complete. By excavating new bends and reconnecting historic meanders, Phase I and II channel realignment increased channel length by 3,060 feet, decreased channel gradient by 25 percent, and increased sinuosity from 1.7 to 2.3. Cross-sectional shapes and point bars were modified to maintain deep pool habitat at low flow and to reconnect the meadow floodplain. Improved soil moisture conditions will help sustain the 31,500 native riparian plantings reestablished within these two phases. Overall, short-term restoration performance was successful. Analyses of long-term parameters document either post-restoration baseline conditions or early stages of evolution toward desired conditions. An adaptive management strategy has helped to improve restoration designs, methods, and monitoring. Lessons learned are being transferred to a variety of audiences to advance the knowledge of ecological restoration and wise management of watersheds.

  5. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: Sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  6. The Whiteside Run restoration project: Wetlands and stream mitigation and restoration of a previously polluted stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigatel, A.; Hellier, W.W.; Forman, J.G.; Kepler, S.

    1998-01-01

    An 841,000 m 3 coal refuse pile from the operation of a now abandoned Lower Kitanning (B) coal deep mine had been the source of over 95% of the mine drainage pollution in Whiteside Run, a tributary of Moshannon Creek in Gulich and Woodward Townships, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. Representative water quality upstream of the refuse pile was: pH = 6.9; alkalinity = 31 and acidity = 0 mg/L as CaCO 3 equivalent; [Fe] = 0.85 mg/L; [Mn] = 0.31 mg/L; and [Al] = 0.25 mg/L. Representative water quality downstream of the refuse pile before th project was: pH = 3.0; alkalinity = 0 and acidity = 358 mg/L as CaCO 3 equivalent; [Fe] = 7.08 mg/L; [Mn] = 0.81 mg/L; and [Al] = 46.86 mg/L. Present downstream water quality is: pH = 5.9; alkalinity = 14.3 and acidity = 8.1 mg/L as CaCO 3 equivalent; [Fe] = 1.57 mg/L; [Mn] = 0.92 mg/L; and [Al] = 0.97 mg/L. There has been a significant improvement in the diversity of aquatic life since the project was undertaken. Power Operating Co., Inc., a local coal mining company, applied for authorization to conduct coal mining activities which would affect a wetland with an area of 1.7 ha and 790 m of an unnamed tributary of Moshannon Creek. Although part of this wetland was anthropogenic, having developed because earlier mining activities by others had affected the channel of the unnamed tributary of Moshannon Creek, the major portion of the area was a natural wetland. Power Operating developed 2.6 ha (6.5 ac) of constructed wetlands to replace the wetland disturbed by mining. The refuse pile was removed and placed in the backfilled area of Power's adjacent surface mine permit, and the mitigation wetland was constructed on the area formerly occupied by the refuse pile. As a result, 6.4 km (4 mi) of formerly polluted stream are now capable of supporting fish

  7. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, Will

    2003-10-01

    This project focuses on the lower Klickitat River and its tributaries that provide or affect salmonid habitat. The overall goal is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of watersheds supporting anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) which are listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU. Restoration activities are aimed at restoring stream processes by removing or mitigating watershed perturbances and improving habitat conditions and water quality. In addition to steelhead, habitat improvements benefit Chinook (O. tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon, resident rainbow trout, and enhance habitat for many terrestrial and amphibian wildlife species. Protection activities compliment restoration efforts within the subbasin by securing refugia and preventing degradation. Since 90% of the project area is in private ownership, maximum effectiveness will be accomplished via cooperation with state, federal, tribal, and private entities. The project addresses goals and objectives presented in the Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the 1994 NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. Feedback from the 2000 Provincial Review process indicated a need for better information management to aid development of geographic priorities. Thus, an emphasis has been placed on database development and a review of existing information prior to pursuing more extensive implementation. Planning and design was initiated on several restoration projects. These priorities will be refined in future reports as the additional data is collected and analyzed. Tasks listed are for the April 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 contract cycle, for which work was delayed during the summer of 2001 because the contract was not finalized until mid-August 2001. Accomplishments are provided for the September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 reporting period. During this reporting period

  8. Revitalisation of Orlík reservoir – case study of a regional restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Očásková

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes the bottom-up formation of a regional project for restoring a reservoir. Land use changes in the upper Vltava river basin caused the eutrophication of Orlík reservoir, which resulted in water blooms, which in association with socio-economic changes caused a decline in tourism in this region and serious difficulties for local people. The study examines how public awareness helped in the establishment of a restoration project, its framework and strategy. Regional governance of the project management took into consideration both knowledge-based solutions and the interests of local people and municipalities. The project has the potential for resolving both environmental and socio-economic problems and providing a sustainable win-win strategy for the region, residents, tourists and stakeholders.

  9. The Pen Branch Project: Restoration of a Forested Wetland in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Eric A. Nelson; Ronald E. Bonar; Neil C. Dulohery; David Gartner

    1998-01-01

    The Pen Branch Project is a program to restore a forested riparian wetland that has been subject to thermal disturbance caused by nuclear reactor operations at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), an 80,200-hectare nuclear facility located in South Carolina. Various levels of thermal discharges to streams located across the US. have occurred...

  10. 76 FR 70955 - Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Helena National Forest (HNF) is proposing on the Lincoln Ranger...

  11. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Forest Service (FS) will...

  12. Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2008-04-25

    Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

  13. 77 FR 23740 - Sears Point Wetland and Watershed Restoration Project, Sonoma County, CA; Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...-FF08RSFC00] Sears Point Wetland and Watershed Restoration Project, Sonoma County, CA; Final Environmental... environmental impact report and environmental impact statement (EIR/EIS) for the Sears Point Wetland and..., while providing public access and recreational and educational opportunities compatible with ecological...

  14. A demonstration project to test ecological restoration of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Huffman; Michael T. Stoddard; Peter Z. Fule; W. Wallace Covington; H. B. Smith

    2008-01-01

    To test an approach for restoring historical stand densities and increasing plant species diversity of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem, we implemented a demonstration project at two sites (CR and GP) on the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument in northern Arizona. Historical records indicated that livestock grazing was intensive on the sites beginning in the late 1800s...

  15. Evaluating the ecological economic success of riparian restoration projects in Arizona (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary B. Snider

    2000-01-01

    The past 4 years the Arizona Water Protection Fund provided more than $25 million to individuals and organizations for stream and riparian restoration projects in Arizona. Information which increases the awareness of the value of Arizona's riparian systems is crucial to the incorporation of ecosystem services into decision-making frameworks, which are largely...

  16. A summary of the environmental restoration program retrieval demonstration project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuary, J.

    1991-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the Environmental Restoration Program's Retrieval Demonstration Project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This project developed concepts for demonstrating facilities and equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic mixed waste at the INEL. Included is a brief assessment of the viability, cost effectiveness, and safety of retrieval based on the developed concept. Changes made in Revision 1 reflect editorial changes only. 31 refs., 1 fig

  17. Conceptual design report for tank farm restoration and safe operations, project W-314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, S.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-02

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the conceptual level design approach that satisfies the established technical requirements for Project W-314, `Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.` The CDR also addresses the initial cost and schedule baselines for performing the proposed Tank Farm infrastructure upgrades. The scope of this project includes capital improvements to Hanford`s existing tank farm facilities(primarily focused on Double- Shell Tank Farms) in the areas of instrumentation/control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical systems.

  18. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  19. Effects of national ecological restoration projects on carbon sequestration in China from 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Hu, Huifeng; Sun, Wenjuan; Zhu, Jiaojun; Liu, Guobin; Zhou, Wangming; Zhang, Quanfa; Shi, Peili; Liu, Xiuping; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Lu; Wei, Xiaohua; Dai, Limin; Zhang, Kerong; Sun, Yirong; Xue, Sha; Zhang, Wanjun; Xiong, Dingpeng; Deng, Lei; Liu, Bojie; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Chao; Zheng, Xiao; Cao, Jiansheng; Huang, Yao; He, Nianpeng; Zhou, Guoyi; Bai, Yongfei; Xie, Zongqiang; Tang, Zhiyao; Wu, Bingfang; Fang, Jingyun; Liu, Guohua; Yu, Guirui

    2018-04-17

    The long-term stressful utilization of forests and grasslands has led to ecosystem degradation and C loss. Since the late 1970s China has launched six key national ecological restoration projects to protect its environment and restore degraded ecosystems. Here, we conducted a large-scale field investigation and a literature survey of biomass and soil C in China's forest, shrubland, and grassland ecosystems across the regions where the six projects were implemented (∼16% of the country's land area). We investigated the changes in the C stocks of these ecosystems to evaluate the contributions of the projects to the country's C sink between 2001 and 2010. Over this decade, we estimated that the total annual C sink in the project region was 132 Tg C per y (1 Tg = 10 12 g), over half of which (74 Tg C per y, 56%) was attributed to the implementation of the projects. Our results demonstrate that these restoration projects have substantially contributed to CO 2 mitigation in China.

  20. Pacific lamprey research and restoration project: annual report 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1996 through 1999. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of Pacific lampreys from tribal members within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation was useful in gaining baseline life history information. Tribal members described harvesting two types of lampreys from spring through fall, the short brown type and the long dark type. Lamprey spawning distribution was from the mouth to the headwaters in the Umatilla River. Larval lampreys were observed in the mud and sand areas of the river. Tribal members observed major declines in lampreys within the Columbia River basin. Larval Pacific lampreys were distributed throughout the John Day River basin. Larval distribution in the other subbasins was patchy and limited to the lower reaches of the streams. Larval densities were highly variable in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, as opposed to the Main stem John Day River. Larval lengths varied little in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, but were highly variable in the Main stem John Day River. Larval abundance decreased as we moved upstream in the Columbia and Snake rivers. In addition, we found strong evidence for lack of larval recruitment as distance increased from the mouth of the Columbia River. We identified clinical indicators of stress in adult Pacific lampreys. Plasma glucose became elevated soon after acute stress and remained elevated for one week. Plasma lactate also became elevated by 30 minutes; however, it decreased to resting levels by one hour after application of the stressor

  1. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2001-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1996 through 1999. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of Pacific lampreys from tribal members within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation was useful in gaining baseline life history information. Tribal members described harvesting two types of lampreys from spring through fall, the short brown type and the long dark type. Lamprey spawning distribution was from the mouth to the headwaters in the Umatilla River. Larval lampreys were observed in the mud and sand areas of the river. Tribal members observed major declines in lampreys within the Columbia River basin. Larval Pacific lampreys were distributed throughout the John Day River basin. Larval distribution in the other subbasins was patchy and limited to the lower reaches of the streams. Larval densities were highly variable in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, as opposed to the Main stem John Day River. Larval lengths varied little in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, but were highly variable in the Main stem John Day River. Larval abundance decreased as we moved upstream in the Columbia and Snake rivers. In addition, we found strong evidence for lack of larval recruitment as distance increased from the mouth of the Columbia River. We identified clinical indicators of stress in adult Pacific lampreys. Plasma glucose became elevated soon after acute stress and remained elevated for one week. Plasma lactate also became elevated by 30 minutes; however, it decreased to resting levels by one hour after application of the stressor

  2. Science Roles and Interactions in Adaptive Management of Large River Restoration Projects, Midwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Galat, D. L.; Smith, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Most large-river restoration projects include formal or informal implementations of adaptive management strategies which acknowledge uncertainty and use scientific inquiry to learn and refine management options. Although the central role of science in reducing uncertainty is acknowledged in such projects, specific roles and interactions can vary widely, including how science relates to decision-making within the governance of these projects. Our objective is to present some structured generalizations about science roles and interactions as developed from the authors’ experiences in adaptive management of large river restoration in the Midwest United States. Scientific information may be introduced into decision making by scientists acting in any of the three roles common to adaptive management -- action agency representative, stakeholder, or science provider. We have observed that confusion and gridlock can arise when it is unclear if a scientist is acting as an advocate for a stakeholder or management position, or instead as an independent, “honest broker” of science. Although both advocacy and independence are proper and expected in public decision making, it is useful when scientists unambiguously identify their role. While complete scientific independence may be illusory, transparency and peer review can promote the ideal. Transparency comes from setting clear directions and objectives at the decision-making level and defining at the outset how learning will help assess progress and inform decisions. Independent peer reviews of proposals, study plans, and publications serve as a powerful tool to advance scientific independence, even if funding sources present a potential conflict of interest. Selection of experts for scientific advice and review often requires consideration of the balance between benefits of the “outside” expert (independent, knowledgeable but with little specific understanding of the river system), compared to those provided by the

  3. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  4. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  5. Looking back on a successful project. The Restoration of the Royal Palace in Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert van Bommel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After 1968, few changes were made to the Royal Palace in Amsterdam and eventually the palace was no longer functionally and technically up-to-date. Initially, the most recent restoration was only aimed at remedying that situation. Also, the project was split up and priority was given to fixing up the interior. Gradually, the actual restoration gained prominence. In 2007 it was decided to also restore the 1808 furniture. Until 2006, the government architect had hardly been involved in the restoration of the interior. This architect, Krijn van den Ende, was advised by various committees. Prior restorations (1929-1939 and 1960-1968 had restored the palace to its 17th-century state as best as possible. The most recent restoration respected this, while at the same time it aimed at connecting the 17th century character of the building to the unique collection of Empire furniture. This furniture was restored, as were the chandeliers and candelabras. All the ceilings on the first floor were studied and treated and the paintings between the beams were meticulously restored. A very important aspect was the restoration of the so-called ‘Bataven’ series in the galleries. Much of the work concerned making the building conform to contemporary standards. Once again the palace is now a suitable venue for official occasions. The inevitable addition of a lift did however cause quite a stir. Accessibility was improved and more representative rooms are now open to the public than before. The government architect was involved already in the preparatory stages of the second part of the restoration, which concerned the façades and the roofs. In executing the actual work a support committee provided advice and direction on his behalf. Although the sandstone is generally of a high quality, before 1968 a limited number of deteriorating blocks had been replaced. This time too, a number of blocks needed attention. The heavy scaffolding that needed to be installed for

  6. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS--Tapteal Bend Riparian Corridor Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the restoration of approximately 500 feet of streambank along the Yakima River at river mile 8, upstream of the Van Giesen Bridge on SR 224, in and between Richland and West Richland, Washington. This project will also result in the acquisition of Fox Island, a 12-acre island directly across the river from the restoration area. There is no development planned for the island. The proposed project includes: The installation of a bio-engineered streambank that incorporates barbs to capture silt and deflect flow, roughened rock or log toes, a riparian buffer, soil reinforcement, and bank grading. Long-term photo-point and plot sampling will also be implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and success of the restoration project. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Darrel Sunday, a contractor with Sunday and Associates, Inc. (April 4, 2004), and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are the pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, bull trout, Ute ladies'-tresses, and mid-Columbia Steelhead. The pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, and Ute ladies'Tresses are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity, and it was determined that the proposed restoration project would have no effect on these species. It is difficult to determine if bull trout occur within the Tapteal project area and Dave Carl of the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife was contacted and concurred with this assumption. It was determined that the project may affect, but is not likely to adversely affect bull trout, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has concurred with that determination (July 28, 2004). For the mid-Columbia Steelhead, an anadromous fish species, BPA has determined that if conducted in accordance with

  7. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  8. Use of the geometric mean of opposing planar projections in pre-reconstruction restoration of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulfelfel, D.; Rangayyan, R.M.; Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a restoration scheme for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images that performs restoration before reconstruction (pre-reconstruction restoration) from planar (projection) images. In this scheme, the pixel-by-pixel geometric mean of each pair of opposing (conjugate) planar projections is computed prior to the reconstruction process. The averaging process is shown to help in making the degradation phenomenon less dependent on the distance of each point of the object from the camera. The restoration filters investigated are the Wiener and power spectrum equalization filters. (author)

  9. Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO's Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: FY 1994--FY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Waste Generation Forecast for DOE-ORO's Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project. FY 1994--FY 2001 is the third in a series of documents that report current estimates of the waste volumes expected to be generated as a result of Environmental Restoration activities at Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), sites. Considered in the scope of this document are volumes of waste expected to be generated as a result of remedial action and decontamination and decommissioning activities taking place at these sites. Sites contributing to the total estimates make up the DOE-ORO Environmental Restoration OR-1 Project: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the off-site contaminated areas adjacent to the Oak Ridge facilities (collectively referred to as the Oak Ridge Reservation Off-Site area). Estimates are available for the entire fife of all waste generating activities. This document summarizes waste estimates forecasted for the 8-year period of FY 1994-FY 2001. Updates with varying degrees of change are expected throughout the refinement of restoration strategies currently in progress at each of the sites. Waste forecast data are relatively fluid, and this document represents remediation plans only as reported through September 1993

  10. Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities

  11. Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities.

  12. Big rock point restoration project BWR major component removal, packaging and shipping - planning and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, T.; Dam, S.; Papp, M.; Slade, J.; Slimp, B.; Nurden, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) at Charlevoix, MI was permanently shut down on August 29th 1997. In 1999 BNFL Inc.'s Reactor Decommissioning Group (RDG) was awarded a contract by Consumers Energy (CECo) for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Major Component Removal (MCR) project. BNFL Inc. RDG has teamed with MOTA, Sargent and Lundy and MDM Services to plan and execute MCR in support of the facility restoration project. The facility restoration project will be completed by 2005. Key to the success of the project has been the integration of best available demonstrated technology into a robust and responsive project management approach, which places emphasis on safety and quality assurance in achieving project milestones linked to time and cost. To support decommissioning of the BRP MCR activities, a reactor vessel (RV) shipping container is required. Discussed in this paper is the design and fabrication of a 10 CFR Part 71 Type B container necessary to ship the BRP RV. The container to be used for transportation of the RV to the burial site was designed as an Exclusive Use Type B package for shipment and burial at the Barnwell, South Carolina (SC) disposal facility. (author)

  13. A restoration and conservation project of the “Saint Dominic” Monastery in Soriano Calabro, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazzareno Davolos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is extracted from the Master Thesis about Restoration of the Monuments at “La Sapienza”, University of the Studies of Rome. The Monastery was one of the most important of the Dominican Order in Europe. The building dates back to year 1510, it broke down almost completely in the earthquake of year 1659. It was rebuilt following the architect B. Presti’s project. At the present time the “Saint Domenic” Monastery largely seems a ruin, mainly as a consequence of the cat- N. Davolos - A restoration and conservation project of the ÒSaint DominicÓ Monastery... 185 astrophic earthquake in 1783. However, with the new look that has acquired, it still preserves an extraordinary charm that continues to astonish. The project followed the trend of the critical and conservative restoration with the safeguard of the artistic and figurative data of the “Saint Domenic” Monastery which has been analysed through an accurate historical-critical work. The idea is to preserve and transmit to the future generations the “Saint Domenic” monument in his authenticity, in its formal and material consistence, with the marks of the passing of time. The abstracts reports only the most important aspects which are representative of the project. Besides the historical analysis, laboratory examination have been executed on the material used in the construction of the ancient facade through the observation of thin sections by optic microscope and with the realization of spectrum of X-ray diffraction, in order to know the nature and composition, the state of preservation and the kinds of deterioration to support an appropriate intervention of restoration.

  14. [Restoration filtering based on projection power spectrum for single-photon emission computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, N

    1995-04-01

    To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical "least squares filter" theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the "Butterworth" filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and "Wiener" filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99mTc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the "Butterworth" filter, "Wiener" filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images.

  15. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  16. Restoration filtering based on projection power spectrum for single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Naoki

    1995-01-01

    To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical 'least squares filter' theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the 'Butterworth' filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and 'Wiener' filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99m Tc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the 'Butterworth' filter, 'Wiener' filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images. (author)

  17. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act site-specific projects: 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the analysis of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change. Several challenges are associated with the land-water interpretation process. Primarily, land-water classifications are often complicated by the presence of floating aquatic vegetation that occurs throughout the freshwater systems of coastal Louisiana and that is sometimes difficult to differentiate from emergent marsh. Other challenges include tidal fluctuations and water movement from strong winds, which may result in flooding and inundation of emergent marsh during certain conditions. Compensating for these events is difficult but possible by using other sources of imagery to verify marsh conditions for other

  18. Restoration projects for decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve

  19. Modeling the Effects of Mortality on Sea Otter Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    2010-01-01

    mortality in all simulations eventually led to low proportions of males, leading to instability in projected populations over time. Our findings identify the critical need to understand underlying rates of change that can be acquired only through frequent monitoring of managed populations. Models could be improved through better understanding of the effects of density and demographic and environmental stochasticity on sea otter vital rates. Although our primary objective was to provide information useful in managing harvests of sea otters, our findings have implications for the conservation and management of sea otter populations subjected to other sources of mortality that can be quantified, such as incidental, accidental, or illegal.

  20. Towards a decision support system for stream restoration in the Netherlands: an overview of restoration projects and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Nijboer, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Stream restoration is one of the answers to the lowland stream deterioration. For making proper choices in stream restoration, one firstly needs to understand the complex spatial and temporal interactions between physical, chemical and biological components in the stream ecosystem. Several

  1. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  2. Recommendations for computer modeling codes to support the UMTRA groundwater restoration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, M.A. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project is responsible for the assessment and remedial action at the 24 former uranium mill tailings sites located in the US. The surface restoration phase, which includes containment and stabilization of the abandoned uranium mill tailings piles, has a specific termination date and is nearing completion. Therefore, attention has now turned to the groundwater restoration phase, which began in 1991. Regulated constituents in groundwater whose concentrations or activities exceed maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or background levels at one or more sites include, but are not limited to, uranium, selenium, arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate, gross alpha, radium-226 and radium-228. The purpose of this report is to recommend computer codes that can be used to assist the UMTRA groundwater restoration effort. The report includes a survey of applicable codes in each of the following areas: (1) groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling codes, (2) hydrogeochemical modeling codes, (3) pump and treat optimization codes, and (4) decision support tools. Following the survey of the applicable codes, specific codes that can best meet the needs of the UMTRA groundwater restoration program in each of the four areas are recommended.

  3. Recommendations for computer modeling codes to support the UMTRA groundwater restoration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.D.; Khan, M.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project is responsible for the assessment and remedial action at the 24 former uranium mill tailings sites located in the US. The surface restoration phase, which includes containment and stabilization of the abandoned uranium mill tailings piles, has a specific termination date and is nearing completion. Therefore, attention has now turned to the groundwater restoration phase, which began in 1991. Regulated constituents in groundwater whose concentrations or activities exceed maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or background levels at one or more sites include, but are not limited to, uranium, selenium, arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate, gross alpha, radium-226 and radium-228. The purpose of this report is to recommend computer codes that can be used to assist the UMTRA groundwater restoration effort. The report includes a survey of applicable codes in each of the following areas: (1) groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling codes, (2) hydrogeochemical modeling codes, (3) pump and treat optimization codes, and (4) decision support tools. Following the survey of the applicable codes, specific codes that can best meet the needs of the UMTRA groundwater restoration program in each of the four areas are recommended

  4. Have wet meadow restoration projects in the Southwestern U.S. been effective in restoring geomorphology, hydrology, soils, and plant species composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramstead Karissa M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wet meadows occur in numerous locations throughout the American Southwest, but in many cases have become heavily degraded. Among other things they have frequently been overgrazed and have had roads built through them, which have affected the hydrology of these wetland ecosystems. Because of the important hydrologic and ecological functions they are believed to perform, there is currently significant interest in wet meadow restoration. Several restoration projects have been completed recently or are underway in the region, sometimes at considerable expense and with minimal monitoring. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of wet meadow restoration projects in the southwestern United States on geomorphology, hydrology, soils and plant species composition. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of wet meadow restoration projects on wildlife. Methods Electronic databases, internet search engines, websites and personal contacts were used to find articles of relevance to this review. Articles were filtered by title, abstract and full text. Summary information for each of the articles remaining after the filtering process was compiled and used to assess the quality of the evidence presented using two different approaches. Results Our searches yielded 48 articles, of which 25 were published in peer-reviewed journals, 14 were monitoring or project reports, and 9 were published in conference proceedings or are unpublished theses or manuscripts. A total of 26 operational-scale restoration projects were identified. A wide range of restoration techniques were employed, ranging from small-scale manipulations of stream channels (e.g., riffle structures to large scale pond-and-plug projects. Other common restoration techniques included fencing to exclude livestock (and sometimes also native ungulates, other forms of grazing management, seeding, and transplanting seedlings. Most of the articles reported that

  5. Landowner and visitor response to forest landscape restoration: the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Floress; Anna Haines; Emily Usher; Paul Gobster; Mike. Dockry

    2018-01-01

    This report is intended to support the ongoing pine barrens restoration on work in the Lakewood-Laona Ranger District on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF). The report provides the results from 2016 surveys and focus groups examining landowner and visitor attitudes toward forest management treatments, communication, and restoration project outcomes; their...

  6. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife...), intend to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration... any one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  7. Restoration of the analytically reconstructed OpenPET images by the method of convex projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Katsunuma, Takayuki; Suga, Mikio [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Kinouchi, Shoko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Obi, Takashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering; Kudo, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering

    2011-07-01

    We have proposed the OpenPET geometry which has gaps between detector rings and physically opened field-of-view. The image reconstruction of the OpenPET is classified into an incomplete problem because it does not satisfy the Orlov's condition. Even so, the simulation and experimental studies have shown that applying iterative methods such as the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm successfully reconstruct images in the gap area. However, the imaging process of the iterative methods in the OpenPET imaging is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analytically analyze the OpenPET imaging and estimate implicit constraints involved in the iterative methods. To apply explicit constraints in the OpenPET imaging, we used the method of convex projections for restoration of the images reconstructed by the analytical way in which low-frequency components are lost. Numerical simulations showed that the similar restoration effects are involved both in the ML-EM and the method of convex projections. Therefore, the iterative methods have advantageous effect of restoring lost frequency components of the OpenPET imaging. (orig.)

  8. Using demography and movement behavior to predict range expansion of the southern sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Doak, D.F.; Estes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to forecasting population growth, basic demographic data combined with movement data provide a means for predicting rates of range expansion. Quantitative models of range expansion have rarely been applied to large vertebrates, although such tools could be useful for restoration and management of many threatened but recovering populations. Using the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) as a case study, we utilized integro-difference equations in combination with a stage-structured projection matrix that incorporated spatial variation in dispersal and demography to make forecasts of population recovery and range recolonization. In addition to these basic predictions, we emphasize how to make these modeling predictions useful in a management context through the inclusion of parameter uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Our models resulted in hind-cast (1989–2003) predictions of net population growth and range expansion that closely matched observed patterns. We next made projections of future range expansion and population growth, incorporating uncertainty in all model parameters, and explored the sensitivity of model predictions to variation in spatially explicit survival and dispersal rates. The predicted rate of southward range expansion (median = 5.2 km/yr) was sensitive to both dispersal and survival rates; elasticity analysis indicated that changes in adult survival would have the greatest potential effect on the rate of range expansion, while perturbation analysis showed that variation in subadult dispersal contributed most to variance in model predictions. Variation in survival and dispersal of females at the south end of the range contributed most of the variance in predicted southward range expansion. Our approach provides guidance for the acquisition of further data and a means of forecasting the consequence of specific management actions. Similar methods could aid in the management of other recovering populations.

  9. Project Management Support and Services for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Environmental Restoration Technical Support Office (ERTSO) contracted Project Time ampersand Cost, Inc. (PT ampersand C) on 16 November 1992 to provide support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE). ERTSO had traditionally supported the DOE Albuquerque office in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs and had also supported the Office of Waste Management (EM-30) at DOE Headquarters in Germantown, Maryland. PT ampersand C was requested to provide project management and support services for the DOE as well as liaison and coordination of responses and efforts between various agencies. The primary objective of this work was to continue LANL's technical support role to EM-30 and assist in the development of the COE Cost and Schedule Estimating (CASE) Guide for EM-30. PT ampersand C's objectives, as specified in Section B of the contract, were well met during the duration of the project through the review and comment of various draft documents, trips to DOE sites providing program management support and participating in the training for the EM-30 Cost and Schedule Estimating Guide, drafting memos and scheduling future projects, attending numerous meetings with LANL, DOE and other subcontractors, and providing written observations and recommendations.he results obtained were determined to be satisfactory by both the LANL ERTSO and DOE EM-30 organizations. The objective to further the support from LANL and their associated subcontractor (PT ampersand C) was met. The contract concluded with no outstanding issues

  10. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Status Report II 2000-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2006-07-13

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report. Post restoration monitoring will continue through 2005. A final report to the Mitigation Bank Review Team will be submitted in mid-2006.

  11. Restoration of groundwater after solution mining at the Highland Uranium Project, Wyoming, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, J. [Waste Technology Group, British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Huffman, L. [Power Resources Inc., Highland Uranium Mine, Glenrock, Wyoming (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The Highland Project, located in Converse County, Wyoming, has had a successful 11 year history of in-situ leach mining of Tertiary roll-front uranium deposits. The uranium ore is oxidized and solubilized by circulating native groundwater, containing additional dissolved O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, within confined fluvial aquifers at depths of 200 - 250 m. The changing chemistry of this groundwater during leaching is discussed, as are the various treatment techniques that have been used to restore this fluid at the end of mining. Examples are provided which demonstrate the varying effectiveness of each technique for the reduction of elevated concentrations of different groundwater parameters. The complications arising from the proximity of the earliest wellfields to abandoned, conventional mine workings, as well as unexpected side effects from each restoration method, have combined to make an interesting case history from this long established mining operation. (author)

  12. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  13. Restoration and construction (buildings). Solar electric power. How to complete a photovoltaic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene; Juniere, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic but comprehensive outlook on the way to complete a solar photovoltaic project in the cases of the restoration or the construction of a building. After a presentation of solar energy, its transformation into electric power, and the installation of solar photovoltaic panels and equipment, the brochure exposes the various steps of a photovoltaic project: economic analysis (cost estimation, budgets, financing incentives, power prices, the choice between selling or using electric power, the contracts, etc.), the planning of the project, the administrative procedure, the selection of a professional installer, how to run the photovoltaic system, how to run the business, etc

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Project quarterly technical report, April--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-18

    This quarterly report describes the technical status of activities in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. Each activity is identified by an activity data sheet number, a brief title describing the activity or the technical area where the activity is located, and the name of the project leader. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) portion of the facility operating permit requires the submission of a technical progress report on a quarterly basis. This report, submitted to fulfill the permit`s requirement, summarizes the work performed and the results of sampling and analysis in the ER Project. Suspect waste found include: Radionuclides, high explosives, metals, solvents and organics. The data provided in this report have not been validated. These data are considered ``reviewed data.``

  15. Independent technical review of the Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    An Independent Technical Review was conducted of the Environmental Restoration Project. The objective of the review was recommendations, from a commercial perspective, on a systems level path forward to safe, minimum cost and schedule project completion. The work presented represents the consensus analysis and recommendations of thirteen individuals with varied backgrounds, expertise, and experience. The ITR team recommends that the barriers to the opportunity described in the diagnosis be eliminated using an integrated DOE-Sandia system approach. Piecemeal changes will not result in the desired commercial efficiency. DOE needs to operate as the contracting agency for a Major System Acquisition. If it does not, commercial performance will not be achieved regardless of the contractor. Likewise, Sandia needs to establish and implement the necessary project structure and management systems to operate with commercial contractor like efficiency

  16. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D' Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All

  17. Sulimar Queen environmental restoration project closure package Sandia environmental stewardship exemplar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, Jack B.

    2008-09-01

    In March 2008, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, Roswell Field Office, completed its responsibilities to plug and abandon wells and restore the surface conditions for the Sulimar Queens Unit, a 2,500 acre oil field, in Chaves County, Southeast New Mexico. Sandia assumed this liability in an agreement to obtain property to create a field laboratory to perform extensive testing and experimentation on enhanced oil recovery techniques for shallow oil fields. In addition to plugging and abandoning 28 wells, the project included the removal of surface structures and surface reclamation of disturbed lands associated with all plugged and abandoned wells, access roads, and other auxiliary facilities within unit boundaries. A contracting strategy was implemented to mitigate risk and reduce cost. As the unit is an important wildlife habitat for prairie chickens, sand dune lizards, and mule deer, the criteria for the restoration and construction process were designed to protect and enhance the wildlife habitat. Lessons learned from this project include: (1) extreme caution should be exercised when entering agreements that include future liabilities, (2) partnering with the regulator has huge benefits, and (3) working with industry experts, who were familiar with the work, and subcontractors, who provided the network to complete the project cost effectively.

  18. Meeting the requirements for a DOE environmental restoration project. The Fernald strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanoss, R.L.; Risenhoover, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) of five Operable Units (OU) at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) includes compliance with the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE Orders. Each regulatory driver has differing procedural requirements for documenting calculations, decisions, and actions involved in site cleanup. Integration of documentation and avoidance of duplication can save time and money. Such savings are being achieved by OU specific application of supporting studies, revised procedures, and guidance documents. Each OU is seeking appropriate opportunities to produce single documents that simultaneously fulfill the important requirements of the other regulations and DOE orders. These opportunities are evaluated at all phases of decision making, remedial design, and remedial action. Three essential processes precede environmental restoration/remedial action at a DOE site/project: 1. Completion of decision-making documents required by governing or applicable statutes. 2. Completion of important scientific and engineering analyses of remedial alternatives, and design and implementation of the remedial solution established in the CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD). 3. Preparation of DOE-mandated documentation to record engineering evaluations and cost estimates required for budgeting, decision making, and project management. Methodology and requirements for each process have developed from long, successful practice, but independently of each other. FERMCO, as new DOE contractor at Fernald and first Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC), is committed to a process of Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI). A major reevaluation of documentation and processes for support of environmental decision-making and design of cleanup activities to remediate the five OUs at the FEMP is being undertaken

  19. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-06-04

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the third full year of system operation, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Performance in June 2005 through December 2007 was reported previously (Argonne 2007, 2008). In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. The annual performance reports for the Murdock project assemble information that will become part of the five-year review and evaluation of the remediation effort. This review will occur in 2010. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the current period of operation. A gallery of photographs of the Murdock project is in Appendix A.

  20. Otter Lutra lutra L. mortality and marine oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J R [Veterinary Field Station, Cheshire, England; Jones, A M; Jones, T P; Watson, H C

    1981-01-01

    Following an oil spill at Sullom Voe Oil Terminal, Shetland, at least 13 otters died. Post-mortems on five corpses showed that they had died of haemorrhagic gastroenteropathy, associated with ingested oil. The primary cause of oil ingestion seems to have been grooming of the fur. A survey of the polluted coasts revealed that otters were still present throughout most of the area.

  1. The 12-foot pressure wind tunnel restoration project model support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Glen E.

    1992-01-01

    The 12 Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel is a variable density, low turbulence wind tunnel that operates at subsonic speeds, and up to six atmospheres total pressure. The restoration of this facility is of critical importance to the future of the U.S. aerospace industry. As part of this project, several state of the art model support systems are furnished to provide an optimal balance between aerodynamic and operational efficiency parameters. Two model support systems, the Rear Strut Model Support, and the High Angle of Attack Model Support are discussed. This paper covers design parameters, constraints, development, description, and component selection.

  2. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in June 2005-December 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-05-31

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the initial period of systems operation, from June 2005 through December 2006. In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the initial period of operation.

  3. Addressing elder abuse: the Waterloo restorative justice approach to elder abuse project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Arlene; Linden, Rick

    2011-04-01

    The Community Care Access Centre (CCAC) of Waterloo Region, in partnership with a number of other social service agencies, designed and implemented a restorative justice model applicable to older adults who have been abused by an individual in a position of trust. The project was very successful in building partnerships, as many community agencies came together to deal with the problem of elder abuse. The program also raised the profile of elder abuse in the community. However, despite intensive efforts, referrals to the restorative justice program were quite low. Because of this, the program moved to a new organizational model, the Elder Abuse Response Team (EART), which has retained the guiding philosophy of restorative justice but has broadened the mandate. The team has evolved into a conflict management system that has multiple points of entry for cases and multiple options for dealing with elder abuse. The team has developed a broad range of community partners who can facilitate referrals to the EART and also can help to provide an individualized response to each case. The transition to the EART has been successful, and the number of referrals has increased significantly. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  4. Flood effects on an Alaskan stream restoration project: the value of long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Roseann V.; Karle, Kenneth F.

    2009-01-01

    On a nationwide basis, few stream restoration projects have long-term programs in place to monitor the effects of floods on channel and floodplain configuration and floodplain vegetation, but long-term and event-based monitoring is required to measure the effects of these stochastic events and to use the knowledge for adaptive management and the design of future projects. This paper describes a long-term monitoring effort (15 years) on a stream restoration project in Glen Creek in Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska. The stream channel and floodplain of Glen Creek had been severely degraded over a period of 80 years by placer mining for gold, which left many reaches with unstable and incised streambeds without functioning vegetated floodplains. The objectives of the original project, initiated in 1991, were to develop and test methods for the hydraulic design of channel and floodplain morphology and for floodplain stabilization and riparian habitat recovery, and to conduct research and monitoring to provide information for future projects in similar degraded watersheds. Monitoring methods included surveyed stream cross-sections, vegetation plots, and aerial, ground, and satellite photos. In this paper we address the immediate and outlying effects of a 25-year flood on the stream and floodplain geometry and riparian vegetation. The long-term monitoring revealed that significant channel widening occurred following the flood, likely caused by excessive upstream sediment loading and the fairly slow development of floodplain vegetation in this climate. Our results illustrated design flaws, particularly in regard to identification and analysis of sediment sources and the dominant processes of channel adjustment.

  5. Viking GCMS Data Restoral and Perceiving Temperature on Other Worlds: Astrobiology Projects at NASA Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The primary task for the summer was to procure the GCMS data from the National Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and to assess the current state of the data set for possible reanalysis opportunities. After procurement of the Viking GCMS data set and analysis of its current state, the internship focus shifted to preparing a plan for restoral and archiving of the GCMS data set. A proposal was prepared and submitted to NASA Headquarters to restore and make available the 8000 mass chromatographs that are the basic data generated by the Viking GCMS instrument. The relevance of this restoral and the methodology we propose for restoral is presented. The secondary task for the summer is to develop a thermal model for the perceived temperature of a human standing on Mars, Titan, or Europa. Traditionally, an equation called "Fanger's comfort equation" is used to measure the perceived temperature by a human in a given reference environment. However, there are limitations to this model when applied to other planets. Therefore, the approach for this project has been to derive energy balance equations from first principles and then develop a methodology for correlating "comfort" to energy balance. Using the -20 C walk-in freezer in the Space Sciences building at NASA Ames, energy loss of a human subject is measured. Energy loss for a human being on Mars, Titan and Europa are calculated from first principles. These calculations are compared to the freezer measurements, e.g. for 1 minute on Titan, a human loses as much energy as x minutes in a -20 C freezer. This gives a numerical comparison between the environments. These energy calculations are used to consider the physiological comfort of a human based on the calculated energy losses.

  6. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, B.E. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body--heavily contaminated; oil covering 30-60% of the body--moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur--lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with stress of captivity and/or oil exposure.

  7. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body - heavily contaminated; oil covering 30–60% of the body - moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur - lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with

  8. Restoring of offshore wind farm sites. Lillgrund Pilot Project; Aaterstaellande av havsbaserad vindkraft. Lillgrund Pilot Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumle Wikander, Jhenny (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This report focuses on the legal aspects of decommissioning and restoring of offshore wind farm sites, as part of an extensive report on the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm Pilot Project. For this analysis, all permit conditions of the granted permits for the offshore wind parks in Sweden have been collected and studied. According to the Swedish Environmental code 'the validity of a permit, approval or exemption may be made subject to the requirement that the person who intends to pursue the activity must furnish a security for the costs of after-treatment and any other restoration measures that may be necessary as a result. The state, municipalities, county councils and associations of municipalities shall not be required to furnish a security. If there is cause to assume that the security furnished is no longer sufficient, the authority which is considering the application for a permit, approval or exemption may require an additional security to be furnished'. The permits show that different types of securities are being used, with bank warranties and securities being the most common. Securities are either fixed and furnished prior to start of construction or start of operations, or they are obtained gradually over the life of the project. Among the twelve permits studied, a gradual tendency to use a combination of the two alternatives can bee seen. The conditions governing when an offshore wind farm is to be discontinued and which parts need to be partly or fully removed from the site are obviously of future importance. The issue has been addressed to different degrees in the permits, some to a clear legal extent, while others are more general. The Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm was secured for 60 million SEK. The extent to which the park is to be decommissioned and the site to be restored is decided by the county administrative board once production is terminated

  9. Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative Project Achievements for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohman, E.H.; Lohrstorfer, C.L.; Venedam, R.J.; Weeks, S.J.; Fannin, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) project has been in existence since 2002. In this short time period, AMSI has successfully developed, tested and/or demonstrated over 30 advanced sensors and monitoring systems for applications in environmental restoration, waste management and other areas of national interest. This presentation summarizes the AMSI project, and gives examples of recent successes. The purpose of the presentation is to make Symposium attendees aware of AMSI's capabilities and experience, for possible use in the future. Example successes include the following: - Automated hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) monitoring in wells alongside the Columbia River; - Atmospheric chemical sensor array for remote, real-time plume tracking; - Wireless sensor platform for long-term monitoring of subsurface moisture; - Embedded piezo-resistive micro-cantilever (EPM) units for carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection; - 'iHistorian' for efficient, real-time data management of chemical releases. (authors)

  10. Test and evaluation plan for Project W-314 tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations'' (TFRSO), Project W-314 will restore and/or upgrade existing Hanford Tank Farm facilities and systems to ensure that the Tank Farm infrastructure will be able to support near term TWRS Privatization's waste feed delivery and disposal system and continue safe management of tank waste. The capital improvements provided by this project will increase the margin of safety for Tank Farms operations, and will aid in aligning affected Tank Farm systems with compliance requirements from applicable state, Federal, and local regulations. Secondary benefits will be realized subsequent to project completion in the form of reduced equipment down-time, reduced health and safety risks to workers, reduced operating and maintenance costs, and minimization of radioactive and/or hazardous material releases to the environment. The original regulatory (e.g., Executive Orders, WACS, CFRS, permit requirements, required engineering standards, etc.) and institutional (e.g., DOE Orders, Hanford procedures, etc.) requirements for Project W-314 were extracted from the TWRS S/RIDs during the development of the Functions and Requirements (F and Rs). The entire family of requirements were then validated for TWRS and Project W-314. This information was contained in the RDD-100 database and used to establish the original CDR. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team recognizes that safety, quality, and cost effectiveness in the Test and Evaluation (T and E) program is achieved through a planned systematic approach to T and E activities. It is to this end that the Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) is created. The TEP for the TFRSO Project, was developed based on the guidance in HNF-IP-0842, and the Good Practice Guide GPG-FM-005, ''Test and Evaluation,'' which is derived from DOE Order 430.1, ''Life Cycle Asset Management.'' It describes the Test and Evaluation program for the TFRSO project starting with the definitive design phase and ending

  11. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 1 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youla, D C; Webb, H

    1982-01-01

    A projection operator onto a closed convex set in Hilbert space is one of the few examples of a nonlinear map that can be defined in simple abstract terms. Moreover, it minimizes distance and is nonexpansive, and therefore shares two of the more important properties of ordinary linear orthogonal projections onto closed linear manifolds. In this paper, we exploit the properties of these operators to develop several iterative algorithms for image restoration from partial data which permit any number of nonlinear constraints of a certain type to be subsumed automatically. Their common conceptual basis is as follows. Every known property of an original image f is envisaged as restricting it to lie in a well-defined closed convex set. Thus, m such properties place f in the intersection E(0) = E(i) of the corresponding closed convex sets E(1),E(2),...EE(m). Given only the projection operators PE(i) onto the individual E(i)'s, i = 1 --> m, we restore f by recursive means. Clearly, in this approach, the realization of the P(i)'s in a Hilbert space setting is one of the major synthesis problems. Section I describes the geometrical significance of the three main theorems in considerable detail, and most of the underlying ideas are illustrated with the aid of simple diagrams. Section II presents rules for the numerical implementation of 11 specific projection operators which are found to occur frequently in many signal-processing applications, and the Appendix contains proofs of all the major results.

  12. Habitat quality assessment for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra on the river Jajrood, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little information about the status and ecology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Iran. We assessed the habitat suitability for otters of the River Jajrood, Tehran province, measuring, or visually estimating, 12 environmental parameters along 16 600 m long river stretches (sampling sites. The downstream stretches of the river were found to be more suitable for otters with respect to the upper part of its course. Although the assessments of habitat suitability for the otter may be affected by several limits, the current distribution of the species on the river agrees with the results of this study. The preservation of the otter in Tehran province should involve the restoration of the ecosystem of the River Jajrood in order to improve the length of suitable river stretches.
    Riassunto Stima dell’idoneità ambientale per la lontra (Lutra lutra del fiume Jajrood, Iran. Le informazioni relative alla lontra (Lutra lutra in Iran sono scarse. L’idoneità ambientale per la specie del fiume Jajrood, provincia di Tehran, è stata valutata, misurando o stimando 12 parametri ambientali lungo 16 stazioni di campionamento, coincidenti con tratti di fiume della lunghezza di 600 m. I tratti più a valle sono risultati più idonei rispetto al corso superiore del fiume. Malgrado i numerosi limiti del metodo di stima dell’idoneità ambientale adottato, i risultati sono in accordo con l’attuale distribuzione della lontra lungo il fiume Jajrood. La conservazione della lontra nella provincia di Tehran dovrebbe prevedere miglioramenti ambientali volti a incrementare lo sviluppo lineare degli habitat idonei lungo il fiume Jajrood.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4447

  13. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  14. Settling characteristics of fine-grained sediments used in Louisiana coastal land building and restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose Hajra, M.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal property development, sea level rise, geologic subsidence, loss of barrier islands, increasing number and intensity of coastal storms and other factors have resulted in water quality degradation, wetlands loss, reduced storm and surge protection, ground settlement, and other challenges in coastal areas throughout the world. One of the goals towards reestablishing a healthy coastal ecosystem is to rebuild wetlands with river diversion or sediment conveyance projects that optimally manage and allocate sediments, minimally impact native flora and fauna, and positively affect the water quality. Engineering properties and material characteristics of the dredged material and foundation soils are input parameters in several mathematical models used to predict the long term behavior of the dredged material and foundation soil. Therefore, proper characterization of the dredged material and foundation soils is of utmost importance in the correct design of a coastal restoration and land reclamation project. The sedimentation and consolidation characteristics of the dredged material as well as their effects on the time rate of settlement of the suspended solid particles and underlying foundation soil depend, among other factors, on the (a) grain size distribution of the dredged material, (b) salinity (fresh, brackish, or saltwater environment) of the composite slurry, and (c) concentration of the solid particles in the slurry. This paper will present the results from column settling tests and self-weight consolidation tests performed on dredged samples obtained from actual restoration projects in Louisiana. The effects of salinity, grain size distribution, and initial particle concentration on the sedimentation and consolidation parameters of the dredged material will also be discussed.

  15. Refining aging criteria for northern sea otters in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Baker, Bridget B.; Mayer, Karl A.; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Holahan, Paula M.; Thomas, Nancy J.; White, C. LeAnn

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of skull ossification patterns is a standard method for aging various mammalian species and has been used to age Russian, Californian, and Alaskan sea otter populations. Cementum annuli counts have also been verified as an accurate aging method for the Alaskan sea otter population. In this study, cementum annuli count results and skull ossification patterns were compared as methods for aging the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) population in Washington State. Significant agreement was found between the two methods suggesting that either method could be used to age the Washington population of otters. This study also found that ossification of the squamosal-jugal suture at the ventral glenoid fossa can be used to differentiate male subadults from adults. To assist field biologists or others without access to cementum annuli or skull ossification analysis techniques, a suite of morphologic, physiologic, and developmental characteristics were analyzed to assess whether a set of these more easily accessible parameters could also predict age class for the Washington population of otters. Tooth condition score, evidence of reproductive activity in females, and tooth eruption pattern were identified as the most useful criteria for classifying Washington sea otters as pups, juveniles, subadults, or adults/aged adults. A simple decision tree based on characteristics accessible in the field or at necropsy was created that can be used to reliably predict age class of Washington sea otters as determined by cementum annuli.

  16. Summary of operations and performance of the Murdock site restoration project in 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-03

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater and surface water restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Murdock, Nebraska, during the second full year of system operation, from January 1 through December 31, 2007. Performance in June 2005 through December 2006 was reported previously (Argonne 2007). In the Murdock project, several innovative technologies are being used to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town, as well as from water naturally discharged to the surface at the headwaters of a small creek (a tributary to Pawnee Creek) north of the town (Figure 1.1). The restoration activities at Murdock are being conducted by the CCC/USDA as a non-time-critical removal action under the regulatory authority and supervision of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the restoration effort and facilities during this review period. Included in this report are the results of all sampling and monitoring activities performed in accord with the EPA-approved Monitoring Plan for this site (Argonne 2006), as well as additional investigative activities conducted during the review period. The annual performance reports for the Murdock project assemble information that will become part of the five-year review and evaluation of the remediation effort. This review will occur in 2010. This document presents overviews of the treatment facilities (Section 2) and site operations and activities (Section 3), then describes the groundwater, surface water, vegetation, and atmospheric monitoring results (Section 4) and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 5). Section 6 summarizes the current period of operation. A gallery of photographs of the Murdock project is in Appendix A. A brief

  17. Comparison of anesthetic agents in the sea otter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.D.; Kocher, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Five anesthetic agents (CI744, etorphine, fentanyl, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane) were tested to establish the dosage of a safe, effective, short-acting anesthetic for use in the sea otter. Etorphine, at a dosage of 0.75 mg per adult otter and used in conjunction with diazepam, at a dosage of 1.25 mg per adult otter, met most of the requirements for use under field conditions. Halothane, administered through an anesthetic machine, proved to be effective for use in a veterinary hospital.

  18. OTTER 3.0 reference manual and guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    OTTER (Organized Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyperresolution, UR-resolution, and binary paramodulation. Some of its other abilities and features are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, evaluable functions and predicates, and Knuth-Bendix completion. OTTER is coded in C, is free, and is portable to many different kinds of computer.

  19. Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project, Florida, USA: impacts of construction on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, David J; Jones, Bradley L

    2005-03-01

    Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project included backfilling of 12 km of canal and restoring flow through 24 km of continuous river channel. We quantified the effects of construction activities on four water quality parameters (turbidity, total phosphorus flow-weighted concentration, total phosphorus load and dissolved oxygen concentration). Data were collected at stations upstream and downstream of the construction and at four stations within the construction zone to determine if canal backfilling and construction of 2.4 km of new river channel would negatively impact local and downstream water quality. Turbidity levels at the downstream station were elevated for approximately 2 weeks during the one and a half year construction period, but never exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Protection construction permit criteria. Turbidity levels at stations within the construction zone were high at certain times. Flow-weighted concentration of total phosphorus at the downstream station was slightly higher than the upstream station during construction, but low discharge limited downstream transport of phosphorus. Total phosphorus loads at the upstream and downstream stations were similar and loading to Lake Okeechobee was not significantly affected by construction. Mean water column dissolved oxygen concentrations at all sampling stations were similar during construction.

  20. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration

  1. Strategic alliance for environmental restoration - results of the Chicago Pile 5 large scale demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aker, R.E.; Bradley, T.L.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    1998-01-01

    The world's largest environmental cleanup effort is focused upon the DOE weapons complex. These cleanup efforts parallel those which will be required as the commercial nuclear industry reaches the end of licensed life. The strategic Alliance for Environmental Restoration (Strategic Alliance), reflects the cooperative interest of industry, commercial nuclear utilities, university and national laboratory team members to bring a collaborative best-in-class approach to finding, and providing effective delivery of innovative environmental remediation technologies to the DOE Complex and subsequently to industry. The Strategic Alliance is comprised of team members from ComEd, Duke Engineering and Services, 3M, ICF Kaiser, Florida International University, and Argonne National Laboratory in concert with DOE. This team tested and evaluated over twenty innovative technologies in an effort to help provide cost effective technology solutions to DOE/Industry needs for decontamination and decommissioning. This paper summarizes the approach used by the Strategic Alliance and describes the results of this DOE funded project

  2. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  3. Germination characteristics of Rhinanthus minor influence field emergence, competitiveness and potential use in restoration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M; Laverack, G; Matthews, S; Powell, A A

    2018-02-10

    The facultative root hemi-parasite Rhinanthus minor is often used in grassland habitat restoration projects to regulate ecosystem structure and function. Its impact on community productivity and diversity as a function of resource supply, sward composition and management has been widely investigated. However, there is a lack of information about the possible influence of seed quality on the efficacy of the hemi-parasite. Ten seed lots from commercial sources were sown in the field and their germination characteristics were investigated in the laboratory. Seeds from four lots were also germinated and sown in pots alongside plants of two host species, Lotus corniculatus and Holcus lanatus. Plant establishment, height and flowering density were evaluated for the hemi-parasite, while plant biomass was measured for both R. minor and its host. Two aspects of seed quality influenced the field emergence of seed lots of R. minor, the radicle emergence (%) and the length of the lag period from the beginning of imbibition to germination (mean germination time), which indicates seed vigour. A longer lag period (lower vigour) was associated with higher levels of seedling mortality and lower plant vigour, in terms of plant height and biomass accumulation and was also reflected in the parasitic impact of the seed lots. Seed quality, specifically germination and vigour, can influence the establishment, survival, subsequent plant productivity and parasitic impact of R. minor in vegetation restoration projects. Seed quality is discussed as a key factor to consider when predicting the impact of the hemi-parasite on community productivity and diversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. How public issues shape environmental restoration plans - experiences with Colorado UMTRA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.; Monaghan, J.

    1991-01-01

    Federal environmental restoration plans are being significantly impacted by open-quotes grassrootsclose quotes public pressure and by community demands, some of which have little relation to the technical standards of remediation and which go well beyond authorizing legislation. These demands often represent significant additional project costs. A review of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program experiences in Colorado suggests that the more serious open-quotes grassrootsclose quotes issues associated with remediation rarely diminish and, in fact, will intensify over time. This presents program administrators with the dilemma of attempting to adhere to program mandates and keep projects within budget, while at the same time trying to be responsive to community concerns. Such high-profiled community debates have the ability to delay remediation and even jeopardize important projects. After prolonged public debate, when it becomes clear an issue will not dissipate, project officials may be forced to meet certain community demands. Often, this results in not only increased costs, but a loss of public confidence in clean-up efforts. Evidence also suggests, however, that when critical public issues can be identified and addressed before they become overly contentious, significant problems and controversy can be avoided; but, the situation is made difficult because project officials often lack the policy guidance to determine which, if any, community demands should be addressed and to what extent they should be met. The adoption of several key public policy principles by program administrators will provide a greater ability to address community demands in a timely and successful manner

  5. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA projectRestoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  6. Reengineering of Analytical Data Management for the Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.; Dorries, A.; Nasser, K.; Scherma, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for the characterization, clean up, and monitoring of over 2,124 identified potential release sites (PRS). These PRSs have resulted from operations associated with weapons and energy related research which has been conducted at LANL since 1942. To accomplish mission goals, the ER Project conducts field sampling to determine possible types and levels of chemical contamination as well as their geographic extent. Last fiscal year, approximately 4000 samples were collected during ER Project field sampling campaigns. In the past, activities associated with field sampling such as sample campaign planning, paperwork, shipping and analytical laboratory tracking; verification and order fulfillment; validation and data quality assurance were performed by multiple groups working with a variety of software applications, databases and hard copy reports. This resulted in significant management and communication difficulties, data delivery delays, and inconsistent processes; it also represented a potential threat to overall data integrity. Creation of an organization, software applications and a data process that could provide for cost-effective management of the activities and data mentioned above became a management priority, resulting in a development of a reengineering task. This reengineering effort--currently nearing completion--has resulted in personnel reorganization, the development of a centralized data repository, and a powerful web-based sample management system that allows for an appreciably streamlined and more efficient data process. These changes have collectively cut data delivery times, allowed for larger volumes of samples and data to be handled with fewer personnel, and resulted in significant cost savings. This paper will provide a case study of the reengineering effort undertaken by the ER Project of its analytical data management process. It includes

  7. Reengineering of Analytical Data Management for the Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.; Dorries, A.; Nasser, K.; Scherma, S.

    2003-02-27

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for the characterization, clean up, and monitoring of over 2,124 identified potential release sites (PRS). These PRSs have resulted from operations associated with weapons and energy related research which has been conducted at LANL since 1942. To accomplish mission goals, the ER Project conducts field sampling to determine possible types and levels of chemical contamination as well as their geographic extent. Last fiscal year, approximately 4000 samples were collected during ER Project field sampling campaigns. In the past, activities associated with field sampling such as sample campaign planning, paperwork, shipping and analytical laboratory tracking; verification and order fulfillment; validation and data quality assurance were performed by multiple groups working with a variety of software applications, databases and hard copy reports. This resulted in significant management and communication difficulties, data delivery delays, and inconsistent processes; it also represented a potential threat to overall data integrity. Creation of an organization, software applications and a data process that could provide for cost-effective management of the activities and data mentioned above became a management priority, resulting in a development of a reengineering task. This reengineering effort--currently nearing completion--has resulted in personnel reorganization, the development of a centralized data repository, and a powerful web-based sample management system that allows for an appreciably streamlined and more efficient data process. These changes have collectively cut data delivery times, allowed for larger volumes of samples and data to be handled with fewer personnel, and resulted in significant cost savings. This paper will provide a case study of the reengineering effort undertaken by the ER Project of its analytical data management process. It includes

  8. Macroinvertebrate communities evaluated prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, 2001-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Blaine County and The Nature Conservancy, evaluated the status of macroinvertebrate communities prior to and following a channel restoration project in Silver Creek, Blaine County, Idaho. The objective of the evaluation was to determine whether 2014 remediation efforts to restore natural channel conditions in an impounded area of Silver Creek caused declines in local macroinvertebrate communities. Starting in 2001 and ending in 2016, macroinvertebrates were sampled every 3 years at two long-term trend sites and sampled seasonally (spring, summer, and autumn) in 2013, 2015, and 2016 at seven synoptic sites. Trend-site communities were collected from natural stream-bottom substrates to represent locally established macroinvertebrate assemblages. Synoptic site communities were sampled using artificial (multi-plate) substrates to represent recently colonized (4–6 weeks) assemblages. Statistical summaries of spatial and temporal patterns in macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition at both trend and synoptic sites were completed.The potential effect of the restoration project on resident macroinvertebrate populations was determined by comparing the following community assemblage metrics:Total taxonomic richness (taxa richness);Total macroinvertebrate abundance (total abundance);Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) richness;EPT abundance;Simpson’s diversity; andSimpson’s evenness for periods prior to and following restoration.A significant decrease in one or more metric values in the period following stream channel restoration was the basis for determining impairment to the macroinvertebrate communities in Silver Creek.Comparison of pre-restoration (2001–13) and post‑restoration (2016) macroinvertebrate community composition at trend sites determined that no significant decreases occurred in any metric parameter for communities sampled in 2016. Taxa and EPT richness of colonized assemblages at synoptic sites

  9. Natural resource risk and cost management in environmental restoration: Demonstration project at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascietto, J.J.; Sharples, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is both a trustee for the natural resources present on its properties and the lead response agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As such, DOE is addressing the destruction or loss of those resources caused by releases of hazardous substances from its facilities (DOE 1991) and collecting data to be used in determining the extent of contamination at its facilities, estimating risks to human health and the environment, and selecting appropriate remedial actions. The remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process is used to investigate sites and select remedial actions. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process may be used to determine whether natural resources have also been injured by the released hazardous substances and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In FY 1994, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was chosen to serve as a demonstration site for testing the integrated NRDA framework and demonstrating how NRDA concerns might be integrated into the environmental restoration activities of an actual site that is characteristically large and complex. The demonstration project (1) provided a means to illustrate the use of complex analyses using real information on the specific natural resources of the SRS; (2) served as a vehicle for reinforcing and expanding the SRS staff's understanding of the links between the NRDA and RI/FS processes; (3) provided a forum for the discussion of strategic issues with SRS personnel; and (4) allowed the refining and elaboration of DOE guidance by benchmarking the theoretical process using real information and issues

  10. Phase 1 studies summary of major findings of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoppi, Laura

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (Project) is one of the largest restoration efforts in the United States. It is located in South San Francisco Bay of California. It is unique not only for its size—more than 15,000 acres—but also for its location adjacent to one of the nation’s largest urban areas, home to more than 4 million people (Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties). The Project is intended to restore and enhance wetlands in South San Francisco Bay while providing for flood management, wildlife-oriented public access, and recreation. Restoration goals of the project are to provide a mosaic of saltmarsh habitat to benefit marsh species and managed ponds to benefit waterbirds, throughout 3 complexes and 54 former salt ponds.Although much is known about the project area, significant uncertainties remain with a project of this geographic and temporal scale of an estimated 50 years to complete the restoration. For example, in order to convert anywhere from 50 to 90 percent of the existing managed ponds to saltmarsh habitat, conservation managers first enhance the habitat of managed ponds in order to increase use by waterbirds, and provide migratory, wintering, and nesting habitat for more than 90 species of waterbirds. Project managers have concluded that the best way to address these uncertainties is to carefully implement the project in phases and learn from the outcome of each phase. The Adaptive Management Plan (AMP) identifies specific restoration targets for multiple aspects of the Project and defines triggers that would necessitate some type of management action if a particular aspect is trending negatively. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologist Laura Valoppi served as the project Lead Scientist and oversaw implementation of the AMP in coordination with other members of the Project Management Team (PMT), comprised of representatives from the California State Coastal Conservancy, California Department of Fish and

  11. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ...-FF08RSDC00] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the... scoping with regard to the environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary... one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  12. Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis Modeling for Analysis of Flood Design Features at the Picayune Strand Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    restore its predrainage hydrology and ecological function for beneficial effects on flora and fauna in the project area and surrounding public lands. The...partnership with South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), is constructing these features. Engineering support is required for hydrologic and...simulation accuracy and related resource requirements. Spatial data products such as digital elevation models, surveyed channel cross sections, soil

  13. UF's Lone Cabbage Oyster Reef Restoration Project: a use case in implementing a data management plan (DMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Aufmuth, Joe

    2018-01-01

    Data management plans are created to satisfy funding agency proposal requirements related to the data life cycle. Once an award is made researchers must implement the plan they described. But how is this best accomplished? The presentation UF’s Lone Cabbage Oyster Reef Restoration Project: a use case in implementing a data management plan (DMP) describes how PI's for this grant funded research project are achieving its data management plan goals using an academic library's consulting team.

  14. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  15. In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Northeast Site Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, R.; Butherus, M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting thermal remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site that is part of the Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project. The Northeast Site is located on the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center in Largo, Florida. The STAR Center was formerly a DOE facility. The NAPL remediation was performed at Area A and is currently being performed at Area B at the Northeast Site. The remediation at Area A was completed in 2003 and covered an area of 900 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) and a depth of remediation that extended to 10.7 m (35 ft) below ground surface. Cleanup levels achieved were at or below maximum contaminant levels in almost all locations. The remediation project at Area B is ongoing and covers an area of 3,240 m 2 (36,000 ft 2 ), a volume of 41,300 m (54,000 yd 3), and a depth of remediation to 12 m (40 ft) below ground surface. In addition, a portion of the subsurface under an occupied building in Area B is included in the remediation. The cleanup levels achieved from this remediation will be available in the Area B Final Report that will be posted on the DOE Office of Legacy Management web site (www.lm.doe.gov/land/sites/fl/ pinellas/pinellas.htm) in January 2007. Electrical resistive heating and steam were the chosen remediation methods at both areas. Lessons learned from the Area A remediation were incorporated into the Area B remediation and could benefit managers of similar remediation projects. (authors)

  16. Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Bowen, Lizabeth; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Murray, M.; Estes, J.L.; Keister, Robin A.; Stott, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of blood leukocyte gene transcript profiles has the potential to expand condition assessments beyond those currently available to evaluate wildlife health, including sea otters Enhydra lutris, both individually and as populations. The 10 genes targeted in our study represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumor suppression, cellular stress-response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. These genes can be modified by biological, physical, or anthropogenic impacts and consequently provide information on the general type of stressors present in a given environment. We compared gene transcript profiles of sea otters sampled in 2008 among areas within Prince William Sound impacted to varying degrees by the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill with those of captive and wild reference sea otters. Profiles of sea otters from Prince William Sound showed elevated transcription in genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, organic exposure, inflammation, and viral exposure when compared to the reference sea otter group, indicating possible recent and chronic exposure to organic contaminants. Sea otters from historically designated oiled areas within Prince William Sound 19 yr after the oil spill had higher transcription of genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, heat shock, and inflammation than those from areas designated as less impacted by the spill.

  17. Healthcare for migrants, participatory health research and implementation science--better health policy and practice through inclusion. The RESTORE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Anne; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Dowrick, Christopher; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel Baumgarten, Evelyn; Lionis, Christos; Clissmann, Ciaran

    2014-06-01

    This is a time of unprecedented mobility across the globe. Healthcare systems need to adapt to ensure that primary care is culturally and linguistically appropriate for migrants. Evidence-based guidelines and training interventions for cultural competence and the use of professional interpreters are available across European healthcare settings. However, in real-world practice migrants and their healthcare providers 'get by' with a range of informal and inadequate strategies. RESTORE is an EU FP7 funded project, which is designed to address this translational gap. The objective of RESTORE is to investigate and support the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural consultations in selected European primary care settings. RESTORE is a qualitative, participatory health project running from 2011-2015. It uses a novel combination of normalization process theory and participatory learning and action research to follow and shape the implementation journeys of relevant guidelines and training initiatives. Research teams in Ireland, England, the Netherlands, Austria and Greece are conducting similar parallel qualitative case study fieldwork, with a complementary health policy analysis led by Scotland. In each setting, key stakeholders, including migrants, are involved in participatory data generation and analysis. RESTORE will provide knowledge about the levers and barriers to the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives in European healthcare settings and about successful, transferrable strategies to overcome identified barriers. RESTORE will elucidate the role of policy in shaping these implementation journeys; generate recommendations for European policy driving the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare systems.

  18. Case Study Application of the Biodiversity Security Index to Ranking Feasibility Studies for Ecosystem Restoration Projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    ER D C/ EL C R- 16 -1 Ecosystem Management and Restoration Research Program Case Study Application of the Biodiversity Security Index... Biodiversity Security Index to Ranking Feasibility Studies for Ecosystem Restoration Projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Richard A. Cole... Biodiversity Security Index (BSI) was applied to 23 project sites ranked for restoration feasibility study annual funding by the U. S. Army Corps of

  19. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction

  20. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  1. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  2. Analysis of explosion-induced releases of toxic materials at an environmental restoration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.G.; Moon, W.H. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to 1988, a variety of materials were buried on the US DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Records of the disposal operations are incomplete and toxic materials may have been placed adjacent to potential explosives. One of the safety concerns in conducting an environmental restoration project at the burial sites, is the possibility of an explosion which could release toxic materials to the atmosphere. A safety analysis examined the consequences of such releases by first postulating an upper bound for the strength of an explosive. A correlation, developed by Steindler and Seefeldt of Argonne National Laboratory, was then used to estimate the amount and particle-size distribution of the material that could become airborne from the explosion. The estimated amount of airborne material was the source term in an atmospheric dispersion model which was used to calculate infinite-time, concentration-time integrals and 5-minute, time- weighted average concentrations at locations down-wind from the explosion. The dispersion model includes particle deposition as a function of particle-size distribution class. The concentration-time integrals and average concentrations were compared to published guidelines to assess the consequences of an accidental explosion

  3. Trends and habitat associations of waterbirds using the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; Strong, Cheryl; Krause, John; Wang, Yiwei; Takekawa, John Y.

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe aim of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (hereinafter “Project”) is to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay (SFB). However, hundreds of thousands of waterbirds use these ponds over winter and during fall and spring migration. To ensure that existing waterbird populations are supported while tidal marsh is restored in the Project area, managers plan to enhance the habitat suitability of ponds by adding islands and berms to change pond topography, manipulating water salinity and depth, and selecting appropriate ponds to maintain for birds. To help inform these actions, we used 13 years of monthly (October–April) bird abundance data from Project ponds to (1) assess trends in waterbird abundance since the inception of the Project, and (2) evaluate which pond habitat characteristics were associated with highest abundances of different avian guilds and species. For comparison, we also evaluated waterbird abundance trends in active salt production ponds using 10 years of monthly survey data.We assessed bird guild and species abundance trends through time, and created separate trend curves for Project and salt production ponds using data from every pond that was counted in a year. We divided abundance data into three seasons—fall (October–November), winter (December–February), and spring (March–April). We used the resulting curves to assess which periods had the highest bird abundance and to identify increasing or decreasing trends for each guild and species.

  4. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  5. Using Geomorphic Change Detection to Understand Restoration Project Success Relative to Stream Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A.; Segura, C.

    2017-12-01

    Large wood (LW) jams have long been utilized as a stream restoration strategy to create fish habitat, with a strong focus on Coho salmon in the Pacific Northwest. These projects continue to be implemented despite limited understanding of their success in streams of different size. In this study, we assessed the changes triggered by LW introductions in 10 alluvial plane bed reaches with varying drainage areas (3.9-22 km²) and bankfull widths (6.4-14.7 m) in one Oregon Coast Range basin. In this basin, LW was added in an effort to improve winter rearing habitat for Coho salmon. We used detailed topographic mapping (0.5 m² resolution) to describe the local stream and floodplain geometry. Pebble counts were used to monitor changes in average substrate size after the LW addition. Field surveys were conducted immediately after the LW were installed, in the summer of 2016, and one year after installation, in the summer of 2017. We used geomorphic change detection analysis to quantify the amount of scour and deposition at each site along with changes in average bankfull width. Then we determined the relative amount of change among all sites to identify which size stream changed the most. We also modeled fluctuations in water surface elevation at each site, correlating frequency and inundation of the LW with geomorphic changes detected from the topographic surveys. Preliminary results show an increase in channel width and floodplain connectivity at all sites, indicating an increase in off-channel habitat for juvenile Coho salmon. Bankfull widths increased up to 75% in small sites and up to 25% in large sites. Median grain size became coarser in large streams (increased up to 20%), while we saw a similar amount of fining at smaller sites. The overall increase in channel width is compensated by an overall decrease in bed elevation at both large and small sites, suggesting the maintenance of overall geomorphic equilibrium. Further work will include quantifying these

  6. 76 FR 62605 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type Certificate.... That AD applies to Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331... limitations and marking the airspeed indicator accordingly for Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter...

  7. Evaluation of sea otter capture after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Weltz, F.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    After the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill into Prince William Sound, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Exxon Company, U.S.A., began rescuing sea otters (Enhydra lutris). The primary objective of this operation was to capture live, oiled sea otters for cleaning and rehabilitation. Between 30 March and 29 May 1989, 139 live sea otters were captured in the sound and transported to rehabilitation centers in Valdez, Alaska. Within the first 15 days of capture operations, 122 (88%) otters were captured. Most sea otters were captured near Knight, Green, and Evans islands in the western sound. The primary capture method consisted of dipnetting otters out of water and off beaches. While capture rates declined over time, survival of captured otters increased as the interval from spill date to capture date increased. The relative degree of oiling observed for each otter captured declined over time. Declining capture rates led to the use of tangle nets. The evidence suggests the greatest threat to sea otters in Prince William Sound occurred within the first 3 weeks after the spill. Thus, in the future, the authors believe rescue efforts should begin as soon as possible after an oil spill in sea otter habitat. Further, preemptive capture and relocation of sea otters in Prince William Sound may have increased the number of otters that could have survived this event.

  8. Screening for Phytophthora cinnamomi in reclaimed mined lands targeted for American chestnut restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Annemarie Nagle; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2011-01-01

    We are working toward restoring the American chestnut in southeastern Ohio, which was once part of the tree's natural range. Some of these lands have been severely affected by excessive mining operations for several decades. Therefore, we are planning and testing use of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the restoration efforts. Mycorrhizal fungi may play a vital role in...

  9. 75 FR 52360 - Upper Truckee River Restoration and Golf Course Reconfiguration Project, El Dorado County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Upper Truckee River Restoration and Golf Course... and comment the draft EIR/EIS for the Upper Truckee River Restoration and Golf Course Reconfiguration... include continuing existing golf course use, removal of the entire Lake Tahoe Golf Course, or...

  10. A review of theoretical frameworks applicable for designing agricultural watershed restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural watershed restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of ecosystem structure and/or function within watersheds that have been degraded and damaged by agriculture. Unfortunately, agricultural watershed restoration is the rare exception within the Midwestern United States despit...

  11. Changes in Alaskan soft-bottom prey communities along a gradient in sea otter predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitek, R.G.; Oliver, J.S.; DeGange, A.R.; Anderson, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris), well documented as "keystone" predators in rocky marine communities, were found to exert a strong influence on infaunal prey communities in soft-sediment habitats. Direct and indirect effects of sea otter predation on subtidal soft-bottom prey communities were evaluated along a temporal gradient of sea otter occupancy around the Kodiak Archipelago. The results indicate that Kodiak otters forage primarily on bivalve prey and dramatically reduce infaunal bivalve and green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) prey populations. Bivalve prey abundance, biomass, and size were inversely related to duration of sea otter occupancy. The relative conditions of shells discarded by otters in shallow ( 20 m) water at the same sites indicate that otters first exploited Saxidomus in shallow-water feeding areas, and later switched to Macoma spp. in deeper water. Otter-cracked shells of the deep-burrowing clam Tresus capax were rarely found, even at otter foraging sites where the clam accounted for the majority of available prey biomass, suggesting that it has a partial depth refuge from otter predation. The indirect effects of otter predation included substratum disturbance and the facilitation of sea star predation on infaunal prey. Sea stars, Pycnopodia helianthoides, were attracted to experimentally dug excavations as well as natural sea otter foraging pits, where the sea stars foraged on smaller size classes of infaunal bivalves than those eaten by otters. Otters also discard clam shells on the sediment surface and expose old, buried shells during excavation. Surface shells were found to provide attachment sites for large anemones and kelp. Our study shows that sea otters can affect soft-sediment communities, not only through predation, as in rocky habitats, but also through disturbance, and thus retain a high degree of influence in two very different habitat types.

  12. California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) census results, Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.

    2017-09-29

    The 2017 census of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) was conducted between late April and early July along the mainland coast of central California and in April at San Nicolas Island in southern California. The 3-year average of combined counts from the mainland range and San Nicolas Island was 3,186, down by 86 sea otters from the previous year. This is the second year that the official index has exceeded 3,090, the Endangered Species Act delisting threshold identified in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan (the threshold would need to be exceeded for 3 consecutive years before delisting consideration). The 5-year average trend in abundance, including both the mainland range and San Nicolas Island populations, remains positive at 2.3 percent per year. Continuing lack of growth in the range peripheries likely explains the cessation of range expansion.

  13. Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bjarne; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Elmeros, Morten

    Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra in Denmark Søgaard B. ¹, Madsen A.B.¹, Elmeros M.¹ ¹Institute of Bioscience - Kaloe, Aarhus University. Keywords: Eurasian Otter; Monitoring; Conservation status According to the EU Habitats Directive Denmark has...... of the otter inside Denmark, DNA analysis of dead found otters in Schleswig-Holstein (North Germany) shows that “Danish” otter have crossed the border to Germany connecting the Danish population to the East German population, which spreads into Schleswig-Holstein from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern....

  14. Restoring Eelgrass (Zostera marina) from Seed: A Comparison of Planting Methods for Large-Scale Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orth, Robert; Marion, Scott; Granger, Steven; Traber, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) seeds are being used in a variety of both small- and large-scale restoration activities and have been successfully used to initiate recovery of eelgrass in the Virginia seaside coastal lagoons...

  15. NOAA's Coastal Protection and Restoration Division: Watershed Database and Mapping Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Protection and restoration of coastal watersheds requires the synthesis of complex environmental issues. Contaminated site remediation, dredging and disposal of...

  16. Estimating Otter Numbers Using Spraints: Is It Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Yoxon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spraints have been used to survey otters in the UK since 1979 and a standard methodology has been set up which has been used in Britain and Europe for most survey work. At present data from these surveys is being used to give an estimation of actual population numbers. However, for this to be possible, there must be a correlation between sprainting numbers, active spraint sites, and otter numbers. This paper investigates whether such a correlation exists. There is evidence from previous work that there is seasonal variation in sprainting and this study confirms this. Therefore spraint surveys should be undertaken in the same months for each repeat survey.

  17. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals.

  18. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals

  19. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m(3)/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  20. Assessment Approach for Identifying Compatibility of Restoration Projects with Geomorphic and Flooding Processes in Gravel Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Paul; Aldrich, Robert

    2015-08-01

    A critical requirement for a successful river restoration project in a dynamic gravel bed river is that it be compatible with natural hydraulic and sediment transport processes operating at the reach scale. The potential for failure is greater at locations where the influence of natural processes is inconsistent with intended project function and performance. We present an approach using practical GIS, hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport analyses to identify locations where specific restoration project types have the greatest likelihood of working as intended because their function and design are matched with flooding and morphologic processes. The key premise is to identify whether a specific river analysis segment (length ~1-10 bankfull widths) within a longer reach is geomorphically active or inactive in the context of vertical and lateral stabilities, and hydrologically active for floodplain connectivity. Analyses involve empirical channel geometry relations, aerial photographic time series, LiDAR data, HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling, and a time-integrated sediment transport budget to evaluate trapping efficiency within each segment. The analysis segments are defined by HEC-RAS model cross sections. The results have been used effectively to identify feasible projects in a variety of alluvial gravel bed river reaches with lengths between 11 and 80 km and 2-year flood magnitudes between ~350 and 1330 m3/s. Projects constructed based on the results have all performed as planned. In addition, the results provide key criteria for formulating erosion and flood management plans.

  1. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Nisbet, A; Cox, G; Oughton, D H; Hunt, J; Alvarez, B; Andersson, K G; Liland, A; Voigt, G

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed.

  2. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Nisbet, A.; Cox, G.; Oughton, D.H.; Hunt, J.; Alvarez, B.; Andersson, K.G.; Liland, A.; Voigt, G.

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed

  3. 10 years after the largest river restoration project in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Kronvang, B.; Wiberg-Larsen, P.

    2014-01-01

    that erosion and sedimentation have changed the cross-sectional profiles over the last 10 years, resulting in a net input of sediment to the lower reaches of the river. However, the change of channel form was a slow process and predicted bank retreat over a 100 year period was only up to 6.8 m. Hence......The lower river Skjern (Denmark) historically contained a large variation in habitats and the river ran through large areas with wetlands, many backwaters, islands and oxbow lakes. During the 1960s the river was channelized and the wetland drained. A restoration during 2001–2002 transformed 19 km...... of channelized river into 26 km meandering river. The short-term effects of this restoration have previously been reported and for this study we revisited the river and with new data evaluated the long-term (10 years) hydrological effects of the restoration. The evaluation was done on three different scales: (1...

  4. Assessing the value of the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) in Everglades restoration: an ecosystem service approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Keefe, Kelly; Huber, Christopher C.; Racevskis, Laila; Gregg, Reynolds; Thourot, Scott; Miller, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a full range of ecosystem services that could be affected by a restoration project in the central Everglades and monetizes the economic value of a subset of these services using existing data. Findings suggest that the project will potentially increase many ecosystem services that have considerable economic value to society. The ecosystem services monetized within the scope of this study are a subset of the difference between the future-with the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP) and the future-without CEPP, and they totaled ~ $1.8 billion USD at a 2.5% discount rate. Findings suggest that the use of ecosystem services in project planning and communications may require acknowledgment of the difficulty of monetizing important services and the limitations associated with using only existing data and models. Results of this study highlight the need for additional valuation efforts in this region, focused on those services that are likely to be impacted by restoration activities but were notably challenging to value in this assessment due to shortages of data.

  5. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  6. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  7. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  8. Joint Coordinating Committee on environmental restoration and waste management (JCCEM) support, technology transfer, and special projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) assisted in identifying and evaluating foreign technologies to meet EM needs; supported the evaluation, removal, and/or revision of barriers to international technology and information transfer/exchange; facilitated the integration and coordination of U.S. government international environmental restoration and waste management activities; and enhanced U.S. industry's competitiveness in the international environmental technology market

  9. 77 FR 21721 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Whisky Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... and vigor of conifer stands, reduce the spread and intensity of wildfires within and outside of the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) and restore other ecological processes. DATES: Comments concerning the scope... on these federal and formerly private lands, combined with the exclusion of fire, have altered forest...

  10. Manager Perspectives on Communication and Public Engagement in Ecological Restoration Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    We argue that public engagement is crucial to achieving lasting ecological success in aquatic restoration efforts, and that the most effective public engagement mechanisms are what we term iterative mechanisms. Here we look to a particular social-ecological system – the restorati...

  11. Assessing the Performance of In-Stream Restoration Projects Using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID Transponders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce MacVicar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Instream channel restoration is a common practice in river engineering that presents a challenge for research. One research gap is the development of monitoring techniques that allow for testable predictions of sediment transport and supply. Here we use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID transponders to compare the short-term (1-year sediment transport response to flood events in a restored and a control reach. The field site is Wilket Creek, an enlarged creek in a fully urbanized catchment without stormwater management control in Toronto, Ontario. The responses to three flooding periods, each of which are at or above the design bankfull discharge, are described. Key results are that (i particle mobility is lower in the restored reach for all three periods; (ii full mobility occurs in the control reach during the first two floods while partial mobility occurs in the restored reach; and (iii the constructed morphology exerted a controlling influence on particle entrainment, with higher mobility in the pools. Log-transformed travel distances exhibit normal distributions when grouped by particle size class, which allows a statistical comparison with power law and other predictive travel-distance relations. Results show that three bedload transport conditions can occur, with partial mobility associated with a mild relation between particle size and travel distance and full mobility associated with either a flat or steep relation depending on the degree of integration of particles in the bed. Recommendations on seeding strategy and sample sizes are made to improve the precision of the results by minimizing confidence intervals for mobility and travel distances. Even in a short term study, the RFID sediment tracking technique allows a process-based assessment of stream restoration outcomes that can be used to justify the instream intervention and plan future attempts to stabilize and enhance the system.

  12. Tank farm restoration and safe operation, Project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from customer guidance. Included are incorporation of the recommendations from HNF-2500, agreements regarding interfaces with Project W-211, and assumption of scope previously assigned to Project W-454

  13. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  14. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  15. Project management plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place nineteen former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) and as quickly and economically as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project win further reduce the already small risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, the project should result in significant S ampersand M cost savings in the future. The IFDP management plan has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted a strategy to deactivate the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project, and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify those activities that best promote the project mission and result in largest cost savings. The Work Plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Energy Systems 1994) defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project

  16. Review of Invasive Riparian Trees that Impact USACE Ecosystem Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    often release seeds in periods of stress , including periods when exposed to herbicides or mechanical disturbances. Such characteristics make this...Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SI-36 August 2016 Review of Invasive Riparian Trees that Impact USACE...various spatial control methods for woody invasive plant removal in densely vegetated riparian habitats. The USACE ecosystem restoration mission has

  17. Environmental restoration contractor facility safety plan -- MO-561 100-D site remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahoe, R.L.

    1996-11-01

    This safety plan is applicable to Environmental Restoration Contractor personnel who are permanently assigned to MO-561 or regularly work in the facility. The MO-561 Facility is located in the 100-D Area at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This plan will: (a) identify hazards potentially to be encountered by occupants of MO-561; (b) provide requirements and safeguards to ensure personnel safety and regulatory compliance; (c) provide information and actions necessary for proper emergency response

  18. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  19. Design review report: AN valve pit upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boes, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314's AN Valve Pit Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farms' waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project's work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first package to be performed is the AN Valve Pit Upgrades package. The scope of the modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve manifolds, leak detectors, transfer line connections (for future planned transfer lines), and special protective coating for the 241-AN-A and 241-AN-B valve pits

  20. Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hering, D.; Aroviita, J.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Brabec, K.; Buijse, T.; Ecke, F.; Friberg, N.; Gielczewski, Marek; Januschke, K.; Köhler, J.; Kupilas, Benjamin; Lorenz, A.W.; Muhar, S.; Paillex, Amael; Poppe, Michaela; Schmidt, T.; Schmutz, S.; Vermaat, J.; Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Wolter, Christian; Kail, J.

    2015-01-01

    1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of

  1. A Distribution Survey for Otters along a River in Central Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Chettri; Melissa Savage

    2014-01-01

    We report the findings of a survey for otters along a major river in central Bhutan. The river bears various names in different stretches along its run, including Mochhu, Phochhu, Punatsangchhu and Sunkosh. We report: 1) the distribution and density of otter sign, including tracks, scats, latrines and dens, 2) the correlation between sign abundance and vegetation and substrate characteristics, and 3) the correlation of otter sign with human disturbance. Five of the six 5.5 km transects sample...

  2. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott L Matchett

    Full Text Available The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration

  3. Projected Impacts of Climate, Urbanization, Water Management, and Wetland Restoration on Waterbird Habitat in California's Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L; Fleskes, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006-2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the "existing" landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  4. Projected impacts of climate, urbanization, water management, and wetland restoration on waterbird habitat in California’s Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the most important regions for wintering waterbirds in North America despite extensive anthropogenic landscape modification and decline of historical wetlands there. Like many other mediterranean-climate ecosystems across the globe, the Central Valley has been subject to a burgeoning human population and expansion and intensification of agricultural and urban development that have impacted wildlife habitats. Future effects of urban development, changes in water supply management, and precipitation and air temperature related to global climate change on area of waterbird habitat in the Central Valley are uncertain, yet potentially substantial. Therefore, we modeled area of waterbird habitats for 17 climate, urbanization, water supply management, and wetland restoration scenarios for years 2006–2099 using a water resources and scenario modeling framework. Planned wetland restoration largely compensated for adverse effects of climate, urbanization, and water supply management changes on habitat areas through 2065, but fell short thereafter for all except one scenario. Projected habitat reductions due to climate models were more frequent and greater than under the recent historical climate and their magnitude increased through time. After 2065, area of waterbird habitat in all scenarios that included severe warmer, drier climate was projected to be >15% less than in the “existing” landscape most years. The greatest reduction in waterbird habitat occurred in scenarios that combined warmer, drier climate and plausible water supply management options affecting priority and delivery of water available for waterbird habitats. This scenario modeling addresses the complexity and uncertainties in the Central Valley landscape, use and management of related water supplies, and climate to inform waterbird habitat conservation and other resource management planning. Results indicate that increased wetland restoration and additional

  5. Effect of severe hurricanes on biorock coral reef restoration projects in Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lucy; Perez, Fernando; Hibbert, Marlon; Clerveaux, Luc; Johnson, Jodi; Goreau, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    Artificial reefs are often discouraged in shallow waters over concerns of storm damage to structures and surrounding habitat. Biorock coral reef restoration projects were initiated in waters around 5 m deep in Grand Turk, at Oasis (October 2006) and at Governor's Beach (November 2007). Hemi-cylindrical steel modules, 6m long were used, four modules at Oasis and six at Governor's Beach. Each project has over 1200 corals transplanted from sites with high sedimentation damage, and are regularly monitored for coral growth, mortality and fish populations. Corals show immediate growth over wires used to attach corals. Growth has been measured from photographs using a software program and is faster at Governor's Beach. After hurricanes Hanna and Ike (September 2008) the Governor's Beach structure was fully standing since the waves passed straight through with little damage, the Oasis structures which were tie-wired rather than welded had one module collapse (since been replaced with a new, welded structure). Hurricane Ike was the strongest hurricane on record to hit Grand Turk. Most cables were replaced following the hurricanes due to damage from debris and high wave action. The projects lost about a third of the corals due to hurricanes. Most of those lost had only been wired a few days before and had not yet attached themselves firmly. These projects have regenerated corals and fish populations in areas of barren sand or bedrock and are now attractive to snorkelers. High coral survival and low structural damage after hurricanes indicate that Biorock reef restoration can be effective in storm-impacted areas.

  6. Effect of severe hurricanes on Biorock Coral Reef Restoration Projects in Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Wells

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs are often discouraged in shallow waters over concerns of storm damage to structures and surrounding habitat. Biorock coral reef restoration projects were initiated in waters around 5m deep in Grand Turk, at Oasis (October 2006 and at Governor’s Beach (November 2007. Hemi-cylindrical steel modules, 6m long were used, four modules at Oasis and six at Governor’s Beach. Each project has over 1200 corals transplanted from sites with high sedimentation damage, and are regularly monitored for coral growth, mortality and fish populations. Corals show immediate growth over wires used to attach corals. Growth has been measured from photographs using a software program and is faster at Governor’s Beach. After hurricanes Hanna and Ike (September 2008 the Governor’s Beach structure was fully standing since the waves passed straight through with little damage, the Oasis structures which were tie-wired rather than welded had one module collapse (since been replaced with a new, welded structure. Hurricane Ike was the strongest hurricane on record to hit Grand Turk. Most cables were replaced following the hurricanes due to damage from debris and high wave action. The projects lost about a third of the corals due to hurricanes. Most of those lost had only been wired a few days before and had not yet attached themselves firmly. These projects have regenerated corals and fish populations in areas of barren sand or bedrock and are now attractive to snorkelers. High coral survival and low structural damage after hurricanes indicate that Biorock reef restoration can be effective in storm-impacted areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 141-149. Epub 2010 October 01.

  7. WE-AB-207A-02: John’s Equation Based Consistency Condition and Incomplete Projection Restoration Upon Circular Orbit CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Qi, H; Wu, S; Xu, Y; Zhou, L; Yan, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In transmitted X-ray tomography imaging, projections are sometimes incomplete due to a variety of reasons, such as geometry inaccuracy, defective detector cells, etc. To address this issue, we have derived a direct consistency condition based on John’s Equation, and proposed a method to effectively restore incomplete projections based on this consistency condition. Methods: Through parameter substitutions, we have derived a direct consistency condition equation from John’s equation, in which the left side is only projection derivative of view and the right side is projection derivative of other geometrical parameters. Based on this consistency condition, a projection restoration method is proposed, which includes five steps: 1) Forward projecting reconstructed image and using linear interpolation to estimate the incomplete projections as the initial result; 2) Performing Fourier transform on the projections; 3) Restoring the incomplete frequency data using the consistency condition equation; 4) Performing inverse Fourier transform; 5) Repeat step 2)∼4) until our criteria is met to terminate the iteration. Results: A beam-blocking-based scatter correction case and a bad-pixel correction case were used to demonstrate the efficacy and robustness of our restoration method. The mean absolute error (MAE), signal noise ratio (SNR) and mean square error (MSE) were employed as our evaluation metrics of the reconstructed images. For the scatter correction case, the MAE is reduced from 63.3% to 71.7% with 4 iterations. Compared with the existing Patch’s method, the MAE of our method is further reduced by 8.72%. For the bad-pixel case, the SNR of the reconstructed image by our method is increased from 13.49% to 21.48%, with the MSE being decreased by 45.95%, compared with linear interpolation method. Conclusion: Our studies have demonstrated that our restoration method based on the new consistency condition could effectively restore the incomplete projections

  8. Sea otter population structure and ecology in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Sea otters are the only fully marine otter. They share a common ancestry with the Old World land otters, but their route of dispersal to the New World is uncertain. The historic range of the species is along the northern Pacific Ocean rim, between central Baja California and the islands of northern Japan. Because they forage almost exclusively on bottom-dwelling marine invertebrates such as clams, snails, crabs, and sea urchins, they predominantly occur near shore. Their offshore distribution is limited by their diving ability; although they are capable of diving to more than 100 meters deep, most of their feeding takes place between the shoreline and depths of 40 meters. They are social animals, generally resting in protected bays or kelp forests in groups, commonly referred to as rafts. Because they are gregarious, possess a fine fur, and occur primarily near shore, they have been exploited by humans for as long as they have co-occupied coastal marine communities.During the late Pleistocene, glacial advances and retreats in the northern latitudes likely influenced genetic exchange within the sea otter’s northern range. When the glaciers were at their maximum, ice sheets extended over large coastal areas, isolating sea otter populations and causing local extinctions. During periods of glacial retreat, sea otters likely recolonized the newly available habitats, allowing exchange of individuals and gene flow between populations.Beginning in about 1750, sea otter populations underwent dramatic declines as a direct result of commercial harvest for their furs. Explorations by Vitus Bering led to the discovery of abundant sea otter populations in the Aleutian Islands. The early harvest, conducted by Russians with enslaved Aleut hunters, began in the eastern Aleutians. Eventually the harvest became multinational and contributed significantly to the exploration and settlement of the North Pacific coastline by Europeans. There were two distinct periods of harvest

  9. The anthropogenic nature of present-day low energy rivers in western France and implications for current restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, L.; Viel, V.; Rollet, A. J.; Delahaye, D.

    2015-12-01

    As in other European countries, western France has seen an increase in river restoration projects. In this paper, we examine the restoration goals, methods and objectives with respect to the long-term trajectory and understanding of the contemporary dynamics of the small low energy rivers typical of the lowlands of Western Europe. The exhaustive geomorphological, paleoenvironmental and historical research conducted in the Seulles river basin (Normandy) provides very accurate documentation of the nature and place of the different legacies in the fluvial systems we have inherited. The sedimentation rate in the Seulles valley bottom has multiplied by a factor of 20 since the end of the Bronze Age and has generated dramatic changes in fluvial forms. Hydraulic control of the rivers and valley bottoms drainage throughout the last millennium has channelized rivers within these deposits. The single meandering channel which characterizes this river today is the legacy of the delayed and complex effects of long term exploitation of the river basin and the fluvial system. Bring to light that the "naturalness" of the restored rivers might be questioned. Our research emphasizes the gap between the poor knowledge of the functioning of these rivers and the concrete objectives of the restoration works undertaken, including dam and weir removal. Account of the long-term history of fluvial systems is required, not only to produce a pedagogic history of the "river degradation" but more fundamentally (i) to situate the current functioning of the fluvial system in a trajectory to try to identify thresholds and anticipate the potential turning points in a context of climate and land use change, (ii) to understand the role of morphosedimentary legacies on the current dynamics, (iii) to open the discussion on reference functioning or expected states and (iv) to open discussion on the sustainability of ecological restoration. To conclude, we point out the necessity to take into account the

  10. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  11. Tank farm restoration and safe operation, project W-314, upgrade scope summary report (USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    This revision to the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), incorporates changes to the project scope from Alternative Generation Analysis (AGA), customer guidance, and changing requirements. It defines the actual upgrades currently in scope, and provides traceability to the requirements and/or drivers

  12. Risk Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, Project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Risk Management Plan for Project W-314 describes the systems, processes and procedures for implementation of applicable risk management practices described in HNF-0842, Volume IV, Section 2.6, ''Risk Management''. This plan is tailored specifically for use by Project W-314

  13. Systems Engineering Management Plan for Tank Farm Restoration and Safety Operations, Project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314 has been prepared within the guidelines of HNF-SD-WM-SEMP-002, TWRS Systems Engineering Management Plan. The activities within this SEMP have been tailored, in accordance with the TWRS SEMP and DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management, to meet the needs of the project

  14. Do large scale restoration projects reduce within-species traits variability? - Présentées à 2 congrès

    OpenAIRE

    Harzé, Mélanie; Monty, Arnaud; Mahy, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    Dry calcareous grasslands represent local biodiversity hotspots of European temperate regions. They have suffered intensive fragmentations due to due to the abandonment of traditional agropastoral systems and the resulting encroachment, reforestation, urbanization or transformation into arable lands. In order to preserve and enhance their ecological value, a series of ecological restoration projects have been implemented throughout Europe (LIFE+). As habitats restoration costs can be prohibit...

  15. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  16. Planning for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings of a workshop held under the technical co-operation project RER/9/022 on environmental restoration in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    An IAEA Regional Technical Co-operation (TC) project RER/9/022 on ''Environmental Restoration'' for central and eastern Europe and the former USSR was launched in 1992 and concluded at the end of 1996. The first phase of this project had the primary purpose of identifying and characterizing radioactively contaminated sites in the region, including evaluation of doses to the general public and other environmental impacts. The main result of this phase of the project were published in IAEA-TECDOC-865. A new 1995-1996 phase of the project focused on the radioactive contamination of uranium mining and milling sites and the development of plans for environmental restoration of these sites. While the 1993-1994 phase aimed at attracting the attention of Member States in the region to a long neglected problem, the second phase served as a stimulus to initiate concrete planning activities that would lead to corrective actions in highly contaminated areas in those countries. As a consequence, the project emphasis shifted from scientific discussions to the identification of responsibilities, planning activities, and the assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of restoration plans. The 1995-1996 phase of the project consisted of a planning meeting and three workshops that addressed different topical themes. The papers compiled in this publication were presented at the last workshop, held in Felix, Romania, 4-8 November 1996. They summarize national situations in environmental contamination as of the end of 1996 and ongoing or planned actions for remediation

  17. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010-2019), mid (2050-2059), and late (2090-2099) century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn) and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8-48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink.

  18. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Hurteau

    Full Text Available Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC, but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010-2019, mid (2050-2059, and late (2090-2099 century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8-48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink.

  19. Project chariot remediation - the use of DOE's observational approach for environmental restoration with elements of the new DOE safer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.; Stewart, C.; Cabble, K.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of Project Chariot was to investigate the technical problems and assess the effect of the proposed harbor excavation using nuclear explosives in Alaska. However, no nuclear devices were brought to the Project Chariot site. Between 1959 and 1961 various environmental tests were conducted. During the course of these environmental studies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) granted the use of up to 5 curies of radioactive material at the Chariot site in Cape Thompson, Alaska; however only 26 millicuries were ever actually used. The tests were conducted in 12 test plots which were later gathered together and were mixed with in situ-soils generating approximately 1,600 cubic feet of soil. This area was then covered with four feet of clean soil, creating a mound. In 1962, the site was abandoned. A researcher at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks obtained in formation regarding the tests conducted and the materials left at the Project Chariot site. In response to concerns raised through the publication of this information, it was decided by the Department of Energy (DOE) that total remediation of the mound be completed within the year. During the summer of 1993, IT Corporation carried out the assessment and remediation of the Project Chariot site using a streamlined approach to waste site decision making called the Observational Approach (OA), and added elements of the new DOE Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER). This remediation and remediation approach is described

  20. Social organization of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshelis, David L.; Johnson, Ancel M.; Garshelis, Judith A.

    1984-01-01

    Sea otters in Prince William Sound. Alaska, were spatially segregated into predominantly (97%) male areas at the front of the expanding population and breeding areas with fewer (up to 33%) males. From 1975 to 1984 we captured and marked 267 otters with tags and (or) radio transmitters and investigated their reproductive strategies, social relationships, and patterns of sexual segregation. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in September and October. Females first bred at 4 years of age and were capable of pupping annually; they generally separated from their pup before mating. Males established breeding territories that enabled prolonged precopulatory interactions that may have prompted female–pup separation and post-copulatory interactions that precluded females from mating with other males. Male mating success was related to age, weight, territory quality, and the length of time they maintained their territory. After the breeding season, territorial males returned to male areas where food was more abundant. Young, dispersing males also entered male areas and remained there until attaining breeding age. In male areas, otters commonly rested in groups of >50 individuals. Gregariousness promoted social interactions and likely enhanced food finding and (historically) predator protection. As food diminished, males moved into adjacent, unoccupied regions; females then occupied former male areas.

  1. Habitat and food resources of otters (Mustelidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Patah, P.; Nur-Syuhada, N.; Md-Nor, S.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Habitat and food resources of otters were studied in several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 210 fecal samples were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 believed to be of otter's were analyzed for their diet composition and their habitat preferences. The DNA testing conducted revealed that only 126 samples were identified as Lultrogale perspicillata and Aonyx cinereus with 105 and 21 samples, respectively. Habitat analyses revealed that these two species preferred paddy fields and mangroves as their main habitats but L. perspicillata preferred to hunt near habitat with large water bodies, such as mangroves, rivers, ponds, and lakes. A. cinereus on the other hand, were mainly found near land-based habitat, such as paddy fields, casuarinas forest and oil palms near mangroves. Habitats chosen were influenced by their food preferences where L. perspicillata consumed a variety of fish species with a supplementary diet of prawns, small mammals, and amphibians, compared to A. cinereus which consumed less fish and more non-fish food items, such as insects, crabs, and snails. Since, the most of the otter habitats in this study are not located within the protected areas, conservation effort involving administrations, landowners, private organizations and public are necessary.

  2. STN-stimulation in Parkinson's disease restores striatal inhibition of thalamocortical projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Østergaard, Karen; Johnsen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) restores the inhibitory output to the striatothalamocortical loop in Parkinson's disease, we obtained functional brain images of blood flow in 10 STN-stimulated patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients were...... in the STN and in the left nucleus lentiformis. Conversely, flow declined in the left supplementary motor area (BA 6), ventrolateral nucleus of the left thalamus, and right cerebellum. Activation of the basal ganglia and deactivation of supplementary motor area and thalamus were both correlated...... with the improvement of motor function. The result is consistent with the explanation that stimulation in resting patients raises output from the STN with activation of the inhibitory basal ganglia output nuclei and subsequent deactivation of the thalamic anteroventral and ventrolateral nuclei and the supplementary...

  3. Restoration of areas disturbed by site studies for a mined commercial radioactive waste repository: The Basalt Waste Isolation Project [BWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Biehert, R.W.; Newell, R.L.; Page, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) was undertaken to environmentally characterize a portion of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State as a potential host for the nation's first mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Studies were terminated by Congress in 1987. Between 1976 and 1987, 72 areas located across the Hanford Site were disturbed by the BWIP. These areas include borehole pads, a large Exploratory Shaft Facility, and the Near Surface Test Facility. Most boreholes were cleared of vegetation, leveled, and stabilized with a thick layer of compacted pit-run gravel and sand. The Near Surface Test Facility consists of three mined adits, a rock-spoils bench, and numerous support facilities. Restoration began in 1988 with the objective of returning sites to pre-existing conditions using native species. The Hanford Site retains some of the last remnants of the shrub-steppe ecosystem in Washington. The primary constraints to restoring native vegetation at Hanford are low precipitation and the presence of cheatgrass, an extremely capable alien competitor. 5 figs

  4. Design review report: 200 East upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boes, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314's 200 East (200E) Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314 is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farm waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project's work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first design package (AN Valve Pit Upgrades) was completed in November 1997, and the associated design verification activities are documented in HNF-1893. The second design package, 200 East (200E) Upgrades, was completed in March 1998. This design package identifies modifications to existing valve pits 241-AX-B and 241-A-B, as well as several new waste transfer pipelines to be constructed within the A Farm Complex of the 200E Area. The scope of the valve pit modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve

  5. Restoration of degraded arid farmland at Project Wadi Attir: Impact of conservation on biological productivity and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor-Mussery, Amir; Helman, David; Ben Eli, Michael; Leu, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Israeli Negev Desert, as most Mediterranean drylands, is profoundly degraded. We have been documenting degradation and successful rehabilitation approaches in recent research, aiming at maximizing environmental and economic benefits while restoring healthy dryland soils and perennial vegetation to act as carbon sinks. These methods have been implemented for rehabilitation of Project Wadi Attir's. 50 hectares of heavily degraded farmland suffering from intensive soil erosion (expressed in dense gullies net and massive overland flow). Project Wadi Attir is a groundbreaking initiative of the Bedouin community in the Negev, for establishing a model sustainable agricultural operation. The project was initiated by the US-based Sustainability Laboratory and the Hura Municipal Council. The project is designed to demonstrate implementation of holistic sustainability principles developed by The Lab. The project's ecosystem restoration component involves site development, erosion control, soil conservation and improvement, planting of native and agroforestry trees, together with conservation and protection of biodiversity hotspots and avoiding grazing have, within three years, revealed the high biodiversity and productivity potential of this arid/semi-arid landscape. A number of shrublands and loess plots were subject to strict conservation, avoiding tilling and grazing. Soil fertility, productivity and biodiversity of these conserved plots inside the farm boundaries was compared to similar unprotected plots outside the farm fences by sampling in the field and by using satellite imaging. Our findings indicate a gradual improvement of SOM content specifically in the conserved shrubland area. Water infiltration, herbaceous biomass productivity and ants' activity of the protected plots also significantly increased within 3 years compared to the unprotected control areas. Starting from similar soil organic matter content in 2013 (3.3%) in the rocky slopes, in 2016 1% higher

  6. Environmental Restoration of Diesel-Range Organics from Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Hutton, Rick [Navarro Research & Engineering; Miller, Judy [Navarro Research & Engineering

    2016-03-06

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than 40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site (Figure 1) was cancelled because of strong public opposition [1]. No nuclear explosions were ever conducted at the site.

  7. Beyond Restoration. Valorization of the Public. Monumental Heritage Asset The Istituto degli Innocenti and the MUDI Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Terpolilli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While protection of our collective monumental heritage is a value and an objective we pass along to future generations, at the same time it must be conceived of a commitment to making these assets available to citizens of the present time. This means applying the disciplines of preservation and restoration and at the same time going beyond with a cultural approach that interprets the monumental asset as a fabbrica; that is, as a place of ongoing design activity: a workshop for a work in progress. This approach necessitates programs for valorization and productive investments that operate in full respect of the assets themselves while employing the innovative tools available for ensuring that the asset as a whole produces income. This is the framework for the MUDI project in Florence.

  8. 76 FR 31800 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... INFORMATION: Discussion Recent analysis by the FAA on the Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2011-12-02 Viking Aircraft Limited: Amendment 39-16709; Docket No...

  9. 76 FR 53381 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ..., the plan was required to include: (1) The number, age, and sex of southern sea otters proposed to be... status of the species under the ESA and determinations under section 7 of the ESA. The purposes of the... a self- sustaining southern sea otter population (experimental population) that would provide a...

  10. 78 FR 26319 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Proposal of Future Early Restoration Projects and Environmental Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... selected and implemented in accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), the Framework Agreement... oil spill under the Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA; 33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.). Pursuant to OPA, federal and... cost of this project is approximately $3.5 million. Sea Rim State Park Amenities (Jefferson County...

  11. Restoring the Power Projection Capabilities of the U.S. Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    stealthy UAVs; swarms of small, expendable UAVs; and robotic sensors on the surface. The idea is to spread sensors across a number of different...powered exoskeleton , also known as the Talon Project • Develop swarming and autonomous unmanned vehicles a David Ochmanek, Peter A. Wilson, Brenna

  12. 77 FR 21722 - Gore Creek Restoration Project; Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... District Ranger, P.O. Box 7, Yampa, Colorado 80483 or email comments to comments-rocky-mountain-medicine... causing adverse impacts to stream networks within the project boundary. Proposed Action The Yampa Ranger..., road decommissioning, new road construction, and dispersed campsite decommissioning along streams...

  13. The CEDICAE and the paper collections conservation and restoration Laboratory at CNEA : present and future organization and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Ana M.; Semino, Maria S.; Romero, Gregoria O.; Alfaro, Laura S.; Miranda, Maria V.; Chinen, Silvia P.

    2009-01-01

    In Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE), there is a working group formed by staff members from a Documentation and Information Center known as 'Lic. Maria Isabel Gonzalez' (CEDICAE) and from the CNEA Paper Collections Conservation and Restoration Laboratory. New personnel were hired in 2007, which allowed the reorganization of tasks and gave way to the creation of new projects. By conducting weekly morning meetings, the working group decided to organize and plan the activities that had to be conducted. From the first moment, the main objective of the group was to offer a service of excellence, i.e. to provide a duly and timely response to the bibliographical requests made by users, to perform tasks in the laboratory, to train members in diverse subjects of preventive conservation, surveys and evaluations of archives and libraries, and tasks of restoration of our own material and material from third parties. Among the projects carried out by the CEDICAE, the following are included: Firstly, the continuous training and education of its personnel, training of users in topics dealing with the use of the MINCyT Library, participation in the Internal Network of Libraries (REDIN) in order to adopt a joint policy by CNEA libraries, participation in the Network RRIAN (Regional Network of Information for Latin America and the Caribbean in the Nuclear Field), participation in the Federal Network of Libraries and Information, with the National Commission of Public Libraries (CONABIP) and with the Documentation Center of the Ministry of Economy and so on. It has worked in training of personnel working at the institutions that submit requests to the Laboratory (SERPAJ, Monastery of San Francisco, Ministry of Economy, CONABIP, etc) regarding topics of preventive conservation. It has realised a mockup of bibliographical recovery of damaged material after any climate disasters and has conducted surveys and evaluations from the point of view of preventive conservation. In this sense and as an

  14. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, K.D.; Mazet, J.A.K.; Gulland, F.M.D.; Estes, James A.; Staedler, M.; Murray, M.J.; Miller, M.; Jessup, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus

  15. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Krista D; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gulland, Frances M D; Estes, James; Staedler, Michelle; Murray, Michael J; Miller, Melissa; Jessup, David A

    2003-10-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus

  16. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  17. Scientific and interdisciplinary method as support for the restoration project. The balustrade steps of Villa Cerami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Sanfilippo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work an interdisciplinary study of the weathering forms of the Villa Cerami balustrade, was carried out with the aim to identify the type and causes of these and to plan conservation measures. The studied balustrade adorns and protects the steps of Villa Cerami garden, which is a suggestive example of 18th century ‘urban villa’, located in the very core of the Baroque Catania. Sadly, these stunning steps, whose magnificence and placement characterises the out-door environment of the building, at present suffer from bad degradation conditions, and the decorative details adorning the baluster are affected by irreversible damage. The causes of this ongoing degradation process are: material features, humidity, pollution and the consumption caused by the activities performed in the building. Since 1957 it has been the location of the Faculty of Law of the University of Catania. In this study, three balusters affected by the main weathering forms (biological colonization, black crust and granular disintegration recognised in the entire balustrade, were selected. The lithological type and the weathering forms were defined on the basis of an in situ investigation, using respectively the comparison of materials, to identify the calcarenites type, and the Italian norm UNI 11182 along with the Fitzner formalism, to classify the degradation forms.  A 3D survey of the selected balusters was performed with a time of flight Laser Scanner HDS300 of the Leica Geosystem with the aim to better define the volume and total surfaces of the material parts affected by erosion. The surfaces affected by black crust, were obtained by means of an image modelling technique. Data were used to calculate the damage indices through equations proposed by Fitzner and the limit at break for crushing. The potentiality of this interdisciplinary approach (architects, engineers and geologists is shown with the aim to apply it to the restoration of the entire monument

  18. Environmental assessment of the Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land controlled by DOE within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. This report provides an environmental assessment of proposed remedial action activities at the solid waste management units at SNL/NM. A risk assessment of health hazards is also discussed.

  19. An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Habitat Restoration Projects with Emphasis on Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary, 2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.; Thom, R.; Whiting, A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2003-11-01

    Habitat restoration in the Columbia River estuary (CRE) is an important off-site mitigation action in the 2000 Biological Opinion (BiOp), an operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The CRE, defined as the tidally influenced stretch of river from the mouth to Bonneville Dam 146 miles upstream, is part of the migration pathway for anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin, including salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Salmon in various stages of life, from fry to adults, use tidal channels and wetlands in the CRE to feed, find refuge from predators, and transition physiologically from freshwater to saltwater. Over the last 100 years, however, the area of some wetland habitats has decreased by as much as 70% because of dike and levee building, flow regulation, and other activities. In response to the decline in available habitat, the BiOp's Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) included mandates to 'develop a plan addressing the habitat needs of juvenile salmon and steelhead in the estuary' (RPA Action 159) and 'develop and implement an estuary restoration program with a goal of protecting and enhancing 10,000 acres of tidal wetlands and other key habitats' (RPA Action 160). To meet Action 159 and support Action 160, this document develops a science-based approach designed to improve ecosystem functions through habitat restoration activities in the CRE. The CRE habitat restoration program's goal and principles focus on habitat restoration projects in an ecosystem context. Since restoration of an entire ecosystem is not generally practical, individual habitat restoration projects have the greatest likelihood of success when they are implemented with an ecosystem perspective. The program's goal is: Implementation of well-coordinated, scientifically sound projects designed to enhance, protect, conserve, restore, and create 10,000 acres of tidal wetlands and other key habitats to aid rebuilding of ESA

  20. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Byrne, Barbara A; Jang, Spencer S; Dodd, Erin M; Dorfmeier, Elene; Harris, Michael D; Ames, Jack; Paradies, David; Worcester, Karen; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2010-01-01

    Although protected for nearly a century, California's sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona. However, potential impacts from exposure to fecal bacteria have not been systematically explored. Using selective media, we examined feces from live and dead sea otters from California for specific enteric bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile and Escherichia coli O157:H7), and pathogens endemic to the marine environment (Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides). We evaluated statistical associations between detection of these pathogens in otter feces and demographic or environmental risk factors for otter exposure, and found that dead otters were more likely to test positive for C. perfringens, Campylobacter and V. parahaemolyticus than were live otters. Otters from more urbanized coastlines and areas with high freshwater runoff (near outflows of rivers or streams) were more likely to test positive for one or more of these bacterial pathogens. Other risk factors for bacterial detection in otters included male gender and fecal samples collected during the rainy season when surface runoff is maximal. Similar risk factors were reported in prior studies of pathogen exposure for California otters and their invertebrate prey, suggesting that land-sea transfer and/or facilitation of pathogen survival in degraded coastal marine habitat may be impacting sea otter recovery. Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health.

  1. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Jang, Spencer S.; Dodd, Erin M.; Dorfmeier, Elene; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack; Paradies, David; Worcester, Karen; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2009-01-01

    Although protected for nearly a century, California’s sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona. However, potential impacts from exposure to fecal bacteria have not been systematically explored. Using selective media, we examined feces from live and dead sea otters from California for specific enteric bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile and Escherichia coli O157:H7), and pathogens endemic to the marine environment (Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides). We evaluated statistical associations between detection of these pathogens in otter feces and demographic or environmental risk factors for otter exposure, and found that dead otters were more likely to test positive for C. perfringens, Campylobacter and V. parahaemolyticus than were live otters. Otters from more urbanized coastlines and areas with high freshwater runoff (near outflows of rivers or streams) were more likely to test positive for one or more of these bacterial pathogens. Other risk factors for bacterial detection in otters included male gender and fecal samples collected during the rainy season when surface runoff is maximal. Similar risk factors were reported in prior studies of pathogen exposure for California otters and their invertebrate prey, suggesting that land-sea transfer and/or facilitation of pathogen survival in degraded coastal marine habitat may be impacting sea otter recovery. Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health. PMID:19720009

  2. Proposals for the conservation of otters Lutra lutra L. on Corfu island (Ionian Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Grémillet

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suggested measures for the conservation of otters (Lutra lutra on Corfu include: 1 a nature sanctuary ("Otter Haven" for some little remote lagoons near Aghios Stephanos in the north-east; 2 a lagoon restoration scheme including restoration of traditional fishing with joint nature tourism for the large reedbeds and lagoons: Antinioti (100 ha in the north, Chalkiopoulou (380 ha in the suburbs of Kerkyra, Korission (500 ha in the south-west; 3 the stopping of raw sewage discharge, illegal infilling, building and waste dumping in the wetlands; 4 the limitation of intensive fish farming schemes. Such a policy is reconcilable with economic activities (tourism, fishing, trade or administration. Riassunto Proposte per la conservazione della lontra Lutra lutra L. nell'isola di Corfù (Mare Jonio, Grecia - Per la conservazione della lontra (Lutra lutra nell'Isola di Corfù sono suggeriti i seguenti interventi: 1 creazione di "santuari naturali" per la specie comprendenti le piccole lagune vicino a Aghios Stephanos nella parte nord-est dell'isola; 2 riqualificazione degli ambienti a canneto e delle lagune, abbinata a1 ripristino della pesca tradizionale e allo sviluppo del turismo ecologico: Antinioti (100 ha nella parte settentrionale, Chalkiopoulou (380 ha nell'area suburbana di Kerkyra, Korission (500 ha nella parte sud-ovest; 3 divieto di scarichi fognari e abusivi, divieto di costruzione di insediamenti abitativi e eliminazione di discariche nelle zone umide; 4 limitazioni allo sviluppo degli allevamenti ittici intensivi. Gli interventi prospettati si inquadrano in una politica di gestione ambientale compatibile con le attività economiche presenti (turismo, pesca, commercio.

  3. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  4. Postrelease monitoring of radio-instrumented sea otters in Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.; Stack, C.; Monson, Daniel H.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that were captured in western Prince William Sound (PWS) or the Gulf of Alaska, treated, and held in captivity at the temporary rehabilitation centers established in response to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill were instrumented with radio transmitters, released into eastern PWS, and monitored by radiotelemetry. We undertook the present study to gain information for guiding the release of the remaining captive otters and evaluating the efficacy of sea otter rehabilitation after exposure to crude oil. Radio transmitters were attached to the flippers of seven sea otters released in May 1989 and monitored for periods of a few hours to more than 60 days. However, little was learned about the fate of these animals because the radio transmitters used proved unreliable. Forty-five additional sea otters from the rehabilitation centers were implanted with radio transmitters, released into northeastern PWS and monitored for 8 months. During the first 20 days after the first release of these implanted otters (n = 21), they were more mobile than wild-caught and released sea otters studied in PWS, from 1984 through 1990. All were alive and vigorous at the end of the 20-day period. Tracking of all 45 implanted sea otters during the 8-month period showed that the otters remained highly mobile. Many (46.6%) crossed into western PWS. However, by the end of the 8 months, 12 of the instrumented otters were dead and 9 were missing. One radio failed. These mortality and missing rates are much higher than those normally observed for adult sea otters in PWS. The death rate was highest in winter. These data suggest that, despite the tremendous amount of money and energy directed toward the treatment and care of these animals, the sea otters released from the centers were not completely rehabilitated, that is, not returned to a normal state. We recommend that future policies focus on preventing otters from becoming oiled, rather than attempting to treat them

  5. Valuing Externalities of Watershed Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in Mediterranean Basins: A Comparative Analysis of the Contingent Valuation and Replacement Cost Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Maria Del Carmen Almansa; Calatrava-Requena, Javier

    2002-01-01

    The methodology used for Economic Valuation of the Externalities generated by the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in the Hydrographic Basins of the Mediterranean Slope, is based on the Replacement Cost Method. Environmental Economics, however, today offer us other methodological possibilities, whose application to the valuation of this type of project may prove to be of interest. It is the case of the Contingent Valuation Method used for the evaluation of the effects of th...

  6. Anacostia River fringe wetlands restoration project: final report for the five-year monitoring program (2003 through 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Cairn C.; Hammerschlag, Richard S.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2009-01-01

    The 6-hectare (ha) freshwater tidal Anacostia River Fringe Wetlands (Fringe Wetlands) were reconstructed along the mainstem of the Anacostia River in Washington, DC (Photograph 1, Figure 1) during the summer of 2003. The Fringe Wetlands consist of two separate planting cells. Fringe A, located adjacent to Lower Kingman Island, on the west bank of the Anacostia River, occupies 1.6 ha; Fringe B, located on the east bank of the Anacostia River, occupies 4.4 ha. This project is the third in a series of freshwater tidal wetland reconstructions on the Anacostia River designed and implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Baltimore District and District Department of the Environment (DDOE) on lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS). The first was Kenilworth Marsh, reconstructed in 1993 (Syphax and Hammerschlag 2005); the second was Kingman Marsh, reconstructed in 2000 (Hammerschlag et al. 2006). Kenilworth and Kingman were both constructed in low-energy backwaters of the Anacostia. However, the Fringe Wetlands, which were constructed on two pre-existing benches along the high-energy mainstem, required sheet piling to provide protection from erosive impacts of increased flow and volume of water associated with storm events during the establishment phase (Photograph 2). All three projects required the placement of dredged sediment materials to increase elevations enough to support emergent vegetation (Photograph 3). The purpose of all three wetland reconstruction projects was to restore pieces of the once extensive tidal freshwater marsh habitat that bordered the Anacostia River historically, prior to the dredge and fill operations and sea wall installation that took place there in the early to mid-1900's (Photograph 4).

  7. Planning for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings of a workshop held under the technical co-operation project RER/9/022 on environmental restoration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    An IAEA Regional Technical Co-operation (TC) project RER/9/022 on ``Environmental Restoration`` for central and eastern Europe and the former USSR was launched in 1992 and concluded at the end of 1996. The first phase of this project had the primary purpose of identifying and characterizing radioactively contaminated sites in the region, including evaluation of doses to the general public and other environmental impacts. The main result of this phase of the project were published in IAEA-TECDOC-865. A new 1995-1996 phase of the project focused on the radioactive contamination of uranium mining and milling sites and the development of plans for environmental restoration of these sites. While the 1993-1994 phase aimed at attracting the attention of Member States in the region to a long neglected problem, the second phase served as a stimulus to initiate concrete planning activities that would lead to corrective actions in highly contaminated areas in those countries. As a consequence, the project emphasis shifted from scientific discussions to the identification of responsibilities, planning activities, and the assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of restoration plans. The 1995-1996 phase of the project consisted of a planning meeting and three workshops that addressed different topical themes. The papers compiled in this publication were presented at the last workshop, held in Felix, Romania, 4-8 November 1996. They summarize national situations in environmental contamination as of the end of 1996 and ongoing or planned actions for remediation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  8. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...-F2013227943] South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19... South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring and enhancing over 2,000 acres of... Pollution Control Plant located at 700 Los Esteros Road, San Jose, California. The details of the public...

  9. High-altitude diving in river otters: coping with combined hypoxic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crait, Jamie R; Prange, Henry D; Marshall, Noah A; Harlow, Henry J; Cotton, Clark J; Ben-David, Merav

    2012-01-15

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are highly active, semi-aquatic mammals indigenous to a range of elevations and represent an appropriate model for assessing the physiological responses to diving at altitude. In this study, we performed blood gas analyses and compared blood chemistry of river otters from a high-elevation (2357 m) population at Yellowstone Lake with a sea-level population along the Pacific coast. Comparisons of oxygen dissociation curves (ODC) revealed no significant difference in hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O(2)) binding affinity between the two populations - potentially because of demands for tissue oxygenation. Instead, high-elevation otters had greater Hb concentrations (18.7 g dl(-1)) than sea-level otters (15.6 g dl(-1)). Yellowstone otters displayed higher levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), and half the concentration of the serum protein albumin, possibly to compensate for increased blood viscosity. Despite compensation in several hematological and serological parameters, theoretical aerobic dive limits (ADL) were similar between high-elevation and sea-level otters because of the lower availability of O(2) at altitude. Our results suggest that recent disruptions to the Yellowstone Lake food web could be detrimental to otters because at this high elevation, constraints on diving may limit their ability to switch to prey in a deep-water environment.

  10. Restoration of Apollo Data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Taylor, Patrick T.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo 11, 12, and 14 through 17 missions orbited and landed on the Moon, carrying scientific instruments that returned data from all phases of the missions, included long-lived Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs) deployed by the astronauts on the lunar surface. Much of these data were never archived, and some of the archived data were on media and in formats that are outmoded, or were deposited with little or no useful documentation to aid outside users. This is particularly true of the ALSEP data returned autonomously for many years after the Apollo missions ended. The purpose of the Lunar Data Project and the Planetary Data System (PDS) Lunar Data Node is to take data collections already archived at the NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and prepare them for archiving through PDS, and to locate lunar data that were never archived, bring them into NSSDCA, and then archive them through PDS. Preparing these data for archiving involves reading the data from the original media, be it magnetic tape, microfilm, microfiche, or hard-copy document, converting the outmoded, often binary, formats when necessary, putting them into a standard digital form accepted by PDS, collecting the necessary ancillary data and documentation (metadata) to ensure that the data are usable and well-described, summarizing the metadata in documentation to be included in the data set, adding other information such as references, mission and instrument descriptions, contact information, and related documentation, and packaging the results in a PDS-compliant data set. The data set is then validated and reviewed by a group of external scientists as part of the PDS final archive process. We present a status report on some of the data sets that we are processing.

  11. The Development of the Comic Spirit in 17th Century England from James Shirley to William Congreve. Curriculum Projects, April 7-June 16, 1992. The Huntington Theatre Company Master Works Study in Restoration Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington Theatre Co., Boston, MA.

    Developed by the participants of the Huntington Theatre Company's Master Works Study in Restoration Comedy, this collection presents one-day lesson plans and curriculum projects for teaching Restoration comedy. The collection offers 15 one-day lesson plans and 15 curriculum projects (ranging over several weeks) suitable for secondary school…

  12. Activity patterns and time budgets of the declining sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, Thomas S.; Siniff, Donald B.; Estes, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Time budgets of predators may reflect population status if time spent foraging varies with local prey abun- dance. We assumed that the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population at Amchitka Island, Alaska, USA, had been at equilibrium since the early 1960s and collected time budgets of otters to be used to represent future conditions of currently expanding sea otter populations. We used radiotelemetry to monitor activity-time budgets of otters from August 1992 to March 1994. Sea otter activity was directly linked to sex, age, weather condition, season, and time of day. Sea otters differed in percent time foraging among cohorts but not within cohorts. Percent time foraging ranged from 21% for females with very young (≤ 3weeks of age) dependent pups to 52% for females with old (≥10 weeks of age) pups. Otters foraged more and hauled out more as local sea conditions worsened. Adult males spent less time foraging during winter and spring, consistent with seasonal changes in prey selection. Time spent for- aging was similar to that reported for otters in California and an established population in Prince William Sound, Alaska, but greater than that of otters in recently established populations in Oregon and Alaska. Despite current evidence indicating that the population was in decline during our study, we were unable to recognize this change using time budgets. Our results illustrate the importance of stratifying analyses of activity patterns by age and sex cohorts and the complexity inherent in comparisons of behavioral data between different populations relying on distinct prey bases.

  13. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Thomas, N J

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Porous Vegetation Concrete Made with By-Product Materials for Ecological Restoration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of porous vegetation concrete block made from blast furnace slag cement containing industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag aggregate and powder. The blocks were tested for void ratio, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance to determine the optimal mixing ratio for the porous vegetation block. An economic analysis of the mixing ratio showed that the economic efficiency increased when blast furnace slag aggregate and cement were used. Porous vegetation concrete blocks for river applications were designed and produced. Hydraulic safety, heavy metal elution and vegetation tests were completed after the blocks were applied in the field. The measured tractive force ranged between 7.0 kg/m2 for fascine revetment (vegetation revetment and 16.0 kg/m2 for stone pitching (hard revetment, which ensured sufficient hydraulic stability in the field. Plant growth was measured after the porous vegetation concrete block was placed in the field. Seeds began to sprout one week after seeding; after six weeks, the plant length exceeded 300 mm. The average coverage ratio reached as high as 90% after six weeks of vegetation. These results clearly indicated that the porous vegetation concrete block was suitable for environmental restoration projects.

  15. WIRE project- Soil water repellence in biodiverse semi arid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Background Soil water repellency (SWR) can have a critical effect on the restoration of disturbed ecosystems causing poor plant establishment and promoting erosion processes. Although SWR has been reported in most continents of the world for different soil types, climate conditions and land uses, there are still many research gaps in the knowledge of its causes and controlling factors (Doerr et al.,2000; Jordan et al., 2013), particularly in Mediterranean arid semi arid environments which are largely affected by this phenomenon. The WIRE project aims to investigate SWR in soils under different vegetation types of dominant biodiverse ecosystems of Western Australia (WA), e.g. hummock grasslands and Banksia woodlands, as well as characterizing organic compounds that induce hydrophobicity in these soils. Banksia woodlands (BW) are of particular interest in this project. These are iconic ecosystems of WA composed by an overstorey dominated by Proteaceae that are threatened by sand mining activities and urban expansion. Conservation and restoration of these woodlands are critical but despite considerable efforts to restore these areas, the success of current rehabilitation programs is poor due to the high sensitivity of the ecosystem to drought stress and the disruption of water dynamics in mature BW soils that result in low seedling survival rates (5-30%). The main objectives of this collaborative research are: i) to identify SWR intensity and severity under different vegetation types and evaluate controlling factors in both hummock grasslands and BW (ii) to characterize hydrophobic compounds in soils using analytical pyrolysis techniques and iii) to investigate the impact of SWR on water economy in relation with soil functioning and plant strategies for water uptake in pristine BW. Methods In a series of field trials and experimental studies, we measured SWR of soil samples under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) that were previously collected under

  16. Web application to access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects information for the Rio Grande Basin, southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  17. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A; Barr, B C; Nordhausen, R; James, E R; Magargal, S L; Murray, M; Conrad, P A; Toy-Choutka, S; Jessup, D A; Grigg, M E

    2009-10-01

    In 2004, three wild sea otters were diagnosed with putative Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Schizonts, free merozoites and tissue cysts were observed in the brains of all three infected animals. Tissue cysts walls from sea otter 1 (SO1) stained positively using anti-S. neurona polyclonal antiserum. However, positive staining does not preclude infection by closely related or cross-reactive tissue cyst-forming coccidian parasites. Two immature tissue cysts in the brain of SO1 were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural features included cyst walls with thin villous projections up to 1 microm long with tapered ends and a distinctive, electron-dense outer lining layer composed of linearly-arranged, semi-circular structures with a "hobnailed" surface contour. Small numbers of microtubules extended down through the villi into the underlying granular layer. Metrocytes were short and plump with an anterior apical complex, 22 sub-pellicular microtubules, numerous free ribosomes and no rhoptries. Some metrocytes appeared to be dividing, with two adjacent nuclear profiles. Collectively these ultrastructural features were compatible with developing protozoal cysts and were similar to prior descriptions of S. neurona tissue cysts. Panspecific 18S rDNA primers were utilized to identify protozoa infecting the brains of these otters and DNA amplification and additional sequencing at the ITS1 locus confirmed that all three otters were infected with S. neurona. No other Sarcocystis spp. were detected in the brains or skeletal muscles of these animals by immunohistochemistry or PCR. We believe this is the first ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of S. neurona tissue cysts in the CNS of any animal.

  18. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs.

  19. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  1. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated aquatic ecosystems: the project MOIRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U.; Brittain, J.; Monte, L.

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems

  2. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated acquatic ecosystems: The project ``moira``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U. [Studsvik Eco and AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Brittain, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). LFI Zoological Museum; Gallego Diaz, E. [Madrid Universidad Politecnica (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Hakanson, L. [KEMA Nuclear, Arnhem (Niger); Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems.

  3. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  4. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  5. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Singh

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  6. Mortality trends in northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) collected from the coasts of Washington and Oregon (2002–15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Lankau, Emily W.; Lynch, Deanna; Knowles, Susan N.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Thomas, Nancy J.

    2018-01-01

    During 2002−15 we examined the causes of mortality in a population of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni). Beachcast sea otters were collected primarily from the coast of Washington. Although there are no permanent sea otter residents in Oregon, several beachcast otters were collected from the Oregon coast. Infectious diseases were the primary cause of death (56%) for otters we examined. Sarcocystosis was the leading infectious cause of death (54%) and was observed throughout the study period. Some infectious diseases, such as morbilliviral encephalitis and leptospirosis, were documented for a limited number of years and then not detected again despite continued testing for these pathogens in necropsied animals. Trauma was the second most common cause of death (14%) during the study period. The continued stable growth of the Washington population of otters suggests they are able to tolerate current mortality rates.

  7. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  8. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel N.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  9. A project optimization for small watercourses restoration in the northern part of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain by the geoinformation and hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Alexander; Vasilchenko, Ann; Khoperskov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The project of small watercourses restoration in the northern part of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain is considered together with the aim of increasing the watering of the territory during small and medium floods. The topography irregularity, the complex structure of the floodplain valley consisting of large number of small watercourses, the presence of urbanized and agricultural areas require careful preliminary analysis of the hydrological safety and efficiency of geographically distributed project activities. Using the digital terrain and watercourses structure models of the floodplain, the hydrodynamic flood model, the analysis of the hydrological safety and efficiency of several project implementation strategies has been conducted. The objective function values have been obtained from the hydrodynamic calculations of the floodplain territory flooding for virtual digital terrain models simulating alternatives for the geographically distributed project activities. The comparative efficiency of several empirical strategies for the geographically distributed project activities, as well as a two-stage exact solution method for the optimization problem has been studied.

  10. Issues related to uncertainty in projections of hazardous and mixed waste volumes in the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picel, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Projected volumes of contaminated media and debris at US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration sites that are potentially subject to the hazardous waste provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act are needed to support programmatic planning. Such projections have been gathered in various surveys conducted under DOE's environmental restoration and waste management programs. It is expected that reducing uncertainty in the projections through review of existing site data and process knowledge and through further site characterization will result in substantially lowered projections. If promulgated, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Hazardous Waste Identification Rule would result in potentially even greater reductions in the projections when site conditions are reviewed under the provisions of the new rule. Reducing uncertainty in projections under current and future waste identification rules may be necessary to support effective remediation planning. Further characterization efforts that may be conducted should be designed to limit uncertainty in identifying volumes of wastes to the extent needed to support alternative selection and to minimize costs of remediation

  11. Dramatic increase in sea otter mortality from white sharks in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Although southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) are not considered prey for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), sharks do nonetheless bite sea otters. We analyzed spatial and temporal trends in shark bites on sea otters in California, assessing the frequency of shark bite wounds in 1,870 carcasses collected since 1985. The proportion of stranded sea otters having shark bites has increased sharply since 2003, and white shark bites now account for >50% of recovered carcasses. The trend was most pronounced in the southern part of the range, from Estero Bay to Point Conception, where shark bite frequency has increased eightfold. Seasonal trends were also evident: most shark-bitten carcasses are recovered in late summer and fall; however, the period of elevated shark bite frequency has lengthened. The causes of these trends are unclear, but possible contributing factors include increased white shark abundance and/or changes in white shark behavior and distribution. In particular, the spatiotemporal patterns of shark-bitten sea otters match increases in pinniped populations, and the increased availability of marine mammal prey for white sharks may have led to more sharks spending more time in nearshore waters utilized by both sea otters and pinnipeds.

  12. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K.; Guruge, K.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products, mono- (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), were determined in liver, kidney, and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along the coast of California during 1992a??1996. Hepatic concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs = MBT + DBT + TBT) ranged from 40 to 9200 ng/g wet wt, which varied depending on the sampling location and gender. Concentrations of BTs in sea otters were comparable to those reported in stranded bottlenose dolphins from the U.S. Atlantic Coast during 1989a??1994. Greater accumulation of butyltins in sea otters was explained by their bottom-feeding habit and the diet that consists exclusively of invertebrates such as mollusks and gastropods. Livers of female sea otters contained approximately 2-fold greater concentrations of BTs than did those of males. The composition of butyltin compounds in sea otter tissues was predominated by TBT in most cases and suggestive of recent exposure. Large harbors such as Monterey Harbor that handle ships legally painted with TBT-containing antifouling paints continued to experience ecotoxicologically significant butyltin contamination. Sea otters, which were affected by infectious diseases, contained greater concentrations of BTs in their tissues than those that died from trauma and other unknown causes.

  13. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  14. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, James L., Jr. (.,; .); Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  15. Economic valuation of flood mitigation services: A case study from the Otter Creek, VT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, G. L.; Ricketts, T.; Bryan, K. L.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Polasky, S.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services provided by wetlands are widely recognized but difficult to quantify. In particular, estimating the effect of landcover and land use on downstream flood outcomes remains challenging, but is increasingly important in light of climate change predictions of increased precipitation in many areas. Economic valuation can help incorporate ecosystem services into decisions and enable communities to plan for climate and flood resiliency. Here we estimate the economic value of Otter Creek wetlands for Middlebury, VT in mitigating the flood that followed Tropical Storm Irene, as well as for ten historic floods. Observationally, hydrographs above and below the wetlands in the case of each storm indicated the wetlands functioned as a temporary reservoir, slowing the delivery of water to Middlebury. We compare observed floods, based on Middlebury's hydrograph, with simulated floods for scenarios without wetlands. To simulate these "without wetlands" scenarios, we assume the same volume of water was delivered to Middlebury, but in a shorter time pulse similar to a hydrograph upstream of the wetlands. For scenarios with and without wetlands, we map the spatial extent of flooding using LiDAR digital elevation data. We then estimate flood depth at each affected building, and calculate monetary losses as a function of the flood depth and house value using established depth damage relationships. For example, we expect damages equal to 20% of the houses value for a flood depth of two feet in a two-story home with a basement. We define the value of flood mitigation services as the difference in damages between the with and without wetlands scenario, and find that the Otter Creek wetlands reduced flood damage in Middlebury by 88% following Hurricane Irene. Using the 10 additional historic floods, we estimate an ongoing mean value of $400,000 in avoided damages per year. Economic impacts of this magnitude stress the importance of wetland conservation and warrant the

  16. Characterizing Process-Based River and Floodplain Restoration Projects on Federal Lands in Oregon, and Assessing Catalysts and Barriers to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, S.; Jones, J. A.; Gosnell, H.

    2017-12-01

    Process-based restoration, a new approach to river and floodplain management, is being implemented on federal lands across Oregon. These management efforts are aimed at promoting key physical processes in order to improve river ecological function, create diverse habitat, and increase biological productivity for ESA-listed bull trout and spring Chinook salmon. Although the practice is being disseminated across the Pacific Northwest, it remains unclear what is driving aquatic and riparian ecosystem restoration towards this process-based approach and away from form-based methods such as Rosgen's Natural Channel Design. The technical aspects of process-based restoration have been described in the literature (ex. Beechie et al. 2010), but little is known about the practice from a social science perspective, and few case studies exist to assess the impact of these efforts. We combine semi-structured qualitative interviews with management experts and photogrammetric analysis to better understand how complex social processes and changing ideas about aquatic ecosystems are manifesting on the ground in federal land management. This study characterizes process-based river and floodplain restoration projects on federal lands in Oregon, and identifies catalysts and barriers to its implementation. The Deer Creek Floodplain Enhancement project serves as a case study for photogrammetric analysis. To characterize long-term changes at Deer Creek, geomorphic features were mapped and classified using orthoimage mosaics developed from a time series of historic aerial photographs dating back to 1954. 3D Digital Elevation Models (3D-DEMs) were created of portions of the modified sections of Deer Creek and its floodplain immediately before and after restoration using drone-captured aerial photography and a photogrammetric technique called Structure from Motion. These 3D-DEMs have enabled extraction of first-order geomorphic variables to compare pre- and post-project conditions. This

  17. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  18. Effect of vegetation structure on breeding territory selection by red-winged blackbirds in a floodplain forest restoration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria A. Furey; Dirk E. Burhans; Hong He; Michael A. Gold; Bruce E. Cutter

    2003-01-01

    Our research investigates the role of vegetation structure in the selection of breeding territories by red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) in two floodplain oak-restoration sites. Perches are used extensively by red-winged blackbirds in territorial display during the spring (Yasukawa and Searcy 1995). We hypothesized that breeding territory...

  19. Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Asila; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-11-01

    In this study we examine the auditory capabilities of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), an amphibious marine mammal that remains virtually unstudied with respect to its sensory biology. We trained an adult male sea otter to perform a psychophysical task in an acoustic chamber and at an underwater apparatus. Aerial and underwater audiograms were constructed from detection thresholds for narrowband signals measured in quiet conditions at frequencies from 0.125-40 kHz. Aerial hearing thresholds were also measured in the presence of octave-band masking noise centered at eight signal frequencies (0.25-22.6 kHz) so that critical ratios could be determined. The aerial audiogram of the sea otter resembled that of sea lions and showed a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity relative to terrestrial mustelids. Best sensitivity was -1 dB re 20 µPa at 8 kHz. Under water, hearing sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared to sea lions and other pinniped species, demonstrating that sea otter hearing is primarily adapted to receive airborne sounds. Critical ratios were more than 10 dB higher than those measured for pinnipeds, suggesting that sea otters are less efficient than other marine carnivores at extracting acoustic signals from background noise, especially at frequencies below 2 kHz.

  20. Innervation Patterns of Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris Mystacial Follicle-Sinus Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Douglas Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F-SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339±408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses¬.

  1. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  2. Distribution and observations on the population of marine otters Lontra felina(Molina 1782 in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Apaza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the distribution of marine otter Lontra felinaon the Peruvian coast, from Punta Aguja (05°47'S to the boundary with Chile (18°21'S. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the literature on L. felinato elucidate a northern boundary of its geographic distribution, concluding that there is no solid evidence of a possible northern limit at 6°S. For the same reasons, the affirmation of a "historic distribution" to the Lobos de Tierra island was discarded. It is also presented information of 272 otters from 130 locations between the years 2000 and 2010. The distribution of these records no has spatial autocorrelation, suggesting a homogeneous distribution. Considering the morphostructure and geomorphology of the Peruvian coast we can see similarities with the division into three zones: north, central and south, the last two add all records of otters, which could provide habitat characteristics that, allow a continuous distribution of L. felina. Finally there is an increase in the number of otters in the Peruvian coast to compare the current values with those of 40 years ago, but we show the lack of traceability of the latest information. We suggest undertaking research linking abundances and densities of otters with the characterization and distribution of their habitats, and behavioral studies that reveal the processes or intrinsic characteristics of the species to move into its geographic range.

  3. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Browning, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the diets of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, were examined in 1989 and 1990. On the basis of identification of prey remains in their feces, otters fed principally on marine, bottom-dwelling fishes. Marine gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans composed most of the invertebrates in the diet of otters; freshwater and terrestrial food items seldom occurred in their feces. The diets of otters included 149 different taxa, most of which rarely occurred in their feces. Sixty-five taxa occurred ≥5 times in the combined data set. Species richness and diversity of prey remains in otter feces were similar on oiled and nonoiled study areas in late winter 1989 (before the oil spill) and during summer 1989 following the spill. By summer 1990, however, there were significant declines in the richness and diversity of species (mostly bony fish, molluscs, and bivalves) in otter diets on the oiled area. Likewise, the relative abundance of prey remains in otter feces showed strong differences between areas and years, and an area by year interaction. Members of the Perciformes and Archaeogastropoda declined from 1989 to 1990 on the oiled area while they increased on the nonoiled site; Malacostraca exhibited the opposite pattern. These outcomes, when considered with other data on body mass and blood chemistry, strongly suggest that some effects of the oil spill on otters were delayed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Congener-specific model for polychlorinated biphenyl effect on otter (Lutra lutra) and associated sediment quality criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traas, T.P.; Luttik, R.; Klepper, O.; Beurskens, J.E.M.; Smit, M.D.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Hattum, van A.G.M.; Aldenberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model for risk assessment was built for simultaneous, congener-specific PCB bioaccumulation from sediment to fish to otters (Lutra lutra). Toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) were used to sum individual congeners in otters to a toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) relative to

  5. Application of biomarkers for exposure and effect of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in naturally exposed european otters (Lutra lutra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murk, A.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Luit, R.; Vanderweiden, M.E.J.; Smit, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the serious decline of European otters (Lutra lutra) over the last decades, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered to be one of the major factors. As no experiments can be conducted with otters, an eco-epidemiological study was performed to derive no observed effect concentrations

  6. Monitoring population status of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: options and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, George G.; Esler, Daniel N.; Howlin, S.; Starcevich, L.A.

    2015-06-25

    After many decades of absence from southeast Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are recolonizing parts of their former range, including Glacier Bay, Alaska. Sea otters are well known for structuring nearshore ecosystems and causing community-level changes such as increases in kelp abundance and changes in the size and number of other consumers. Monitoring population status of sea otters in Glacier Bay will help park researchers and managers understand and interpret sea otter-induced ecosystem changes relative to other sources of variation, including potential human-induced impacts such as ocean acidification, vessel disturbance, and oil spills. This report was prepared for the National Park Service (NPS), Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network following a request for evaluation of options for monitoring sea otter population status in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. To meet this request, we provide a detailed consideration of the primary method of assessment of abundance and distribution, aerial surveys, including analyses of power to detect interannual trends and designs to reduce variation around annual abundance estimates. We also describe two alternate techniques for evaluating sea otter population status—(1) quantifying sea otter diets and energy intake rates, and (2) detecting change in ages at death. In addition, we provide a brief section on directed research to identify studies that would further our understanding of sea otter population dynamics and effects on the Glacier Bay ecosystem, and provide context for interpreting results of monitoring activities.

  7. Identification of remediation needs and technology development focus areas for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.D.

    1995-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project has been tasked with the characterization, assessment, remediation and long-term monitoring of contaminated waste sites at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). Many of these sites will require remediation which will involve the use of baseline technologies, innovative technologies that are currently under development, and new methods which will be developed in the near future. The Technology Applications Program (TAP) supports the ER Project and is responsible for development of new technologies for use at the contaminated waste sites, including technologies that will be used for remediation and restoration of these sites. The purpose of this report is to define the remediation needs of the ER Project and to identify those remediation needs for which the baseline technologies and the current development efforts are inadequate. The area between the remediation needs and the existing baseline/innovative technology base represents a technology gap which must be filled in order to remediate contaminated waste sites at SNL/NM economically and efficiently. In the first part of this report, the remediation needs of the ER Project are defined by both the ER Project task leaders and by TAP personnel. The next section outlines the baseline technologies, including EPA defined Best Demonstrated Available Technologies (BDATs), that are applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. This is followed by recommendations of innovative technologies that are currently being developed that may also be applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. Finally, the gap between the existing baseline/innovative technology base and the remediation needs is identified. This technology gap will help define the future direction of technology development for the ER Project

  8. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.2: Planning for environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. It is under these circumstances that the IAEA decided to launch a Technical Co-operation (TC) Project on Environmental Restoration in Central and Eastern Europe. The project was initiated in the latter part of 1992 and ended in 1994. The countries that were involved and represented in this forum are: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Ukraine. Several experts from countries outside the region participated and offered their co-operation throughout the project. Refs, figs, tabs.

  9. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.2: Planning for environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. It is under these circumstances that the IAEA decided to launch a Technical Co-operation (TC) Project on Environmental Restoration in Central and Eastern Europe. The project was initiated in the latter part of 1992 and ended in 1994. The countries that were involved and represented in this forum are: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Ukraine. Several experts from countries outside the region participated and offered their co-operation throughout the project. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Use of vegetation sampling and analysis to detect a problem within a portion of a prairie restoration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, Raymond; Scholes, Chad; Krabbe, Stephen

    2017-01-02

    In June 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) began establishing the 60-ha Howell Prairie around the disposal cell at the DOE Weldon Spring Site (WSS). Prairies were historically present in the area of the site. Quantitative Cover sampling was used to quantify Total Cover, Native Grass Cover, Non-Native Grass Cover, Native Forb Cover, Non-Native Forb Cover, Warm Season (C 4 Grass), Cool Season (C 3 Grass), Perennial Cover and Annual Cover, Litter, and Bare Ground. Four permanent vegetation sampling plots were established. The first 4 years of vegetation measurements at Howell Prairie were made during above-average rainfall years on burned and unburned plots. The fifth-year (2012) vegetation measurements were made after below-average rainfall. Five years of results not only document the consistency of the restoration effort in three areas, but also demonstrate deficiencies in Grass Cover in a fourth area. The results are not only useful for Howell Prairie, but will be useful for restoration work throughout the region. Restoration work suffers from a lack of success monitoring and in this case from a lack of available reference areas. Floristic Quality Indices are used to make qualitative comparisons of the site to Konza Prairie sites.

  11. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  12. Sarcocysts of an unidentified species of Sarcocystis in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The number of Sarcocystis species that infect sea otters (Enhydra lutris) is unknown. Sea otter tissues were recently shown to harbor sarcocysts of S. neurona and of unidentified species of Sarcocystis. Whereas sarcocysts of S. neurona have walls 1a??3 I?m thick with type 9 villar protrusions, ultrastructure of a distinct thin-walled sarcocyst (0.5a??0.7 I?m thick) lacking villar protrusions, but instead exhibiting minute type 1 undulations on the sarcocyst wall, is described in this report. Parasites characterized from a sea otter infection were inferred to be related to, but distinct from, other species belonging to Sarcocystis, based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a portion of the beta subunit of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase gene.

  13. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  14. Pathogen exposure and blood chemistry in the Washington population of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Schuler, Krysten L.; Thomas, Nancy J.; Webb, Julie L.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Ip, Hon S.; Dubey, J.P.; Frame, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, United States were evaluated in 2011 to determine health status and pathogen exposure. Antibodies to Brucella spp. (10%) and influenza A virus (23%) were detected for the first time in this population in 2011. Changes in clinical pathology values (serum chemistries), exposure to pathogens, and overall health of the population over the last decade were assessed by comparing 2011 data to the data collected on this population in 2001–2002. Several serum chemistry parameters were different between study years and sexes but were not clinically significant. The odds of canine distemper virus exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2001–2002 (80%) compared to 2011 (10%); likelihood of exposure significantly increased with age. Prevalence of exposure to Sarcocystis neurona was also higher in 2001–2002 (29%) than in 2011 (0%), but because testing methods varied between study years the results were not directly comparable. Exposure to Leptospira spp. was only observed in 2001–2002. Odds of Toxoplasma gondii exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2011 (97%) than otters in 2001–2002 (58%). Substantial levels of domoic acid (n = 2) and saxitoxin (n = 2) were found in urine or fecal samples from animals sampled in 2011. No evidence of calicivirus or Coxiella burnetii exposure in the Washington population of northern sea otters was found in either 2001–2002 or 2011. Changes in exposure status from 2001–2002 to 2011 suggest that the Washington sea otter population may be dealing with new disease threats (e.g., influenza) while also increasing their susceptibility to diseases that may be highly pathogenic in naïve individuals (e.g., canine distemper).

  15. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the oval cambered double slotted otter board in bottom trawl fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Huang, H. L.; Li, L. Z.; Qu, T. C.; Wu, Y.; Chen, S.; Yang, J. L.; Rao, X.

    2017-07-01

    The otter board is one of the main components of single boat trawl fisheries. An oval cambered double slotted otter board was developed for improving the expansion performance of trawl net in bottom trawl fisheries. A flume model experiment was conducted to measure the lift coefficient (C L), drag coefficient (C D), and lift to drag ratio (K) in different angles of attack (α). The experimental results are as follows : (1) The C L and K value show a trend of increasing at the beginning and then decreasing with the increase of angle of attack, the C D value reflects an upward trend as the angle of attack increases; (2) The D3 otter board (front flow deflector angle at 29°) showed a better hydrodynamic performance. When α=30°, the max lift coefficient (C Lmax) was 1.464, in this case C D = 0.554 and K=2.643. When α=15°, the max lift to drag ratio (K max) was 4.165, C L =0.633, and C D = 0.152. This suggests that the best working scope for the angle of attack is between 15°~30°, in which case, C L>0.633 and K>2.643. The mean value of the lift coefficient was 1.071 and the mean of the lift to drag ratio was 3.482. Comparative analysis of the hydrodynamic performance of different types of otter boards showed that the D3 otter board both had good expansion performance and efficiency, which can provide a reference basis for further optimization of the bottom trawl otter board.

  16. A Low-Cost GPS GSM/GPRS Telemetry System: Performance in Stationary Field Tests and Preliminary Data on Wild Otters (Lutra lutra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglietta, Lorenzo; Martins, Bruno Herlander; de Jongh, Addy; Mira, António; Boitani, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing worldwide use of global positioning system (GPS) telemetry in wildlife research, it has never been tested on any freshwater diving animal or in the peculiar conditions of the riparian habitat, despite this latter being one of the most important habitat types for many animal taxa. Moreover, in most cases, the GPS devices used have been commercial and expensive, limiting their use in low-budget projects. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed a low-cost, easily constructed GPS GSM/GPRS (Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service) and examined its performance in stationary tests, by assessing the influence of different habitat types, including the riparian, as well as water submersion and certain climatic and environmental variables on GPS fix-success rate and accuracy. We then tested the GPS on wild diving animals, applying it, for the first time, to an otter species (Lutra lutra). The rate of locations acquired during the stationary tests reached 63.2%, with an average location error of 8.94 m (SD = 8.55). GPS performance in riparian habitats was principally affected by water submersion and secondarily by GPS inclination and position within the riverbed. Temporal and spatial correlations of location estimates accounted for some variation in the data sets. GPS-tagged otters also provided accurate locations and an even higher GPS fix-success rate (68.2%). Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that GPS telemetry is reliably applicable to riparian and even diving freshwater animals. They also highlight the need, in GPS wildlife studies, for performing site-specific pilot studies on GPS functioning as well as for taking into account eventual spatial and temporal correlation of location estimates. The limited price, small dimensions, and high performance of the device presented here make it a useful and cost-effective tool for studies on otters and other aquatic or terrestrial medium

  17. A low-cost GPS GSM/GPRS telemetry system: performance in stationary field tests and preliminary data on wild otters (Lutra lutra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Quaglietta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing worldwide use of global positioning system (GPS telemetry in wildlife research, it has never been tested on any freshwater diving animal or in the peculiar conditions of the riparian habitat, despite this latter being one of the most important habitat types for many animal taxa. Moreover, in most cases, the GPS devices used have been commercial and expensive, limiting their use in low-budget projects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a low-cost, easily constructed GPS GSM/GPRS (Global System for Mobile Communications/General Packet Radio Service and examined its performance in stationary tests, by assessing the influence of different habitat types, including the riparian, as well as water submersion and certain climatic and environmental variables on GPS fix-success rate and accuracy. We then tested the GPS on wild diving animals, applying it, for the first time, to an otter species (Lutra lutra. The rate of locations acquired during the stationary tests reached 63.2%, with an average location error of 8.94 m (SD = 8.55. GPS performance in riparian habitats was principally affected by water submersion and secondarily by GPS inclination and position within the riverbed. Temporal and spatial correlations of location estimates accounted for some variation in the data sets. GPS-tagged otters also provided accurate locations and an even higher GPS fix-success rate (68.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that GPS telemetry is reliably applicable to riparian and even diving freshwater animals. They also highlight the need, in GPS wildlife studies, for performing site-specific pilot studies on GPS functioning as well as for taking into account eventual spatial and temporal correlation of location estimates. The limited price, small dimensions, and high performance of the device presented here make it a useful and cost-effective tool for studies on otters and other aquatic or

  18. The Fetal Membranes of the Otter Shrews and a Synapomorphy for Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M.; Blankenship, T.N.; Enders, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The otter shrews of mainland Africa are the closest relatives of the Madagascar tenrecs. We sought for similarities in placentation between the two groups and, in a wider context, with other mammals of the Afrotheria clade. Specimens of the Nimba otter shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei) were obtain...... by two pairs of septal folds. A similar arrangement has been described for representatives of each of the remaining five orders within Afrotheria. This is significant because previous anatomical studies have failed to establish a single synapomorphy in support of Afrotheria....

  19. Translocated sea otter populations off the coasts of Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Ronald J.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The historical distribution of sea otters extended from the northern islands of Japan north and east across the Aleutian chain to the mainland of North America then south along the west coast to central Baja California, Mexico (Riedman and Estes 1990). By the beginning of the twentieth century, after 150 years of being intensively hunted for their valuable fur, sea otters had been extirpated from most of their range (Kenyon 1969). In 1911 sea otters were protected by the passage of the International Fur Seal Treaty. Unfortunately, only 13 remnant populations survived the fur-hunting period, and two of those, British Columbia and Mexico, would also ultimately disappear, leaving only a small group of sea otters south of Alaska, along the rugged Big Sur coast of California (Kenyon 1969).The earliest attempts to reestablish sea otters to unoccupied habitat were begun in the early 1950’s by R. D. (Sea Otter) Jones, then manager of the Aleutian National Wildlife Refuge (Kenyon 1969). These early efforts were experimental, and all failed to establish populations. However, the knowledge gained from Jones’s efforts and the seminal work of Kenyon (1969) and others during the 1950’s and early 1960’s ultimately led to the successful efforts to come.During the mid-1960’s the Alaska Department of Fish and Game began translocating sea otters to sites where the species had occurred before the fur-trade period. The first translocations were restricted to Alaska, but beginning in 1969 and continuing through 1972, the effort expanded beyond Alaska. During this period, 241 sea otters were translocated to sites in British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon (Jameson et al. 1982). The work was done cooperatively between state and provincial conservation agencies, with much of the financial support for the Oregon and Washington efforts coming from the Atomic Energy Commission (now ERDA). Followup studies of the Oregon population began in 1971 and continued through 1975. After 1975

  20. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  1. An archaeological reconnaissance of a 14 mile section of the East Fork Poplar Creek for the Environmental Restoration Project, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuVall, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, Nashville, Tennessee, an archaeological reconnaissance of the potential impact areas of the Environmental Restoration Project (ERP) along the East Fork Poplar Creek was conducted during the period December 16, 1991, and March 3, 1992. The reconnaissance was conducted in response to environmental evaluations as a result of the accidental spillage of approximately 293,000 pounds of mercury, radionuclides, heavy metals and other compounds. The reconnaissance to assess adverse impacts to cultural resources located within the boundaries of Federally-licensed, permitted, funded or assisted projects was conducted in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and Executive Order 11593

  2. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  3. Differential resilience of Amazonian otters along the Rio Negro in the aftermath of the 20th century international fur trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Natalia C; Antunes, André P; Barnett, Adrian A; Macedo, Valêncio W; Shepard, Glenn H

    2018-01-01

    Commercial hunting for the international trade in animal hides in the 20th century decimated many populations of aquatic wildlife in Amazonia. However, impacts varied significantly between different species and regions, depending upon hunting intensity, accessibility of habitat, and the inherent resilience of various species and their habitats. We investigated the differential responses of two Amazonian Mustelid species, the neotropical otter and giant otter, to commercial hunting pressure along the upper Rio Negro in Brazil, and examined historical factors that influenced spatial and temporal variation in commercial exploitation. We analyzed previously unanalyzed data from historical records of hide shipments to track changes in hide sales and prices for the two species in the late 20th century. We also gathered oral histories from older Baniwa people who had witnessed or participated in commercial otter hunting. These complimentary data sources reveal how intrinsic biological and social characteristics of the two otter species interacted with market forces and regional history. Whereas giant otter populations were driven to local or regional extinction during the late 20th century by commercial hunting, neotropical otters persisted. In recent decades, giant otter populations have returned to some parts of the upper Rio Negro, a development which local people welcome as part of a generalized recovery of the ecosystems in their territory as a result of the banning of animal pelt exports and indigenous land demarcation. This paper expands the scope of the field historical ecology and reflects on the role of local knowledge in biodiversity conservation.

  4. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine K.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, James A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The processes promoting disease in wild animal populations are highly complex, yet identifying these processes is critically important for conservation when disease is limiting a population. By combining field studies with epidemiologic tools, we evaluated the relationship between key factors impeding southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation. This threatened population has struggled to recover despite protection, so we followed radio-tagged sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure. We identified patterns of pathogen infection that are linked to individual animal behavior, prey choice, and habitat use. We detected a high-risk spatial cluster of S. neurona infections in otters with home ranges in southern Monterey Bay and a coastal segment near San Simeon and Cambria where otters had high levels of infection with T. gondii. We found that otters feeding on abalone, which is the preferred prey in a resource-abundant marine ecosystem, had a very low risk of infection with either pathogen, whereas otters consuming small marine snails were more likely to be infected with T. gondii. Individual dietary specialization in sea otters is an adaptive mechanism for coping with limited food resources along central coastal California. High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery.

  5. Assessment and restoring soil functionality in degraded areas of organic vineyards. The preliminary results of the ReSolVe project in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Agnelli, Alessandro; Castaldini, Maurizio; D'Avino, Lorenzo; D'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Giudi, Silvia; Goggioli, Donatella; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Landi, Silvia; Leprini, Marco; Pellegrini, Sergio; Perria, Rita; Puccioni, Sergio; Simoni, Sauro; Storchi, Paolo; Valboa, Giuseppe; Zombardo, Alessandra; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    In both conventional and organic Italian vineyards, it is quite common to have areas characterized by problems in vine health, grape production and quality, often caused by improper land preparation before vine plantation and/or management. Causes for soil malfunctioning can include: reduced contribution of the soil fauna to the ecosystem services (i.e. nutrient cycles), poor organic matter content, imbalance of some element ratio, altered pH, water deficiency, soil compaction and/or scarce oxygenation. ReSolVe is a transnational and interdisciplinary 3-years research project aimed at testing the effects of selected organic strategies for restoring optimal soil functionality in degraded areas within vineyard. The different restoring strategies implemented in each plot will be: i) compost produced on farm by manure + pruning residue + grass, ii) faba bean and barley green manure, iii) sowing and dry mulching with Trifolium squarrosum L. During two years of such treatments, the trend of the soil features and the grapevine status will be monitored in detail, to reveal the positive and negative effects of such treatments. The project involves 8 research groups in 6 different EU countries (Italy, France, Spain, Sweden, Slovenia, and Turkey), with experts from several disciplines, including soil science, ecology, microbiology, grapevine physiology, viticulture, and biometry. The experimental vineyards are situated in Italy (Chianti hills and Maremma plain, Tuscany), France (Bordeaux and Languedoc), Spain (La Rioja) and Slovenia (Primorska) for winegrape, and in Turkey (Adana and Mersin) for table grape. Soil features before implementing restoring strategies showed lower content of soil organic matter and enzyme activities, and higher carbonates in degraded areas than in the non-degraded areas. The Biological Soil Quality values of microarthropods were always high, in comparison with data registered in similarly managed vineyards or stable ecosystems, and the data showed

  6. Supplement analysis for the proposed upgrades to the tank farm ventilation, instrumentation, and electrical systems under Project W-314 in support of tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The mission of the TWRS program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Within this program, Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, has been established to provide upgrades in the areas of instrumentation and control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical distribution for existing tank farm facilities. Requirements for tank farm infrastructure upgrades to support safe storage were being developed under Project W-314 at the same time that the TWRS EIS alternative analysis was being performed. Project W-314 provides essential tank farm infrastructure upgrades to support continued safe storage of existing tank wastes until the wastes can be retrieved and disposed of through follow-on TWRS program efforts. Section4.0 provides a description of actions associated with Project W-314. The TWRS EIS analyzes the environmental consequences form the entire TWRS program, including actions similar to those described for Project W-314 as a part of continued tank farm operations. The TWRS EIS preferred alternative was developed to a conceptual level of detail to assess bounding impact areas. For this Supplement Analysis, in each of the potential impact areas for Project W-314, the proposed action was evaluated and compared to the TWRS EIS evaluation of the preferred alternative (Section 5.0). Qualitative and/or quantitative comparisons are then provided in this Supplement Analysis to support a determination on the need for additional National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis. Based on this Supplement Analysis, the potential impacts for Project W-314 would be small in comparison to and are bounded by the impacts assessed for the TWRS EIS preferred alternative, and therefore no additional NEPA analysis is required (Section 7.0)

  7. HBIM for restoration projects: case-study on San Cipriano Church in Castelvecchio Calvisio, Province of L’Aquila, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romolo Continenza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been significant developments in research into assigning semantic content to 3D models for the purposes of documentation, conservation and architectural and archaeological heritage management, the application of 3D GIS to individual artifacts has remained rare. Where 3D GIS has been used in this context, it has not been done in a consistent or standardised way.As an alternative to the elaborate construction of 3D GIS, the international academic community has embarked on a process of investigating how HBIM (Historical BIM might be used in the fields of historical architecture and archaeology.In this paper, we report on experiments carried out at the San Cipriano Church in Castelvecchio Calvisio, Province of L’Aquila, Italy, on the basis of the integrated survey of the church, before turning to a discussion of the planning of restoration work in a BIM environment.

  8. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathy A.; Hammond, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals. PMID:19523293

  9. Surgical implantation of intra-abdominal radiotransmitters in marine otters (Lontra felina) in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Azat, Claudio; Boher, Francisca; Fabry, Mauricio; Pascual, Paulo; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2008-10-01

    Six free-ranging marine otters (Lontra felina) were livetrapped on the central coast of Chile and implanted with specially designed radiotransmitters as part of a spatial ecology study. Marine otters frequent the rocky seashore, often squeezing their narrow bodies through cracks and crevices and grooming themselves on the rocks. They are also among the smallest of the otter species, weighing between 3.4 kg and 4.5 kg. For these reasons, the transmitter used was small, rectangular, and flat, measuring 3.5 x 3.2 x 1.0 cm. They were implanted using a ventral midline approach to minimize contact between the skin incision and sharp-edged rocks. Surgical incisions healed within 2 wk. The transmitters functioned well, but the duration varied from 62 days to 143 days instead of the 240 days predicted by the manufacturer. All six marine otters reestablished in their home ranges, and survey results suggest they survived well beyond the life of the transmitters.

  10. The diet of otters ( Lutra lutra L.) in Danish freshwater habitats : comparisons of prey fish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taastrom, H.M.; Jacobsen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    Otter spraints from five Danish freshwater localities were analysed. In all localities fish was the main prey (76-99% of estimated bulk), especially in winter. Depending on locality, the prey fish mainly consisted of cyprinids (Cyprinidae), percids (Percidae) or salmonids (Salmonidae). Seasonal v...

  11. 77 FR 75265 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... (USFWS 2003), the recovery team recommends that we declare the translocation program a failure and... be in the best interest of southern sea otter recovery to declare the translocation program a failure... Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea...

  12. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  13. Winter predation by otter, Lutra lutra on carp pond system in South Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kortan, D.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Poláková, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2007), s. 416-428 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : otter diet * spraint analysis * excessive hunting * fish remains Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2007 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/56/4/416-428_MS1301.pdf

  14. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  15. Using stable isotopes to investigate individual diet specialization in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, S.D.; Tinker, M.T.; Monson, Daniel H.; Oftedal, O.T.; Ralls, K.; Staedler, M.M.; Fogel, M.L.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in diet composition among conspecifics (dietary specialization) have been documented across a broad range of taxonomic groups and habitats, and such variation at the individual level is increasingly recognized as an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. Accurate identification of individual dietary specialization, however, requires longitudinal dietary records that are labor-intensive and cost-prohibitive to obtain for many species. Here we explore the use of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) as a promising technique for detecting and quantifying patterns of individual dietary specialization. Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) offer a unique opportunity for testing this approach because (1) they consume a wide variety of prey that span multiple trophic levels, habitats, and ecologically defined functional groups; and (2) individual diet specialization can be validated with existing observational data. We analyzed the isotopic composition of sea otter vibrissae (n = 31) in order to characterize inter- and intra-individual variation in sea otter diets at Monterey Bay, California, USA. At the population level, sea otters showed substantial variation in both δ13C and δ15N values, occupying nearly all of the “isotopic space” created by the diversity of isotopic signatures of potential prey taxa. Most of the variation in sea otter vibrissae was accounted for by differences between individuals, with much less contributed by within-individual variation. A majority of sea otters (∼80%) showed relatively little temporal variability in isotopic composition, suggesting that the proportional composition of most individuals' diets is relatively constant over time; a few individuals (∼20%) exhibited a high degree of intra-vibrissa isotopic variability, suggesting seasonal shifts in diet composition. These results and our interpretation of them were supported by long-term observational data on the diets of radio-tagged sea otters

  16. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  17. Monitoring habitat restoration projects: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Region Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Coastal Program Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Refuges, Contribute to the implementation of the State Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategies, and Help achieve the objectives of the National Fish Habitat Partnerships and regionally based bird conservation plans (for example, North American Waterfowl Management Plan, U.S. Pacific Island Shorebird Conservation Plans, Intermountain West Regional Shorebird Plan, etc.). The Partners Program accomplishes these priorities by: Developing and maintaining strong partnerships, and delivering on-the-ground habitat restoration projects designed to reestablish habitat function and restore natural processes; Addressing key habitat limiting factors for declining species; Providing corridors for wildlife and decrease impediments to native fish and wildlife migration; and Enhancing native plant communities by reducing invasive species and improving native species composition. The Coastal Program is a voluntary fish and wildlife conservation program that focuses on watershed-scale, long-term collaborative resource planning and on-the-ground restoration projects in high-priority coastal areas. The Coastal Program conducts planning and restoration work on private, State, and Federal lands, and partnerships with other agencies-Native American Tribes, citizens, and organizations are emphasized. Coastal Program goals include restoring and protecting coastal habitat, providing technical and cost-sharing assistance where appropriate, supporting community-based restoration, collecting and developing information on the status of and threats to fish and wildlife, and using outreach to promote stewardship of coastal resources. The diversity of habitats and partners in Region 1 present many opportunities for conducting restoration projects. Faced with this abundance of opportunity, the Partners Program and Coastal Program must ensure that limited staffing and project dollars are allocated to benefit the highest priority resources and achieve the highest quality results for Federal trust

  18. Food abundance, prey morphology, and diet specialization influence individual sea otter tool use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Jessica A.; Ralls, Katherine; Tinker, M. Tim

    2017-01-01

    Sea otters are well-known tool users, employing objects such as rocks or shells to break open invertebrate prey. We used a series of generalized linear mixed effect models to examine observational data on prey capture and tool use from 211 tagged individuals from 5 geographically defined study areas throughout the sea otter’s range in California. Our best supported model was able to explain 75% of the variation in the frequency of tool use by individual sea otters with only ecological and demographic variables. In one study area, where sea otter food resources were abundant, all individuals had similar diets focusing on preferred prey items and used tools at low to moderate frequencies (4–38% of prey captures). In the remaining areas, where sea otters were food-limited, individuals specialized on different subsets of the available prey and had a wider range of average tool-use frequency (0–98% of prey captures). The prevalence of difficult-to-access prey in individual diets was a major predictor of tool use and increased the likelihood of using tools on prey that were not difficult to access as well. Age, sex, and feeding habitat also contributed to the probability of tool use but to a smaller extent. We developed a conceptual model illustrating how food abundance, the prevalence of difficult-to-access prey, and individual diet specialization interacted to determine the likelihood that individual sea otters would use tools and considered the model’s relevance to other tool-using species.

  19. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin transfer from land to sea otters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Miller

    Full Text Available "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine

  20. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C.; Tinker, M. Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A.; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A.

    2010-01-01

    "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal

  1. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neuronameningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondiimeningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  2. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  3. Ecological drivers of variation in tool-use frequency across sea otter populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Jessica; Ralls, Katherine; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sea otters are well-known tool users, employing objects such as rocks or shells to break open hard-shelled invertebrate prey. However, little is known about how the frequency of tool use varies among sea otter populations and the factors that drive these differences. We examined 17 years of observational data on prey capture and tool use from 8 sea otter populations ranging from southern California to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. There were significant differences in the diets of these populations as well as variation in the frequency of tool use. Sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska, used tools on less than 1% of dives that resulted in the capture of prey compared with approximately 16% in Monterey, California. The percentage of individuals in the population that used tools ranged from 10% to 93%. In all populations, marine snails and thick-shelled bivalves were most likely to be associated with tool use, whereas soft-bodied prey items such as worms and sea stars were the least likely. The probability that a tool would be used on a given prey type varied across populations. The morphology of the prey item being handled and the prevalence of various types of prey in local diets were major ecological drivers of tool use: together they accounted for about 64% of the variation in tool-use frequency among populations. The remaining variation may be related to changes in the relative costs and benefits to an individual otter of learning to use tools effectively under differing ecological circumstances.

  4. Setting realistic recovery targets for two interacting endangered species, sea otter and northern abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadès, Iadine; Curtis, Janelle M R; Martin, Tara G

    2012-12-01

    Failure to account for interactions between endangered species may lead to unexpected population dynamics, inefficient management strategies, waste of scarce resources, and, at worst, increased extinction risk. The importance of species interactions is undisputed, yet recovery targets generally do not account for such interactions. This shortcoming is a consequence of species-centered legislation, but also of uncertainty surrounding the dynamics of species interactions and the complexity of modeling such interactions. The northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and one of its preferred prey, northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana), are endangered species for which recovery strategies have been developed without consideration of their strong predator-prey interactions. Using simulation-based optimization procedures from artificial intelligence, namely reinforcement learning and stochastic dynamic programming, we combined sea otter and northern abalone population models with functional-response models and examined how different management actions affect population dynamics and the likelihood of achieving recovery targets for each species through time. Recovery targets for these interacting species were difficult to achieve simultaneously in the absence of management. Although sea otters were predicted to recover, achieving abalone recovery targets failed even when threats to abalone such as predation and poaching were reduced. A management strategy entailing a 50% reduction in the poaching of northern abalone was a minimum requirement to reach short-term recovery goals for northern abalone when sea otters were present. Removing sea otters had a marginally positive effect on the abalone population but only when we assumed a functional response with strong predation pressure. Our optimization method could be applied more generally to any interacting threatened or invasive species for which there are multiple conservation objectives. © 2012 Society for

  5. Environmental restoration of uranium contaminated sites in Estonia within the framework of IAEA project (RER/9/022) in 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratas, R.

    1997-01-01

    In Estonia there are several radioactively contaminated sites left from the military and uranium progressing activities by the former Soviet Union. Enhanced radiation levels are prevalent in the Paldiski area, a former nuclear submarine training centre; on the territory of the waste depository at Saku/Tammiku and at Sillamae, where a large depository of uranium milling tailings is situated. During the last two years considerable effort has been put into restoration of these sites. To start with, designing of reasonably achievable remediation projects have been taken up. Estonia has received large contributions from many western countries and organisations. Practical remediation work on contaminated areas, e.g. at Sillamae is, however, delayed due to lack of funds. (author)

  6. Project CAPTURE: a U.S. national prioritization assessment of tree species for conservation, management, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara S. Crane; Valerie D. Hipkins

    2017-01-01

    that forest tree species will undergo population-level extirpation or species-level extinction during the next century. Project CAPTURE (Conservation Assessment and Prioritization of Forest Trees Under Risk of Extirpation) is a cooperative effort across the three U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS) deputy areas to establish a framework for...

  7. Project CAPTURE: using forest inventory and analysis data to prioritize tree species for conservation, management, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara S. Crane; William W. Hargrove

    2015-01-01

    A variety of threats, most importantly climate change and insect and disease infestation, will increase the likelihood that forest tree species could experience population-level extirpation or species-level extinction during the next century. Project CAPTURE (Conservation Assessment and Prioritization of Forest Trees Under Risk of Extirpation) is a cooperative effort...

  8. Gene Transcript Profiling in Sea Otters Post-Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A Tool for Marine Ecosystem Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizabeth Bowen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS, Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS. We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS from the Alaska Peninsula (2009, Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009, Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012, Kodiak Island (2005 and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription; Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription; and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription. The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  9. Gene transcript profiling in sea otters post-Exxon Valdez oil spill: A tool for marine ecosystem health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Waters, Shannon C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS), Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS) from the Alaska Peninsula (2009), Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009), Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012), Kodiak Island (2005) and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription); Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription); and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription). The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  10. Management and Level of Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus Illinger, 1815 as Display Animal in Indonesia Conservation Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Hansyari Ar-Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and breeding become main reasons for asian small-clawed otter placement as display animal in zoo. Proper management is needed to maintain asian small-clawed otter welfare. This research objectives were to examine and assess asian small-clawed otter welfare in three Indonesia zoos. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Bandung Zoo, Ragunan Zoo and Ocean Dream Samudra Ancol. The methods of this research were literature review, interview and field observation. Data were analyzed using the suitability of management and animal welfare assessment. The result showed that there were three main management activities conducted at the three study locations, i.e., nutrition, housing, and health management. Bandung Zoo achieved the lowest score of asian small-clawed otter welfare (45,24% compared to Ragunan Zoo (62,24% and Ocean Dream Samudra (65,90%. Asian small-clawed otter welfare in three institutions were relatively low to fair category, this was due to the unfilled quality of food and water i.e.,  the type, amount, feeding frequency, diet and preparing of food; the unavailability of suitable and favorable environmental conditions; the care facilities provided could not ensure the health of animal; the appearance of abnormal behavior that affected the growth and breeding of animal; and animal had no freedom to behave as in their natural habitat. Keywords: animal display, animal welfare, Asian small-clawed otter, zoo 

  11. Tourists’ willingness to pay to view otters along the Wild Coast, South Africa: a potential for increased ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihle Dumalisile

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on tourists’ willingness to pay to view Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis along the Eastern Cape Wild Coast, South Africa. We collected data from a survey carried out using a structured, selfadministered questionnaire. We analyzed 67 completed questionnaires, of which 60 respondents (89.5% indicated that they would be interested in viewing otters and would be prepared to pay an extra fee, over and above the normal entrance fees, for a trained guide to show them otters. The remaining 7 (10.4% respondents indicated that they would reconsider and pay if this would create jobs for members of the local community. Most (98.4% and 91.8% of the respondents also indicated that they would still pay even if there was only a 50% or 25% chance of seeing otters. Most of the respondents were willing to pay either less than R50.00 (ca US$8.00 or R50.00-R100.00 to view otters regardless of the chances of seeing them. We conclude from our results that otters do have the potential to increase ecotourism in the area, and also to contribute financially to the poverty stricken local Dwesa community.

  12. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office : Watershed Restoration Projects : 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. John Day Basin Office.

    2003-06-30

    The John Day is the nation's second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and the longest containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, Oregon's fourth largest drainage basin, and incorporates portions of eleven counties. Originating in the Strawberry Mountains near Prairie City, the John Day River flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead, westslope cutthroat, and redband and bull trout, the John Day system is truly a basin with national significance. The majority of the John Day basin was ceded to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) formed a partnership with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day, who contracts the majority of the construction implementation activities for these projects from the JDBO. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of most projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 2002, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of their successful partnership between the two agencies

  13. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 415: Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark

    2014-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415, Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR). CAU 415 is located on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) and consists of one corrective action site: NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. The CAU 415 site consists of the atmospheric release of radiological contaminants to surface soil from the Project 57 safety experiment conducted in 1957. The safety experiment released plutonium (Pu), uranium (U), and americium (Am) to the surface soil over an area of approximately 1.9 square miles. This area is currently fenced and posted as a radiological contamination area. Vehicles and debris contaminated by the experiment were subsequently buried in a disposal trench within the surface-contaminated, fenced area and are assumed to have released radiological contamination to subsurface soils. Potential source materials in the form of pole-mounted electrical transformers were also identified at the site and will be removed as part of closure activities.

  15. Pinellas County, Florida Site Environmental Restoration Project Semiannual Progress Report for the 4.5 Acre Site June through November 2016 January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Survochak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Daniel, Joe [Navarrao Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This Pinellas County, Florida, Site Environmental Restoration Project Semiannual Progress Report for the 4.5 Acre Site describes environmental restoration activities for the 4.5 Acre Site located in Pinellas County, Largo, Florida (Figure 1). The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant facility consisted of the 4.5 Acre Site and what is now the STAR Center (Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research Center). Both the 4.5 Acre Site and the STAR Center are part of the overall Pinellas County, Florida, Site (Figure 2). The 4.5 Acre Site is located immediately northwest of the STAR Center, in the northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 30 South, Range 15 East. DOE owned this parcel from 1957 to 1972, at which time it was sold to a private landowner. During the period of DOE ownership, the property was used for the disposal of drums of waste resins and solvents. As a result of this practice, the surficial aquifer was impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethene (tDCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and benzene. Detailed background information for the site is contained in the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Pinellas Site (DOE 2016). That document and other site-related documents can be accessed at this website: http://www.lm.doe.gov/Pinellas/Sites.aspx. Recent remediation activities consist of the injection of emulsified soybean oil and the microorganism Dehalococcoides mccartyi (formerly known as Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) into the subsurface in February 2010 and again in July 2013 to enhance contaminant biodegradation (hereafter described as bioinjection). Monitoring the performance of these actions, in the form of monitoring well sampling, is ongoing.

  16. Pinellas County, Florida Site Environmental Restoration Project Semiannual Progress Report for the 4.5 Acre Site June through November 2016 January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survochak, Scott; Daniel, Joe

    2017-01-01

    This Pinellas County, Florida, Site Environmental Restoration Project Semiannual Progress Report for the 4.5 Acre Site describes environmental restoration activities for the 4.5 Acre Site located in Pinellas County, Largo, Florida (Figure 1). The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant facility consisted of the 4.5 Acre Site and what is now the STAR Center (Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research Center). Both the 4.5 Acre Site and the STAR Center are part of the overall Pinellas County, Florida, Site (Figure 2). The 4.5 Acre Site is located immediately northwest of the STAR Center, in the northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 30 South, Range 15 East. DOE owned this parcel from 1957 to 1972, at which time it was sold to a private landowner. During the period of DOE ownership, the property was used for the disposal of drums of waste resins and solvents. As a result of this practice, the surficial aquifer was impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethene (tDCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and benzene. Detailed background information for the site is contained in the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Pinellas Site (DOE 2016). That document and other site-related documents can be accessed at this website: http://www.lm.doe.gov/Pinellas/Sites.aspx. Recent remediation activities consist of the injection of emulsified soybean oil and the microorganism Dehalococcoides mccartyi (formerly known as Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) into the subsurface in February 2010 and again in July 2013 to enhance contaminant biodegradation (hereafter described as bioinjection). Monitoring the performance of these actions, in the form of monitoring well sampling, is ongoing.

  17. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: watershed restoration projects: annual report, 1999.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1999, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional eleven (11

  18. The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon John Day Basin Office: watershed restoration projects: annual report, 1998.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous US and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1998, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional ten (10) watershed

  19. Genetic consequences of population decline in the European otter ( Lutra lutra ) : an assessment of microsatellite DNA variation in Danish otters from 1883 to 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, C.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2001-01-01

    alleles, suggested that a drastic long-term population decline has taken place, which could have started more than 2000 years ago, possibly due to ancient anthropogenic pressure. Finally, assignment tests and pairwise F-ST values suggested weak but statistically significant genetic differentiation between......The European otter (Lutra lutra) was common in Denmark until the 1960s, but its present distribution encompasses only a minor part of the country. The aim of this study was to assess whether the recent population decline has resulted in loss of genetic variability and to gain further insight...

  20. Restoration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration can provide a wide range of direct and indirect benefits to society. However, there are very few projects that have attempted to properly quantify those benefits and present them in such a way that society is motivated to invest...

  1. Biological characterisation of Sarcocystis neurona isolated from a Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona was isolated from the brain of a juvenile, male southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) suffering from CNS disease. Schizonts and merozoites in tissue sections of the otter's brain reacted with anti-S. neurona antiserum immunohistochemically. Development in cell culture was by endopolyogeny and mature schizonts were first observed at 3 days postinoculation. PCR of merozoite DNA using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 and restriction enzyme digestion of the 1100 bp product with Dra I indicated the organism was S. neurona. Four of four interferon-γ gene knockout mice inoculated with merozoites developed S. neurona-associated encephalitis. Antibodies to S. neurona but not Sarcocystis falcatula, Toxoplasma gondii, or Neospora caninum were present in the serum of inoculated mice. This is the first isolation of S. neurona from the brain of a non-equine host.

  2. The passive river restoration approach as an efficient tool to improve the hydromorphological diversity of rivers - Case study from two river restoration projects in the German lower mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, M.

    2017-09-01

    Intensive use of European rivers during the last hundreds of years has led to profound changes in the physicochemical properties, river morphology, and aquatic faunistic communities. Rectifying these changes and improving the ecological state of all surface water bodies is the central aim of the European Water Frame Directive (WFD), and river restoration measures are the main tool to achieve this goal for many rivers. As the cost-effectiveness of all measures is crucial to the WFD implementation, the approach of the passive river restoration has become very popular over the last decades. But while costs of this approach are minimal, not much is known about the long-term effectiveness of passive river restorations. The research presented here provides essential and in-depth data about the effects of two such restoration measures on the riverbed morphology of a large river of the lower mountain region in Germany (type 9.2). More than 3200 data sets were acquired using the TRiSHa method (Typology of Riverbed Structures and Habitats). The results show a high spatial and temporal diversity and dynamic for all analyzed hydromorphologic parameters - ranging from riverbed sediments, organic structures like dead wood or macrophytes, to the distribution of 32 microhabitat types. The structures and their dynamic depend on the character of the study area (free-flowing or impounded), the location of the study sites within the research area (main channel or restored side channel), and on the occurrence of major flood events (the mapping and sampling were conducted annually from 2006 to 2008 with a 50-year flood event occurring in early 2007). These results show the potential of the passive restoration approach for creating morphologically diverse riverbeds, as habitat diversity and the spatial heterogeneity of the riverbed substrates increased significantly (e.g., more than 40% of all habitat types were only detected in the newly restored side channels). But the results also

  3. Conservation genetics of otters: Review about the use of non-invasive samples

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal Duque, Sandra L.; Orozco-Jiménez, Luz Y.; Zapata-Escobar, Carolina; Palacio-Baena, Jaime A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Wild population management programs require determining some fundamental aspects for conservation, including population structure, flow between populations, evolutionary history and kinship, among others. Since sample collection from wild mammals for DNA extraction is a complex task, conservation genetics has developed non-invasive sampling techniques, which allow obtaining DNA without the need to capture individuals. For the genetic characterization of otter populations, stools are...

  4. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma A Elliott; Newsome, Seth D; Estes, James A; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter's home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  5. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  6. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  7. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James L.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  8. A synopsis of short-term response to alternative restoration treatments in sagebrush-steppe: the SageSTEP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, James; Brunson, Mark; Bunting, Steve; Chambers, Jeanne; Doescher, Paul; Grace, James; Hulet, April; Johnson, Dale; Knick, Steven T.; Miller, Richard; Pellant, Mike; Pierson, Fred; Pyke, David; Rau, Benjamin; Rollins, Kim; Roundy, Bruce; Schupp, Eugene; Tausch, Robin; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is an integrated long-term study that evaluates ecological effects of alternative treatments designed to reduce woody fuels and to stimulate the herbaceous understory of sagebrush steppe communities of the Intermountain West. This synopsis summarizes results through 3 yr posttreatment. Woody vegetation reduction by prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, or herbicides initiated a cascade of effects, beginning with increased availability of nitrogen and soil water, followed by increased growth of herbaceous vegetation. Response of butterflies and magnitudes of runoff and erosion closely followed herbaceous vegetation recovery. Effects on shrubs, biological soil crust, tree cover, surface woody fuel loads, and sagebrush-obligate bird communities will take longer to be fully expressed. In the short term, cool wet sites were more resilient than warm dry sites, and resistance was mostly dependent on pretreatment herbaceous cover. At least 10 yr of posttreatment time will likely be necessary to determine outcomes for most sites. Mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for prescribed fire in how each influenced the fuel bed, the soil, erosion, and sage-obligate bird communities. Woody vegetation reduction by any means resulted in increased availability of soil water, higher herbaceous cover, and greater butterfly numbers. We identified several trade-offs (desirable outcomes for some variables, undesirable for others), involving most components of the study system. Trade-offs are inevitable when managing complex natural systems, and they underline the importance of asking questions about the whole system when developing management objectives. Substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity in sagebrush steppe ecosystems emphasizes the point that there will rarely be a “recipe” for choosing management actions on any specific area. Use of a consistent evaluation process linked to monitoring may be the

  9. Evolutionary history and identification of conservation units in the giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, R S A; Groombridge, J J; Zambrana Rojas, V D; Van Damme, P; Gottelli, D; Kundu, S; Bodmer, R; Ariani, C V; Iyengar, A; Jordan, W C

    2011-12-01

    The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, occupies a range including the major drainage basins of South America, yet the degree of structure that exists within and among populations inhabiting these drainages is unknown. We sequenced portions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (612bp) and control region (383 bp) genes in order to determine patterns of genetic variation within the species. We found high levels of mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.93 overall) and support for subdivision into four distinct groups of populations, representing important centers of genetic diversity and useful units for prioritizing conservation within the giant otter. We tested these results against the predictions of three hypotheses of Amazonian diversification (Pleistocene Refugia, Paleogeography, and Hydrogeology). While the phylogeographic pattern conformed to the predictions of the Refugia Hypothesis, molecular dating using a relaxed clock revealed the phylogroups diverged from one another between 1.69 and 0.84 Ma, ruling out the influence of Late Pleistocene glacial refugia. However, the role of Plio-Pleistocene climate change could not be rejected. While the molecular dating also makes the influence of geological arches according to the Paleogeography Hypothesis extremely unlikely, the recent Pliocene formation of the Fitzcarrald Arch and its effect of subsequently altering drainage pattern could not be rejected. The data presented here support the interactions of both climatic and hydrological changes resulting from geological activity in the Plio-Pleistocene, in shaping the phylogeographic structure of the giant otter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Hg and diet identification in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Josef, Carla [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: carlajosef@hotmail.com; Ramos Adriano, Leonardo; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Jose Roberto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Polo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Regional do Centro Sul - APTA, Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios. Rua Alberto Coral 1500, 13400-000 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Hg in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces was developed, to separate fish scales for the identification of the animal diet. Samples were washed with ultra-pure water and the suspension was sampled and transferred for digestion. The solubilization was performed with nitric-perchloric acid mixture, and detection carried out by the atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The quality of the analytical procedure was assessed by analyzing in-house standard solutions and certified reference materials. Total Hg concentrations were in the range of 7.6-156 ng g{sup -1} (July 2004), 25.6-277 ng g{sup -1} (January 2005) and 14.6-744 ng g{sup -1} (May 2005) that is approximately the same order of magnitude for all samples collected in two reservoirs at the Tiete River, Brazil. Although Hg concentrations varied with sampling periods and diet, high levels were correlated to the percentage of carnivorous fish scales present in the otter feces. - The importance of otter feces preparation for Hg analysis, focusing the food web.

  11. Determination of Hg and diet identification in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Josef, Carla; Ramos Adriano, Leonardo; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel; Ferreira, Jose Roberto

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Hg in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces was developed, to separate fish scales for the identification of the animal diet. Samples were washed with ultra-pure water and the suspension was sampled and transferred for digestion. The solubilization was performed with nitric-perchloric acid mixture, and detection carried out by the atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The quality of the analytical procedure was assessed by analyzing in-house standard solutions and certified reference materials. Total Hg concentrations were in the range of 7.6-156 ng g -1 (July 2004), 25.6-277 ng g -1 (January 2005) and 14.6-744 ng g -1 (May 2005) that is approximately the same order of magnitude for all samples collected in two reservoirs at the Tiete River, Brazil. Although Hg concentrations varied with sampling periods and diet, high levels were correlated to the percentage of carnivorous fish scales present in the otter feces. - The importance of otter feces preparation for Hg analysis, focusing the food web

  12. Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tristan L; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Burdin, Alexander; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Tuomi, Pamela; Smith, Woutrina A; Goldstein, Tracey

    2017-10-01

    Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.

  13. Discovery of the fossil otter Enhydritherium terraenovae (Carnivora, Mammalia) in Mexico reconciles a palaeozoogeographic mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Z Jack; Pacheco-Castro, Adolfo; Carranza-Castañeda, Oscar; Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Wang, Xiaoming; Troncoso, Hilda

    2017-06-01

    The North American fossil otter Enhydritherium terraenovae is thought to be partially convergent in ecological niche with the living sea otter Enhydra lutris , both having low-crowned crushing teeth and a close association with marine environments. Fossil records of Enhydritherium are found in mostly marginal marine deposits in California and Florida; despite presence of very rich records of fossil terrestrial mammals in contemporaneous localities inland, no Enhydritherium fossils are hitherto known in interior North America. Here we report the first occurrence of Enhydritherium outside of Florida and California, in a land-locked terrestrial mammal fauna of the upper Miocene deposits of Juchipila Basin, Zacatecas State, Mexico. This new occurrence of Enhydritherium is at least 200 km from the modern Pacific coastline, and nearly 600 km from the Gulf of Mexico. Besides providing further evidence that Enhydritherium was not dependent on coastal marine environments as originally interpreted, this discovery leads us to propose a new east-to-west dispersal route between the Florida and California Enhydritherium populations through central Mexico. The proximity of the fossil locality to nearby populations of modern neotropical otters Lontra longicaudis suggests that trans-Mexican freshwater corridors for vertebrate species in riparian habitats may have persisted for a prolonged period of time, pre-dating the Great American Biotic Interchange. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL MARINE BRUCELLA FROM A SOUTHERN SEA OTTER (ENHYDRA LUTRIS NEREIS), CALIFORNIA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Burgess, Tristan L; Dodd, Erin M; Rhyan, Jack C; Jang, Spencer S; Byrne, Barbara A; Gulland, Frances M D; Murray, Michael J; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Conrad, Patricia A; Field, Cara L; Sidor, Inga F; Smith, Woutrina A

    2017-04-01

    We characterize Brucella infection in a wild southern sea otter ( Enhydra lutris nereis) with osteolytic lesions similar to those reported in other marine mammals and humans. This otter stranded twice along the central California coast, US over a 1-yr period and was handled extensively at two wildlife rehabilitation facilities, undergoing multiple surgeries and months of postsurgical care. Ultimately the otter was euthanized due to severe, progressive neurologic disease. Necropsy and postmortem radiographs revealed chronic, severe osteoarthritis spanning the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left hind fifth digit. Numerous coccobacilli within the joint were strongly positive on Brucella immunohistochemical labelling, and Brucella sp. was isolated in pure culture from this lesion. Sparse Brucella-immunopositive bacteria were also observed in the cytoplasm of a pulmonary vascular monocyte, and multifocal granulomas were observed in the spinal cord and liver on histopathology. Findings from biochemical characterization, 16S ribosomal DNA, and bp26 gene sequencing of the bacterial isolate were identical to those from marine-origin brucellae isolated from cetaceans and phocids. Although omp2a gene sequencing revealed 100% homology with marine Brucella spp. infecting pinnipeds, whales, and humans, omp2b gene sequences were identical only to pinniped-origin isolates. Multilocus sequence typing classified the sea otter isolate as ST26, a sequence type previously associated only with cetaceans. Our data suggest that the sea otter Brucella strain represents a novel marine lineage that is distinct from both Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella ceti. Prior reports document the zoonotic potential of the marine brucellae. Isolation of Brucella sp. from a stranded sea otter highlights the importance of wearing personal protective equipment when handling sea otters and other marine mammals as part of wildlife conservation and rehabilitation efforts.

  15. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. M. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780 in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W, to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; two samples also presented monkey fur (n = 1 and sloth fur (n = 1, suggesting that the diet of P. brasiliensis, in the reservoir, is almost exclusively based on fish. Ten fish families were identified in our samples, six of which were exclusive to the Balbina Lake (not present in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas. These six fish families, however, were present in less than 3% of the samples. The fish families with highest representation in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas also appeared with higher frequencies in the Balbina Lake, suggesting that the otters have not changed their diet substantially after the implementation of the reservoir. During the high-water period, when the fish are dispersed into the flooded forest and are not very easy to catch, the otters seem to have an opportunistic feeding habit. By contrast, during the low-water period, when prey items are widely available and easier to catch in the reservoir, their feeding habits are more selective.

  16. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  17. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose-Hajra, M.; McCorquodale, A.; Mattson, G.; Jerolleman, D.; Filostrat, J.

    2015-03-01

    Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana's coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana's disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  18. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghose-Hajra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana’s coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana’s disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  19. Clinical observation of small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of cataract in the sight restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jian Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the clinical effects of small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of cataract.METHODS:Totally 642 cases 676 eyes of cataract were treated by small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Complication during and after operations and postoperative visual acuity was observed.RESULTS:Visual acuity of 670 eyes was ≥0.05 and off-blindness rate was 99.11%, and there was 627 eyes ≥0.3 and the off-disability rate was 92.75% after 1mo. Rupture of posterior capsule during surgery occurred in 24 eyes. Fifty-four eyes were corneal edema, and anterior chamber exudation were 26 eyes, and 23 eyes were hypertension after operation. CONCLUSION: There are a little complications during and after operation for cataract treated by small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Patients have good recovery after operation. This operation does not need high-standard equipments and is suitable in the sight restoration project.

  20. Genotypic Characterization of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli Isolates from Sea Otters with Infective Endocarditis and/or Septicemia and from Environmental Mussel Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan-Edgar, Katrina L.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathleen A.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Shewmaker, Patricia L.; Jang, Spencer; Goertz, Caroline E. C.; Tuomi, Pamela A.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type 128 Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli isolates from sea otters and mussels. Six SmaI PFGE groups were detected, with one predominant group representing 57% of the isolates collected over a wide geographic region. Several sea otter and mussel isolates were highly related, suggesting that an environmental infection source is possible. PMID:23052307

  1. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  2. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  3. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  4. Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Changing European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Delaney, Alyne; Carballo Cárdenas, Eira

    2017-01-01

    and using different narratives of marine restoration, and being confronted with different forms of uncertainties. The paper’s overall contribution is the synthesis of these seemingly disparate components (narratives of restoration, uncertainty in decision making, and governance arrangements) to evaluate...... the impact of existing (maritime and environmental) policies, the governance setting, definitions of restoration and uncertainties on the effectiveness of marine restoration projects. Such a synthesis is a necessary move toward a systematic evaluation of ways to govern and formally institutionalize marine...

  5. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  6. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  7. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  8. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Project FY 1994: Assessing national remote sensing technologies for use in US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Activities, Oak Ridge Solid Waste Storage Area 4 case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.L.; Smyre, J.L.; Evers, T.K.

    1995-02-01

    During FY 1994, the Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Remote Sensing Program teamed with members of the Oak Ridge National Security Program Office (NSPO), the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) under contract to the National Exploitation Laboratory (NEL), the Oak Ridge Waste Area Group 4 (WAG 4) ER Program, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Offices of Technology Development, Nonproliferation and National Security, and Environmental Restoration, to conduct a test and demonstration of the uses of national remote sensing technologies at DOE hazardous waste sites located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Objectives of the Oak Ridge study were to determine if national remote sensing technologies are useful in conducting prescreening, characterization, and/or monitoring activities to expedite the clean-up process at hazardous waste sites and to cut clean-up costs wherever possible. This project was sponsored by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Project (SERDP)

  9. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tracey; Gill, Verena A.; Tuomi, Pamela A.; Monson, Daniel H.; Burdin, Alexander; Conrad, Patricia A.; Dunn, J. Lawrence; Field, Cara L.; Johnson, Christine K.; Jessup, David A.; Bodkin, James L.; Doroff, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004–2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (>5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990s.

  10. A New Nonmonetary Metric for Indicating Environmental Benefits from Ecosystem Restoration Projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    derives its authority for restoring ecosystems though the geophysical environment (hydrology and geomorphology of rivers and coastal zones ), whether or...McClain. 2005. Riparia : Ecology, conservation, and management of streamside communities. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press. National

  11. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Daniel H.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  12. Histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-10. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared oiled, were in danger of becoming oiled, or were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Tissues from 51 oiled sea otters and from 6 unoiled sea otters that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 sea otters found dead with external oil present shortly after the spill. Necropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that had been collected and frozen in the period following the oil spill. Tissues from 6 apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by the oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  13. Sprainting activity of captive otters: its relationship with breeding cycle and number of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marking activity of captive otters (Lutra lutra was studied from April 1989 to August 1993 in an enclosure of 1.64 ha in size, located in the Ticino Valley Natural Park (Piemonte region, northern Italy. The number of otters in the enclosure varied from 1 to 6 and three litters of 1, 2 and 2 cubs were recorded in October 1990, 1991 and 1992. The sprainting activity, expressed as number of signs (spraints and anal secretions per day was associated to the breeding cycle and increased in relation to the number of animals present in the enclosure. These data are of particular importance in order to explain the annual variation of the marking level in wild otter populations. Riassunto Attività di marcamento di 1ontre in cattività in relazione a1 ciclo riproduttivo e a1 numero degli animali - L'attività di marcamento della lontra (Lutra lutra è stata rilevata dall'aprile 1989 all'agosto 1993 in un recinto di 1,64 ha, situato nel Parco Naturale della Valle del Ticino (regione Piemonte, provincia di Novara. I1 numero di animali presenti in tale recinto variava da 1 a 6, e la nascita di tre cucciolate, composte da 1, 2 e 2 piccoli, è stata registrata in ottobre negli anni 1990, 1991 e 1992. L'intensità di marcamento, espressa come numero di segni (feci e secrezioni anali per giorno era associata a1 ciclo riproduttivo della specie e incrementava in relazione al numero di animali presenti nel recinto. I dati acquisiti rivestono particolare importanza per interpretare le variazioni nell'arco dell'anno del livello di marcamento di popolazioni selvatiche.

  14. ENDEMIC INFECTION OF STRANDED SOUTHERN SEA OTTERS (ENHYDRA LUTRIS NEREIS) WITH NOVEL PARVOVIRUS, POLYOMAVIRUS, AND ADENOVIRUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Juliana D; Ng, Terry F; Miller, Melissa; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Dodd, Erin; Batac, Francesca; Delwart, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Over the past century, the southern sea otter (SSO; Enhydra lutris nereis) population has been slowly recovering from near extinction due to overharvest. The SSO is a threatened subspecies under federal law and a fully protected species under California law, US. Through a multiagency collaborative program, stranded animals are rehabilitated and released, while deceased animals are necropsied and tissues are cryopreserved to facilitate scientific study. Here, we processed archival tissues to enrich particle-associated viral nucleic acids, which we randomly amplified and deeply sequenced to identify viral genomes through sequence similarities. Anelloviruses and endogenous retroviral sequences made up over 50% of observed viral sequences. Polyomavirus, parvovirus, and adenovirus sequences made up most of the remaining reads. We characterized and phylogenetically analyzed the full genome of sea otter polyomavirus 1 and the complete coding sequence of sea otter parvovirus 1 and found that the closest known viruses infect primates and domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domesticus), respectively. We tested archived tissues from 69 stranded SSO necropsied over 14 yr (2000-13) by PCR. Polyomavirus, parvovirus, and adenovirus infections were detected in 51, 61, and 29% of examined animals, respectively, with no significant increase in frequency over time, suggesting endemic infection. We found that 80% of tested SSO were infected with at least one of the three DNA viruses, whose tissue distribution we determined in 261 tissue samples. Parvovirus DNA was most frequently detected in mesenteric lymph node, polyomavirus DNA in spleen, and adenovirus DNA in multiple tissues (spleen, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph node, lung, and liver). This study describes the virome in tissues of a threatened species and shows that stranded SSO are frequently infected with multiple viruses, warranting future research to investigate associations between these infections and observed lesions.

  15. Otter Lutra lutra movements assessed by genotyped spraints in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    This paper analyses some otter (Lutra lutra spatial data, obtained by the location of genetically typed spraints in the Pollino national park and surrounding areas (southern Italy. A sample of 214 otter spraints was collected (27 faeces in 2001-02 and 187 in 2004 along 10 streams of the park, and their location was digitalized by a Geographic Information System (Arcview 3.1 for spatial analysis. DNA was extracted using the GuSCN/silica method and each faecal sample was genotyped by PCR amplification of twelve microsatellite loci. Finally, 103 (48.1% spraints yielded a reliable genotype, providing the identification of 31 otters. The maximum distance, measured along watercourses between the genotyped faecal samples of each individual identified by at least two faeces, varied from 0.02 to 34.8 km. On the whole, our results outlined a ranging pattern based on the occupation by one otter of a long stretch of watercourse (21.6 and 34.8 km, including 4-6 partially overlapped short stretches (from 0.02 to 14.1 km occupied by as many animals. RIASSUNTO – Spostamenti della Lontra Lutra lutra valutati mediante analisi genetica delle feci in Italia meridionale. Tramite l’estrazione del DNA da feci “fresche” e la succes- siva amplificazione di 12 loci microsatellite, da un campione di 214 feci di Lontra raccolto lungo 10 corsi idrici del Parco Nazionale del Pollino e aree limitrofe (27 feci nel 2001-02 e 187 nel 2004 sono stati ottenuti 103 genotipi affidabili (48,1%, consentendo l’identifi- cazione di 31 individui. La localizzazione delle feci genotipizzate è stata stabilita mediante GPS (Global Positioning System e trasferita su una mappa digitalizzata (scala 1:10000 tramite GIS (Geographic Information System. La distanza massima, misurata lungo i corsi idrici investigati, tra i campioni fecali tipizzati di ciascun individuo è variata da 0,02 a 34,8 km. Nel complesso, i risultati ottenuti hanno

  16. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  17. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Kate A.; Yunker, Mark B.; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills. - Highlights: → Sediment hydrocarbon signatures differed between remote and impacted coastal sites. → A natural background comprised terrestrial plant alkanes and petrogenic PAHs. → Impacted sites reflected a history of petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbon inputs. → Hydrocarbons at some sites exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. → Protected sea otters may thus be at risk as they rely primarily on benthic prey. - Anthropogenically-derived hydrocarbons in coastal sediments in British Columbia may pose a risk to protected sea otters.

  19. Pathological studies of sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-11. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, B.E.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sea otters were captured and taken to rehabilitaion centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Records of 21 oiled otters that died within 10 days of arrival at the centers were reviewed to define the laboratory abnormalities and clinical syndromes associated with these deaths. Tissues from 51 oiled and 6 unoiled sea otters that died in the centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 oiled otters found dead shortly after the spill. Nucropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that were collected and frozen following the oil spill. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema and gastric erosion and hemorrhage were common in oiled animals, and were less frequent in unoiled animals. Tissues from 6 sea otters collected from a nonoiled area were examined, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  20. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  1. Assessment of restoration measures efficiency for soil contamination in Mediterranean Ecosystem. The case study of Guadiamar Green Corridor in the context of RECARE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, Maria; José Blanco-Velázquez, Francisco; Muñoz-Vallés, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Restoration of soil ecosystems contaminated by heavy metals requires their characterization and the assessment of measures for risk reduction. Particular soil traits and history define different levels of resilience, so soil contamination assessment needs to take into account a site-by-site approach, which considers both the particular environmental characteristics of soils and the human activities. Nevertheless, current approaches for soil contamination assessment developed as academy and market solutions continue to be rather qualitative, and they do not allow as far the selection of efficient remediation measures to solve soil contamination at the long-term and extensively over larger áreas. In this context, under the framework of RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of Soils in Europe through Land Care) project, we are designing a Decision Support System (DSS) which automatically assess soil contamination values by heavy metals in the topsoil and evaluate the efficiency of soil remediation measures under scenarios of climate and land-use change. The DSS works by simulating the spatio-temporal efficiency of three widely applied remediation measures (compost, sugar beet lime and iron-rich clayey materials). Input variables are divided into: (I) climate variables (mainly precipitation and temperature), (II) site variables (elevation, slope and erodibility), (III) soil (heavy metal content, pH, sand/clay content, soil organic carbon and bulk density), (IV) land use and (V) remediation measures. The predictor variables are related to soil functions expressed by % of change of heavy metal content (Currently the DSS consider cadmium dynamics due to the worldwide distribution in agricultural system and toxicity impact on health and plants), soil carbon and erosion dynamics. The pilot study area is the Guadiamar valley (SW Spain) where the main threat is soil contamination, after a mine spill occurred on April 1998. Since that time, a huge soil databse of

  2. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli Isolated from Sea Otters with Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L; Gill, Verena A; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; LeFebvre, Rance B; Byrne, Barbara A

    2015-06-01

    The Gram positive bacterial coccus Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli is increasingly linked with development of fatal vegetative infective endocarditis and septicemia in humans, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and other animals. However, the pathogenesis of these infections is poorly understood. Using S. infantarius subsp. coli strains isolated from sea otters with infective endocarditis, this study evaluated adherence and invasion of epithelial and endothelial cells, adherence to extracellular matrix components, and macrophage survival. Significant adherence to endothelial-derived cells was observed for 62% of isolates, 24% adhered to epithelial cell lines, and 95% invaded one or both cell types in vitro. The importance of the hyaluronic acid capsule in host cell adherence and invasion was also evaluated. Capsule removal significantly reduced epithelial adherence and invasion for most S. infantarius subsp. coli isolates, suggesting that the capsule facilitates attachment to and invasion of epithelium. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing revealed that all isolates adhered significantly to the extracellular matrix components collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin and hyaluronic acid. Finally, significant bacterial survival following phagocytosis by macrophages was apparent for 81% of isolates at one or more time points. Taken collectively these findings indicate that S. infantarius subsp. coli has multiple pathogenic properties that may be important to host colonization, invasion and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Osteosarcoma of the maxilla with concurrent osteoma in a southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. Rodriguez-Ramos; Thomas, N.J.; Dubielzig, R.R.; Drees, R.

    2012-01-01

    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) are threatened marine mammals that belong to the family Mustelidae and are native to the coast of Central California. Neoplasia is reported infrequently in seaotters. An adult female free-ranging southern sea otter was found alive at Pebble Beach, Monterey County, California, on January 1st, 1994 and died soon after capture. The carcass was submitted to the US Geological Survey – National Wildlife Health Center for necropsy examination. Grossly, a mass with rubbery texture was firmly attached to the left maxillary region of the skull and the nasopharynx was occluded by soft neoplastic tissue. Post-mortem skull radiographs showed an oval, smoothly marginated mineralized opaque mass centered on the left maxilla, extending from the canine tooth to caudal to the molar and replacing portions of the zygomatic arch and palatine and temporal bones. The majority of the mass protruded laterally from the maxilla and was characterized by central homogeneous mineral opacity. Microscopically, the mass was characterized by fully differentiated lamellar non-osteonal bone that expanded beyond the margins of the adjacent normal osteonal bone. Sections of the nasopharyngeal mass were comprised of moderately pleomorphic cells with bony stroma. Gross, microscopical and radiological findings were compatible with maxillary osteosarcoma with concurrent osteoma.

  4. Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Hatfield, B.B.; Ralls, K.; Ames, J.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated mortality appears to be the main reason for both sluggish growth and periods of decline in the threatened California sea otter population. We assessed causes of mortality from salvage records of 3,105 beach-cast carcasses recovered from 1968 through 1999, contrasting two periods of growth with two periods of decline. Overall, an estimated 40%-60% of the deaths were not recovered and 70% of the recovered carcasses died from unknown causes. Nonetheless, several common patterns were evident in the salvage records during the periods of population decline. These included greater percentages of (1) prime age animals (3-10 yr), (2) carcasses killed by great white shark attacks, (3) carcasses recovered in spring and summer, and (4) carcasses for which the cause of death was unknown. Neither sex composition nor the proportion of carcasses dying of infectious disease varied consistently between periods of population increase and decline. The population decline from 1976 to 1984 was likely due to incidental mortality in a set-net fishery, and the decline from 1995 to 1999 may be related to a developing live-fish fishery. Long-term trends unrelated to periods of growth and decline included a decrease in per capita pup production and mass/length ratios of adult carcasses over the 31-yr study. The generally high proportion of deaths from infectious disease suggests that this factor has contributed to the chronically sluggish growth rate of the California sea otter population.

  5. Otter trawls in Greece: Landing profiles and potential mιtiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A fleet of 326 bottom trawlers operate in Greek Seas and their landings represent approximately 30% of the total fish production in Greece. In this study, otter trawl landings data were analyzed in order to identify potential métiers. Landings data between 2002 and 2006 were used, collected from 42 ports in the Aegean and East Ionian Sea. A three-step procedure was applied to identify potential métiers: the first step involved a factorial analysis of the log-transformed landings profiles, the second step a classification of the factorial coordinates, and the third step a further aggregation of clusters based on expert knowledge. In all, six potential métiers were identified in the Aegean Sea, and five in the Ionian Sea. The most important target species were European hake (Merluccius merluccius, deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, red mullet (Mullus barbatus, caramote prawn (Melicertus kerathurus, picarel (Spicara smaris, cephalopods, bogue (Boops boops, anglers (Lophiusspp., and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus. Otter trawls in Greece use more or less the same gear with minor modification, and métier selection is basically reflected as a choice of geographical sub-area and hauling depth. The limitations of using landings profiles to identify métiers and the need for further verification are discussed.

  6. An eDNA assay for river otter detection: A tool for surveying a semi-aquatic mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha M. Padgett-Stewart; Taylor M. Wilcox; Kellie J. Carim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an effective tool for the detection of elusive or low-density aquatic organisms. However, it has infrequently been applied to mammalian species. North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) are both broad ranging and semi-aquatic, making them an ideal candidate for examining the uses of eDNA for detection of mammals. We developed...

  7. Eurasian otters, Lutra lutra, have a dominant mtDNA haplotype from the Iberian Peninsula to Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Ainhoa; Ponsà, Montserrat; Marmi, Josep; Domingo-Roura, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    The Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra, has a Palaearctic distribution and has suffered a severe decline throughout Europe during the last century. Previous studies in this and other mustelids have shown reduced levels of variability in mitochondrial DNA, although otter phylogeographic studies were restricted to central-western Europe. In this work we have sequenced 361 bp of the mtDNA control region in 73 individuals from eight countries and added our results to eight sequences available from GenBank and the literature. The range of distribution has been expanded in relation to previous works north towards Scandinavia, east to Russia and Belarus, and south to the Iberian Peninsula. We found a single dominant haplotype in 91.78% of the samples, and six more haplotypes deviating a maximum of two mutations from the dominant haplotype restricted to a single country. Variability was extremely low in western Europe but higher in eastern countries. This, together with the lack of phylogeographical structuring, supports the postglacial recolonization of Europe from a single refugium. The Eurasian otter mtDNA control region has a 220-bp variable minisatellite in Domain III that we sequenced in 29 otters. We found a total of 19 minisatellite haplotypes, but they showed no phylogenetic information.

  8. Dietary specifications reflect the feeding behaviour of the European otter (Lutra lutra in “Strandzha” Natural Park (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natchev Nikolay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the present study a field survey in the area of “Strandzha” Natural Park in south-east Bulgaria was carried out. The main goal of the investigation was to gain more detailed information on the diet of the European otters (Lutra lutra that inhabit the park. As indicators for the presence of the mustelids a set of standard procedures, such as footprints tracking and inspecting the terrain for otter spraints were used. A total of 204 excrements were found, measured, documented and then disintegrated in water. The food rests in the faeces were investigated and the diet of the local population was documented. On the base of the results we separated the excrements into six groups and analysed the relations between the contents of the spraints and the characteristics of the habitat where they were found. We discovered a clear tendency toward piscivory in the middle and down streams of the studied rivers in the Natural Park. In the upper streams, otters relied almost exclusively on invertebrates like bivalves and crayfish as food source. The fact, that even suboptimal habitats, which offered invariable menu, were exploited by the otters is an indication for the stability of the local population.

  9. Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pierotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover. ISBN 9780520267268.

  10. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  11. NPP Temperate Forest: OTTER Project Sites, Oregon, USA, 1989-1991, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates and associated field measurements for six sites located along the 250-km, west-east transect of the...

  12. Trade-offs between energy maximization and parental care in a central place forager, the sea otter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thometz, N M; Staedler, M.M.; Tomoleoni, Joseph; Bodkin, James L.; Bentall, G.B.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2016-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2014, 126 archival time–depth recorders (TDRs) were used to examine the foraging behavior of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) off the coast of California, in both resource-abundant (recently occupied, low sea otter density) and resource-limited (long-occupied, high sea otter density) locations. Following predictions of foraging theory, sea otters generally behaved as energy rate maximizers. Males and females without pups employed similar foraging strategies to optimize rates of energy intake in resource-limited habitats, with some exceptions. Both groups increased overall foraging effort and made deeper, longer and more energetically costly dives as resources became limited, but males were more likely than females without pups to utilize extreme dive profiles. In contrast, females caring for young pups (≤10 weeks) prioritized parental care over energy optimization. The relative importance of parental care versus energy optimization for adult females with pups appeared to reflect developmental changes as dependent young matured. Indeed, contrary to females during the initial stages of lactation, females with large pups approaching weaning once again prioritized optimizing energy intake. The increasing prioritization of energy optimization over the course of lactation was possible due to the physiological development of pups and likely driven by the energetic deficit incurred by females early in lactation. Our results suggest that regardless of resource availability, females at the end of lactation approach a species-specific ceiling for percent time foraging and that reproductive females in the central portion of the current southern sea otter range are disproportionately affected by resource limitation.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, David A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Estes, James A.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M.; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M. Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically Σpolychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ΣDDTs, Σhexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], Σpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], Σchlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ΣDDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ΣDDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ΣPCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  14. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  15. First record of the neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis annectens (Carnivora, Mustelidae in the estuary Boca Negra, Jalisco, Mexico: an approach to understanding its diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Uribe, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of the neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis annectens in the estuary Boca Negra, Jalisco, Mexico is presented. It includes relevant information about its diet and a photograph in its natural habitat is showed.

  16. Genetic structure and evidence for recent population decline in Eurasian otter populations in the Czech and Slovak Republics: implications for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hájková, P.; Pertoldi, C.; Ukendt, Zemanová

    2007-01-01

    Over the latter part of the 20th century, Eurasian otter Lutra lutra populations suffered dramatic declines, resulting in extinction or fragmentation of populations in many western and central European countries. Part of the Czech otter population became totally isolated while the Slovak populati...... that they remain a strongly protected species in both countries. The spreading and re-connection of otter populations observed recently is essential for the future health of the populations, and should be supported through habitat conservation......., suggesting that the strongest decline probably occurred between the 1970s and the mid-1990s. The results of this study confirm that otter populations remain vulnerable to any violent demographic change and, despite the claims of fish-farmers and anglers for legal culls, it is highly desirable...

  17. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H S; Kim, G N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  18. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  19. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  20. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinn, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    ... for a $1.1 billion multiyear program to construct five projects that would help to restore portions of the coastal Louisiana ecosystem by slowing the rate of wetland loss and restoring some wetlands...

  1. Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M; Lord, Janice M

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have a long history of use and management by indigenous cultures. However, environmental degradation can reduce the availability of culturally important resources. Ecological restoration aims to repair damage to ecosystems caused by human activity, but it is unclear how often restoration projects incorporate the return of harvesting or traditional life patterns for indigenous communities. We examined the incorporation of cultural use of natural resources into ecological restoration in the context of a culturally important but protected New Zealand bird; among award-winning restoration projects in Australasia and worldwide; and in the peer-reviewed restoration ecology literature. Among New Zealand's culturally important bird species, differences in threat status and availability for hunting were large. These differences indicate the values of a colonizing culture can inhibit harvesting by indigenous people. In Australasia among award-winning ecological restoration projects, restored areas beyond aesthetic or recreational use, despite many projects encouraging community participation. Globally, restoration goals differed among regions. For example, in North America, projects were primarily conservation oriented, whereas in Asia and Africa projects frequently focused on restoring cultural harvesting. From 1995 to 2014, the restoration ecology literature contained few references to cultural values or use. We argue that restoration practitioners are missing a vital component for reassembling functional ecosystems. Inclusion of sustainably harvestable areas within restored landscapes may allow for the continuation of traditional practices that shaped ecosystems for millennia, and also aid project success by ensuring community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Stable Isotope Signatures of Carbon and Nitrogen to Characterize Exchange Processes and Their Use for Restoration Projects along the Austrian Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, T. [Wasser Cluster Lunz, Lunz-See and Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, University for Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, (Austria); Bondar-Kunze, E. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Welti, N. [Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    The size and composition of an organic matter pool and its sources is a fundamental ecosystem property of river networks. River ecosystems are known to receive large amounts of terrestrial organic matter from catchments, still the question is to what extent aquatic sources influence riverine food webs or at least some components of these food webs. To identify different sources and their potential biological availability at the ecosystem level, we propose using stable isotope signatures of carbon and nitrogen and their respective elemental ratios. In this study, we used these parameters to evaluate river restoration measures. The target of the restoration was to improve surface connectivity between the main channel of the Danube downstream from Vienna and a side arm system within a floodplain. Analyses of the natural abundance of stable isotopes revealed that the restored side arm system showed distinct differences in the particulate organic matter pool in relation to hydrological connectivity. At low water levels, aquatic sources dominate in the side arm system, while at high water levels riverine organic matter is the dominating source. At medium connectivity levels aquatic sources also prevail in the side arm, thus an export of bio-available organic matter into the main channel can be expected. Based on these measurements, the increased - but hydrologically controlled - phytoplankton production was assessed and through this information, changes in ecosystem function were evaluated. (author)

  3. Referral for secondary restorative dental care in rural and urban areas of Scotland: findings from the Highlands Et Islands Teledentistry Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, N M; Steed, M S; Donachie, M A

    2002-02-23

    To compare the reported level of use of secondary care services for restorative dental care in rural and urban areas of Scotland. Postal questionnaire survey Postal questionnaire sent to all dentists in the Highland region, the island regions in Scotland and Dumfries Et Galloway (n = 150) and an equal number were sampled from the remainder of Scotland stratified by health board area. Non-respondents were sent 2 reminders after which 62% of the sample had responded. Most dentists (85%) who practised in what they considered were urban areas of Scotland said they felt that they had good access to a secondary referral service. Whereas most of those who practised in what they considered were rural areas either said they had no access to such a service (26%) or that access was difficult (53%), only 3% of those in urban areas said they had no access to a secondary restorative consultative service compared with 14% of dentists practising in rural areas of mainland Scotland and 54% of those practising on Scottish islands. The survey suggests the people of the Scottish islands and some of the remoter parts of the Scottish mainland would be among those who might benefit from improvement in access to a restorative dentistry consultant service.

  4. Modeling Behavior by Coastal River Otter (Lontra Canadensis in Response to Prey Availability in Prince William Sound, Alaska: A Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E Albeke

    Full Text Available Effects of climate change on animal behavior and cascading ecosystem responses are rarely evaluated. In coastal Alaska, social river otters (Lontra Canadensis, largely males, cooperatively forage on schooling fish and use latrine sites to communicate group associations and dominance. Conversely, solitary otters, mainly females, feed on intertidal-demersal fish and display mutual avoidance via scent marking. This behavioral variability creates "hotspots" of nutrient deposition and affects plant productivity and diversity on the terrestrial landscape. Because the abundance of schooling pelagic fish is predicted to decline with climate change, we developed a spatially-explicit individual-based model (IBM of otter behavior and tested six scenarios based on potential shifts to distribution patterns of schooling fish. Emergent patterns from the IBM closely mimicked observed otter behavior and landscape use in the absence of explicit rules of intraspecific attraction or repulsion. Model results were most sensitive to rules regarding spatial memory and activity state following an encounter with a fish school. With declining availability of schooling fish, the number of social groups and the time simulated otters spent in the company of conspecifics declined. Concurrently, model results suggested an elevation of defecation rate, a 25% increase in nitrogen transport to the terrestrial landscape, and significant changes to the spatial distribution of "hotspots" with declines in schooling fish availability. However, reductions in availability of schooling fish could lead to declines in otter density over time.

  5. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate

  6. Sea otter dental enamel is highly resistant to chipping due to its microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziscovici, Charles; Lucas, Peter W; Constantino, Paul J; Bromage, Timothy G; van Casteren, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Dental enamel is prone to damage by chipping with large hard objects at forces that depend on chip size and enamel toughness. Experiments on modern human teeth have suggested that some ante-mortem chips on fossil hominin enamel were produced by bite forces near physiological maxima. Here, we show that equivalent chips in sea otter enamel require even higher forces than human enamel. Increased fracture resistance correlates with more intense enamel prism decussation, often seen also in some fossil hominins. It is possible therefore that enamel chips in such hominins may have formed at even greater forces than currently envisaged. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. In 2015, A. phocae was isolated for the first time in Denmark from outbreaks of dermatitis in mink farms. The outbreaks affected at least 12 farms. Originating from these 12 farms, 23 animals cultured positive for A. phocae. The main clinical findings......Infectious skin disorders are not uncommon in mink. Such disorders are important as they have a negative impact on animal health and welfare as well as on the quality and value of the fur. This study presents the isolation of Arcanobacterium phocae from mink with severe skin lesions and other...... were necrotizing pododermatitis or dermatitis located to other body sites, such as the lumbar and cervical regions. A. phocae could be isolated from skin lesions and in nine animals also from liver, spleen and lung, indicating a systemic spread. The bacterium was also, for the first time in Denmark...

  8. Forward-looking farmers owning multiple potential wetland restoration sites: implications for efficient restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder (Kushch), Svetlana; Lang, Zhengxin; Rabotyagov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    Wetland restoration can increase the provision of multiple non-market ecosystem services. Environmental and socio-economic factors need to be accounted for when land is withdrawn from agriculture and wetlands are restored. We build multi-objective optimization models to provide decision support for wetland restoration in the Le Sueur river watershed in Southern Minnesota. We integrate environmental objectives of sediment reduction and habitat protection with socio-economic factors associated with the overlap of private land with potential wetland restoration sites in the watershed and the costs representing forward-looking farmers voluntarily taking land out of agricultural production in favor of wetland restoration. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of these factors early on in the restoration planning process affects both the total costs of the restoration project and the spatial distribution of optimally selected wetland restoration sites.

  9. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  10. Impact of stream restoration on flood waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtes, J.; Doyle, M.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of channelized or incised streams has the potential to reduce downstream flooding via storing and dissipating the energy of flood waves. Restoration design elements such as restoring meanders, reducing slope, restoring floodplain connectivity, re-introducing in-channel woody debris, and re-vegetating banks and the floodplain have the capacity to attenuate flood waves via energy dissipation and channel and floodplain storage. Flood discharge hydrographs measured up and downstream of several restored reaches of varying stream order and located in both urban and rural catchments are coupled with direct measurements of stream roughness at various stages to directly measure changes to peak discharge, flood wave celerity, and dispersion. A one-dimensional unsteady flow routing model, HEC-RAS, is calibrated and used to compare attenuation characteristics between pre and post restoration conditions. Modeled sensitivity results indicate that a restoration project placed on a smaller order stream demonstrates the highest relative reduction in peak discharge of routed flood waves compared to one of equal length on a higher order stream. Reductions in bed slope, extensions in channel length, and increases in channel and floodplain roughness follow restoration placement with the watershed in relative importance. By better understanding how design, scale, and location of restored reaches within a catchment hydraulically impact flood flows, this study contributes both to restoration design and site decision making. It also quantifies the effect of reach scale stream restoration on flood wave attenuation.

  11. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  12. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  13. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  14. Development, Testing, and Application of a Coupled Hydrodynamic Surface-Water/Groundwater Model (FTLOADDS) with Heat and Salinity Transport in the Ten Thousand Islands/Picayune Strand Restoration Project Area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model application was developed for the coastal area inland of the Ten Thousand Islands (TTI) in southwestern Florida using the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density-Dependent System (FTLOADDS) model. This model couples a two-dimensional dynamic surface-water model with a three-dimensional groundwater model, and has been applied to several locations in southern Florida. The model application solves equations for salt transport in groundwater and surface water, and also simulates surface-water temperature using a newly enhanced heat transport algorithm. One of the purposes of the TTI application is to simulate hydrologic factors that relate to habitat suitability for the West Indian Manatee. Both salinity and temperature have been shown to be important factors for manatee survival. The inland area of the TTI domain is the location of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to restore predevelopment hydrology through the filling and plugging of canals, construction of spreader channels, and the construction of levees and pump stations. The effects of these changes are simulated to determine their effects on manatee habitat. The TTI application utilizes a large amount of input data for both surface-water and groundwater flow simulations. These data include topography, frictional resistance, atmospheric data including rainfall and air temperature, aquifer properties, and boundary conditions for tidal levels, inflows, groundwater heads, and salinities. Calibration was achieved by adjusting the parameters having the largest uncertainty: surface-water inflows, the surface-water transport dispersion coefficient, and evapotranspiration. A sensitivity analysis did not indicate that further parameter changes would yield an overall improvement in simulation results. The agreement between field data from GPS-tracked manatees and TTI application results demonstrates that the model can predict the salinity and temperature

  15. Riparian forest restoration: Conflicting goals, trade-offs, and measures of success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; David M. Merritt; J. Bradley Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Restoration projects can have varying goals, depending on the specific focus, rationale, and aims for restoration. When restoration projects use project-specific goals to define activities and gauge success without considering broader ecological context, determination of project implications and success can be confounding. We used case studies from the Middle Rio...

  16. Demodex lutrae n. sp. (Acari) in European otter Lutra lutra (Carnivora: Mustelidae) with data from other demodecid mites in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2014-12-01

    This article describes morphological characteristics and occurrence of Demodex lutrae n. sp., which was found on European otter Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) in Poland. The new species was found in hairy regions of otter skin, mainly in the head area. With respect to morphological features, D. lutrae is most similar to D. canis (Leydig, 1859) from the domestic dog Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758. The new species is a medium-sized demodecid mite (adult stages average 200 μm in length); characteristic features of these mites are hammer-shaped supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) on dorsal side of gnathosoma and palps with 3 conical spines. Demodex lutrae is the first representative of the family Demodecidae described in a host from the subfamily Lutrinae. This paper also contains a checklist of demodecid mites known from carnivores.

  17. Importance of small fishes and invasive crayfish in otter Lutra lutra diet in an English chalk stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton J. Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet composition of the European otter Lutra lutra was assessed using spraint analysis in the Hampshire Avon, a lowland chalk stream in Southern England, over an 18-month period. Small cyprinid fishes were the main prey item taken in all seasons, with bullhead Cottus gobio and stone loach Barbatula barbatula also important; there were relatively few larger fishes of interest to fisheries found. There were significant seasonal differences in diet composition by season, with signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus only being prominent prey items in warmer months and amphibians in winter, revealing that non-fish resources were seasonally important dietary components. Reconstructed body lengths of prey revealed the only species present in diet >350 mm was pike Esox lucius. These dietary data thus provide important information for informing conservation conflicts between otters and fishery interests.

  18. Hematology and clinical chemistry of sea otters vaptured in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bruden, D.L.; Kloecker, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemical analyses were performed on sea otter blood samples collected from 31 adult males, 63 adult females, and 42 pups captured in western Prince William Sound (oiled area), and 12 adult males, 40 adult females, and 15 pups captured in eastern Prince William Sound (unoiled area) in 1989 and 1990. Hematologic differences between eastern and western adult males were minimal. Both hematocrits and hemoglobins were higher in western than eastern otters but the biological significance of this is equivocal. Western males had higher absolute eosinophil counts, suggesting possible systemic hypersensitivity reactions. Western males had higher serum protein and serum globulin levels than eastern males, suggesting greater antigenic stimulation (more inflammatory and/or infectious conditions). There were no differences in hematologic parameters between eastern and western female otters. Some chemistry changes were present, but the degree of difference was small. Total protein and serum globulin levels were slightly higher in western females, a finding also seen in adult males. Mean levels of liver enzymes for western females were somewhat higher than for the eastern otters, suggesting the possibility of subclinical liver disease. As a group, western pup hematocrits, hemoglobins, and red cell counts were significantly lower than those of eastern pups. From a biological perspective, these reductions were minimal but supported by individual animal data. The red cell data suggest a mild anemia in western pups; however, the degree of anemia was minimal, so that biological significance was equivocal. Other hematologic and clinical chemical differences between eastern and western pups were not striking and were also of equivocal biological significance.

  19. Importance of small fishes and invasive crayfish in otter Lutra lutra diet in an English chalk stream

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, J.R.; Berry, M.; Sewell, S.; Lees, C.; Reading, P.

    2017-01-01

    The diet composition of the European otter Lutra lutra was assessed using spraint analysis in the Hampshire Avon, a lowland chalk stream in Southern England, over an 18-month period. Small cyprinid fishes were the main prey item taken in all seasons, with bullhead Cottus gobio and stone loach Barbatula barbatula also important; there were relatively few larger fishes of interest to fisheries found. There were significant seasonal differences in diet composition by season, with signal crayfish...

  20. Materials on the diet of the Otter (Lutra lutra L. in the West Rhodopes Mountain, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Otter spraints were collected from the West Rhodopes from Batak Dam, Chaya and Parvenetska River areas during 2005-2007. Main food resources in Batak Dam during autumn were the frogs dominated by representatives of the family Ranidae, followed by different fish species. In both rivers the main food was the fish with predominance of Barbus cyclolepis, the frogs, and the crabs.

  1. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  2. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  3. Structure and mechanism of diet specialisation: testing models of individual variation in resource use with sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Novak, Mark; Marquitti, Flavia Maria Darcie; Bodkin, James L.; Staedler, Michelle; Bentall, Gena B.; Estes, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of consumer-resource interactions suggest that individual diet specialisation is empirically widespread and theoretically important to the organisation and dynamics of populations and communities. We used weighted networks to analyze the resource use by sea otters, testing three alternative models for how individual diet specialisation may arise. As expected, individual specialisation was absent when otter density was low, but increased at high-otter density. A high-density emergence of nested resource-use networks was consistent with the model assuming individuals share preference ranks. However, a density-dependent emergence of a non-nested modular network for ‘core’ resources was more consistent with the ‘competitive refuge’ model. Individuals from different diet modules showed predictable variation in rank-order prey preferences and handling times of core resources, further supporting the competitive refuge model. Our findings support a hierarchical organisation of diet specialisation and suggest individual use of core and marginal resources may be driven by different selective pressures.

  4. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  5. Evaluation of social attraction measures to establish Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) nesting colonies for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California—2017 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Wang, Yiwei; Strong, Cheryl

    2018-05-31

    Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), historically one of the most numerous colonial-breeding waterbirds in South San Francisco Bay, California, have had recent decreases in the number of nesting colonies and overall breeding population size. The South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in South San Francisco Bay. This restoration will remove much of the historical island nesting habitat used by Forster’s terns, American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and other waterbirds. To address this issue, the SBSP Restoration Project organized the construction of new nesting islands in managed ponds that will not be restored to tidal marsh, thereby providing enduring island nesting habitat for waterbirds. In 2012, 16 new islands were constructed in Pond A16 in the Alviso complex of the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, increasing the number of islands in this pond from 4 to 20. However, despite a history of nesting on the four historical islands in Pond A16 before 2012, no Forster’s terns have nested in Pond A16 since the new islands were constructed.In 2017, we used social attraction measures (decoys and electronic call systems) to attract Forster’s terns to islands within Pond A16 to re-establish nesting colonies. We maintained these systems from March through August 2017. To evaluate the effect of these social attraction measures, we also completed waterbird surveys between April and August, where we recorded the number and location of all Forster’s terns and other waterbirds using Pond A16, and monitored waterbird nests. We compared bird survey and nest monitoring data collected in 2017 to data collected in 2015 and 2016, prior to the implementation of social attraction measures, allowing for direct evaluation of social attraction efforts on Forster’s terns.To increase the visibility and stakeholder involvement of this project, we engaged in

  6. Trophic interactions of the endangered Southern river otter ( Lontra provocax) in a Chilean Ramsar wetland inferred from prey sampling, fecal analysis, and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Correa, Loreto; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Non-invasive methodological approaches are highly recommended and commonly used to study the feeding ecology of elusive and threatened mammals. In this study, we use multiple lines of evidence to assess the feeding strategies of the endangered Southern river otter, by determining seasonal prey availability (electrofishing), analysis of undigested prey remains (spraints), and the use of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in otter spraints ( n = 262) and prey in a wetland ecosystem of southern Chile (39°49'S, 73°15'W). Fecal and isotopic analyses suggest that the otter diet is restricted to a few prey items, particularly the less-mobile, bottom-living, and larger prey such as crayfish ( Samastacus spinifrons, 86.11 %) and crabs ( Aegla spp., 32.45 %), supplemented opportunistically by cyprinids ( Cyprinus carpio, 9.55 %) and catfish ( Diplomystes camposensis, 5.66 %). The results suggest that the river otter is highly specialized in bottom foraging. Isotopic signatures of food sources and feces revealed a mid-upper trophic position for the Southern river otter, with either higher or lower δ15N values than their potential prey items. δ13C values for river otters were less enriched than their potential food resources. We suggest that due to their narrow trophic niche and possible dependence on only a few food items, this species may be highly vulnerable to the reduction in its prey populations. Finally, maintaining the ecological interactions between Southern river otters and their prey is considered a central priority for the survival of this endangered carnivore mammal.

  7. Ten-Year Summary and Evaluation of Operations and Performance of the Utica Aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands Restoration Project, 2004-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This document reviews the performance of the groundwater (and wetlands) restoration program implemented by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the first ten years of this initiative (2004-2014). The results of the program for the first five-year period of operation were previously discussed in detail (Argonne 2011). The present report focuses on treatment system operational data and regulatory compliance monitoring results for the site during the second five-year period of operation (2010-2014), together with the results of (1) ongoing monitoring and (2) targeted groundwater sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses conducted at Utica in 2015 (following completion of the tenth year of systems operation), to assess the 10-year progress of the Utica remediation effort.

  8. Use of structured decision-making to explicitly incorporate environmental process understanding in management of coastal restoration projects: Case study on barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Meyers, Michelle; Mattsson, Brady; Steyer, Gregory; Godsey, Elizabeth; McDonald, Justin; Byrnes, Mark; Ford, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected. In this study, collaborative structured decision-making (SDM) was evaluated as an approach to incorporate process understanding into mid-construction decisions and to identify priority gaps in knowledge from a management perspective. The focus was a barrier island restoration project at Ship Island, Mississippi, where sand will be used to close an extensive breach that currently divides the island. SDM was used to estimate damage that may occur during construction, and guide repair decisions within the confines of limited availability of sand and funding to minimize adverse impacts to project objectives. Sand was identified as more limiting than funds, and unrepaired major breaching would negatively impact objectives. Repairing minor damage immediately was determined to be generally more cost effective (depending on the longshore extent) than risking more damage to a weakened project. Key gaps in process-understanding relative to project management were identified as the relationship of island width to breach formation; the amounts of sand lost during breaching, lowering, or narrowing of the berm; the potential for minor breaches to self-heal versus developing into a major breach; and the relationship between upstream nourishment and resiliency of the berm to storms. This application is a

  9. Use of structured decision-making to explicitly incorporate environmental process understanding in management of coastal restoration projects: Case study on barrier islands of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Meyers, Michelle B.; Mattsson, Brady; Steyer, Gregory; Godsey, Elizabeth; McDonald, Justin; Byrnes, Mark R.; Ford, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystem management typically relies on subjective interpretation of scientific understanding, with limited methods for explicitly incorporating process knowledge into decisions that must meet multiple, potentially competing stakeholder objectives. Conversely, the scientific community lacks methods for identifying which advancements in system understanding would have the highest value to decision-makers. A case in point is barrier island restoration, where decision-makers lack tools to objectively use system understanding to determine how to optimally use limited contingency funds when project construction in this dynamic environment does not proceed as expected. In this study, collaborative structured decision-making (SDM) was evaluated as an approach to incorporate process understanding into mid-construction decisions and to identify priority gaps in knowledge from a management perspective. The focus was a barrier island restoration project at Ship Island, Mississippi, where sand will be used to close an extensive breach that currently divides the island. SDM was used to estimate damage that may occur during construction, and guide repair decisions within the confines of limited availability of sand and funding to minimize adverse impacts to project objectives. Sand was identified as more limiting than funds, and unrepaired major breaching would negatively impact objectives. Repairing minor damage immediately was determined to be generally more cost effective (depending on the longshore extent) than risking more damage to a weakened project. Key gaps in process-understanding relative to project management were identified as the relationship of island width to breach formation; the amounts of sand lost during breaching, lowering, or narrowing of the berm; the potential for minor breaches to self-heal versus developing into a major breach; and the relationship between upstream nourishment and resiliency of the berm to storms. This application is a

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix of environ...... is to illustrate the application of CBA within the field of river restoration. The Skjern River restoration project in Denmark is used as an empirical example of how these methods can be applied in the wetland restoration context....

  11. Coral Reef Ecosystem Data from the 2010-2011 Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, West Maui, Herbivore Enhancement as a Tool for Reef Restoration Project (NODC Accession 0082869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research targets the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (HCRI) Priority Area A: Kahekili, Maui: Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). The project goal was to...

  12. The Ecosystem Functions Model: A Tool for Restoration Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickey, John T; Dunn, Chris N

    2004-01-01

    .... Project teams can use the EFM to visualize existing ecologic conditions, highlight promising restoration sites, and assess and rank alternatives according to the relative enhancement (or decline...

  13. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, J.R.; Moos, L.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and facility dismantlement projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized; however, there are significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced by careful planning and execution. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling, segregation of waste types, and reducing generation of secondary waste

  14. The responsibility of business enterprises to restore access to essential public service at resettlement sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Lidewij; Vanclay, Francis; Lourenço, Ivo; Hesselman, Marlies; Hallo de Wolf, Antenor; Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines the provision of essential public services in resettlement sites associated with project induced displacement. Restoring and improving access to essential public services in resettlement sites is an important aspect of livelihood restoration of affected peoples. Project

  15. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  16. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J R; Rosypal, A C; Rosenthal, B M; Thomas, N J; Lindsay, D S; Stanek, J F; Reed, S M; Saville, W J

    2001-12-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 microm long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 microm long and up to 0.25 microm wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  17. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Rosypal, A.C.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Lindsay, D.S.; Stanek, J.F.; Reed, S.M.; Saville, W.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 I?m long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 I?m long and up to 0.25 I?m wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  18. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sourthern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H.; Kannan, K.; Jing, L.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT), HCHs (α-, β-, γ-isomers), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA, during 1992–96. The contamination pattern of organochlorines in sea otters from several locations was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > > CHLs > HCHs > > HCB, whereas those from Monterey Harbor contained greater concentrations of PCBs than of DDTs. Hepatic concentrations of PCBs and DDTs were in the ranges of 58–8700 and 280–5900 ng/g, wet weight, respectively, which varied depending on the geographic location. Sea otters collected from Monterey Harbor contained the greatest concentrations of PCBs and DDTs. In general, accumulation of DDTs, CHLs and PCBs was greater in kidney than in liver, whereas that of HCHs was similar in both the tissues. The gender difference in organochlorine concentrations was less than those reported in cetaceans. The composition of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs compounds in sea otter tissues indicated no recent inputs of these compounds in coastal California. Sea otters that died from infectious diseases, neoplasia and emaciation contained higher concentrations of DDTs than those that died from trauma.

  19. Project management plan for inactive tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, 3013, and T-30 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    *This document identifies the roles and responsibilities of the project team members and identifies the project scope, schedule, and cost reporting activities for a maintenance activity to remove and dispose of three inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) system tanks and to isolate and fill one LLLW tank with grout. Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30 are located in concrete vaults and tank 3013 is buried directly in the soil. The maintenance project consists of cutting the existing pipes attached to the tanks; capping the piping to be left in place; removing the tanks and filling the vaults with grout for tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30; and filling tank 3013 with grout. Because the LLLW line serving tank 3001-B will be needed for discharging the 3001 canal demineralizer back flush and regeneration waste to tank WC-19, tank 3001-B will be replaced with a section of piping

  20. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  1. Five-year summary and evaluation of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands restoration project in 2004-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-09-13

    This document reviews the performance of the groundwater (and wetlands) restoration program implemented by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the first five years (2004-2009) of this initiative. The report summarizes treatment system operational data and regulatory compliance monitoring results for the site during this period, together with the results of the targeted groundwater sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted in early 2010 (following completion of the fifth year of systems operation), to assess the initial five years of progress of the Utica remediation effort. On the basis of the 2003 groundwater sampling results, a remedial system employing 4 extraction wells (GWEX1-GWEX4), with groundwater treatment by spray irrigation and conventional air stripping, was implemented with the concurrence of the CCC/USDA and the agencies (Table 1.1). The principal components of the system are shown in Figure 1.3 and are briefly described in Section 1.2. Operation of well GWEX4 and the associated air stripper began on October 29, 2004, and routine operation of wells GWEX1-GWEX3 and the spray irrigation treatment units began on November 22, 2004.

  2. Effects of aerial pollutants on cereal growth. [Hordeum vulgare var. Maris Otter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Winter barley, var. Maris Otter, was grown at Woburn Experimental Farm in three closed plastic chambers with either filtered, ambient or sulfur dioxide-polluted air. The mean sulfur dioxide levels were 7.2 ..mu..g m/sup -3/, 37 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ for the filtered and ambient chambers respectively. In the field the mean value was 51.5 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ . Temperature and relative humidity in these closed houses differed from the outside. No visible damage occurred on any of the plants grown in the filtered or ambient air. In the fumigated chamber a high dose of sulfur dioxide was given for one week (19-25 April 1975), producing a mean concentration of 951 ..mu..g m/sup -3/, at the four-leaf stage. It caused severe necrosis of the leaves. The plants subsequently recovered and no further fumigations were given. At final harvest these plants were not significantly lower in total dry weight and grain weight from the ambient plants. The dry matter yield of the plants grown in filtered air was higher than that of plants in ambient air.

  3. Communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care in Europe: the case for improvement. The rationale for the RESTORE FP 7 project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Burns, Nicola; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Lionis, Christos; Dowrick, Chris; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brun, Tomas; MacFarlane, Anne

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the importance of research about barriers and levers to the implementation of supports for cross-cultural communication in primary care settings in Europe. After an overview of migrant health issues, with the focus on communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care and the importance of language barriers, we highlight the fact that there are serious problems in routine practice that persist over time and across different European settings. Language and cultural barriers hamper communication in consultations between doctors and migrants, with a range of negative effects including poorer compliance and a greater propensity to access emergency services. It is well established that there is a need for skilled interpreters and for professionals who are culturally competent to address this problem. A range of professional guidelines and training initiatives exist that support the communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care. However, these are commonly not implemented in daily practice. It is as yet unknown why professionals do not accept or implement these guidelines and interventions, or under what circumstances they would do so. A new study involving six European countries, RESTORE (REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings), aims to address these gaps in knowledge. It uses a unique combination of a contemporary social theory, normalisation process theory (NPT) and participatory learning and action (PLA) research. This should enhance understanding of the levers and barriers to implementation, as well as providing stakeholders, with the opportunity to generate creative solutions to problems experienced with the implementation of such interventions.

  4. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  5. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  6. The socioeconomic factors that facilitate or constrain restoration management: Watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow (bofedal) restoration in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brett D; Cleveland, David A

    2018-03-01

    Restoration ecology holds promise for addressing land degradation in impoverished rural environments, provided the approach is adapted to rural development settings. While there is a need for increased integration of social dynamics in land restoration, few systematic studies exist. We explored the socioeconomic factors that influence restoration management, including local motives and perceived benefits, incentives, land tenancy, institutional factors, conflict resolution, accessibility, off-farm labor, and outmigration. The study area is a successful watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow restoration project in the Bolivian Andes that began in 1992. We used household survey methods (n = 237) to compare the communities that had conducted the most restoration management with those that had conducted the least. Results suggest that several factors facilitate investments in land restoration, including aligning restoration objectives with local motives and perceived benefits, ensuring incentives are in place to stimulate long-term investments, conflict resolution, private land tenancy, and accessibility. However, higher levels of organization and active leadership can facilitate land restoration on communal lands. Increased livelihood benefits from land restoration helped slow the rate of rural to urban migration, with 24.5% outmigration in the highest restoration management communities compared to 62.1% in the lowest restoration management communities. Results suggest that land restoration projects that integrate community development into project planning and implementation will achieve greater success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  8. Weaver Bottoms Wildlife Habitat Restoration: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Mary M; Damberg, Carol

    1994-01-01

    .... The Weaver Bottoms Rehabilitation Project is a large scale wetland restoration project that is directed at regaining lost habitat by creating hydrological and energy conditions conducive to marsh growth and production. Davis et al. (1993...

  9. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  10. Hydrology of Dutch Cirsio-Molinietum meadows : Prospects for restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A. J. M.; Grootjans, A. P.; Jalink, M. H.; Bakker, J.P.

    . Fen meadows (Cirsio dissecti-Molinietum) are seriously threatened by desiccation, acidification and eutro-phication. In The Netherlands several projects were launched to restore damaged fen meadows. This review describes how successes and failures of these restoration projects depend on

  11. Sex and the single Salix: considerations for riparian restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; David R. Dreesen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    Most restoration projects strive to create a sustain able plant community but exclusive use of vegetatively propagated material may be preventing this goal. The dioecious willows and cottonwoods of the Salicaceae are widely used in riparian restoration projects. Hardwood cuttings have traditionally been used to propagate these species in nurseries, and live stakes,...

  12. Contribuição da fauna silvestre em projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil Contribution of the wildlife in ecological restoration projects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanuza Helena Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso no processo de restauração e manutenção da dinâmica de um ecossistema é extremamente dependente da capacidade das espécies em promover interações interespecíficas entre as diversas formas de vida. Estas interações criam um cenário favorável à restauração ecológica de ecossistemas degradados. Assim, por meio de revisão de literatura, o objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a contribuição e utilização dos diferentes grupos de animais na execução de projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil. As aves e mamíferos frugívoros e também outros animais, como os répteis, peixes e insetos, têm se destacado como ferramentas de auxílio aos projetos de restauração ecológica. As técnicas para atração de animais e consequente chegada de propágulos em um ecossistema degradado compreende a utilização de poleiros, que servem de pouso e abrigo para a avifauna e morcegos, e a utilização de abrigos artificiais, que servem para fuga de predadores, descanso e reprodução dos animais. De modo geral, estes estudos são excelentes ferramentas para gerir ações de manejo ambiental em ecossistemas degradados, possibilitando a recuperação da biodiversidade destes ambientes. The success in the process of restoration and maintenance of the dynamics of an ecosystem is highly dependent on the capacity of species to promote interspecific interactions among the various life forms. These interactions create a favorable environment for the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. Thus, by review the literature, the objective of this study is to report the contribution and use of different animal groups in carrying out ecological restoration projects in Brazil. The fruit-eating birds and mammals and also other animals such as reptiles, fish and insects have been highlighted as tools to aid environmental ecological restoration projects. Techniques for attracting animals and consequent arrival of seedlings in a degraded

  13. How economics can further the success of ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Polyakov, Maksym; Ansell, Dean; Gibson, Fiona; Kay, Geoffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Restoration scientists and practitioners have recently begun to include economic and social aspects in the design and investment decisions for restoration projects. With few exceptions, ecological restoration studies that include economics focus solely on evaluating costs of restoration projects. However, economic principles, tools, and instruments can be applied to a range of other factors that affect project success. We considered the relevance of applying economics to address 4 key challenges of ecological restoration: assessing social and economic benefits, estimating overall costs, project prioritization and selection, and long-term financing of restoration programs. We found it is uncommon to consider all types of benefits (such as nonmarket values) and costs (such as transaction costs) in restoration programs. Total benefit of a restoration project can be estimated using market prices and various nonmarket valuation techniques. Total cost of a project can be estimated using methods based on property or land-sale prices, such as hedonic pricing method and organizational surveys. Securing continuous (or long-term) funding is also vital to accomplishing restoration goals and can be achieved by establishing synergy with existing programs, public-private partnerships, and financing through taxation. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible.

  15. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  16. Environmental restoration and biological contamination: ecological and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Reis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental restoration is a pressing current need. However, protected areas have been exposed to biological contamination risks because the traditional techniques of restoration frequently use exotic species. This causes some concern, since biological contamination is the second major cause of species extinction in the world. It is important to use only native species in restoration projects in order to promote an effective environmental restoration without the risk of contamination. This paper discusses some issues concerning environmental restoration, biological contamination and the need for clearer laws.

  17. The First Results of the Project on Restoration of Genetic Diversity of the Saker Falcon Populations in the Altai-Sayan Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available On summer 2017 a pilot project on population recovery of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug was conducted in Altai-Sayan region of Russia. Ten 20-days old falcons of “Altaic” morph from a breeding center were placed in nests of wild falcons of other color morphs. Sequence of control region (D-loop of mitochondrial genome from 414 to 1417 bp (1004 bp proofed that in particular cases haplotypes of non-native nestlings from the breeding center were similar to those of native falcons that acted as adoptive parents. Analysis also revealed that haplotypes of nestlings matched the previously determined western and eastern haplogroups. Ten nestlings from a breeding center were placed in 6 nests of wild Sakers with 24 native nestlings. Video-recording revealed no aggression between native and no-native nestlings, as well as no aggression from adult birds towards non-native nestlings. The losses before fledging amounted to 4 nestlings. One native and one non-native nestlings were killed on a nest by an Eagle Owl in Altai Republic, and 2 native nestlings died for an unknown cause in Tuva Republic. In total, 9 non-native nestlings and 21 native nestlings successfully fledged and left the nests. The known losses after fledging amounted to 2 young birds – one native and one non-native, both were killed by bigger raptors. The youngest female from the nest in Altai Republic tagged with GPS-GSM tracker successfully migrates and winters now in Mongolia.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Niladri; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; O'Brien, Mike

    2007-01-01

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 ± 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 ± 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 ± 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects

  20. Diet of otters (Lutra lutra in various habitat types in the Pann