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Sample records for oswro neshap interrelationships

  1. LLNL NESHAPs, 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Surano, K.A.; Biermann, A.H.; Gouveia, F.J.; Fields, B.C.; Tate, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    The standard defined in NESHAPSs CFR Part 61.92 limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to those that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem. In August 1993 DOE and EPA signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement which established a schedule of work for LLNL to perform to demonstrate compliance with NESHAPs, 40 CFR part 61, Subpart H. The progress in LLNL's NESHAPs program - evaluations of all emission points for the Livermore site and Site 300, of collective EDEs for populations within 80 km of each site, status in reguard to continuous monitoring requirements and periodic confirmatory measurements, improvements in the sampling and monitoring systems and progress on a NESHAPs quality assurance program - is described in this annual report. In April 1994 the EPA notified DOE and LLNL that all requirements of the FFCA had been met, and that LLNL was in compliance with the NESHAPs regulations

  2. LLNL NESHAPs 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bertoldo, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gallegos, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacQueen, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegrecki, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  3. LLNL NESHAPs 2015 Annual Report - June 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gallegos, G. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacQueen, D. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegrecki, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in which radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  4. Radiological NESHAP ANNUAL REPORT CY 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2016, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES (Radiological NESHAP). A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  5. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Protection Rad Neshaps Radionuclide Inventory Web Database and Rad Neshaps Source and Dose Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Patricia A; Smith, Linda L; Johnson, David N

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated national emission standards for emissions of radionuclides other than radon from US Department of Energy facilities in Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H. This regulatory standard limits the annual effective dose that any member of the public can receive from Department of Energy facilities to 0.1 mSv. As defined in the preamble of the final rule, all of the facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, i.e., the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, East Tennessee Technology Park, and any other U.S. Department of Energy operations on Oak Ridge Reservation, combined, must meet the annual dose limit of 0.1 mSv. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there are monitored sources and numerous unmonitored sources. To maintain radiological source and inventory information for these unmonitored sources, e.g., laboratory hoods, equipment exhausts, and room exhausts not currently venting to monitored stacks on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus, the Environmental Protection Rad NESHAPs Inventory Web Database was developed. This database is updated annually and is used to compile emissions data for the annual Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad NESHAPs) report required by 40 CFR 61.94. It also provides supporting documentation for facility compliance audits. In addition, a Rad NESHAPs source and dose database was developed to import the source and dose summary data from Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer model files. This database provides Oak Ridge Reservation and facility-specific source inventory; doses associated with each source and facility; and total doses for the Oak Ridge Reservation dose.

  6. NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2015 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  7. Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find regulatory information regarding the NESHAP for Aerospace manufacturing and rework facilities. This page contains the rule summary, rule history, and related rules and additional resources for this standard.

  8. Pesticide Active Ingredient Production Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the pesticide active ingredient (PAI) production source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act as amended (CAA or Act).

  9. Clay Ceramics Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP regulation for clay ceramic manufacturing by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations, and the additional resources like fact sheets and background information documents

  10. Brick and Structural Clay Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP regulation for brick and structural clay products by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations, and the additional resources like fact sheets and background information documents

  11. Ethylene Oxide Commerical Sterilization and Fumigation Operations National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide implementation materials to assist in conducting complete and efficient inspections at ethylene oxide commercial sterilization and fumigation operations to determine compliance with the NESHAP

  12. Ethylene Oxide Emissions Standards for Sterilization Facilities: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for ethylene oxide emissions for sterilization facilities. Find the rule history information, federal register citations, legal authority, and related rules as well as a rule summary.

  13. 78 FR 54892 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ...: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units (Renewal) AGENCY... submitted an information collection request (ICR), ``NESHAP for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart UUU) (Renewal...

  14. Stationary Combustion Turbines: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for stationary combustion turbines by reading the rule history, the rule summary, additional resources, docket folder documents, the economic impact analysis, fact sheet and more

  15. Secondary Aluminum National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowcharts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This March 2003 document contains three diagrams that that are intended to assist you in determining whether you own or operate any equipment that is subject to the NESHAP for Secondary Aluminum Production Facilities.

  16. Cellulose Products Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Cellulose Products Manufacturing, see the rule history for this Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT), and find Compliance help for this source.

  17. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for surface coating of wood building products by reading the rule summary and history, with links to the federal register notices, additional documents, related rules and compliance information

  18. Implications of DOE O 1027 Guidance on Rad-NESHAP Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehne, David P.; Fong, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is for the national Radionuclide NESHAP meeting, an embedded topic of the 2012 Health Physics Society Annual Meeting in Sacramento, CA. The Radionuclide NESHAP program is responsible for measuring and reporting the amount of airborne radioactive material released from DOE facilities. The issue at hand is recent guidance put forth by the Department of Energy regarding threshold limits for Category 3 and Category 2 nuclear facilities. Updates to calculation methods have resulted in increased amounts of radioactive material allowed in inventory for facilities before they reach levels which require them to be categorized as a Category 2 or 3 nuclear facility. With larger radioactive material inventories, there may be a corresponding increase in overall facility emissions. This can have permitting and monitoring impacts for DOE sites, as well as political ramifications with citizen organizations. This presentation is intended to raise awareness of the new guidance and associated issues, and to stimulate discussion among DOE Radionuclide NESHAP representatives.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  20. 77 FR 2535 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NESHAP for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... listing of the contents of the docket, and to access those documents in the public docket that are... respond, including through the use of appropriate automated electronic, mechanical, or other technological... for-profit, and State, Local, or Tribal governments. Title: NESHAP for Hazardous Waste Combustors (40...

  1. Ross In Situ Uranium Recovery Project NESHAP Subpart W Construction Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 5, 2015, EPA issued a Construction Approval under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at 40 CFR Part 61, subpart W, to Strata Energy, Inc., for their Ross In Situ Recovery (ISR) Uranium Project in Crook County, WY.

  2. An update on periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships

    OpenAIRE

    Dannan, Aous

    2010-01-01

    Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opi...

  3. Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production and Fabrication: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This NESHAP applies to facilities using pressure or thermal treatment processes involving wood preservatives containing chromium, arsenic, dioxins, or methylene chloride. Inlcudes federal register citations, rule history and additional resources.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Subpart LLL Rule Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Spring 2016 document is intended for the use of EPA staff, State and Local regulatory agencies and their staff, and industry plant managers for the NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry.

  5. Petroleum Refineries (Catalytic Cracking, Catalytic Reforming and Sulfur Recovery Units): National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    learn more about the NESHAP for catalytic cracking and reforming units, as well as sulfur recovery units in petroleum refineries by reading the rule history, rule summary, background information documents, and compliance information

  6. An update on periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannan, Aous

    2010-01-01

    Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opinions concerning periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships. Specific areas reviewed are the ability of orthodontic treatment to afford some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown, short-term and long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, and some mucogingival considerations. Topics considering orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised patients were not included in this review. While past studies have shown that orthodontic treatment can positively affect the periodontal health, recent reviews indicate an absence of reliable evidence for the positive effects of orthodontic therapy on patients' periodontal status. Periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships are still controversial issues. However, a standard language between the periodontist and the orthodontist must always be established to eliminate the existing communications barrier, and to improve the outcomes of the whole treatment.

  7. An update on periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannan Aous

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opinions concerning periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships. Specific areas reviewed are the ability of orthodontic treatment to afford some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown, short-term and long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, and some mucogingival considerations. Topics considering orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised patients were not included in this review. While past studies have shown that orthodontic treatment can positively affect the periodontal health, recent reviews indicate an absence of reliable evidence for the positive effects of orthodontic therapy on patients′ periodontal status. Periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships are still controversial issues. However, a standard language between the periodontist and the orthodontist must always be established to eliminate the existing communications barrier, and to improve the outcomes of the whole treatment.

  8. Interrelationships Between Mass and Interpersonal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Judith

    Academic departmentalization, especially at the undergraduate level, can result in the isolation of subject areas. The two purposes of this paper are to make a case for the interrelationships between mass and interpersonal communication becoming an integral aspect of mass media study, and to stress the importance of presenting this material in…

  9. Design of a radioactive gas sampling system for NESHAP compliance measurements of 41Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; McDonald, M.J.; Ghanbari, F.; Hoover, M.D.; Barr, E.B.

    1994-01-01

    United States Department of Energy facilities are required to comply with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) 40 CFR, part 61, subpart H. Compliance generally requires confirmatory measurements of emitted radionuclides. Although a number of standard procedures exist for extractive sampling of particle-associated radionuclides, sampling approaches for radioactive gases are less defined. Real-time, flow-through sampling of radioactive gases can be done when concentrations are high compared to interferences from background radiation. Cold traps can be used to collect and concentrate condensible effluents in applications where cryogenic conditions can be established and maintained. Commercially available gas-sampling cylinders can be used to capture grab samples of contaminated air under ambient or compressed conditions, if suitable sampling and control hardware are added to the cylinders. The purpose of the current study was to develop an efficient and compact set of sampling and control hardware for use with commercially available gas-sampling cylinders, and to demonstrate its use in NESHAP compliance testing of 41 Ar at two experimental research reactors

  10. Area Source Boiler National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This October 2016 question and answer (Q&A) document is in response to a number of questions the EPA has received from delegated state and local agencies and the regulated community regarding the NESHAP for Area source boilers. Document updates 4/2014 PDF.

  11. National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities: Summary of Requirements for Implementing the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This summary of implementation requirements document for the Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework facilties NESHAP was originally prepared in August 1997, but it was updated in January 2001 with a new amendments update.

  12. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks

  13. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  14. Interrelationships among Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Body Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…

  15. Background information document to support NESHAPS rulemaking on nuclear power reactors. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colli, A.; Conklin, C.; Hoffmeyer, D.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this Background Information Document (BID) is to present information relevant to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) reconsideration of the need for a NESHAP to control radionuclides emitted to the air from commercial nuclear power reactors. The BID presents information on the relevant portions of the regulatory framework that NRC has implemented for nuclear power plant licensees, under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, to protect the public's health and safety. To provide context, it summarizes the rulemaking history for Subpart I. It then describes NRC's regulatory program for routine atmospheric emissions of radionuclides and evaluates the doses caused by actual airborne emissions from nuclear power plants, including releases resulting from anticipated operational occurrences

  16. Performance Testing of Tracer Gas and Tracer Aerosol Detectors for use in Radionuclide NESHAP Compliance Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lattin, Rebecca Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    The Rad-NESHAP program, part of the Air Quality Compliance team of LANL’s Compliance Programs group (EPC-CP), and the Radiation Instrumentation & Calibration team, part of the Radiation Protection Services group (RP-SVS), frequently partner on issues relating to characterizing air flow streams. This memo documents the most recent example of this partnership, involving performance testing of sulfur hexafluoride detectors for use in stack gas mixing tests. Additionally, members of the Rad-NESHAP program performed a functional trending test on a pair of optical particle counters, comparing results from a non-calibrated instrument to a calibrated instrument. Prior to commissioning a new stack sampling system, the ANSI Standard for stack sampling requires that the stack sample location must meet several criteria, including uniformity of tracer gas and aerosol mixing in the air stream. For these mix tests, tracer media (sulfur hexafluoride gas or liquid oil aerosol particles) are injected into the stack air stream and the resulting air concentrations are measured across the plane of the stack at the proposed sampling location. The coefficient of variation of these media concentrations must be under 20% when evaluated over the central 2/3 area of the stack or duct. The instruments which measure these air concentrations must be tested prior to the stack tests in order to ensure their linear response to varying air concentrations of either tracer gas or tracer aerosol. The instruments used in tracer gas and aerosol mix testing cannot be calibrated by the LANL Standards and Calibration Laboratory, so they would normally be sent off-site for factory calibration by the vendor. Operational requirements can prevent formal factory calibration of some instruments after they have been used in hazardous settings, e.g., within a radiological facility with potential airborne contamination. The performance tests described in this document are intended to demonstrate the reliable

  17. Tetany: quantitative interrelationships between calcium and alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, J W; Brashear, R E; Li, T K

    1975-04-01

    Tetany occurs with hypocalcemia and alkalosis or both. The interrelationship of calcium and acid-base balance necessary for inducing tetany, the role of the central nervous system, and the rate of development of hypocalcemia have been investigated. Tetany occurred in less than 50 percent of one group of dogs made alkalotic by hyperventilation or made hypocalcemic by infusion of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino ethyl ether) N, N'-tetraacetate. In contrast, hypocalcemia combined with hypocapnic alkalosis always produced tetany. Slowly evolving hypocalcemia was achieved inanother group of dogs by thyroparathyroidectomy, and tetany was induced postoperatively by hypocapnic alkalosis. An identical relationship between serum calcium ion concentration and arterial pH or CO2 tension was found in both groups. Tetany could not be related to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) calcium ion content in either group. Hypocalcemia and alkalosis are therefore coparticipants in the development of tetany and are independent of the rate of development of hypocalcemia and of CSF calcium ion concentration. The importance of alkalosis in tetany with hypoparathyroidism is emphasized.

  18. Stability parameters and their inter-relationships at the naviface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anto, A.F.; Hasse, L.; Murty, C.S.

    Different forms of stability parameters used for the estimation of fluxes and studies on the structure of surface boundary layer of the marine atmosphere and their inter-relationships under the varying conditions of thermal stratifications...

  19. Report of the CIRRPC Executive Committee regarding EPA NESHAP regulations on radionuclides for medical research institutions and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    There appears to be no compelling public health protection reason for EPA`s promulgation of NESHAP regulations to control air emissions of radioactive materials from NRC-licensed facilities engaged in activities associated with the practice and development of nuclear medicine. The NRC`s existing regulations provide the necessary controls for protection and EPA`s regulations would only add burdensome reporting requirements at substantial cost to medical treatment and diagnosis. Availability of nuclear medicine practice could be impacted and advancements through research delayed.

  20. Interrelationship of Personality Disorders: Theoretical Formulations and Anecdotal Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ken R.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to define interrelationship of personality disorders. Discusses relationships between and among three major groupings of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Suggests that passive aggressive, avoidant, and borderline personality disorders serve as bridges between these groupings. Discusses placement within groupings with…

  1. Interrelationship among physical activity, quality of life, clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of complexities surround the health and well-being of patients with type 2 diabetes. These difficulties relate to self-care efforts and outcomes, and several other factors play regulatory functions. This study was carried out to investigate the inter-relationship among physical activity, quality of life, and clinical and ...

  2. Metabolic interrelationships software application: Interactive learning tool for intermediary metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); M. Doets (Mathijs); J.M.J. Lamers (Jos); J.F. Koster (Johan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe developed and implemented the software application titled Metabolic Interrelationships as a self-learning and -teaching tool for intermediary metabolism. It is used by undergraduate medical students in an integrated organ systems-based and disease-oriented core curriculum, which

  3. Interrelationship between cloud cover and sensible heat flux over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Micro-meteorological tower observations of MONTBLEX (Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment)-1990, combined with routine surface observations at Jodhpur in the dry convective sector of Indian summer monsoon trough are used to examine the interrelationship between total cloud cover (TCC) and surface ...

  4. Diet composition and feeding inter-relationship in the claroteid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding interrelationship was investigated in samples of Clarotes laticeps collected from the lower River Niger between January 2010 and December 2012. Fish guts were analysed to determine diet composition using a combination of methods; frequency of occurrence (%FO), Numerical composition (%N) and ...

  5. An Integrated Model to Explain Inter-Relationships in Travel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the decision making process of international tourists traveling to Tanzania. An integrated approach is proposed to understand the interrelationships among tourist motivations, expectations, place identity and place dependence. Specifically, travel motivations directly affect tourist's expectations and ...

  6. Perceived Causes of Divorce: An Analysis of Interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleek, Margaret Guminski; Pearson, T. Allan

    1985-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between perceived causes of divorce in a sample of 275 males and 336 females. Seven dimensions of divorce, underlying 18 possible contributing causes, were revealed. Significant differences were found between the sexes both in frequencies with which causes were identified and in composition of the seven factors.…

  7. Inter-relationships of haplosporidians deduced from ultrastructural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Burreson, E.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were

  8. Acetal Resins, Acrylic & Modacrylic Fibers, Carbon Black, Hydrogen Fluoride, Polycarbonate, Ethylene, Spandex & Cyanide Chemical Manufacturing: NESHAP for Source Categories, Generic Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (40 CFR 63, Subpart YY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for GMACT for acetal resins, hydrogen fluoride, polycarbonate, ethylene production and cyanide chemicals. Find the rule history information, federal register citations, legal authority, rule summary, and additional resources

  9. Incorporating functional inter-relationships into protein function prediction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vipin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional classification schemes (e.g. the Gene Ontology that serve as the basis for annotation efforts in several organisms are often the source of gold standard information for computational efforts at supervised protein function prediction. While successful function prediction algorithms have been developed, few previous efforts have utilized more than the protein-to-functional class label information provided by such knowledge bases. For instance, the Gene Ontology not only captures protein annotations to a set of functional classes, but it also arranges these classes in a DAG-based hierarchy that captures rich inter-relationships between different classes. These inter-relationships present both opportunities, such as the potential for additional training examples for small classes from larger related classes, and challenges, such as a harder to learn distinction between similar GO terms, for standard classification-based approaches. Results We propose a method to enhance the performance of classification-based protein function prediction algorithms by addressing the issue of using these interrelationships between functional classes constituting functional classification schemes. Using a standard measure for evaluating the semantic similarity between nodes in an ontology, we quantify and incorporate these inter-relationships into the k-nearest neighbor classifier. We present experiments on several large genomic data sets, each of which is used for the modeling and prediction of over hundred classes from the GO Biological Process ontology. The results show that this incorporation produces more accurate predictions for a large number of the functional classes considered, and also that the classes benefitted most by this approach are those containing the fewest members. In addition, we show how our proposed framework can be used for integrating information from the entire GO hierarchy for improving the accuracy of

  10. Making business less risky : the benefits of business interrelationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchinleck, D.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of business interrelationships for the success of the capital intensive and inherently risky petroleum industry was discussed. The major types of interrelationships include: (1) joint interest/ownership, (2) joint ventures, (3) production sharing contracts, and (4) strategic alliances. The makings of a successful and unsuccessful business relationship were also described. Examples of successful joint ventures, (Syncrude with Athabasca Oil Trust), joint ownerships (Gulf Oil with IPL), strategic alliances (Northrock Resources), and production sharing contracts (Gulf Oil with Talisman and Pertamina) were outlined by way of illustration. A failed joint venture between Gulf Oil, British Gas and Komineft to revitalize production and exploration in the Komi Republic (formerly part of the USSR) was also cited as an example of a situation where unsteady operational and political environments combined to bring about the failure of the project

  11. Discovering Cartels: Dynamic Interrelationships between Civil and Criminal Antitrust Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Vivek

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the genesis, taxonomy and timeline of U.S. criminal antitrust investigations, and uses time-series data on enforcement to examine the interrelationships between the various criminal enforcement variables as well as the linkages between criminal and civil enforcement. The key findings are: (1) there appears to be considerable dynamic interplay between the criminal variables. For example, an increase in grand jury investigations or criminal cases initiated or the number of...

  12. Regional Interrelationships: A Leadership Opportunity for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Liberman, Aaron

    Given the impact that the health care industry has on the national economy, health care executives need to move beyond simply providing health care treatments and instead focus on strategically leading their regions, including the other key industry contributors in their specific regions. Geographic and economic regions can be viewed as concentric circles of influence, with each circle recognizing the resources and contributions that are specific to a region. An acknowledgement by health care executives of the regional interrelationships that exist in a specific region is necessary for health care managers to strategically lead regional interrelationships. A template for implementation of this process is included. To understand the various factors that exist within circles of influence, several distinct yet interrelated vertical bases of knowledge will be discussed. The 5 bases of knowledge examined here include the following: Health Care, Tourism, Defense and Technology, Education, and Retail. It is important to note that the resources identified in the Tourism, Defense and Technology, Education, and Retail knowledge bases all have a direct influential relationship upon the health care resources of the region. For description purposes, the Central Florida geographic and economic region will be examined for interrelationships between the 5 knowledge bases.

  13. NESHAP Area-Specific Dose-Release Factors for Potential Onsite Member-of-the-Public Locations at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). In this report, the DRFs were calculated for potential radionuclide atmospheric releases from 13 SRS release points. The three potential onsite MEI locations to be evaluated are B-Area, Three Rivers Landfill (TRL), and Savannah River Ecology Lab Conference Center (SRELCC) with TRL’s onsite workers considered as members-of-the-public, and the potential future constructions of dormitories at SRELCC and Barracks at B-Area. Each MEI location was evaluated at a specified compass sector with different area to receptor distances and was conducted for both ground-level and elevated release points. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014). The resulting DRFs are compared to the 2014 NESHAP offsite MEI DRFs for three operational areas; A-Area, H-Area, and COS for a release rate of 1 Ci of tritium oxide at 0 ft. elevation. CAP88 was executed again using the 2016 NESHAP MEI release rates for 0 and 61 m stack heights to determine the radionuclide dose at TRL from the center-of-site (COS).

  14. Interrelationships of risks faced by third party logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    insights. Results show that arms-length relationship between the customer and the 3PLs has strong influence on other risks and there is a need for collaborative relationships between 3PLs and its customers. Moreover, analysis indicates that the 3PLs need to improve internal processes related to quality......This paper analyses the interrelationships between risks faced by third party logistics service providers (3PLs) in relation to one of its customers using DEMATEL. Novel analysis of both within and between risk categories and generation of threshold value to prioritize risks generate useful...... management, flexibility of its operations and also geographical coverage of their services....

  15. Stress-life interrelationships associated with alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Martin, Ronald E.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented concerning the interrelationships between applied stress and the expected service life of alkaline fuel cells. Only the physical, chemical, and electrochemical phenomena that take place within the fuel cell stack portion of an overall fuel cell system will be discussed. A brief review will be given covering the significant improvements in performance and life over the past two decades as well as summarizing the more recent advances in understanding which can be used to predict the performance and life characteristics of fuel cell systems that have yet to be built.

  16. Interrelationship of brain-functions with cardiovascular regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.

    1993-03-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of nervous function, behaviour, emotion, sex, sleep, mood of higher animals including the humans. They act and they occur simultaneously in the brain as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators and in plasma as circulating hormones. The direct regulatory interactions of a given substance in the blood and in the brain are still unknown, but some results have already been published regarding these relationships. The present paper briefly describes the systematic review-type studies on the interrelationship of the brain functions and the cardiovascular regulation. 35 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  17. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet, and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanderson, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    .... Based on these interrelationships, we hypothesized that insulin resistance would be positively associated with breast cancer, and that genetic susceptibility, and adolescent/adult diet and physical...

  18. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  19. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  20. Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, Mark E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Funds were expended to offset the travel costs of three students and three postdoctoral research associates to participate in and present work at the 2015 International Workshop on the Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space (IPELS2015), 23-28 August 2015, Pitlochry, Scotland, UK. Selection was priority-ranked by lab-space engagement, first, and topic relevance, second. Supplementary selection preference was applied to under-represented populations, applicants lacking available travel-resources in their home research group, applicants unusually distant from the conference venue, and the impact of the applicant’s attendance in increasing the diversity of conference participation. One support letter per student was required. The letters described the specific benefit of IPELS2015 to the student dissertation or the postdoc career development, and document the evidence for the ordering criteria.

  1. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: interrelationships and psychosexual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) impair the quality of sexual intercourse for both men and their female partners. This study aims to examine with a large representative sample the interrelationships of measures of ED, PE, typical intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), men's perceived relationship quality with their mother, and age of first being in love. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 960 Czech coitally experienced men (aged 15-84), provided age, International Index of Erectile Function 5-item (IIEF-5), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) scores, IELT, rating of relationship with their mother, and age at first being in love. Correlations, partial correlations adjusting for age, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multiple regression statistical methods were used. IIEF-5, IPE, and IELT were significantly intercorrelated (IIEF-5 and IPE: r=0.64). Better IIEF-5 scores were associated with younger age at first (and ever) being in love. Poorer IPE score, shorter IELT, and mild-moderate ED were associated with poorer perceived mother relationship (which was also associated with first being in love at an older age). Multiple regression analyses revealed that: (i) greater IELT was associated with better erectile function and better mother relationship, but not with age; and (ii) IELT of mother relationship and poorer IIEF-5, but marginally with age. History of homosexual activity was unrelated to IIEF-5, IPE, IELT, and perceived mother relationship scores. The findings suggest that degrees of ED and PE are often comorbid, and both ED and PE are associated with less favorable early experiences with women. Brody S and Weiss P. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: Interrelationships and psychosexual factors. J Sex Med 2015;12:398-404. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Melatonin and Pancreatic Islets: Interrelationships between Melatonin, Insulin and Glucagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, Elmar; Bähr, Ina; Mühlbauer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin exerts its influence in the periphery through activation of two specific trans-membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. Both isoforms are expressed in the islet of Langerhans and are involved in the modulation of insulin secretion from β-cells and in glucagon secretion from α-cells. De-synchrony of receptor signaling may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. This notion has recently been supported by genome-wide association studies identifying particularly the MT2 as a risk factor for this rapidly spreading metabolic disturbance. Since melatonin is secreted in a clearly diurnal fashion, it is safe to assume that it also has a diurnal impact on the blood-glucose-regulating function of the islet. This factor has hitherto been underestimated; the disruption of diurnal signaling within the islet may be one of the most important mechanisms leading to metabolic disturbances. The study of melatonin–insulin interactions in diabetic rat models has revealed an inverse relationship: an increase in melatonin levels leads to a down-regulation of insulin secretion and vice versa. Elucidation of the possible inverse interrelationship in man may open new avenues in the therapy of diabetes. PMID:23535335

  3. Redefining interrelationship between nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, the so-called 3Ss (Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards) have become major regulatory areas for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In order to rationalize the allocation of regulatory resources, interrelationship of the 3Ss should be investigated. From the viewpoint of the number of the parties concerned in regulation, nuclear security is peculiar with having “aggressors” as the third party. From the viewpoint of final goal of regulation, nuclear security in general and safeguards share the goal of preventing non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy, though the goal of anti-sabotage within nuclear security is rather similar to nuclear safety. As often recognized, safeguards are representative of various policy tools for nuclear non-proliferation. Strictly speaking, it is not safeguards as a policy tool but nuclear non-proliferation as a policy purpose that should be parallel to other policy purposes (nuclear safety and nuclear security). That suggests “SSN” which stands for Safety, Security and Non-proliferation is a better abbreviation rather than 3Ss. Safeguards as a policy tool should be enumerated along with nuclear safety regulation, nuclear security measures and trade controls on nuclear-related items. Trade controls have been playing an important role for nuclear non-proliferation. These policy tools can be called “SSST” in which Trade controls are also emphasized along with Safety regulation, Security measures and Safeguards. (author)

  4. Chronic periodontitis, inflammatory cytokines, and interrelationship with other chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Elsa Maria; Reis, Cátia; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, share common inflammatory risk factors with other systemic and chronic inflammatory disorders. Mucosal tissues, such as oral epithelia, are exposed to environmental stressors, such as tobacco and oral bacteria, that might be involved in promoting a systemic inflammatory state. Conversely, chronic disorders can also affect oral health. This review will summarize recent evidence for the interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and other prevalent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. The association with pregnancy is also included due to possible obstetric complications. We will focus on inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, because they have been shown to be increased in patients with chronic periodontitis, in patients with chronic systemic diseases, and in patients with both chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Therefore, an imbalance towards a proinflammatory immune response could underline a bidirectional link between chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Finally, we highlight that a close coordination between dental and other health professionals could promote oral health and prevent or ameliorate other chronic diseases.

  5. Interrelationships of Hormones, Diet, Body Size and Breast Cancer among Hispanic Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Gerson

    2005-01-01

    ...). The training program will focus on breast cancer etiology, specifically the interrelationships between hormones, diet, body size, and breast cancer among Hispanic women in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV...

  6. Dynamic inter-relationship between trade, economic growth and tourism in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmidi, Tamat; Salleh, Norlida H

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to test a hypothesis that postulate a positive inter-relationship between international flows of tourist, trade and economic growth. Although tourism is one of the major components in the trade of services, and it has been certified by large number of literatures on the strong correlation between tourism industry and economic development, yet not much is known on the dynamic inter-relationship between these three variables. Closing-up this gaping hole, this study employs the c...

  7. The growing interrelationship between nuclear law and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    international instruments to those same nuclear activities. This article illustrates the growing interrelationship between these two areas of law. Remarkable advances have been made over the past thirty years to take into account international environmental law principles and instruments in the field of nuclear law. Parties to international instruments dedicated to the field of nuclear activities have increasingly recognised the necessity to set high targets in relation to environmental protection. In parallel, international environmental law conventions have extended their reach to all major nuclear activities for peaceful purposes. The strong interrelationship between environmental law and nuclear law results in a complementary framework, where one body of law covers the weaknesses of the other. It can be reasonably expected that this trend will continue in the future

  8. Status and interrelationship of toenail elements in Pacific children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatela, Shamshad; Ward, Neil I; Zeng, Irene Suilan; Paterson, Janis

    2018-03-01

    Elemental deficiencies or in excess effects growth and development. Pacific population are at a disadvantage due to food insecurity as compared to New Zealand European households. This study aims to evaluate the status and interrelationship of elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) in nine-year-old Pacific children who were part of the Pacific Island Families Study living in New Zealand. This observational study included 278 eligible nine-year-old children. Essential elements (including calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium, zinc, molybdenum), non-essential and toxic elements (arsenic, aluminum, antimony, boron, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel,) were determined in toenails and after acid digestion, analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance was used to identify differences in the groups of elements and the inter-correlations between elements. The mean calcium (868μg/g Ca), selenium (0.35μg/g Se) and zinc (129μg/g Zn) concentrations were lower while the mean cadmium (0.21μg/g Cd) lead (0.86μg/g Pb) and mercury (0.72μg/g Hg) concentrations were higher than the optimal health requirements. Ethnic differences in relation to toenail elemental concentrations were observed for aluminium and iron. Gender differences were observed for aluminium, antimony, arsenic and lead. Selenium and molybdenum were inversely associated with mercury. Manganese, zinc and calcium were positively associated. This research contributes to the understanding of the elemental concentrations for Pacific children by using tissue samples from toenails, which improves the completeness of sampling than other tissues and provides a longer exposure time frame. The study also reports several inter-correlations between essential, non-essential and toxic elements in Pacific Island population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Interrelationships between different generations of interconnected tillers of Cares bigelowii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsdottir, I.S.; Callaghan, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    (1) The interrelationships between tiller generations of Carex bigelowii Torr. ex Schwein were investigated at two subarctic sites by labelling young tiller modules with 14 C and detecting its translocation, and by severing modules at increasing distances from the youngest tiller generation. Tiller survival, regeneration and physiological continuity were all measured. All of the investigations were on systems produced by vegetative proliferation and subsequent fragmentation: recruitment from seedlings was not observed. (2) 14 C-assimilates were translocated through the rhizome system, from the one to two years old assimilating tillers into the roots and rhizomes of nine to eleven years old tillers with only below-ground organs remaining. This shows that the roots and rhizomers of the numerous interconnected old non-assimilating tillers were alive and that their roots were probably still functioning. (3) The severing-experiment showed that the few assimilating young tiller generations were to some extent dependent on the old below-ground, non-assimilating tiller generations for their survival, growth and reproduction. Water and nutrients are probably the forms of subsidy. (4) The minimum size of a succesful physiologically functional unit was around five interconnected tiller generations. The maximum size could not be determined. (5) Apical dominance effects were detected within the rhizome system. The rhizomes keep a reserve of dormant buds. When the connection between tiller generations was severed, buds on the old rhizomes, which had been dormant for several years, developed into new tillers. These tillers were characterized by having only short rhizomes and they produced green leaves in the first season of growth. (6) The integrated system of old and young tiller generations, together with a spatial network of modules controlled by apical dominance, provide Carex bigelowii with mechanisms for locating and exploiting favorable patches in a nutrient poor, but

  10. Redefining interrelationship between nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, the so-called 3Ss (Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards) have become major regulatory areas for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The importance of the 3Ss is now emphasized to countries which are newly introducing nuclear power generation. However, as role models for those newcomers, existing nuclear power countries are also required to strengthen their regulatory infrastructure for the 3Ss. In order to rationalize the allocation of regulatory resources, interrelationship of the 3Ss should be investigated. From the viewpoint of the number of the parties concerned in regulation, nuclear security is peculiar with having 'aggressors' as the third party. From the viewpoint of final goal of regulation, nuclear security in general and safeguards share the goal of preventing non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy, though the goal of anti-sabotage within nuclear security is rather similar to nuclear safety. As often recognized, safeguards are representative of various policy tools for nuclear non-proliferation. Strictly speaking, it is not safeguards as a policy tool but nuclear non-proliferation as a policy purpose that should be parallel to other policy purposes (nuclear safety and nuclear security). That suggests 'SSN' which stands for Safety, Security and Non-proliferation is a better abbreviation rather than 3Ss. Safeguards as a policy tool should be enumerated along with nuclear safety regulation, nuclear security measures and trade controls on nuclear-related items. Trade controls have been playing an important role for nuclear non-proliferation. These policy tools can be called 'SSST' in which Trade controls are also emphasized along with Safety regulation, Security measures and Safeguards. Recently, it becomes quite difficult to clearly demarcate these policy tools. As nuclear security concept is expanding, the denotation of nuclear security measures is also expanding. Nuclear security measures are more and more

  11. Distance Education and Corporate Training in Brazil: Regulations and interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella C. S. Porto

    2008-06-01

    public initiatives, however, such as the Open University of Brazil, do hold promise in fueling the growth of distance education to meet the needs of its citizens, poor and rich alike. This paper analyzes the evolution of distance education in Brazil. It explores interrelationship between the nation’s corporate and publicly-funded higher-education sectors, and the influences Brazil’s highly regulated distance education practices has on the corporate environment. The paper concludes with a broad-brushed overview of ‘success stories’ of Brazil’s corporate universities.

  12. Characterizing the Interrelationships of Prescription Opioid and Benzodiazepine Drugs With Worker Health and Workplace Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski-McGraw, Michele; Green-McKenzie, Judith; Pandalai, Sudha P; Schulte, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Prescription opioid and benzodiazepine drug use, which has risen significantly, can affect worker health. Exploration of the scientific literature assessed (1) interrelationships of such drug use, occupational risk factors, and illness and injury, and (2) occupational and personal risk factor combinations that can affect their use. The scientific literature from 2000 to 2015 was searched to determine any interrelationships. Evidence for eight conceptual models emerged based on the search yield of 133 articles. These models summarize interrelationships among prescription opioid and benzodiazepine use with occupational injury and illness. Factors associated with the use of these drugs included fatigue, impaired cognition, falls, motor vehicle crashes, and the use of multiple providers. Prescription opioid and benzodiazepine drugs may be both a personal risk factor for work-related injury and a consequence of workplace exposures.

  13. Detangling the Interrelationships between Self- Regulation and Ill-Structured Problem Solving in Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xun; Law, Victor; Huang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals for problem-based learning (PBL) is to promote self-regulation. Although self-regulation has been studied extensively, its interrelationships with ill-structured problem solving have been unclear. In order to clarify the interrelationships, this article proposes a conceptual framework illustrating the iterative processes among…

  14. Peat–water interrelationships in a tropical peatland ecosystem in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, J.H.M.; Clymans, E.; Page, S.E.; Rieley, J.O.; Limin, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Interrelationships between peat and water were studied using a hydropedological modelling approach for adjacent relatively intact and degraded peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The easy to observe degree of peat humification provided good guidance for the assignment of more difficult to

  15. The interrelationship between ligand binding and self-association of the folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jan; Schou, Christian; Babol, Linnea N.

    2011-01-01

    The folate binding protein (FBP) regulates homeostasis and intracellular trafficking of folic acid, a vitamin of decisive importance in cell division and growth. We analyzed whether interrelationship between ligand binding and self-association of FBP plays a significant role in the physiology of ...

  16. The Interrelationship among Critical Thinking, Writing an Argumentative Essay in an L2 and Their Subskills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodmand Afshar, Hassan; Movassagh, Hossein; Radi Arbabi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between critical thinking and the writing ability of Iranian EFL learners, and the interrelationship among the subskills of the two constructs. Furthermore, it aimed at finding which skills of critical thinking predicted the participants' writing ability. To this end, 104 students majoring in English…

  17. Risks and interrelationships of subdistrict house prices : the case of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teye, A.L.; de Haan, J.G.; Elsinga, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses individual house transaction data from 1995 to 2014 in Amsterdam to explore the risks and interrelationships of the subdistrict house prices. Simple indicators suggest that house prices grow faster and are more risky in the central business district and its immediate surrounding

  18. Examining the Interrelationship among Critical Success Factors of Public Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiying Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining the interrelationships among critical success factors (CSFs for public private partnership (PPP projects is of importance for improving PPP project performance and maintaining the sustainability of PPP project implementation. Previous studies mostly focused on the identification of the CSFs for PPP projects; limited studies investigated the interrelationships among CSFs. Hence, the research objectives are (a to determine the interrelationships among CSFs of PPP projects taking into account the public and (b to identify influence paths contributing to take advantage of CSFs in the process of PPP implementation. A literature review and expert interviews were adopted to construct the CSFs framework; nine hypotheses were constructed and tested by the structural equation modelling (SEM based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey. This research reveals that the relationship between public and private partners is the leader-follower relationship, not the partnership relationship, in PPP projects, indicating that the responsibilities, power or resources existing among partners are very unequal. It also highlights that public involvement has a negative effect on the process of service provisions, and costs and risks exist in the process of public involvement in PPP projects. The determined interrelationships among CSFs will contribute to the sustainability and success of a PPP project.

  19. Variation and Inter-relationship ,Between Yield aJld,SQQl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation and Inter-relationship ,Between Yield aJld,SQQl~ ",,,',, ... Analysis of variance revealed sigiiificaiit'differences, among the-teSted. • .:' '. J ~ I .... Successful use of. muta~ "number of panicles,~r~~ metre,', 100Q,grain ... ponents and to assess genetic x ,environment inter- , individual traits, estimates of error phenotYpic,.

  20. The Rationale for a Teaching Innovation about the Interrelationship between Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjilouca, R.; Constantinou, C. P.; Papadouris, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers to the development of a teaching innovation for the nature of science (NOS), for students aged 11-15, which specifically focuses on the interrelationship between science and technology. The development of the teaching and learning materials relied on inputs from three sources: the history and philosophy of science and technology,…

  1. A comparison of radiological risk assessment models: Risk assessment models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and EPA (for NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    Radiological risk assessments and resulting risk estimates have been developed by numerous national and international organizations, including the National Research Council's fifth Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR V), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A fourth organization, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has also performed a risk assessment as a basis for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This paper compares the EPA's model of risk assessment with the models used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, and ICRP. Comparison is made of the values chosen by each organization for several model parameters: populations used in studies and population transfer coefficients, dose-response curves and dose-rate effects, risk projection methods, and risk estimates. This comparison suggests that the EPA has based its risk assessment on outdated information and that the organization should consider adopting the method used by the BEIR V Committee, UNSCEAR, or ICRP

  2. Discovering complex interrelationships between socioeconomic status and health in Europe: A case study applying Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Studies assume that socioeconomic status determines individuals' states of health, but how does health determine socioeconomic status? And how does this association vary depending on contextual differences? To answer this question, our study uses an additive Bayesian Networks model to explain the interrelationships between health and socioeconomic determinants using complex and messy data. This model has been used to find the most probable structure in a network to describe the interdependence of these factors in five European welfare state regimes. The advantage of this study is that it offers a specific picture to describe the complex interrelationship between socioeconomic determinants and health, producing a network that is controlled by socio-demographic factors such as gender and age. The present work provides a general framework to describe and understand the complex association between socioeconomic determinants and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interrelationships between mortality and fertility in Germany: rural and urban Prussia and modern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, H; Zimmermann, K F

    1990-01-01

    "The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an influence on family decision making about demographic variables. Results show that there are indications for replacement motives, and that economic factors matter." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  4. An Empirical Analysis of the Interrelationship between Motivation and Stress in the Computing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ó Cuirrín, Maitiú

    2007-01-01

    Although a great body of literature exists on the concepts of motivation and stress, no such study has examined the interrelationship between them. The objectives of this thesis are thus, to investigate the factors that motivate/demotivate and cause stress among recently employed computing graduates, as well as examining the implications of these factors both individually and interdependently for both the computing graduate and their employing organisation. An empirical quantitative appro...

  5. On the Development of a Theory of Traveler Attitude-Behavior Interrelationships : Volume 2. Theoretical and Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The second volume of this final report presents conceptual and empirical findings which support the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory will be useful in the design of transport systems and operatin...

  6. A calendar savant with autism and Tourette syndrome. Response to treatment and thoughts on the interrelationships of these conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E C; Pribor, E F

    1993-06-01

    A case of a calendar savant with infantile autism and Tourette syndrome is presented. Pharmacotherapy and comorbidity issues are discussed in terms of the interrelationships of these conditions and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  7. NESHAP Dose-Release Factor Isopleths for Five Source-to-Receptor Distances from the Center of Site and H-Area for all Compass Sectors at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). This report presents the DRFs of tritium oxide released at two onsite locations, center-of-site (COS) and H-Area, at 0 ft. elevation to maximally exposed individuals (MEIs) located 1000, 3000, 6000, 9000, and 12000 meters from the release areas for 16 compass sectors. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014).

  8. Long-Term Interrelationship between Brain Metabolism and Amyloid Deposition in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppainen, Nina; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) study was to evaluate the interrelationship between brain metabolism and amyloid accumulation during the disease process from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nine MCI patients, who converted to AD between...... especially in the temporal-parietal regions in MCI compared to controls at baseline, and widely over the cortex at the 5-year follow-up. The reduction in metabolism during the follow-up was significant in the posterior brain regions. In addition, brain amyloid load was positively associated with metabolism...

  9. Risks and interrelationships of subdistrict house prices: the case of Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Alfred Larm; de Haan, Jan; Elsinga, Marja G

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses individual house transaction data from 1995 to 2014 in Amsterdam to explore the risks and interrelationships of the subdistrict house prices. Simple indicators suggest that house prices grow faster and are more risky in the central business district and its immediate surrounding areas than in the peripherals. Furthermore, we observe an over time decreasing intervariations between the subdistrict house price growth rates, whereas we find a lead-lag and house price causal flow from the more central to the peripheral subdistricts.

  10. [Interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors in China: research advance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Yang, Xing-zhong; Chen, Li-ding; Yang, Lei

    2010-09-01

    Soil fauna has close relations with various environmental factors in soil ecosystem. To explore the interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors is of vital importance to deep understand the dynamics of soil ecosystem and to assess the functioning of the ecosystem. The environmental factors affecting soil fauna can be classified as soil properties and soil external environment. The former contains soil basic physical and chemical properties, soil moisture, and soil pollution. The latter includes vegetation, land use type, landform, and climate, etc. From these aspects, this paper summarized the published literatures in China on the interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors. It was considered that several problems were existed in related studies, e.g., fewer researches were made in integrating soil fauna's bio-indicator function, research methods were needed to be improved, and the studies on the multi-environmental factors and their large scale spatial-temporal variability were in deficiency. Corresponding suggestions were proposed, i.e., more work should be done according to the practical needs, advanced experiences from abroad should be referenced, and comprehensive studies on multi-environmental factors and long-term monitoring should be conducted on large scale areas.

  11. Interrelationships among geotechnical and leaching properties of a cement-stabilized contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B

    2017-01-28

    Relationships among selected performance properties have been established using experimental data from a cement-stabilized mixed contaminated soil. The sandy soil was spiked with 3,000 mg/kg each of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, and 10,000 mg/kg of diesel. It was then treated with 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% dosages of Portland cement. Different water contents were considered for lower dosage mixes. Selected geotechnical and leaching properties were determined on 28-day old samples. These include unconfined compressive strength (UCS), bulk density, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, leachate pH and granular leachability of contaminants. Interrelationships among these properties were deduced using the most reasonable best fits determined by specialized curve fitting software. Strong quadratic and log-linear relationships exist between hydraulic conductivity and UCS, with increasing binder and water contents, respectively. However, the strength of interrelationships between hydraulic conductivity and porosity, UCS and porosity, and UCS and bulk density varies with binder and water contents. Leachate pH and granular leachability of contaminants are best related to UCS and hydraulic conductivity by a power law and an exponential function, respectively. These results suggest how the accuracy of not-easily-measurable performance properties may be constrained from simpler ones. Comparisons with some published performance properties data support this.

  12. Unraveling interrelationships among psychopathology symptoms, cognitive domains and insight dimensions in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Pan, Wei; Dungan, Jennifer R; Keefe, Richard S E; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2018-03-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is long known to have a complex relationship with psychopathology symptoms and cognition. However, very few studies have examined models that explain these interrelationships. In a large sample derived from the NIMH Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial (N=1391), we interrogated these interrelationships for potential causal pathways using structural equation modeling. Using the NIMH consensus model, latent variables were constructed for psychopathology symptom dimensions, including positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressed from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items. Neurocognitive variables were created from five predefined domains of working memory, verbal memory, reasoning, vigilance and processing speed. Illness insight and treatment insight were tested using latent variables constructed from the Illness and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ). Disorganized symptoms had the strongest effect on insight. Illness insight mediated the relationship of positive, depressed, and disorganized symptoms with treatment insight. Neurocognition mediated the relationship between disorganized and treatment insight and depressed symptoms and treatment insight. There was no effect of negative symptoms on either illness insight or treatment insight. Taken together, our results indicate overlapping and unique relational paths for illness and treatment insight dimensions, which could suggest differences in causal mechanisms and potential interventions to improve insight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the interrelationship between the synthesis of urea and gluconeogenesis by formulating an overall balanced equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipata, Piero L; Pesi, Rossana

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that a strong metabolic interrelationship exists between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. In this paper, we present a detailed, overall equation, describing a possible metabolic link between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. We adopted a guided approach in which we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall equation of a metabolic pathway, carefully account for all atoms and charges of the single reactions, as well as the cellular localizations of the substrates, and the related transport systems. If this suggestion is always taken into account, a balanced, overall equation of a metabolic pathway will be obtained, which strongly facilitates the discussion of its physiological role. Unfortunately, textbooks often report unbalanced overall equations of metabolic pathways, including ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Most likely the reason is that metabolism and enzymology have been neglected for about three decades, owing to the remarkable advances of molecular biology and molecular genetics. In this paper, we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall reaction of a metabolic pathway, carefully control if the single reactions are properly balanced for atoms and charges. Following this suggestion, we were able to obtain an overall equation describing the metabolic interrelationship between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis, in which urea and glucose are the final products. The aim is to better rationalize this topic and to convince students and teachers that metabolism is an important and rewarding chapter of human physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  15. Interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity in ferroelectric nanofilms: A phase field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Limei; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhou, Yichun

    2016-12-01

    With the development of the integrated circuit technology and decreasing of the device size, ferroelectric films used in nano ferroelectric devices become thinner and thinner. Along with the downscaling of the ferroelectric film, there is an increasing influence of two strain gradient related terms. One is the strain gradient elasticity and the other one is flexoelectricity. To investigate the interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity and their combined effect on the domain structure in ferroelectric nanofilms, a phase field model of flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity on the ferroelectric domain evolution is developed based on Mindlin's theory of strain-gradient elasticity. Weak form is derived and implemented in finite element formulations for numerically solving the model equations. The simulation results show that upper bounds for flexoelectric coefficients can be enhanced by increasing strain gradient elasticity coefficients. While a large flexoelectricity that exceeds the upper bound can induce a transition from a ferroelectric state to a modulated/incommensurate state, a large enough strain gradient elasticity may lead to a conversion from an incommensurate state to a ferroelectric state. Strain gradient elasticity and the flexoelectricity have entirely opposite effects on polarization. The observed interrelationship between the strain gradient elasticity and flexoelectricity is rationalized by an analytical solution of the proposed theoretical model. The model proposed in this paper could help us understand the mechanism of phenomena observed in ferroelectric nanofilms under complex electromechanical loads and provide some guides on the practical application of ferroelectric nanofilms.

  16. Interrelationships between childbearing and housing transitions in the family life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulu, Hill; Steele, Fiona

    2013-10-01

    Research has examined the effect of family changes on housing transitions and childbearing patterns within various housing types. Although most research has investigated how an event in one domain of family life depends on the current state in another domain, the interplay between them has been little studied. This study examines the interrelationships between childbearing decisions and housing transitions. We use rich longitudinal register data from Finland and apply multilevel event history analysis to allow for multiple births and housing changes over the life course. We investigate the timing of fertility decisions and housing choices with respect to each other. We model childbearing and housing transitions jointly to control for time-invariant unobserved characteristics of women, which may simultaneously influence their fertility behavior and housing choices, and we show how joint modeling leads to a deeper understanding of the interplay between the two domains of family life.

  17. A study on examining interrelationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty, and switching intent in industrial food suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Saeedniya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty is one of the most important concepts in brand literature. Customer’s loyalty toward brand can increase firm’s share price. In addition, firms’ market share maintains close relationship with net profit and capital used return. Company efforts to motivate customers to switch from competitive brands to their own or to induce them to repurchase their own brands are very important in their marketing activities. Therefore, investigating customer variety-seeking orientation and level of involvement in decision-making plays essential role in explaining customers’ product selection activities. This study intends to examine interrelationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty, and switching intent in industrial food suppliers and verifies the moderating effect of customer variety-seeking orientation and purchase decision involvement. The findings indicate that, the impact of purchase involvement was lower than variety seeking and the satisfaction had the highest negative impact on switching intent of customers.

  18. The interrelationship of fertility, family maintenance and Mexico-U.S. Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Giorguli Saucedo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the interrelationship between migration and marital fertility, using a bi-national sample of retrospective life histories collected in Mexican origin communities and U.S. destination areas. We treat couples as the unit of analysis and use discrete-time hazard models to examine: (1 how the timing and parity of births influence the occurrence of migration (to the U.S. or return to Mexico and the type of migration (solo or couple, and (2 how current migration status and cumulative migration experience influence the likelihood of a birth. Examining the effects of fertility on migration, and the effects of migration on the timing of births, we are able to address how couples integrate migration opportunities and fertility goals into family building strategies in a context where international circular migration is pervasive.

  19. Is there an interrelationship between the effects of antipsychotics on psychopathology and on metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhin, Evgeny; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Takala, Pirjo; Hakko, Helinä; Putkonen, Hanna; Räsänen, Pirkko; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Eronen, Markku; Joffe, Grigori

    2016-01-01

    Increased body weight and hyperlipidemia caused by antipsychotics may be associated with improved antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia. If this association has a causal interrelationship via a genuine pathophysiological mechanism, then body weight loss in antipsychotic-treated patients would be accompanied by worsened psychopathology. This could have clinical implications. To explore whether the decreased body weight in these patients is associated with a worsened psychopathology. In our previously published study, a 16 week treatment period with add-on orlistat (but not placebo) resulted in body weight loss in male (but not female) clozapine- or olanzapine-treated overweight or obese patients. In the current study, we investigated whether body weight loss in those male patients could worsen psychosis. Changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores within groups and body weight changes and lipid profiles over the treatment period were analysed by the paired samples t-test. Between-group comparisons were analysed by the independent samples t-test. Over the treatment period body weight decreased by 2.56 ± 3.25 kg from initial 106.02 ± 12.61 kg (p = 0.04) for the orlistat group, with no statistically significant changes for the placebo group. Lipid levels did not change in either group. The orlistat-induced weight decrease was not associated with worsening in the PANSS scores. Weight loss was not associated with a worsening of psychosis. The interrelationship between the antipsychotic-induced weigh gain and improved schizophrenia psychopathology observed in earlier studies appears to be indirect. Orlistat treatment in our study did not worsen psychopathology in this population.

  20. Social inclusion and its interrelationships with social cognition and social functioning in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Cotton, Sue M; Allott, Kelly; Filia, Kate M; Hester, Robert; Killackey, Eóin

    2017-10-27

    People with psychosis are at risk of social exclusion. Research is needed in this area due to the lack of direct measurement of social inclusion, which becomes salient in adolescence and is relevant to first-episode psychosis (FEP; the onset of which typically occurs during or shortly after adolescence). Social inclusion may be impacted by impaired social cognition and social functioning, which are related features observed in psychosis. The aim of this study was to explore interrelationship(s) between social cognition, social functioning and social inclusion in FEP while controlling for symptomatology (positive, negative and depressive symptoms) and demographic characteristics. A series of cross-sectional hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to examine whether: social cognition (theory of mind, emotion recognition) predicted social functioning; social functioning predicted social inclusion, and whether social functioning mediated the relationship between social cognition and social inclusion in people aged 15 to 25 (M = 20.49, SD = 2.41) with FEP (N = 146). Age, sex, premorbid IQ, positive and negative psychotic symptoms and depression were control variables. Poor facial emotion recognition (β = -.22, P social functioning. Role-specific social functioning (ie, current employment) predicted greater social inclusion (β = .17, P social inclusion (β = -.43, P Social functioning did not mediate the relationship between social cognition and inclusion. Psychotic symptoms were unrelated to social inclusion. Employment and depression may influence social inclusion somewhat independently of psychotic symptomatology in FEP. Inferences should be viewed with caution given this study did not involve longitudinal data. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Interrelationships between Atopic Disorders in Children: A Meta-Analysis Based on ISAAC Questionnaires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H J Pols

    Full Text Available To study the prevalence and interrelationship between asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema using data obtained from ISAAC questionnaires.The Medline, Pubmed Publisher, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register databases were systematically reviewed to evaluate epidemiological data of children with atopic disorders. To study these interrelationships, a new approach was used. Risk ratios were calculated, describing the risk of having two different atopic disorders when the child is known with one disorder.Included were 31 studies, covering a large number of surveyed children (n=1,430,329 in 102 countries. The calculated worldwide prevalence for asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis is 12.00% (95% CI: 11.99-12.00, 7.88% (95% CI: 7.88-7.89 and 12.66% (95% CI: 12.65-12.67, respectively. The observed prevalence [1.17% (95% CI: 1.17-1.17] of having all three diseases is 9.8 times higher than could be expected by chance. For children with asthma the calculated risk ratio of having the other two disorders is 5.41 (95% CI: 4.76-6.16, for children with eczema 4.24 (95% CI: 3.75-4.79, and for children with allergic rhinitis 6.20 (95% CI: 5.30-7.27. No studied confounders had a significant influence on these risk ratios.Only a minority of children suffers from all three atopic disorders, however this co-occurrence is significantly higher than could be expected by chance and supports a close relationship of these disorders in children. The data of this meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that there could be a fourth distinct group of children with all three disorders. Researchers and clinicians might need to consider these children as a separate group with distinct characteristics regarding severity, causes, treatment or prognosis.

  2. Brief Report: Inter-Relationship between Emotion Regulation, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety, and Depression in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ru Ying; Richdale, Amanda L.; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the inter-relationship between emotion regulation (ER), intolerance of uncertainty (IU), and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty-one individuals aged 14-24 years (M[subscript age] = 18.19; SD[subscript age] = 2.19) completed the…

  3. Inter-relationships among physical activity, body fat, and motor performance in 6- to 8-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Kyle M; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing acc...

  4. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  5. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in

  6. The interrelationships between clinical signs and their effect on involuntary culling among pregnant sows in group-housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2010-01-01

    Sows suffering from clinical signs of disease (e.g. lameness, wounds and shoulder ulcers) are often involuntarily culled, affecting the farmer's economy and the welfare of the animals. In order to investigate the interrelationships between clinical signs of individual pregnant group-housed sows, we...

  7. Community composition, structure, and interrelationships in the marine intertidal Endocladia muricata – Balanus glandula association in Monterey Bay, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, Peter W.

    1965-01-01

    Studies of the community composition, structure and species interrelationships of the Endocladia-Balanus association were carried out on the rocky shores at the Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California, over the period 1959—1961. The organisms making up this biotic association form a

  8. Study of the Career Intern Program. Final Technical Report--Task C: Program Dynamics: Structure, Function, and Interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    A study identified causal linkages and basic interrelationships among components of the Career Intern Program (CIP) and observed outcomes. (The CIP is an alternative high school designed to enable disadvantaged and alienated dropouts or potential dropouts to earn regular high school diplomas, to prepare them for meaningful employment or…

  9. A geo-informatics approach for estimating water resources management components and their interrelationships

    KAUST Repository

    Liaqat, Umar Waqas

    2016-09-21

    A remote sensing based geo-informatics approach was developed to estimate water resources management (WRM) components across a large irrigation scheme in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. The approach provides a generalized framework for estimating a range of key water management variables and provides a management tool for the sustainable operation of similar schemes globally. A focus on the use of satellite data allowed for the quantification of relationships across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Variables including actual and crop evapotranspiration, net and gross irrigation, net and gross groundwater use, groundwater recharge, net groundwater recharge, were estimated and then their interrelationships explored across the Hakra Canal command area. Spatially distributed remotely sensed estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) rates were determined using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model and evaluated against ground-based evaporation calculated from the advection-aridity method. Analysis of ETa simulations across two cropping season, referred to as Kharif and Rabi, yielded Pearson correlation (R) values of 0.69 and 0.84, Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (NSE) of 0.28 and 0.63, percentage bias of −3.85% and 10.6% and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 10.6 mm and 12.21 mm for each season, respectively. For the period of study between 2008 and 2014, it was estimated that an average of 0.63 mm day−1 water was supplied through canal irrigation against a crop water demand of 3.81 mm day−1. Approximately 1.86 mm day−1 groundwater abstraction was estimated in the region, which contributed to fulfil the gap between crop water demand and canal water supply. Importantly, the combined canal, groundwater and rainfall sources of water only met 70% of the crop water requirements. As such, the difference between recharge and discharge showed that groundwater depletion was around −115 mm year−1 during the six year study period. Analysis indicated that

  10. Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: A Study of Interrelationships and Effects in Nigerian Domestic Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim A. Ganiyu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate concerning the interrelationships and effects between customer satisfaction and loyalty has been tossed back and forth, without a consensus opinion. This study examines the linkages between customer satisfaction and loyalty in Nigerian domestic airline industry. The study adopted correlation research design to elicit information via questionnaire from 600 domestic air passengers drawn through convenience sampling technique. The data obtained from the respondents were analysed with Pearson correlation analysis, linear regression, and One-way analysis of variance. Based on 383 completed data, the results provide support for the association and influence of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. The study also found out that frequent air travelers displayed more loyalty tendency towards airline carriers compared to non-frequent air passengers. On the basis of aforementioned findings, the study concludes that customer satisfaction is extremely important in building and enhancing customer loyalty. Therefore, airline carriers should implement strategies that will guarantee long-term relationship with air travellers by offering service quality that will meet and exceeds their expectations and by extension customer satisfaction.

  11. Antibiotic Resistant Superbugs: Assessment of the Interrelationship of Occurrence in Clinical Settings and Environmental Niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ayodeji Adegoke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing threat to global health posed by antibiotic resistance remains of serious concern. Human health remains at higher risk due to several reported therapeutic failures to many life threatening drug resistant microbial infections. The resultant effects have been prolonged hospital stay, higher cost of alternative therapy, increased mortality, etc. This opinionated review considers the two main concerns in integrated human health risk assessment (i.e., residual antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes in various compartments of human environment, as well as clinical dynamics associated with the development and transfer of antibiotic resistance (AR. Contributions of quorum sensing, biofilms, enzyme production, and small colony variants in bacteria, among other factors in soil, water, animal farm and clinical settings were also considered. Every potential factor in environmental and clinical settings that brings about AR needs to be identified for the summative effects in overall resistance. There is a need to embrace coordinated multi-locational approaches and interrelationships to track the emergence of resistance in different niches in soil and water versus the hospital environment. The further integration with advocacy, legislation, enforcement, technological innovations and further research input and recourse to WHO guidelines on antibiotic policy would be advantageous towards addressing the emergence of antibiotic resistant superbugs.

  12. Modelling price and volatility inter-relationships in the Australian wholesale spot electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the inter-relationships of wholesale spot electricity prices among the four regional electricity markets in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM): namely, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria using the constant conditional correlation and Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) and Engle's (Engle, R., 2002. Dynamic conditional correlation: a sample class of multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 339-350.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH models. Tse and Tsui's (Tse, Y.K., Tsui, A.K.C., 2002. A multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model with time-varying correlations. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 20 (3), 351-362.) dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model which takes account of the Student t specification produces the best results. At the univariate GARCH(1,1) level, the mean equations indicate the presence of positive own mean spillovers in all four markets and little evidence of mean spillovers from the other lagged markets. In the dynamic conditional correlation equation, the highest conditional correlations are evident between the well-connected markets indicating the presence of strong interdependence between these markets with weaker interdependence between the not so well-interconnected markets. (author)

  13. The interrelationship between performance anxiety and efficiency of solo music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the influence of performance anxiety on efficiency of solo music performance. Internal (self-contempt, positive self-evaluation and external criteria (musical rewards, successful solo performances, successful auditions of efficiency of solo music performance were taken into consideration. The research was grounded on studies from the field of sports psychology and on the few studies that were carried out in the field of psychology of music. The research was conducted on 94 students of Music Academy, grouped by gender and field of study (instrumentalists, solo vocalists and composers vs. students of music teaching. The symptoms of performance anxiety were measured by a part of the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire, and efficiency of solo music performance by the Efficiency of Music Performance Questionnaire. Both questionnaires were developed for the purpose of the study. The results reveal the interrelationship between the internal criteria of efficiency in solo music performance and performance anxiety. On the other hand, only trends of correlation were established between performance anxiety and the external criteria of solo music performance. The research findings imply the important role of cognition as a mediator between performance anxiety and performance efficiency.

  14. Cumulative Training Dose's Effects on Interrelationships Between Common Training-Load Models During Basketball Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2017-02-01

    The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P basketball activity. sRPE TL was only significantly related to Lucia TRIMP (r = .66-.69; P basketball training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.

  15. Diffusion of renewable energy technologies in South Korea on incorporating their competitive interrelationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Chul-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies (RETs) have attracted significant public attention for several reasons, the most important being that they are clean alternative energy sources that help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To increase the probability that RETs will be successful, it is essential to reduce the uncertainty about its adoption with accurate long-term demand forecasting. This study develops a diffusion model that incorporates the effect of competitive interrelationships among renewable sources to forecast the growth pattern of five RETs: solar photovoltaic, wind power, and fuel cell in the electric power sector, and solar thermal and geothermal energy in the heating sector. The 2-step forecasting procedure is based on the Bayus, (1993. Manage. Sci. 39, 11, 1319–1333) price function and a diffusion model suggested by Hahn et al. (1994. Marketing Sci. 13, 3, 224–247). In an empirical analysis, the model is applied to the South Korean renewable energy market. - Highlights: • We develop a diffusion model incorporating the competition among renewables. • A price function and a diffusion model are used in 2-step forecasting procedure. • The annual demand through 2035 for five renewables in South Korea is forecasted. • Wind power will maintain the largest market share in the electric power sector. • The supply of geothermal energy will be larger than that of solar thermal energy

  16. Inter-relationships between objective handwriting features and executive control among children with developmental dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe handwriting and executive control features and their inter-relationships among children with developmental dysgraphia, in comparison to controls. Method Participants included 64 children, aged 10–12 years, 32 with dysgraphia based on the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and 32 matched controls. Children copied a paragraph onto paper affixed to a digitizer that supplied handwriting process objective measures (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Their written product was evaluated by the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation (HHE). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire about their child's executive control abilities. Results Significant group differences were found for handwriting performance measures (HHE and ComPET) and executive control domains (BRIEF). Based on one discriminate function, including handwriting performance and executive control measures, 98.4% of the participants were correctly classified into groups. Significant correlations were found in each group between working memory and legibility as well as for other executive domains and handwriting measures. Furthermore, twenty percent of the variability of the mean pressure applied towards the writing surface among children with was explained by their 'emotional control' (BRIEF). Conclusion The results strongly suggest consideration of executive control domains to obtain better insight into handwriting impairment characteristics among children with dysgraphia to improve their identification, evaluation and the intervention process. PMID:29689111

  17. Interrelationships Among Men’s Threat Potential, Facial Dominance, and Vocal Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyang Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of minimizing the costs of engaging in violent conflict are thought to have shaped adaptations for the rapid assessment of others’ capacity to inflict physical harm. Although studies have suggested that men’s faces and voices both contain information about their threat potential, one recent study suggested that men’s faces are a more valid cue of their threat potential than their voices are. Consequently, the current study investigated the interrelationships among a composite measure of men’s actual threat potential (derived from the measures of their upper-body strength, height, and weight and composite measures of these men’s perceived facial and vocal threat potential (derived from dominance, strength, and weight ratings of their faces and voices, respectively. Although men’s perceived facial and vocal threat potential were positively correlated, men’s actual threat potential was related to their perceived facial, but not vocal, threat potential. These results present new evidence that men’s faces may be a more valid cue of these aspects of threat potential than their voices are.

  18. Process-outcome interrelationship and standard setting in medical education: the need for a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Leif; Karle, Hans; Nystrup, Jørgen

    2007-09-01

    An outcome-based approach to medical education compared to a process/content orientation is currently being discussed intensively. In this article, the process and outcome interrelationship in medical education is discussed, with specific emphasis on the relation to the definition of standards in basic medical education. Perceptions of outcome have always been an integrated element of curricular planning. The present debate underlines the need for stronger focus on learning objectives and outcome assessment in many medical schools around the world. The need to maintain an integrated approach of process/content and outcome is underlined in this paper. A worry is expressed about the taxonomy of learning in pure outcome-based medical education, in which student assessment can be a major determinant for the learning process, leaving the control of the medical curriculum to medical examiners. Moreover, curricula which favour reductionism by stating everything in terms of instrumental outcomes or competences, do face a risk of lowering quality and do become a prey for political interference. Standards based on outcome alone rise unclarified problems in relationship to licensure requirements of medical doctors. It is argued that the alleged dichotomy between process/content and outcome seems artificial, and that formulation of standards in medical education must follow a comprehensive line in curricular planning.

  19. Inferring the Functions of Proteins from the Interrelationships between Functional Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a new method to determine the functions of an unannotated protein. The proteins and amino acid residues mentioned in biomedical texts associated with an unannotated protein can be considered as characteristics terms for , which are highly predictive of the potential functions of . Similarly, proteins and amino acid residues mentioned in biomedical texts associated with proteins annotated with a functional category can be considered as characteristics terms of . We introduce in this paper an information extraction system called IFP_IFC that predicts the functions of an unannotated protein by representing and each functional category by a vector of weights. Each weight reflects the degree of association between a characteristic term and (or a characteristic term and ). First, IFP_IFC constructs a network, whose nodes represent the different functional categories, and its edges the interrelationships between the nodes. Then, it determines the functions of by employing random walks with restarts on the mentioned network. The walker is the vector of . Finally, is assigned to the functional categories of the nodes in the network that are visited most by the walker. We evaluated the quality of IFP_IFC by comparing it experimentally with two other systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  20. Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Kayo [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Hartman, Philip S. [Biology Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ishii, Takamasa [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Suda, Hitoshi [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Akatsuka, Akira [Education and Research Support Center, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Shoyama, Tetsuji [School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai University, Nishino 317, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0395 (Japan); Miyazawa, Masaki [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Ishii, Naoaki, E-mail: nishii@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth and development of a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process of mitochondria was delayed relative to the wild type of Caenorhabditis elegans. {yields} Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. {yields} fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1 overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II. {yields} Mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development. -- Abstract: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

  1. Interrelationship of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways in chronic metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackers, Ian; Malgor, Ramiro

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases account for approximately 45% of all deaths in developed countries and are particularly prevalent in countries with the most sophisticated and robust public health systems. Chronic metabolic diseases, specifically lifestyle-related diseases pertaining to diet and exercise, continue to be difficult to treat clinically. The most prevalent of these chronic metabolic diseases include obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease and will be the focus of this review. Wnt proteins are highly conserved glycoproteins best known for their role in development and homeostasis of tissues. Given the importance of Wnt signalling in homeostasis, aberrant Wnt signalling likely regulates metabolic processes and may contribute to the development of chronic metabolic diseases. Expression of Wnt proteins and dysfunctional Wnt signalling has been reported in multiple chronic diseases. It is interesting to speculate about an interrelationship between the Wnt signalling pathways as a potential pathological mechanism in chronic metabolic diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize reported findings on the contrasting roles of Wnt signalling in lifestyle-related chronic metabolic diseases; specifically, the contribution of Wnt signalling to lipid accumulation, fibrosis and chronic low-grade inflammation.

  2. [An analytical framework for the study of population and development interrelationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, L H

    1977-01-01

    When studying the relationship between population dynamics and socioeconomic development, 4 important considerations must guide the inquiry. Changes in growth of population or distribution of population, the determinants of such change, the consequences and implications of such change and the political implications of such change must always be recognized and analyzed. This study, then, aims at a more complete evaluation and analysis of the interrelationships between nutrition and development by bringing into focus the many networks which exist between demographic factors, food supply, the agricultural reality on a national level and political factors. Demographic, nutritional and agricultural data are presented in support of the study's most forceful assertion which states that if population and agricultural production growth rates are increasing proportionately, but yet half of the national population is still starving, the problem is not strictly demographic in nature. The author proposes that more stress be given to the distribution of nutrition and the quality of nutrition in future population and nutritional planning, since these are indeed the keys to economic and social development.

  3. Inter-relationships between objective handwriting features and executive control among children with developmental dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2018-01-01

    To describe handwriting and executive control features and their inter-relationships among children with developmental dysgraphia, in comparison to controls. Participants included 64 children, aged 10-12 years, 32 with dysgraphia based on the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ) and 32 matched controls. Children copied a paragraph onto paper affixed to a digitizer that supplied handwriting process objective measures (Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Their written product was evaluated by the Hebrew Handwriting Evaluation (HHE). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire about their child's executive control abilities. Significant group differences were found for handwriting performance measures (HHE and ComPET) and executive control domains (BRIEF). Based on one discriminate function, including handwriting performance and executive control measures, 98.4% of the participants were correctly classified into groups. Significant correlations were found in each group between working memory and legibility as well as for other executive domains and handwriting measures. Furthermore, twenty percent of the variability of the mean pressure applied towards the writing surface among children with was explained by their 'emotional control' (BRIEF). The results strongly suggest consideration of executive control domains to obtain better insight into handwriting impairment characteristics among children with dysgraphia to improve their identification, evaluation and the intervention process.

  4. Interrelationships between romance, life quality, and medical training of female residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Kan-Lin; Chang, Chin-Sung; Wu, Chih-Hsing

    2012-08-01

    For the past 30 years, there has been a steady increase in the number of female physicians, but the relationship between their romantic lives and their pattern of training has been inadequately reported. This study was designed to investigate the interrelationships between medical training, quality of life, and the attitudes that female residents have toward romance. Of the 106 female medical residents at our medical center in 2009, a total of 78 residents (73.6%) were enrolled for the study. Structured questionnaires (Cronbach α = 0.878), which included questions about female resident quality of life, attitude toward spousal choice, and the impact of programmed professional medical training, were self-administered through an anonymous process. Female residents, especially ward-care specialists, were determined to have excessively long working hours (84.6% > 88 work hours/week), insufficient and irregular sleep (44.9%), and inadequate personal time (73.1% friends, differences in values, and work-related stress. Those presumptive factors influencing romance between the assumed partner being a doctor or a "nondoctor" were significantly different with regard to lack of time (p = 0.002), values (p work-related stress (p life were significantly influenced by the pattern of medical training in female residents. Setting duty-hour limits and initiating a new hobby were determined to be potentially beneficial to their quality of life and attitudes toward romance. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Exploring the interrelationship between sport, health and social outcomes in the UK: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, Paul; Hallmann, Kirstin; Rasciute, Simona

    2018-02-01

    Policy agencies are now re-visiting early aspirations that sport, as a form of physical activity, can be an instrument to foster general health and also subjective well-being (SWB). Both of these concepts capture physical and mental health states. SWB also encompasses broader psychological and life satisfaction as well as mood and affect. Past and current policies also identify a link between sport, social capital and SWB. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is undertaken on data from the UK's Taking Part survey to investigate the interrelationships between sport, general health, social capital and SWB. The SEM shows a simultaneous relationship between sport and SWB. The effect is mediated through general health. The results also show that there is no relationship between social capital and sport but a clear relationship between SWB and social capital. From a health policy perspective there should be an emphasis on encouraging greater sport participation, despite the difficulties that this poses, because there is a potential 'multiplier' effect on SWB and on general health through mediation. The multiplier effect occurs because once someone engages in sport and has their general health and SWB enhanced, then even further sport participation becomes likely, and subsequent general health and SWB, which would comprise both physical and mental health benefits. To target traditional non participants the research suggests that physical activity should be promoted for enjoyment, with health benefits subsequently following. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun R. Katapally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10–14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  7. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  8. On the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Volume 3 : executive summary : overview of methods, results, and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The executive summary of this Final Report offers an overview of : methods, results, and conclusions which support the development of a : theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory : will be useful in the design of transpo...

  9. The properties and interrelationships of various force-time parameters during maximal repeated rhythmic grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masakatsu; Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the properties and interrelationships of various force-time parameters including the inflection point for the rate of decline in force during a maximal repeated rhythmic grip. Fifteen healthy males (age M=21.5, SD=2.1 yr, height M=172.4, SD=5.7 cm, body mass M=68.2, SD=9.2 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed a maximal repeated rhythmic grip with maximal effort with a target frequency of 30 grip.min(-1) for 6 min. The force value decreased linearly and markedly until about 70% of maximal strength for about 55 s after the onset of a maximal repeated rhythmic grip, and then decreased moderately. Because all parameters showed fair or good correlations between 3 min and 6 min, they are considered to be able to sufficiently evaluate muscle endurance for 3 min instead of 6 min. However, there were significant differences between 3 min and 6 min in the integrated area, the final force, the rate of the decrement constant (k) fitting the force decreasing data to y=ae(-kx)+b and the force of maximal difference between the force and a straight line from peak force to the final force. Their parameters may vary generally by the length of a steady state, namely, a measurement time. The final force value before finishing and the rate of the decrement constant (k) reflect the latter phase during a maximal repeated rhythmic grip. Although many parameters show relatively high mutual relationships, the rate constant (k) shows relatively low correlations with other parameters. We inferred that decreasing the time until 80% of maximal strength and the amount of the decrement force for the first 1 min reflect a linear decrease in the initial phase.

  10. The interrelationship between APC/C and Plk1 activities in centriole disengagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hatano

    2012-09-01

    Mother–daughter centriole disengagement, the necessary first step in centriole duplication, involves Plk1 activity in early mitosis and separase activity after APC/C activity mediates securin degradation. Plk1 activity is thought to be essential and sufficient for centriole disengagement with separase activity playing a supporting but non-essential role. In separase null cells, however, centriole disengagement is substantially delayed. The ability of APC/C activity alone to mediate centriole disengagement has not been directly tested. We investigate the interrelationship between Plk1 and APC/C activities in disengaging centrioles in S or G2 HeLa and RPE1 cells, cell types that do not reduplicate centrioles when arrested in S phase. Knockdown of the interphase APC/C inhibitor Emi1 leads to centriole disengagement and reduplication of the mother centrioles, though this is slow. Strong inhibition of Plk1 activity, if any, during S does not block centriole disengagement and mother centriole reduplication in Emi1 depleted cells. Centriole disengagement depends on APC/C–Cdh1 activity, not APC/C–Cdc20 activity. Also, Plk1 and APC/C–Cdh1 activities can independently promote centriole disengagement in G2 arrested cells. Thus, Plk1 and APC/C–Cdh1 activities are independent but slow pathways for centriole disengagement. By having two slow mechanisms for disengagement working together, the cell ensures that centrioles will not prematurely separate in late G2 or early mitosis, thereby risking multipolar spindle assembly, but rather disengage in a timely fashion only late in mitosis.

  11. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwuja Emmanuel Ike

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (an essential trace element and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443 aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs, consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061. Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432, Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009. It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects.

  12. Interrelationships between maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment optical density and carotenoid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Bradley S; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2013-08-15

    Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother-infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function.

  13. Interrelationships of sex, level of lesion, and transition outcomes among young adults with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Melissa H; Dicianno, Brad E; Levey, Eric; Dosa, Nienke; Roux, Gayle; Marben, Kim; Zabel, T Andrew

    2011-07-01

    To advance understanding of the interrelationships of sex, level of lesion (LOL), self-management, community integration (employment, independent living), and quality of life (QOL) in young adults with myelomeningocele. A multicenter convenience sample of 50 individuals with myelomeningocele, 18 to 25 years of age (mean age 21 y 5 mo, SD 2 y), participated in a structured clinical interview on self-management (Adolescent Self-Management and Independence Scale II [AMIS II]) and completed a self-report questionnaire comprising standardized measures. QOL was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF instrument. A chart review yielded clinical data. Most participants were Caucasian (78%), female (56%: 28 females, 22 males), unemployed (58%), and in supervised living environments (74%). Eighty per cent had a history of hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement. A lumbar LOL was most frequently reported (64%), followed by a sacral LOL (22%), and thoracic LOL (7%). Males were more likely to report employment (p=0.008), but females had greater success in transitioning into independent living settings (p=0.015). LOL was a significant predictor of specific dimensions of self-management, employment, and QOL (p < 0.05). Mean scores on the AMIS II reflected deficits in condition management activities and tasks of everyday life. Limited QOL was also observed. The overall low rates of employment and independent living suggest that individuals with myelomeningocele are experiencing great difficulty in achieving these milestones of emerging adulthood, regardless of sex. Limited success in developing self-management skills and restricted QOL also highlight vulnerability in this population. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  14. The interrelationship between the lower oxygen limit, chlorophyll fluorescence and the xanthophyll cycle in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Harrison; DeLong, John M; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N; Prange, Robert K

    2011-03-01

    The lower oxygen limit (LOL) in plants may be identified through the measure of respiratory gases [i.e. the anaerobic compensation point (ACP) or the respiratory quotient breakpoint (RQB)], but recent work shows it may also be identified by a sudden rise in dark minimum fluorescence (F(o)). The interrelationship between aerobic respiration and fermentative metabolism, which occur in the mitochondria and cytosol, respectively, and fluorescence, which emanates from the chloroplasts, is not well documented in the literature. Using spinach (Spinacia oleracea), this study showed that F(o) and photochemical quenching (q(P)) remained relatively unchanged until O(2) levels dropped below the LOL. An over-reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool is believed to increase F(o) under dark + anoxic conditions. It is proposed that excess cytosolic reductant due to inhibition of the mitochondria's cytochrome oxidase under low-O(2), may be the primary reductant source. The maximum fluorescence (F(m)) is largely unaffected by low-O(2) in the dark, but was severely quenched, mirroring changes to the xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), under even low-intensity light (≈4 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). In low light, the low-O(2)-induced increase in F(o) was also quenched, likely by non-photochemical and photochemical means. The degree of quenching in the light was negatively correlated with the level of ethanol fermentation in the dark. A discussion detailing the possible roles of cyclic electron flow, the xanthophyll cycle, chlororespiration and a pathway we termed 'chlorofermentation' were used to interpret fluorescence phenomena of both spinach and apple (Malus domestica) over a range of atmospheric conditions under both dark and low-light.

  15. Interrelationships of Physical Activity and Sleep with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: a Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Associations of behaviorally modifiable factors like physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and sleep with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are complicated. We examined whether membership in latent classes (LCs) differentiated by PA and sleep profiles (real-life clustering of behaviors in population subgroups) associate with metabolic risk factors and CVD risk. The National FINRISK 2012 Study comprise a cross-sectional sample of 10,000 Finns aged 25 to 74 years. Analyses included participants with complete data on a health questionnaire, a health examination, who had no prevalent CVD (n = 4031). LCs with PA and sleep profiles were previously defined using latent class analysis. Ten metabolic risk factors and the Framingham 10-year CVD risk score were compared between the LCs. PA and sleep class profiles were substantially similar for genders. Compared to LC-1, with a profile including high PA and sufficient sleep, membership in LC-4, with a profile including sedentariness and insufficient sleep was associated with high metabolic risk factors in women but not in men. In women, also membership in LC-2, with a profile including light PA, sufficient sleep, and high sedentariness was associated with high metabolic risk factors. The Framingham 10-year CVD risk score was highest in LCs 2 and 4 in both genders. Membership in LCs differentiated by PA and sleep profiles was associated with metabolic risk factors merely in women, suggesting gender differences in the interrelationships of health behaviors and metabolic risk factors. Total CVD risk differed between the LCs despite of gender; however, the effect was small.

  16. Prospective inter-relationships between late adolescent personality and major depressive disorder in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; DiRago, A C; Iacono, W G

    2014-02-01

    A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively few investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Prospective inter-relationships between late-adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; n = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent versus adult onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24 and 29 years, and personality traits [negative emotionality (NEM), positive emotionality (PEM) and constraint (CON)] were assessed at ages 17, 24 and 29 years. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM up to age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never-depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Taken together, the results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, in addition to the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development.

  17. Inter-relationship between scaling exponents for describing self-similar river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Natural river networks show well-known self-similar characteristics. Such characteristics are represented by various power-law relationships, e.g., between upstream length and drainage area (exponent h) (Hack, 1957), and in the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area (exponent ɛ) (Rodriguez-Iturbe et al., 1992). It is empirically revealed that these power-law exponents are within narrow ranges. Power-law is also found in the relationship between drainage density (the total stream length divided by the total basin area) and specified source area (the minimum drainage area to form a stream head) (exponent η) (Moussa and Bocquillon, 1996). Considering that above three scaling relationships all refer to fundamental measures of 'length' and 'area' of a given drainage basin, it is natural to hypothesize plausible inter-relationship between these three scaling exponents. Indeed, Rigon et al. (1996) demonstrated the relationship between ɛ and h. In this study, we expand this to a more general ɛ-η-h relationship. We approach ɛ-η relationship in an analytical manner while η-h relationship is demonstrated for six study basins in Korea. Detailed analysis and implications will be presented. References Hack, J. T. (1957). Studies of longitudinal river profiles in Virginia and Maryland. US, Geological Survey Professional Paper, 294. Moussa, R., & Bocquillon, C. (1996). Fractal analyses of tree-like channel networks from digital elevation model data. Journal of Hydrology, 187(1), 157-172. Rigon, R., Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., Maritan, A., Giacometti. A., Tarboton, D. G., & Rinaldo, A. (1996). On Hack's Law. Water Resources Research, 32(11), 3367-3374. Rodríguez-Iturbe, I., Ijjasz-Vasquez, E. J., Bras, R. L., & Tarboton, D. G. (1992). Power law distributions of discharge mass and energy in river basins. Water Resources Research, 28(4), 1089-1093.

  18. Inter-relationship between the two emission cones of B1237+25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maan, Yogesh [Joint Astronomy Programme (JAP), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. (India); Deshpande, Avinash A., E-mail: yogesh@rri.res.in, E-mail: desh@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2014-09-10

    The origin of two distinct pairs of conal emission components in pulsars, associated with the 'outer' and the 'inner' emission cones, as well as the marked difference in their observed spectral properties, is poorly understood. The sub-pulse modulation in the corresponding conal components, if mapped back to the underlying system of sub-beams rotating around the magnetic axis in the polar cap, as envisioned by Ruderman and Sutherland, provides a potential way to investigate the emission morphologies in the two conal regions, and more importantly, any inter-relationship between them. The bright pulsar B1237+25 with its special viewing geometry where the sightline traverses almost through the magnetic axis, along with a rich variety in pulse-to-pulse fluctuations, provides an excellent but challenging opportunity to map the underlying emission patterns across the full transverse slice of its polar emission region. We present here our analysis on a number of pulse sequences from this star to map and study any relationship between the underlying patterns responsible for emission in the two pairs of presumed conal components and a core component of this pulsar. The results from our correlation analysis of the two conal emission patterns strongly support the view that the two cones of this pulsar (the outer and the inner cone) originate from a common system of sub-beams. We also see evidence for a twist in the emission columns, most likely associated with a corresponding twist in the magnetic field structure. We discuss these results, and their implications, including a possibility that the core component of this pulsar shares its origin partly with the conal counterparts.

  19. Analysis of Interrelationships among Voluntary and Prosthetic Leg Joint Parameters Using Cyclograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasni, Farahiyah; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Mohd Syah, Nor Elleeiana; Chung, Tze Y; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2017-01-01

    The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design. To develop the cyclogram model, 20 healthy able-bodied subjects and 25 prosthesis and orthosis users (10 transtibial amputees, 5 transfemoral amputees, and 10 different pathological profiles of orthosis users) walked at their comfortable speed in a 3D motion analysis lab setting. The gait parameters (i.e., angle, moment and power for the ankle, knee and hip joints) were coupled to form 36 cyclograms relationship. The model was validated by quantifying the gait disparities of all the pathological walking by analyzing each cyclograms pairs using feed-forward neural network with backpropagation. Subsequently, the cyclogram pairs that contributed to the highest gait disparity of each gait phase were manipulated by replacing it with normal values and re-analyzed. The manipulated cyclograms relationship that showed highest improvement in terms of gait disparity calculation suggested that they are the most dominant parameters in powered-knee control. In case of transfemoral amputee walking, it was identified using this approach that at each gait sub-phase, the knee variables most responsible for closest to normal walking were: knee power during loading response and mid-stance, knee moment and knee angle during terminal stance phase, knee angle and knee power during pre-swing, knee angle at initial swing, and knee power at terminal swing. No variable was dominant during mid-swing phase implying natural pendulum effect of the lower limb between

  20. Analysis of Interrelationships among Voluntary and Prosthetic Leg Joint Parameters Using Cyclograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azah Hamzaid

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design. To develop the cyclogram model, 20 healthy able-bodied subjects and 25 prosthesis and orthosis users (10 transtibial amputees, 5 transfemoral amputees, and 10 different pathological profiles of orthosis users walked at their comfortable speed in a 3D motion analysis lab setting. The gait parameters (i.e., angle, moment and power for the ankle, knee and hip joints were coupled to form 36 cyclograms relationship. The model was validated by quantifying the gait disparities of all the pathological walking by analyzing each cyclograms pairs using feed-forward neural network with backpropagation. Subsequently, the cyclogram pairs that contributed to the highest gait disparity of each gait phase were manipulated by replacing it with normal values and re-analyzed. The manipulated cyclograms relationship that showed highest improvement in terms of gait disparity calculation suggested that they are the most dominant parameters in powered-knee control. In case of transfemoral amputee walking, it was identified using this approach that at each gait sub-phase, the knee variables most responsible for closest to normal walking were: knee power during loading response and mid-stance, knee moment and knee angle during terminal stance phase, knee angle and knee power during pre-swing, knee angle at initial swing, and knee power at terminal swing. No variable was dominant during mid-swing phase implying natural pendulum effect of the

  1. Technical note: Mineralogical, chemical, morphological, and optical interrelationships of mineral dust re-suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Engelbrecht

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper promotes an understanding of the mineralogical, chemical, and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dusts collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soils were collected from arid regions, including the southwestern USA, Mali, Chad, Morocco, Canary Islands, Cabo Verde, Djibouti, Afghanistan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Serbia, China, Namibia, Botswana, Australia, and Chile. The  <  38 µm sieved fraction of each sample was re-suspended in a chamber, from which the airborne mineral dust could be extracted, sampled, and analyzed. Instruments integrated into the entrainment facility included two PM10 and two PM2.5 filter samplers, a beta attenuation gauge for the continuous measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size analyzer, and a three-wavelength (405, 532, 781 nm photoacoustic instrument with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring absorption and scattering coefficients during the dust re-suspension process. Filter sampling media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The  <  38 µm sieved fractions were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction for their mineral content while the  >  75,  <  125 µm soil fractions were mineralogically assessed by optical microscopy. Presented here are results of the optical measurements, showing the interdependency of single-scattering albedos (SSA at three different wavelengths and mineralogical content of the entrained dust samples. To explain the elevated concentrations of iron (Fe and Fe ∕ Al ratios in the soil re-suspensions, we propose that dust particles are to a large extent composed of nano-sized particles of micas, clays, metal oxides, and ions of potassium (K+, calcium (Ca2+, and sodium (Na+ evenly dispersed as a colloid or adsorbed in amorphous

  2. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    . In areas of rapid growth the worse problems came from the inadequate amount of potable water, the continuous deterioration of water quality and the slow progress in the water resources management and supply. The effects of urban dynamics over the water use and sustainability deserves an increasing study over the recent history in order to provide for an optimal management of the interrelationships between them.

  3. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  4. EDITORIAL: Interrelationship between plasma phenomena in the laboratory and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Mark

    2008-07-01

    relevant physics within these ranges and extrapolate the results to space conditions that may or may not be subject to any restrictions on the values of the plasma parameters. The interrelationship between laboratory and space plasma experiments has been cultivated at a low level and the potential scientific benefit in this area has yet to be realized. The few but excellent examples of joint papers, joint experiments, and directly relevant cross-disciplinary citations are a direct result of the emphasis placed on this interrelationship two decades ago. Building on this special issue Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion plans to create a dedicated webpage to highlight papers directly relevant to this field published either in the recent past or in the future. It is hoped that this resource will appeal to the readership in the laboratory-experiment and space-plasma communities and improve the cross-fertilization between them.

  5. Interpretive Structural Analysis of Interrelationships among the Elements of Characteristic Agriculture Development in Chinese Rural Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Eradicating poverty is a strategic priority in the pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals. This study intends to identify and quantify the elements affecting the Characteristic Agriculture Development (CAD project implemented in area of Chinese poverty and reveals the interrelationships between those elements. First-hand data for the structural modeling were collected through semi-structured interviews with a group of selected experts. As a result, this study has identified seventeen representative elements, and the interrelationships between them have been examined based on the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM method. Furthermore, these elements were further categorized into four categories depending on their driving power and dependence power by using the cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC analysis. The combination result of the elements identification, ISM modeling and MICMAC analysis provide a conceptual framework for designing, implementing, and managing CAD projects conducted in rural China. Finally, we suggest that an appropriate approach should be applied to empower the poor, promote target group participation, optimize the regional agriculture structure, and increase the agro value chain competiveness in CAD project implementation.

  6. Interrelationships Between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, Binomial, Logit, and Bayes' Rule Probability of Detection Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Unknown risks are introduced into failure critical systems when probability of detection (POD) capabilities are accepted without a complete understanding of the statistical method applied and the interpretation of the statistical results. The presence of this risk in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community is revealed in common statements about POD. These statements are often interpreted in a variety of ways and therefore, the very existence of the statements identifies the need for a more comprehensive understanding of POD methodologies. Statistical methodologies have data requirements to be met, procedures to be followed, and requirements for validation or demonstration of adequacy of the POD estimates. Risks are further enhanced due to the wide range of statistical methodologies used for determining the POD capability. Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' rule POD methodologies are widely used in determining POD capability. This work focuses on Hit-Miss data to reveal the framework of the interrelationships between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' Rule methodologies as they are applied to POD. Knowledge of these interrelationships leads to an intuitive and global understanding of the statistical data, procedural and validation requirements for establishing credible POD estimates.

  7. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Risk Factors of Building Apartments for University Talent through the Agent Construction Mode in China: Interrelationship and Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengrong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apartments for university talent (AUT, are apartments provided to staff at non-market price, in order to attract outstanding scholars from around the world to work in universities and improve educational quality. This has been a critical issue in achieving social sustainability in China during rapid urbanization and industrialization. The agent construction mode has been adopted to build AUT because universities usually lack relevant management experience. The agent construction mode is a type of turnkey engineer construction based on the principal-agent model, project bidding mode, engineering contracting projects, and project supervision system. Risk factors are important considerations for both universities and agent construction companies. Although some studies have investigated the risk factors, only a few studies have identified the hierarchical structure of relevant risk factors. Therefore, the interrelationship and prioritization of the risk factors remain unknown, and this situation presents a barrier to better risk management. This paper investigates the interrelationship of risk factors with interpretative structural modeling (ISM. In addition, fuzzy MICMAC (matric d’impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classemen analysis was conducted to prioritize the risk factors. The findings provide useful references for better risk management of building AUT through the agent construction mode. Although this study focuses on China, the analytical process can also be generalized to other research topics and other countries.

  9. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM MEAT-CURING BRINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDMAN, M; DEIBEL, R H; NIVEN, C F

    1963-05-01

    Goldman, Manuel (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), R. H. Deibel, and C. F. Niven, Jr. Interrelationship between temperature and sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat-curing brines. J. Bacteriol. 85:1017-1021. 1963.-An elevation of the temperature limit for growth of some Pediococcus homari (Gaffkya homari) and motile Lactobacillus strains could be effected by the addition of sodium chloride to the growth medium. At the optimal temperature for growth, sodium chloride was stimulatory, and as the temperature of incubation was increased a mandatory requirement for sodium chloride was manifested. At the optimal temperature for growth (30 C), the highest sodium chloride concentrations were tolerated; as the temperature was increased, this tolerance decreased, although the optimal sodium chloride concentration increased. No other substances were found that would replace the sodium chloride requirement at higher temperatures of incubation.

  10. Lecture Hall and Learning Design: A Survey of Variables, Parameters, Criteria and Interrelationships for Audio-Visual Presentation Systems and Audience Reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, J. Karl

    Variables and parameters affecting architectural planning and audiovisual systems selection for lecture halls and other learning spaces are surveyed. Interrelationships of factors are discussed, including--(1) design requirements for modern educational techniques as differentiated from cinema, theater or auditorium design, (2) general hall…

  11. Mapping the Interrelationships between Self-Concept, Motivation and University Experience among Students of Self-Financing Higher Education Institutions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoebe; Mak, Connie; Ng, Peggy M. L.; Zhao, Jessie

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the interrelationships between self-concept, motivation and academic and social experience among students from self-financing higher education institutions in Hong Kong. Although prior studies have investigated different aspects of self that drive various types of motivation in students' academic and social experience, most of…

  12. Case Study of Leadership Practices and School-Community Interrelationships in High-Performing, High-Poverty, Rural California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Marcia; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Many rural California high schools are impacted by the disadvantages of poverty, non-English speaking students, limited resources, changing demographics, and challenges of the rural context. Focusing on contemporary leadership theories and school-community interrelationships, this qualitative study examines the practices of educational leaders in…

  13. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Sect. Petota (Wild and Cultivated Potatoes) are Drastically Altered as a Result of PBI-Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort recognized 232 species partitioned into 21 series. PBI-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelationships. The series contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraplo...

  14. Inter-relationships between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment among urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Messer, Lynne; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime; Misra, Dawn P

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between objective (census based) and subjective (resident reported) measures of the residential environment is understudied in African American (AA) populations. Using data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (2009-2011; n = 1387) of AA women, we quantified the area-level variation in subjective reports of residential healthy food availability, walkability, safety, and disorder that can be accounted for with an objective neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI). Two-level generalized linear models estimated associations between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment, accounting for individual-level covariates. In unconditional models, intraclass correlation coefficients for block-group variance in subjective reports ranged from 11% (healthy food availability) to 30% (safety). Models accounting for the NDI (vs. both NDI and individual-level covariates) accounted for more variance in healthy food availability (23% vs. 8%) and social disorder (40% vs. 38%). The NDI and individual-level variables accounted for 39% and 51% of the area-level variation in walkability and safety, respectively. Associations between subjective and objective measures of the residential environment were significant and in the expected direction. Future studies on neighborhood effects on health, especially among AAs, should include a wide range of residential environment measures, including subjective, objective, and spatial contextual variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Soil sandy desertification and salinization and their interrelationships in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Ningxia of northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-guo; Song, Nai-ping

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of controlled and typical sampling, this paper analyzed the texture, salinization characteristics, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and their correlations in the 0-40 cm soil profiles of corn land, medlar land, and non-utilized land in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Northwest China. Under controlled sampling, the salt content in the soil profiles was 0.69-1.30 g x kg(-1) (except in non-utilized land where the 0-10 cm soil salt content was up to 1.74 g x kg(-1)), with no obvious salinization. The sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in the 20-40 cm soil layer of medlar land were 12.18 and 14.1%, respectively, and the total content of clay and silt in the 0-40 cm soil profile of medlar land was up to 37.3% whereas that in the 0-20 cm soil layer of corn land was only 13.5%. In the 20-40 cm soil layer of corn land, the indices of sandy desertification and salinization had significant correlations under controlled sampling but no correlations under typical sampling, while the CEC and the sandy desertification and salinization indices had significant correlations under typical sampling. In different land use types in the study area, soil sandy desertification and salinization had complicated interrelationships, and CEC could be used as the indicator for the changes in soil environmental quality.

  16. Inter-Relationship between Profitability, Growth and Size: A Case of Non-Financial Companies from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kouser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth description of the inter-relationship between firm size, growth, and profitability of non-financial companies listed at Karachi stock exchange. The study is based on the sample of 70 (seventy non-financial companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange of Pakistan, selected on the basis of their market capitalization. Panel data techniques were employed using 700 observations of each of the variables of study; size(log natural of total assets, growth (sustainable growth rate for firm and profitability (return on assets. Observations are collected for ten years (2001-2010. The study concluded thatthere is study reveals that all the profitability has strong positive relationship with the growth of the firm; however size has less significant and negative impact on the profitability. Onesuggestion for further research would be to replicate the study in order to get more cases. Furthermore, it would be valuable to take a more long-term focus to examine the described relationships in the long run. The paper highlights the importance of these measures which are generally used for performance evaluation. Paper sets out the criteria that under which situations the company should focus which of the measure, so that company may derive its strategies on that way. This paper improves our preferences about the three major measures of the firm. Moreover, it contributes to the literature of financial management that how these three measures have trade-off between them.

  17. Study on Characteristics of Soil Elements Bio-availability and Their Interrelationship in Black Soil Area of Jilin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Based on systematic field investigation and surface soil(0-20cm) sampling in the middle part of Jilin province where the soil type mainly consists of black soil and chernozem, soil total content and bio-available content of Fe, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, P, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, B, Cd, As were tested. This paper summarizes the geochemical characteristics of the soil elements and takes the ratio of bio-available content to total content as the bio-availability characteristic of each element in soil and studies the interrelationship between their geochemical characteristics of bio-availability by PCA and correlation analysis. Cd、Cr、Ni、Zn、P、Ca are selected out by PCA due to the similar impact under 4 principal components. And their correlation analysis results indicate: the correlation coefficients between heavy metal elements(Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni) bio-availability are significant positive, i.e., the same spatial variation trends are found between them in study area; the same relationships are also found between the bioavailability of P and 4 heavy metal elements (Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni), the promotion of the bioavailability of heavy metal elements goes with P; However, the correlation coefficients between heavy metal(Cr, Cd, Zn, Ni) bio-availability and Ca are mostly significant negative and the adverse spatial variation trends are found between them. The promotion of the bioavailability of heavy metal elements goes against Ca. Key words: soil geochemistry; soil heavy metals; elements interaction; bio-availability

  18. [Interrelationship between lower limb varicosity, the grade of connective tissue dysplasia and atrial fibrillation in patients with coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, O V; Tsarev, O A; Shvarts, Iu G

    2006-01-01

    To determine interrelationship between lower limb varicosity, the clinical grade of non-differentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue and atrial fibrillation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Altogether 156 coronary patients were examined. Persistent atrial fibrillation was present in 58 and chronic in 38 patients. The reference group comprised 60 patients without evident rhythm disorders in persons suffering from CAD. Markers of connective tissue dysplasia () were revealed on the part of the skeleton, joints skin and visceral organs. Lower limb varicosity was recorded as well. The number of the stigmas in the study groups was different. So, in the patient group without rhythm disorders, the mean number of the stigmas was equal to 3, which is a variant of normal. In the groups with persistent and constant AF, this indicator was equal to 4.7 and 5.2 respectively (patrial fibrilation there is a direct close correlation between the signs of connective tissue dysplasia and lower limb varicosity. In patients with persistent AF lower limb varicosity occurs more frequently than in CAD patients with normal rhythm.

  19. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. The interrelationship of porcine somatotropin administration and dietary phosphorus on growth performance and bone properties in developing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, T L; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D; Hansen, J A; Friesen, K G; Richert, B T

    1993-10-01

    Seventy-two gilts (initial weight = 57.9 kg) were used to determine the interrelationship of porcine somatotropin (pST) administration and dietary P on growth performance of finishing gilts (58 to 106 kg) and the effect on bone mechanical properties and mineralization for a 35-d postfinishing phase after withdrawal of pST administration. Gilts were injected daily with placebo (control) or 4 mg of pST and fed .4, .6, or .8% P in the finishing phase. Administration of pST increased ADG and G/F (P .18) on ADG, G/F, or ADFI for the overall finishing phase. When each block weight averaged 106 kg, half the gilts were slaughtered and the first rib, femur, and third and fourth metacarpals were collected. Stress, modulus of elasticity, and ash content of rib, femur, and metacarpals were reduced (P .22). The remaining 36 gilts were individually fed 1.8 kg/d of a common diet to assure a P intake of 22.8 g/d for the 35-d postfinishing phase. Gilts that received higher levels of dietary P during the finishing phase had increased (linear, P .4% P (10.3 g/d P) to maximize growth performance. However, a diet with .4% P (12.44 and 10.66 g/d P, control and pST-treated, respectively) was adequate for growth performance during the overall finishing phase (56 to 106 kg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  1. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone-M, magnesium and calcium and their inter-relationship in patients with acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qi; Zhou Li; Lu Yuanhan; Wang Yan; Wang Yan; Liu Huarong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum parathyroid hormone-M, magnesium, and calcium levels and their interrelationships in patients with mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: Serum level of PTH-M was measured by means of radioimmunoassay, serum magnesium and calcium levels were determines with automatic biochemical analytical apparatus. Results: 1) Serum levels of PTH-M in acute period and daring recovery in patients with MAP and SAP were not significant different from those in controls (p > 0.05); serum levels of magnesium and calcium in cute period of patients with SAP were significantly lower than those in controls (p<0.01); 2) There was a linear positive correlation between serum levels of PTH-M and serum magnesium in acute-phase of SAP patients, correlation coefficient r = 0.413 (p<0.05). Conclusion: That presence of hypocalcemia in patients with severe acute pancreatitis did not lead to parathyroid hormone-M responsive rise, that might be due to the presence of hypomagnesemia

  2. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICIENCY OF CANCER TREATMENT AND STATE OF IMMUNE SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGEAL AND HYPOPHARYNGEAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Stakheyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We have studied possible interrelationships between immune system state and efficiency of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with cancer of larynx and hypopharynx. The neoadjuvant treatment consisted of 2 courses of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2, carboplatin (AUC-6 in 3-4 weeks, followed by radiation therapy at a multifraction dose schedule (1.2 Gy 2 times daily in 4 h, total cumulated dose was estimated as isoeffective dose of 40 Gy. A better response to chemotherapy by paclitaxel and carboplatin in the patients with cancer of larynx and hypopharynx had been associated with higher percentage of CD56+ cells and IgM levels in peripheral blood, as measured before starting cancer treatment. After completing the neoadjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy, we noted an increase in total lymphocyte counts, CD4+, CD8+, CD56+ cell numbers and IgG levels in the patients with pronounced response to chemotherapy, thus suggesting some induction of immune response in cancer patients during cytostatic therapy. These data presume a relationship between the state of immune system in the patients with head-and-neck cancer, and their response to neoadjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy. On the basis of these findings, one may suggest that immunological mechanisms make take an important part in promotion of antitumor effects produced by standard cancer treatment.

  3. Time-frequency wavelet analysis of the interrelationship between the global macro assets and the fear indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Fathi; Kaffel, Bilel

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the interrelationships of the global macro assets is crucial for global macro investing. This paper investigates the local variance and the interconnection between the stock, gold, oil, Forex and the implied volatility markets in the time/frequency domains using the wavelet methodology, including the wavelet power spectrum, the wavelet squared coherence and phase difference, the wavelet multiple correlation and cross-correlation. The univariate analysis reveals that, in some crisis periods, underlying asset markets present the same pattern in terms of the wavelet power spectrum indicating high volatility for the medium scale, and that for the other market stress periods, volatility behaves differently. Moreover, unlike the underlying asset markets, the implied volatility markets are characterized by high power regions across the entire period, even in the absence of economic events. Bivariate results show a bidirectional relationship between the underlying assets and their corresponding implied volatility indexes, and a steady co-movement between the stock index and its corresponding fear index. Multiple correlation analysis indicates a strong correlation between markets at high scales with evidence of a nearly perfect integration for a period longer than a year. In addition, the hedging strategies based on the volatility index lead to an increase in portfolio correlation. On the other hand, the results from multiple cross-correlations reveal that the lead-lag effect starts from the medium scale and that the VIX (stock market volatility index) index is the potential leader or follower of the other markets.

  4. Interrelationship of βeta-2 microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in streptozotocin -induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Javadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of serum creatinine (Cr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN are used as indicators of glomerular filtration rate. The increased levels of these biomarkers are usually detectable at advanced stages of kidney complications. The aim of this study was to find the interrelationship of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M, BUN and Cr in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (IP injection of 65 mg kg-1 of STZ in rabbits. The levels of serum insulin, glucose and three above mentioned biomarkers were measured one day before (day -1 and on days 1-3 after injection of STZ and continued weekly to the end of the experiment (12 weeks. A statistically significant increase of serum β2M, BUN, Cr and glucose levels, and a significant decrease of insulin levels were observed in diabetic animals. However, β2M levels increased as early as one day after STZ injection compared to Cr and BUN that elevated at day two, suggesting a probable diagnostic advantage of β2M over currently used biomarkers in diabetic related kidney complications.

  5. Meiotic behaviour and its implication on species inter-relationship in the genus Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mary Lamo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800 and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918. Both groups display varying degree of chromosome associations. Group I species showed the prevalence of bivalents, however occasional quadrivalents besides univalents were also encountered. About 48% of the PMCs analyzed in C. mangga showed 21 bivalents (II meiotic configurations, 32% in C. comosa and 16% in C. haritha. Group II species as expected showed the presence of trivalents besides bivalents, univalents and quadrivalents. About 32% of the PMCs analyzed at MI in C. sylvatica showed 21 trivalents (III meiotic configurations, 24% in C. longa and 8% in C. caesia. Overall, low frequency of multivalent associations as compared to bivalents indicates that Curcuma is an allopolyploid complex. Moreover, x = 21 is too high a basic number, therefore, we suggest that the genus Curcuma has evolved by hybridization of species with different chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 18, resulting in a dibasic amphidiploid species.

  6. Applying the Model of the Interrelationship of Leadership Environments and Outcomes for Nurse Executives: a community hospital's exemplar in developing staff nurse engagement through documentation improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffrey M; Denham, Debra; Neumeister, Irene Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    The Model of the Interrelationship of Leadership, Environments & Outcomes for Nurse Executives (MILE ONE) was developed on the basis of existing literature related to identifying strategies for simultaneous improvement of leadership, professional practice/work environments (PPWE), and outcomes. Through existing evidence, the MILE ONE identifies the continuous and dependent interrelationship of 3 distinct concept areas: (1) nurse executives influence PPWE, (2) PPWE influence patient and organizational outcomes, and (3) patient and organizational outcomes influence nurse executives. This article highlights the application of the MILE ONE framework to a community district hospital's clinical documentation performance improvement projects. Results suggest that the MILE ONE is a valid and useful framework yielding both anticipated and unexpected enhancements to leaders, environments, and outcomes.

  7. Education: of the sociocultural game and the inter-relationship involving modus vivendi and modus essendi. - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v33i2.12753

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article in question focuses on the analysis of education through the message of the movie Coach Carter - Training for Life (2005, which features the paradox of the democratization of education and converges to the boundaries that mark the function of the school and the role of the educator, stressing the sociocultural game and the inter-relationship involving modus vivendi and modus essendi that make up that process.

  8. Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tom; Huang, Jin; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1 mg·L(-1)), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4 mg·L(-1)). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA. © 2013.

  9. Analysis of the interrelationship of energy, economy, and environment: A model of a sustainable energy future for Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Kyung-Jin

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide the groundwork for a sustainable energy future in Korea. For this purpose, a conceptual framework of sustainable energy development was developed to provide a deeper understanding of interrelationships between energy, the economy, and the environment (E 3). Based on this theoretical work, an empirical simulation model was developed to investigate the ways in which E3 interact. This dissertation attempts to develop a unified concept of sustainable energy development by surveying multiple efforts to integrate various definitions of sustainability. Sustainable energy development should be built on the basis of three principles: ecological carrying capacity, economic efficiency, and socio-political equity. Ecological carrying capacity delineates the earth's resource constraints as well as its ability to assimilate wastes. Socio-political equity implies an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of energy consumption and an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. Economic efficiency dictates efficient allocation of scarce resources. The simulation model is composed of three modules: an energy module, an environmental module and an economic module. Because the model is grounded on economic structural behaviorism, the dynamic nature of the current economy is effectively depicted and simulated through manipulating exogenous policy variables. This macro-economic model is used to simulate six major policy intervention scenarios. Major findings from these policy simulations were: (1) carbon taxes are the most effective means of reducing air-pollutant emissions; (2) sustainable energy development can be achieved through reinvestment of carbon taxes into energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; and (3) carbon taxes would increase a nation's welfare if reinvested in relevant areas. The policy simulation model, because it is based on neoclassical economics, has limitations such that it cannot fully

  10. A priori assumptions about characters as a cause of incongruence between molecular and morphological hypotheses of primate interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Matthew A; Skelton, Randall R

    2012-01-01

    When molecules and morphology produce incongruent hypotheses of primate interrelationships, the data are typically viewed as incompatible, and molecular hypotheses are often considered to be better indicators of phylogenetic history. However, it has been demonstrated that the choice of which taxa to include in cladistic analysis as well as assumptions about character weighting, character state transformation order, and outgroup choice all influence hypotheses of relationships and may positively influence tree topology, so that relationships between extant taxa are consistent with those found using molecular data. Thus, the source of incongruence between morphological and molecular trees may lie not in the morphological data themselves but in assumptions surrounding the ways characters evolve and their impact on cladistic analysis. In this study, we investigate the role that assumptions about character polarity and transformation order play in creating incongruence between primate phylogenies based on morphological data and those supported by multiple lines of molecular data. By releasing constraints imposed on published morphological analyses of primates from disparate clades and subjecting those data to parsimony analysis, we test the hypothesis that incongruence between morphology and molecules results from inherent flaws in morphological data. To quantify the difference between incongruent trees, we introduce a new method called branch slide distance (BSD). BSD mitigates many of the limitations attributed to other tree comparison methods, thus allowing for a more accurate measure of topological similarity. We find that releasing a priori constraints on character behavior often produces trees that are consistent with molecular trees. Case studies are presented that illustrate how congruence between molecules and unconstrained morphological data may provide insight into issues of polarity, transformation order, homology, and homoplasy.

  11. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with different levels of cognitive delay. Seventy-seven children with IDD (calendar age between 1;0 and 9;10 years; mean developmental age: 1;8 years) and 130 typically developing children (calendar age between 0;3 and 3;6 years; mean developmental age: 1;10 years) were tested with the Dutch Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, which assesses development across three domains using five subscales: fine motor development, gross motor development (motor), cognition (cognitive), receptive communication, and expressive communication (language). Results showed that correlations between the motor, cognitive, and language domains were strong, namely .61 to .94 in children with IDD and weak to strong, namely .24 to .56 in children without IDD. Furthermore, the correlations showed a tendency to increase with the severity of IDD. It can be concluded that both fine and gross motor development are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language, in children with IDD than in children without IDD. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of early interventions that boost both motor and cognitive development, and suggest that such interventions will also enhance language development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interrelationships among Growth, Confidence and Governance in the Globalized World-An experiment of some selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The countries in the world in the globalized era have faced heterogeneity in challenges in managing their growth factors as well as the stake holders of such growth profiles. The political and economic turmoil of the last two decades around the world have opened the eyes of the consumers, business houses and the governments of different countries to read and follow the economic events. The paper has tried to study the causal relation and interrelationships among different growth factors like the confidence levels of the consumers and business houses, inflation, unemployment like economic factors and governance like non-economic factors over a selection of 17 countries across all continents for the period 1996-2010. Because of limited sources of data we have applied the pooled regression technique to justify our study. Confidence levels of both the consumers and business houses cause the growth rates whereas governance causes growth only under pooled data. But for individual country data we observe that in majority of the countries there are absences of causalities between the variables. It has been observed that pooled annual growth rates of GDP of the countries are significantly related to the business and consumer confidence indexes, unemployment rate, debt ratio and overall governance indicators that shows improvement over the individual country analysis where in majority of the cases there is no significant factor for growth and confidence. By segregating the entire data the study find a few countries where a few variables like BCI, stock prices and governance make significant impact upon growth rates. In majority of the countries BCI is explained by CCI, Stock prices and governance while CCI is explained by stock prices, governance and debt ratio.

  13. New Mexico NSPS/NESHAP Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Interrelationships of Nemertodermatida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Jondelius, U.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 73-84 ISSN 1439-6092 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nemertodermatida * LSU * SSU * molecular phylogeny * cryptic species * approximately Unbiased test Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.313, year: 2016

  15. Physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures, and their inter-relationship with psychological distress: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; O'Brien, K; Waller, J; Gallagher, P; D'Arcy, T; Flannelly, G; Martin, C M; McRae, J; Prendiville, W; Ruttle, C; White, C; Pilkington, L; O'Leary, J J; Sharp, L

    2017-08-01

    To estimate prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects and investigate associations between these and subsequent psychological distress. Longitudinal survey. Two hospital-based colposcopy clinics. Women with abnormal cytology who underwent colposcopy (±related procedures). Questionnaires were mailed to women 4, 8 and 12 months post-colposcopy. Details of physical after-effects (pain, bleeding and discharge) experienced post-colposcopy were collected at 4 months. Colposcopy-specific distress was measured using the Process Outcome-Specific Measure at all time-points. Linear mixed-effects regression was used to identify associations between physical after-effects and distress over 12 months, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables. Prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects. Associations between the presence of any physical after-effects, awareness of after-effects, and number of after-effects and distress. Five-hundred and eighty-four women were recruited (response rate = 73, 59 and 52% at 4, 8 and 12 months, respectively). Eighty-two percent of women reported one or more physical after-effect(s). Multiple physical after-effects were common (two after-effects = 25%; three after-effects = 25%). Psychological distress scores declined significantly over time. In adjusted analyses, women who experienced all three physical after-effects had on average a 4.58 (95% CI: 1.10-8.05) higher distress scored than those who experienced no after-effects. Women who were unaware of the possibility of experiencing after-effects scored significantly higher for distress during follow-up. The prevalence of physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures is high. The novel findings of inter-relationships between awareness of the possibility of after-effects and experiencing multiple after-effects, and post-colposcopy distress may be relevant to the development of interventions to alleviate post-colposcopy distress. Experiencing multiple

  16. Interrelationships between postprandial lipoprotein B:CIII particle changes and high-density lipoprotein subpopulation profiles in mixed hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Y; Sich, D; Camproux, A; Egloff, M; Federspiel, M C; Gautier, V; Raisonnier, A; Turpin, G; Beucler, I

    1999-01-01

    We studied the relationships postprandially between triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 11 mixed hyperlipoproteinemia (MHL) and 11 hypercholesterolemia (HCL) patients. The high and prolonged postprandial triglyceridemia response observed in MHL but not HCL patients was essentially dependent on very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) changes. This abnormal response was related to decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (-48.7%, P<.01) in MHL compared with HCL subjects. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was postprandially enhanced only in MHL patients, and this elevation persisted in the late period (+19% at 12 hours, P<.05), sustaining the delayed enrichment of VLDL with cholesteryl ester (CE). The late postprandial period in MHL patients was also characterized by high levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins with apoCIII ([LpB:CIII] +36% at 12 hours, P<.01) and decreased levels of apoCIII contained in HDL ([LpCIII-HDL] -34% at 12 hours, P<.01), reflecting probably a defective return of apoCIII from TRL toward HDL. In MHL compared with HCL patients, decreased HDL2 levels were related to both HDL2b and HDL2a subpopulations (-57% and -49%, respectively, P<.01 for both) and decreased apoA-I levels (-53%, P<.01) were equally linked to decreased HDL2 with apoA-I only (LpA-I) and HDL2 with both apoA-I and apoA-II ([LpA-I:A-II] -55% and -52%, respectively, P<.01 for both). The significant inverse correlations between the postprandial magnitude of LpB:CIII and HDL2-LpA-I and HDL2b levels in MHL patients underline the close TRL-HDL interrelationships. Our findings indicate that TRL and HDL abnormalities evidenced at fasting were postprandially amplified, tightly interrelated, and persistent during the late fed period in mixed hyperlipidemia. Thus, these fasting abnormalities are likely postprandially originated and may constitute proatherogenic lipoprotein disorders additional to the HCL in MHL patients.

  17. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-01-01

    effects on F-actin. The subsequent F-actin depolymerization, however, appeared MLCK- and PKC-dependent, and the initial swelling-induced F-actin depolymerization was MLCK-dependent; both effects were apparently secondary to kinase-mediated effects on cell volume changes. NHE1 in EATC is activated both....... Moreover, Rho kinase inhibition did not significantly affect NHE1 activation, neither by shrinkage nor by CL-A. Implications for the possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation are discussed....

  18. Energetic Interrelationship between Spontaneous Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Regional Cerebral Blood Volume, Arterial Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Respiratory Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katura, Takusige; Yagyu, Akihiko; Obata, Akiko; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Maki, Atsushi; Abe, Masanori; Tanaka, Naoki

    2007-07-01

    Strong spontaneous fluctuations around 0.1 and 0.3 Hz have been observed in blood-related brain-function measurements such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and optical topography (or functional near-infrared spectroscopy). These fluctuations seem to reflect the interaction between the cerebral circulation system and the systemic circulation system. We took an energetic viewpoint in our analysis of the interrelationships between fluctuations in cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rhythm based on multivariate autoregressive modeling. This approach involves evaluating the contribution of each fluctuation or rhythm to specific ones by performing multivariate spectral analysis. The results we obtained show MAP and HR can account slightly for the fluctuation around 0.1 Hz in CBV, while the fluctuation around 0.3 Hz is derived mainly from the respiratory rhythm. During our presentation, we will report on the effects of posture on the interrelationship between the fluctuations and the respiratory rhythm.

  19. Study on the inter-relationship among the changes of serum levels of leptin, insulin and glucagon in patients with DM2 complicated with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhiwei; Yan Songqin; Tan Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inter-relationship among the changes of serum leptin, insulin and glucagon levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) complicated with hypertension. Methods: Serum leptin, insulin and glucagon levels were, measured with RIA in 30 DM2 patients complicated with hypertension, 30 DM2 patients without hypertension and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of leptin, insulin and glucagon in all the DM2 patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). In addition, the serum levels in DM2 patients with hypertension were significantly higher than those in DM2 patients without hypertension (P<0.05). These levels were positively correlated with the severity of hypertension. Conclusion: The role played by leptin and glucagon in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitns should be furthur studied. (authors)

  20. Interrelationship between autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic (ADOS-G), autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R), and the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, A; Sytema, S; Ketelaars, C; Kraijer, D; Mulder, E; Volkmar, F; Minderaa, R

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a

  1. Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) Classification in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Ketelaars, Cees; Kraijer, Dirk; Mulder, Erik; Volkmar, Fred; Minderaa, Ruud

    2004-01-01

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a substantial difference between younger and older…

  2. Inequitable walking conditions among older people: examining the interrelationship of neighbourhood socio-economic status and urban form using a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Theresa L; Edwards, Nancy; Sveistrup, Heidi; Andrew, Caroline; Egan, Mary

    2010-11-05

    Supportive neighbourhood walking conditions are particularly important for older people as they age and who, as a group, prefer walking as a form of physical activity. Urban form and socio-economic status (SES) can influence neighbourhood walking behaviour. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine how urban form and neighbourhood SES inter-relate to affect the experiences of older people who walk in their neighbourhoods; b) to examine differences among neighbourhood stakeholder key informant perspectives on socio-political processes that shape the walkability of neighbourhood environments. An embedded comparative case study examined differences among four Ottawa neighbourhoods that were purposefully selected to provide contrasts on urban form (inner-urban versus suburban) and SES (higher versus lower). Qualitative data collected from 75 older walkers and 19 neighbourhood key informants, as well as quantitative indicators were compared on the two axes of urban form and SES among the four neighbourhoods. Examining the inter-relationship of neighbourhood SES and urban form characteristics on older people's walking experiences indicated that urban form differences were accentuated positively in higher SES neighbourhoods and negatively in lower SES neighbourhoods. Older people in lower SES neighbourhoods were more affected by traffic hazards and more reliant on public transit compared to their higher SES counterparts. In higher SES neighbourhoods the disadvantages of traffic in the inner-urban neighbourhood and lack of commercial destinations in the suburban neighbourhood were partially offset by other factors including neighbourhood aesthetics. Key informant descriptions of the socio-political process highlighted how lower SES neighbourhoods may face greater challenges in creating walkable places. These differences pertained to the size of neighbourhood associations, relationships with political representatives, accessing information and salient neighbourhood

  3. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-02-28

    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Central Asia’s Ili River Ecosystem as a Wicked Problem: Unraveling Complex Interrelationships at the Interface of Water, Energy, and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Pueppke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ili River originates in the mountains of Xinjiang, China, and flows across an increasingly arid landscape before terminating in Kazakhstan’s Lake Balkhash, which has no outlet to the ocean. The river has been extensively impounded and diverted over the past half century to produce hydroelectric power and food on irrigated land. Water withdrawals are increasing to the extent that they are beginning to threaten the ecosystem, just as it is becoming stressed by altered inflows as glaciers retreat and disappear. If the Ili River ecosystem is to be preserved, it is crucial that we thoroughly understand the spatial and temporal nuances of the interrelationships between water, energy, and food—and the vulnerability of these components to climate change. The ecosystem has all of the characteristics of a classically-defined “wicked problem”, and so it warrants treatment as a complex and dynamic challenge subject to changing assumptions, unexpected consequences, and strong social and economic overtones. Research should thus focus not just on new knowledge about the water, energy, or food component, but on advancing our understanding of the ecosystem as a whole. This will require the participation of interdisciplinary teams of researchers with both tacit and specialized knowledge.

  5. Quantitative longitudinal interrelationships between brain metabolism and amyloid deposition during a 2-year follow-up in patients with early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Stefan; Yousefi, Behrooz H.; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Klupp, Elisabeth; Rominger, Axel; Foerstl, Hans; Kurz, Alexander; Grimmer, Timo; Drzezga, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Similar regional anatomical distributions were reported for fibrillary amyloid deposition [measured by 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET)] and brain hypometabolism [measured by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET] in numerous Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies evaluating the interrelationships of these two different pathological markers in the same AD population. Our most recent AD study suggested that the longitudinal pattern of hypometabolism anatomically follows the pattern of amyloid deposition with temporal delay, which indicates that neuronal dysfunction may spread within the anatomical pattern of amyloid pathology. Based on this finding we now hypothesize that in early AD patients quantitative longitudinal decline in hypometabolism may be related to the amount of baseline amyloid deposition during a follow-up period of 2 years. Fifteen patients with mild probable AD underwent baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2) examination after 24 ± 2.1 months with [ 18 F]FDG PET, [ 11 C]PIB PET, structural T1-weighted MRI and neuropsychological testing [Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery]. Longitudinal cognitive measures and quantitative PET measures of amyloid deposition and metabolism [standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs)] were obtained using volume of interest (VOI)-based approaches in the frontal-lateral-retrosplenial (FLR) network and in predefined bihemispheric brain regions after partial volume effect (PVE) correction of PET data. Statistical group comparisons (SUVRs and cognitive measures) between patients and 15 well-matched elderly controls who had undergone identical imaging procedures once as well as Pearson's correlation analyses within patients were performed. Group comparison revealed significant cognitive decline and increased mean PIB/decreased FDG SUVRs in the FLR network as well as in several AD-typical regions in

  6. Application of Bayesian neural network modeling to characterize the interrelationship between microstructure and mechanical property in alpha+beta-titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduri, Santhosh K.

    Titanium alloys, especially alpha+beta titanium alloys are used extensively in the aerospace industry because of their attractive balance of properties. The mechanical properties of these materials are very much sensitive to their microstructure. Microstructure in these alloys can be controlled essentially through alloy composition and various thermomechanical processing routes. Microstructures in these alloys are characterized in terms of size, distribution and volume fraction of both alpha (HCP crystal structure) and beta (BCC crystal structure) phases. The above-mentioned features can coexist and span different length scales. The interrelationships between the microstructure and mechanical properties are characterized qualitatively in the literature. Physics based models are difficult to implement due to the presence of a wide variety of microstructural features with different length scales and mutual interaction of these features. The modeling of such properties is much more complex when composition is added as an additional degree of freedom. In this work neural network models with a Bayesian framework have been employed to characterize the microstructure and mechanical property interrelationships in alpha+beta Ti alloys based on Ti-xAl-yV (4.76 alpha+beta Ti alloys based on Ti-xAl-yV (4.76alloys are subjected to various heat treatments and thermomechanical processing conditions such as beta annealing and alpha+beta processing to obtain a range of microstructure and mechanical properties. The important microstructural features in alpha+beta processed alpha+beta titanium alloys are equiaxed alpha grain size, volume fraction of equiaxed alpha grains, width of the alpha lamellae in transformed beta matrix and important features in beta heat treated alpha+beta titanium alloys are size of alpha colony, width of the alpha lamellae, prior beta grain size, volume fraction of colony and grain boundary alpha thickness. A database is populated with the above

  7. Quantitative longitudinal interrelationships between brain metabolism and amyloid deposition during a 2-year follow-up in patients with early Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM-Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Yousefi, Behrooz H.; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Klupp, Elisabeth [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Rominger, Axel [Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Foerstl, Hans; Kurz, Alexander; Grimmer, Timo [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Munich (Germany); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM-Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Similar regional anatomical distributions were reported for fibrillary amyloid deposition [measured by {sup 11}C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET)] and brain hypometabolism [measured by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET] in numerous Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies evaluating the interrelationships of these two different pathological markers in the same AD population. Our most recent AD study suggested that the longitudinal pattern of hypometabolism anatomically follows the pattern of amyloid deposition with temporal delay, which indicates that neuronal dysfunction may spread within the anatomical pattern of amyloid pathology. Based on this finding we now hypothesize that in early AD patients quantitative longitudinal decline in hypometabolism may be related to the amount of baseline amyloid deposition during a follow-up period of 2 years. Fifteen patients with mild probable AD underwent baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2) examination after 24 {+-} 2.1 months with [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 11}C]PIB PET, structural T1-weighted MRI and neuropsychological testing [Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery]. Longitudinal cognitive measures and quantitative PET measures of amyloid deposition and metabolism [standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs)] were obtained using volume of interest (VOI)-based approaches in the frontal-lateral-retrosplenial (FLR) network and in predefined bihemispheric brain regions after partial volume effect (PVE) correction of PET data. Statistical group comparisons (SUVRs and cognitive measures) between patients and 15 well-matched elderly controls who had undergone identical imaging procedures once as well as Pearson's correlation analyses within patients were performed. Group comparison revealed significant cognitive decline and increased mean PIB/decreased FDG SUVRs in the FLR network as well as

  8. Single-leg lateral, horizontal, and vertical jump assessment: reliability, interrelationships, and ability to predict sprint and change-of-direction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Cesar; McMaster, Travis; Cronin, John; Mohammad, Nur Ikhwan; Rogers, Cailyn; Deklerk, Melissa

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the reliability of unilateral vertical, horizontal, and lateral countermovement jump assessments, the interrelationship between these tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint (10 m) and change-of-direction (COD) performance for 80 men and women physical education students. Jump performance was assessed on a contact mat and sprint, and COD performances were assessed using timing lights. With regard to the reliability statistics, the largest coefficient of variation (CV) was observed for the vertical jump (CV = 6.7-7.2%) of both genders, whereas the sprint and COD assessments had smallest variability (CV = 0.8 to 2.8%). All intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were greater than 0.85, except for the men's COD assessment with the alternate leg. The shared variance between the single-leg vertical, horizontal, and lateral jumps for men and women was less than 50%, indicating that the jumps are relatively independent of one another and represent different leg strength/power qualities. The ability of the jumps to predict sprint and COD performance was limited (R2 < 43%). It would seem that the ability to change direction with 1 leg is relatively independent of a COD with the other leg, especially in the women (R < 30%) of this study. However, if 1 jump assessment were selected to predict sprint and COD performance in a test battery, the single-leg horizontal countermovement jump would seem the logical choice, given the results of this study. Many of the findings in this study have interesting diagnostic and training implications for the strength and conditioning coach.

  9. Inter-Relationship Between Subtropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, and the North Atlantic Oscillation in Recent Summers and Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Cullather, Richard I.; Nowicki, Sophie M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2017-01-01

    The inter-relationship between subtropical western-central Pacific sea surface temperatures (STWCPSST), sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea (SICBS), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are investigated for the last 37 summers and winters (1980-2016). Lag-correlation of the STWCPSST×(-1) in spring with the NAO phase and SICBS in summer increases over the last two decades, reaching r = 0.4-0.5 with significance at 5 percent, while winter has strong correlations in approximately 1985-2005. Observational analysis and the atmospheric general circulation model experiments both suggest that STWCPSST warming acts to increase the Arctic geopotential height and temperature in the following season. This atmospheric response extends to Greenland, providing favorable conditions for developing the negative phase of the NAO. SIC and surface albedo tend to decrease over the Beaufort Sea in summer, linked to the positive surface net shortwave flux. Energy balance considering radiative and turbulent fluxes reveal that available energy that can heat surface is larger over the Arctic and Greenland and smaller over the south of Greenland, in response to the STWCPSST warming in spring. XXXX Arctic & Atlantic: Positive upper-level height/T anomaly over the Arctic and Greenland, and a negative anomaly over the central-eastern Atlantic, resembling the (-) phase of the NAO. Pacific: The negative height/T anomaly over the mid-latitudes, along with the positive anomaly over the STWCP, where 1degC warming above climatology is prescribed. Discussion: It is likely that the Arctic gets warm and the NAO is in the negative phase in response to the STWCP warming. But, there are other factors (e.g., internal variability) that contribute to determination of the NAO phase: not always the negative phase of the NAO in the event of STWCP warming (e.g.: recent winters and near neutral NAO in 2017 summer).

  10. Empirical evaluation of the inter-relationship of articular elements involved in the pathoanatomy of knee osteoarthritis using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Dennis S; Losina, Elena; Neumann, Gesa; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Lang, Philipp K; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2009-10-29

    In this cross-sectional study, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of all articular elements that could be measured using knee MRI. We assessed the association of pathological change in multiple articular structures involved in the pathoanatomy of osteoarthritis. Knee MRI scans from patients over 45 years old were assessed using a semi-quantitative knee MRI assessment form. The form included six distinct elements: cartilage, bone marrow lesions, osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, joint effusion and synovitis. Each type of pathology was graded using an ordinal scale with a value of zero indicating no pathology and higher values indicating increasingly severe levels of pathology. The principal dependent variable for comparison was the mean cartilage disease score (CDS), which captured the aggregate extent of involvement of articular cartilage. The distribution of CDS was compared to the individual and cumulative distributions of each articular element using the Chi-squared test. The correlations between pathological change in the various articular structures were assessed in a Spearman correlation table. Data from 140 patients were available for review. The cohort had a median age of 61 years (range 45-89) and was 61% female. The cohort included a wide spectrum of OA severity. Our analysis showed a statistically significant trend towards pathological change involving more articular elements as CDS worsened (p-value for trend osteophytes (p-value for trend subchondral sclerosis (p = 0.009), but not joint effusion or synovitis. There was a moderate correlation between cartilage damage, osteophytes and BMLs as well as a moderate correlation between joint effusion and synovitis. However, cartilage damage and osteophytes were only weakly associated with synovitis or joint effusion. Our results support an inter-relationship of multiple articular elements in the pathoanatomy of knee OA. Prospective studies of OA pathogenesis in humans are needed to correlate these

  11. Spatial and Temporal Inter-Relationship between Anomalies and Trends of Temperature, Moisture, Cloud Cover and OLR as Observed by AIRS/AMSU on Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the advanced IR/MW atmospheric sounding system launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002. Products derived from AIRS/AMSU by the AIRS Science Team include surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profiled; atmospheric humidity profiles, fractional cloud clover and cloud top pressure, and OLR. Products covering the period September 2002 through the present have been derived from AIRS/AMSU using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we will show results covering the time period September 2006 - November 2008. This time period is marked by a substantial warming trend of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical land surface skin temperatures, as well as pronounced El Nino - La Nina episodes. These both influence the spatial and temporal anomaly patterns of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, as well as of cloud cover and Clear Sky and All Sky OLR. The relationships between temporal and spatial anomalies of these parameters over this time period, as determined from AIRS/AMSU observations, will be shown with particular emphasis on which contribute significantly to OLR anomalies in each of the tropics and extra-tropics. Results will also be shown to evaluate the anomalies and trends of temperature profiles and OLR as determined from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data. Global and regional trends during the 6 1/3 year time period are not necessarily indicative of what has happened in the past, or what may happen in the future. Nevertheless, the inter-relationships of spatial and temporal anomalies of atmospheric geophysical parameters with those of surface skin temperature are indicative of climate processes, and can be used to test the performance of climate models when driven by changes in surface temperatures.

  12. Effects of Endogenous Androgens and Abdominal Fat Distribution on the Interrelationship Between Insulin and Non-Insulin-Mediated Glucose Uptake in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Uche; Pall, Marita; Mathur, Ruchi; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel; Chen, Ida Y.; Dumesic, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Glucose disposal occurs via noninsulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU) and insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). It is unknown whether in PCOS NIMGU increases to compensate for declining IMGU and whether androgens and fat distribution influence this relationship. Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare in women with PCOS and controls the interrelationship between NIMGU [ie, glucose effectiveness (Sg)] and IMGU [ie, the insulin sensitivity index (Si)] and the role of androgens and fat distribution. Participants: Twenty-eight PCOS (by National Institutes of Health 1990 criteria) and 28 control (age, race, and body mass index matched) women were prospectively studied. A subset of 16 PCOS subjects and 16 matched controls also underwent abdominal computed tomography. Main Outcome Measures: Glucose disposal (by a frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test), circulating androgens, and abdominal fat distribution [by waist to hip ratio and visceral (VAT) and sc (SAT) adipose tissue content] were measured. Results: PCOS women had lower mean Si and similar Sg and abdominal fat distribution compared with controls. PCOS women with Si below the PCOS median (more insulin resistant) had a lower mean Sg than controls with Si above the control median (more insulin sensitive). In PCOS only, body mass index, free T, modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, and waist to hip ratio independently predicted Sg, whereas Si did not. In PCOS, VAT and SAT independently and negatively predicted Si and Sg, respectively. Conclusion: The decreased IMGU in PCOS is not accompanied by a compensatory increase in NIMGU or associated with excessive VAT accumulation. Increased general obesity, SAT, and hyperandrogenism are primary predictors of the deterioration of NIMGU in PCOS. PMID:23450052

  13. Da educação: do jogo sociocultural e a inter-relação envolvendo modus vivendi e modus essendi = Education: of the sociocultural game and the inter-relationship involving modus vivendi and modus essendi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo em questão se detém na análise da educação por meio da mensagem do filme Coach Carter - Treino para a Vida (2005, que acena com o paradoxo da democratização do ensino e converge para as fronteiras que assinalam a função da escola e o papel do educador, sublinhando o jogo sociocultural e a inter-relação envolvendo modus vivendi e modus essendi que perfazem o referido processo.The article in question focuses on the analysis of education through the message of the movie Coach Carter - Training for Life (2005, which features the paradox of the democratization of education and converges to the boundaries that mark the function of the school and the role of the educator, stressing the sociocultural game and the inter-relationship involving modus vivendi and modus essendi that make up that process.

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infections in free-ranging lions in east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Fehr, D; Grob, M; Elgizoli, M; Packer, C; Martenson, J S; O'Brien, S J; Lutz, H

    1996-09-01

    While viral infections and their impact are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. The goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), herpesvirus (FHV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvovirus (FPV), and immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen in 311 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1991 from lions inhabiting Tanzania's national parks and (ii) to evaluate the possible biological importance and the interrelationship of these viral infections. Antibodies to FCV, never reported previously in free-ranging lions, were detected in 70% of the sera. In addition, a much higher prevalence of antibodies to FCoV (57%) was found than was previously reported in Etosha National Park and Kruger National Park. Titers ranged from 25 to 400. FeLV antigen was not detectable in any of the serum samples. FCoV, FCV, FHV, and FIV were endemic in the Serengeti, while a transient elevation of FPV titers pointed to an outbreak of FPV infection between 1985 and 1987. Antibody titers to FPV and FCV were highly prevalent in the Serengeti (FPV, 75%; FCV, 67%) but not in Ngorongoro Crater (FPV, 27%; FCV, 2%). These differences could be explained by the different habitats and biological histories of the two populations and by the well-documented absence of immigration of lions from the Serengeti plains into Ngorongoro Crater after 1965. These observations indicate that, although the pathological potential of these viral infections seemed not to be very high in free-ranging lions, relocation of seropositive animals by humans to seronegative lion populations must be considered very carefully.

  15. The interrelationships of mathematical precursors in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the interrelations among cognitive precursors across quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention domains that have been implicated for math achievement in young children. The dimensionality of the quantity precursors was evaluated in 286 kindergarteners via latent variable techniques, and the contribution of precursors from each domain was established for small sums addition. Results showed a five-factor structure for the quantity precursors, with the major distinction being between nonsymbolic and symbolic tasks. The overall model demonstrated good fit and strong predictive power (R(2)=55%) for addition number combinations. Linguistic and spatial attention domains showed indirect relationships with outcomes, with their effects mediated by symbolic quantity measures. These results have implications for the measurement of mathematical precursors and yield promise for predicting future math performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interrelationship of Atmospheric Parameters in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    in the summer is associated with systems known as " temporales " (Portig, 1965; Hastenrath, 1967). These atmospheric disturbances originate over the...Geophys. Biokl., Serie B, 13, 1963a. pp 98-107. Hastenrath, S., "Der Tagesgang von Temperatur und Luftfeuchtigkeit in San Salvador," Geofis. Pura Appl., 56

  17. Risk interrelationship among multiple primary tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Mohammed; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Lifen; Zhang, Xinwei; Song, Jicheng; Ameen, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Along with advanced management in oncology, great progress has been recently achieved in the studies of multiple primary tumors. Several reports have studied the coexistence between lymphoma and either renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or Warthin tumor. However, the level of coexistence between these cases remains unclear due to the absence of a distinct link between them. Patient concerns: We present a unique case of multiple primary tumors (lymphoma, RCC, and Warthin tumor) in an 80-year-old man and a review of the literature on the coexistence of RCC with lymphoma and lymphoma with Warthin tumor. Diagnosis: With a history of RCC, the patient had a freely movable lump under his left ear, and the pathological report indicated Hodgkin lymphoma and Warthin tumor. Intervention: RCC and Warthin tumor of the patient were surgically treated, followed by 2 cycles (14 days per cycle) of Epirubicin 40 mg day 1, Bleomycin 8 mg day 1, Vincristine 2 mg day 1, and Dacarbazine 500 mg day 1. The chemotherapy protocol was then changed to Epirubicin 40 mg day 1, Vincristine 2 mg day 1, and Dacarbazine 500 mg day 1 for 7 cycles. Outcomes: After the last day of chemotherapy, the patient showed a complete response. Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report a case of multiple primary tumors with a complete response. For their early detection, favorable prognosis, and correlation identification, we suggest a transitive relation between these coexisting tumors. Therefore, similar studies should be conducted. PMID:29642151

  18. The Interrelationship Between Bank Failure and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Finance and Management ... non-use of prudent classification risk assessment methods, fraud and management deficiencies. ... For example, at the end of 1998, out of 78% NBC loan portfolio the majority went to parastatals ...

  19. Explanation of the differences and interrelationships between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years hundred of African men, women and children either willingly or are forcefully being subjected into situations of labour and sexual exploitation both on the continent or abroad. For many African countries, the problem has just recently been acknowledged. Internationally, trafficking in persons and its twin ...

  20. Interregional income differentials and migration: their interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, T

    1988-02-01

    "The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate that interregional income differential is exogenous to interregional net migration, but not conversely. Utilizing Japanese prefectural-based data for 1954-82, we conduct the following three kinds of analyses to confirm this statement. Firstly, a simple comparison of the crests of interregional time-series plots was made to see which occurred first. Secondly, Sims', 1972, test of causality was done to investigate causation between urban/rural income differential and net migration. Finally, per capita income and population share were examined by two-dimensional phase diagram for nine regions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER) excerpt

  1. Multiple telecouplings and their complex interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the world is becoming socioeconomically and environmentally connected, but many studies have focused on human-environment interactions within a particular area. Although some studies have considered the impacts of external factors, there is little research on multiple reciprocal socioeconomic and environmental interactions between a focal area and other areas. Here we address this important knowledge gap by applying the new integrated framework of telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions between two or more areas over distances. Results show that even a protected area - i.e., the Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas in southwest China - has multiple telecoupling processes with the rest of the world; these include panda loans, tourism, information dissemination, conservation subsidies, and trade of agricultural and industrial products. The telecoupling processes exhibit nonlinear patterns, they change over time, and they have varying socioeconomic and environmental effects across the world. We also find complex relationships among different telecouplings - e.g., amplification, offsetting, spatial overlaps - which cannot be detected by traditional separate studies. Such an integrated study leads to a more comprehensive understanding of distant human-environment interactions and has significant implications for global sustainability and human well-being.

  2. Oil and nuclear power: the dynamic interrelationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of changing oil prices on the economic case for nuclear power and the political viability of the nuclear industry is reviewed. The case for nuclear energy is less obvious currently on the grounds of safety (following the Chernobyl accident), need (because of slower economic growth and energy conservation) and rationale (the cost advantage is no longer obvious). Nuclear power and oil prices are shown to be interrelated because the competitive economics of each is affected by the other. The competitive balance between the two changes. The use of nuclear power helps to keep oil prices down. However, if oil is cheap, nuclear power is less favourable economically. Some facts and figures are used to illustrate this paradox. (U.K.)

  3. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  4. Interrelationships between climate and human cultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolitschka, B.

    2010-03-01

    Human influence on the environment increased continuously during the late Holocene and often interferes with the reconstruction of climatic fluctuations in natural archives. However, for the first millennium BC there exist convincing evidences of a climatic deterioration determined by geological, geomorphological, paleoecological and archaeological records from Europe and beyond. A fluctuation in the -14C record from tree rings indicates that this climatic setback seems to be of a global character which would support its solar origin. Geochemical and physical data of very well-dated lacustrine sediments from a German maar (Lake Holzmaar, West Eifel Volcanic Field) records a dramatic environmental change which coincides with or follows this climatic deterioration at 800 BC. These changes are related to a conspicuous shift towards an increased erosion of the soils in the catchment area. Thus sediment yields of the lacustrine system more than quadruple from the low mean mid-Holocene (7900-800 BC) level of 1.5 t km-2 yr-1 to values of 6.3 t km-2 yr-1 for the last centuries of the first millennium BC, i.e. until the start of the Roman occupation in the West Eifel region around 50 BC. Still, this elevated sediment yield value is rather low compared to 19 t km-2 yr-1 reached during the period of the Roman Empire (50 BC-400 AD) or even to 25 t km-2 yr-1 that were gained during the Middle Ages (11th to 13th century). During the Migration Period and the early Middle Ages, however, sediment yield data decreased again to almost mid-Holocene values of 2.3 t km-2 yr-1. Whether the shift in ecosystem stability following immediately after 800 BC was triggered by a solar-induced climatic change cannot absolutely be excluded but must be cast into doubt. Intensive deforestation indicated by pollen analyses suggests that human cultural development from the late Bronze Age to the early Iron Age, accompanied by the introduction of iron tools, was the reason for this alteration. Using iron tools people were much more efficient to cut down trees and till their fields. The combination of a reduced plant cover causing an increased surface runoff with the destruction of the natural topsoil by tillage operations resulted in accelerated soil erosion and thus completely changed the runoff-controlled hydrological regime of the catchment area and also the conditions in the lacustrine depositional system of Lake Holzmaar. Presumably, the cultural change from bronze to iron manufacturing societies was not triggered by climate change around 800 BC. Such a technological shift seems to be rather slow and depends on the process of knowledge transfer temporally (from generation to generation) as well as also regionally (from tribe to tribe). However, a period of climatic deterioration which most certainly came along with a decline in agricultural productivity might have been a process to accentuate this cultural transition and to accelerate the spread of the new technology. Moreover, this process elucidates that owing to favorable circumstances human societies might be capable to cope with sudden climatic shifts. The amount of environmental damage this might cause remains an open question and can only be estimated for scenarios from the past. The non-linear behaviors of environmental systems with thresholds that can be passed make reliable predictions for the future not very resilient.

  5. Interrelationship between Attachment Styles and Facebook Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Yuksel

    2016-01-01

    Social networking sites have started to become one of the most frequently used online communication types in the world. It is reported that one of the commonly used social networking sites is Facebook. Since Facebook use is new yet, it can be stated that researches on the Facebook addiction are at the beginning level. For this reason, determining…

  6. The Interrelationship between Language and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Chen

    2002-01-01

    Significant, real-life instances of cross-cultural miscommunication or conflict are presented and categorized into verbal and non-verbal parts. each case is discussed and analyzed for the possible causes and feasible solutions. (Author/VWL)

  7. use of genetic variability estimates and interrelationships

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    of 11 agronomic and biochemical traits to water stress based on estimation of genetic ... of primary branches and 100 seed weight under W0, and number of primary ... selection of superior drought-tolerant genotype (LR1) with good yield ...

  8. Interrelationship of migration and housing in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Labour mobility is one of the factors that positively influence the balance of the labor market and employment and thus, economic growth. Milton Friedman, in his speech (1968 to the American Economic Association, communicated that the natural rate of unemployment depends on the degree of labor mobility in the economy. In this article we examine the interdependencies between migration and housing in Slovak Republic. Most residents commute to work in Bratislava and Trnava regions and migration between the other regions is not as pronounced. Low migration of population in Slovak Republic is strongly affected by high percentage of private ownership in the housing sector, which is arresting work force trapped in unemployment. In regions of high unemployment it is also high percentage of dwellings owned by households, affecting possibility of employment in other regions, because they have insufficient income to procure reality in the area with availabale work places as there is no sector of rental housing assuch. Based on the forecasts of the house prices development this status in the next 5 years will not change.

  9. 5. Interrelationships, functional packages and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The basic societal functions (BSFs) do not exist in isolation. Many of the functions are dependent and/or interdependent on one another and/or on the components that comprise the BSFs. Dependency occurs when goods and/or services are required for a function, subfunction, or a component of a function. Interdependency occurs when the same component (commodity, service, or process) is required by more than one BSF or component(s) of a BSF. Insufficiencies of functions that are interdependent are more likely to render a society dysfunctional than are those that are not interdependent. Combinations of functions from different BSF form functional packages. In times of disaster and limited resources, subfunctions, elements, and subelements, etc. must be prioritised in terms of their relative importance for the continuation of the most essential services. Priorities must be established so that when resources are scarce, nonessential services may be temporarily discontinued and similarly, priorities must be determined for re-establishment of services as needed resources become available.

  10. The inter-relationship of premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M; Abraham, S; McNeil, D; Vizzard, J; Macaskill, P; Fraser, I; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1995-09-01

    The prospective symptom reports of women seeking treatment for premenstrual symptoms and control subjects was investigated. In order to compare symptom reports from premenstrual symptom sufferers and control subjects a method of combining and analysing prospectively collected menstrual cycle symptom data is required. A technique that uses the time of onset of menses and the time of ovulation (as measured by urinary luteinizing hormone excretion) to standardize each cycle into 14 time points was developed. Summary factors were then empirically derived from data collected prospectively from 30 premenstrual symptom sufferers and 19 control subjects. Twenty-two mood symptoms were summarized into a single factor and the 29 most frequently occurring physical symptoms were summarized into two factors. Factor scores were calculated on the basis of these factors and the effect of time during the menstrual cycle on these scores examined. Both physical symptom factor scores increased significantly in the luteal phase for both the premenstrual symptom sufferer group and the control group. The single mood factor score increased significantly in the luteal phase for the premenstrual sufferer group but not for the control group, suggesting that the only qualitative difference between the groups was the presence of cyclic mood symptoms in the premenstrual symptom sufferer group. The premenstrual symptom sufferer group recorded significantly higher scores on each of the three factors than the control group. The correlation between the scores on each of the factors over three cycles was high both in the follicular and luteal phase suggesting that these factor scores provide a reproducible measure of menstrual cycle symptomatology.

  11. Examining the interrelationships among students' personological characteristics, attitudes toward the Unified Modeling Language, self-efficacy, and multiple intelligences with respect to student achievement in a software design methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Iles, Gail Marie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationships among student's demographics, attitudes toward the Unified Modeling Language (UML), general self-efficacy, and multiple intelligence (MI) profiles, and the use of UML to develop software. The dependent measures were course grades and course project scores. The study was grounded in problem solving theory, self-efficacy theory, and multiple intelligence theory. The sample was an intact class of 18 students who took the junior-level Software Design Methods course, CSE 3421, at Florida Institute of Technology in the Spring 2008 semester. The course incorporated instruction in UML with Java. Attitudes were measured by a researcher-modified instrument derived from the Computer Laboratory Survey by Newby and Fisher, and self-efficacy was measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem. MI profiles, which were the proportion of Gardner's eight intelligences, were determined from Shearer's Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment Scales. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that only the collective set of MI profiles was significant, but none of the individual intelligences were significant. The study's findings supported what one would expect to find relative to problem solving theory, but were contradictory to self-efficacy theory. The findings also supported Gardner's concept that multiple intelligences must be considered as an integral unit and the importance of not focusing on an individual intelligence. The findings imply that self-efficacy is not a major consideration for a software design methods class that requires a transition to problem solving strategy and suggest that the instructor was instrumental in fostering positive attitudes toward UML. Recommendations for practice include (1) teachers should not be concerned with focusing on a single intelligence simply because they believe one intelligence might be more aligned to a

  12. 78 FR 68054 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Rework Facilities (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Manufacturing and Rework Facilities (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart GG) (Renewal)'' (EPA ICR No. 1687.09, OMB Control... are owners or operators of aerospace manufacturing and rework operations. Respondents must submit one...

  13. 78 FR 59671 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...) covers resin and gel coat operations at fiberglass boat manufacturers, paint and coating operations at... over the next three years; and (2) the growth rate for the industry is very low, negative or non...

  14. Dose assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site: NESHAP compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the assessment results for the registered stacks on the Hanford Site for potential emissions, i.e. emissions with no control devices in place. Further, the document will identify those stacks requiring continuous monitoring, i.e. the effective dose equivalent from potential emissions >0.1 mrem/yr. The stack assessment of potential emissions was performed on 84 registered stacks on the Hanford Site. These emission sources represent individual point sources presently registered under Washington Administrative code 246-247 with the Washington Department of Health. The methods used in assessing the potential emissions from the stacks are described

  15. 77 FR 3472 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NESHAP for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should... public comments, access the index listing of the contents of the docket, and to access those documents in... Phosphorous--325188; Phosphogypsum Stacks--212392; Underground Uranium Mines--212291; and Uranium Mills...

  16. Miscellaneous Coating Manufacturing: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for miscellaneous coating manufacturing. Includes summary, rule history, compliance and implementation information, federal registry citations.

  17. 78 FR 68055 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Learia Williams, Monitoring, Assistance, and Media Programs Division, Office...., Washington, DC 20460; telephone number: (202) 564-4113; fax number: (202) 564-0050; email address: williams... recordkeeping, and/or conduct an initial performance test. The owner or operator of a new area source would be...

  18. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  19. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H; RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL-TO-EMIT CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARLEY JN

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year

  20. 40 CFR Table 44 to Subpart Uuu of... - Applicability of NESHAP General Provisions to Subpart UUU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU... facility that installs catalytic cracking feed hydrotreating and receives an extended compliance date under...

  1. NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Fact Sheets for Actions Since 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is extending its approval for the use of an alternative method to show compliance with hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry

  2. Final Rule: NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Alternative Monitoring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is extending its approval for the use of an alternative method to show compliance with hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry

  3. AEROSPACE NESHAP GUIDANCE: PAINTING AND DEPAINTING ALTERNATIVES FOR SELECTED DOD OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project was sponsored by the DOD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development program (SERDP) and conducted by the EPA's Clean Processes and Products Branch at the NRMRL. In support of SERDP's objective of developing environmental solutions that improve mission readine...

  4. 78 FR 75342 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... the occurrence and duration of any startup, shutdown, or malfunction in the operation of an affected... calculation. In the previous ICR, the hours required for acquisition, installation, and utilization of...

  5. Radiological NESHAP Annual Report CY 2015 Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2015, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61.

  6. Primary Aluminum Reduction Industry - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for each new or existing potline, paste production operation, and anode bake furnace associated with a primary aluminum reduction plant. Includes rule history, implementation information and additional resources.

  7. Radiological Dose Calculations And Supplemental Dose Assessment Data For Neshap Compliance For SNL Nevada Facilities 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    Operations of Sandia National Laboratories, Nevada (SNL/NV) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) resulted in no planned point radiological releases during 1996. Other releases from SNL/NV included diffuse transuranic sources consisting of the three Clean Slate sites. Air emissions from these sources result from wind resuspension of near-surface transuranic contaminated soil particulates. The total area of contamination has been estimated to exceed 20 million square meters. Soil contamination was documented in an aerial survey program in 1977 (EG&G 1979). Surface contamination levels were generally found to be below 400 pCi/g of combined plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and americium-241 (i.e., transuranic) activity. Hot spot areas contain up to 43,000 pCi/g of transuranic activity. Recent measurements confirm the presence of significant levels of transuranic activity in the surface soil. An annual diffuse source term of 0.39 Ci of transuranic material was calculated for the cumulative release from all three Clean Slate sites. A maximally exposed individual dose of 1.1 mrem/yr at the TTR airport area was estimated based on the 1996 diffuse source release amounts and site-specific meteorological data. A population dose of 0.86 person-rem/yr was calculated for the local residents. Both dose values were attributable to inhalation of transuranic contaminated dust.

  8. Micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopia and their inter-relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde - Gebriel, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide study on the prevalence of xerophthalmia was carried out in 6,636 children aged 6 months to 6 years in all the Regions of Ethiopia except Eritrea and Tigrai which were excluded for security reasons. Bitot's spots were observed in 1.0% of all children with higher prevalence in

  9. Benefits of interrelationships between climate change mitigation and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lea Ravnkilde; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2014-01-01

    and product 2: climate change adaptation. The production possibilities frontier (PPF) summarises the production benefits of the two products. The case study of the paper is the replanting of mangrove forests in the coastal wetland areas of Peam Krasaob Wildlife Sanctuary in Cambodia. The benefits of climate...... benefits of climate change mitigation and adaptation are tested under different climate change scenarios, seeing as the impact and frequency of storms can have a significant effect on coastal wetland areas and the replanting of the mangrove forests and therefore also on the joint benefits of climate change...

  10. Interrelationships Between Walkability, Air Pollution, Greenness, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Hart, Jaime E; Banay, Rachel F; Kloog, Itai; Laden, Francine

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have linked urban environmental factors and body mass index (BMI); however, such factors are often examined in isolation, ignoring correlations across exposures. Using data on Nurses' Health Study participants living in the Northeastern United States in 2006, we estimated associations between neighborhood walkability (a composite of population density, street connectivity, and business access), greenness (from satellite imagery), and ambient air pollution (from satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved PM2.5 predictions and weighted monthly average concentrations of NO2 from up to five nearest monitors) and self-reported BMI using generalized additive models, allowing for deviations from linearity using penalized splines. Among 23,435 women aged 60-87 years, we observed nonlinear associations between walkability and BMI and between PM2.5 and BMI in single-exposure models adjusted for age, race, and individual- and area-level socioeconomic status. When modeling all exposures simultaneously, only the association between walkability and BMI remained nonlinear and nonmonotonic. Increasing walkability was associated with increasing BMI at lower levels of walkability (walkability index walkability was linked to lower BMI in areas of higher walkability (walkability index >1.8). A 10 percentile increase in walkability, right above 1.8 was associated with a 0.84% decrease in log BMI. The relationship between walkability and BMI existed only among younger participants (walkability was nonlinearly linked to lower BMI independent of air pollution and greenness. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for nonlinear confounding by interrelated urban environmental factors when investigating associations between the environment and BMI.

  11. The interrelationship between genes, microprolactinoma and male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Walter Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    This hypothesis clearly proposes the true and previously undiscovered cause of male homosexuality or bisexuality and in most cases the predictability in infancy of the development of this sexuality in adulthood. It is based on compelling new evidence which has accumulated over many years. The fetal and neonatal periods are of the utmost importance in human development because they encompass critical periods which must be adhered to, for normal development. Biological variations may occur during these times, without implying the process of disease. This paper takes into account new paediatric hormonal and other evidence which has accumulated in the past two decades concerning the causation of male homosexuality or bisexuality. It includes indirect genetic influence which has now been shown to be present. It also includes the implications of infant male breast development in regard to sexuality. It is asserted that the major cause of male homosexuality is due to failure of masculinisation of the male brain due to temporary but critical prolactin secretion from microprolactinoma present in their pituitary glands. Genes appear to be involved in the production of these tumours and sometimes in their demise. The assessment of their numbers at any one time in infancy has not been correctly addressed. Secondly, there is absolutely compulsive evidence concerning increased male infant breast development and the true nature of "Witch's Milk" and how it is produced and the profound implications of its presence in male neonates. It adds much persuasion to the causation of male homosexuality as enunciated in this paper. Measurement of testosterone levels at exactly and precisely the right time, are able to predict homosexual or bisexual development in adults. This knowledge would be of great help to parents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interrelationship of MMPI-2 validity scales in personal injury claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, D D; Gerson, A; Lees-Haley, P R

    1995-01-01

    A sample of MMPI-2s of worker's compensation and personal injury cases (N = 289) was gathered to examine the relationship of various indicators of exaggeration. Intercorrelations of the F, F-K, the MMPI Dissimulation Scale-revised (Ds-r), total of obvious minus subtle scales (O-S), Fake Bad Scale (FBS), VRIN, and TRIN were computed and the relative sensitivity of each score calculated using various cut-offs. Factor analysis suggests that malingering may take the form of inconsistent responding as well as symptom exaggeration. Patients evaluated at the request of plaintiff attorneys showed a seemingly greater degree of symptom exaggeration and inconsistent responding than did those referred by defense counsel.

  13. A Study of the Interrelationship between Dyslalia and Child Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Juan Manuel Moreno; Garcia, Maria Rosa Mateos

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we analyze the existence of personality characteristics associated with childhood dyslalia. Bibliographic references with regard to this topic are few and not recent. Different authors indicate that certain personality traits can act on some occasions as triggers to or as to encourage such alterations, and in other…

  14. Identification of the time series interrelationships with reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the model of interest is that of a rational distributed lag function Y on X plus an independent Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. To investigate the model structure relating X and Y we considered the inverse cross correlation function for the observed and residual series in the presence of outliers.

  15. Social-Emotional Competencies among Teachers: An Examination of Interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Meirav; Goroshit, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' social-emotional competence is crucial for promoting a positive learning environment to the students. However, the research on teachers' social-emotional abilities is very limited. This study examined the relationship between emotional abilities and self-efficacies and empathy among teachers, hypothesizing that teachers' self-efficacy…

  16. Nonlinear dynamic interrelationships between real activity and stock returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Nyberg, Henri

    We explore the differences between the causal and noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) models in capturing the real activity-stock return-relationship. Unlike the conventional linear VAR model, the noncausal VAR model is capable of accommodating various nonlinear characteristics of the data....... In quarterly U.S. data, we find strong evidence in favor of noncausality, and the best causal and noncausal VAR models imply quite different dynamics. In particular, the linear VAR model appears to underestimate the importance of the stock return shock for the real activity, and the real activity shock...

  17. Interrelationships between Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... space and nutrients, production of siderophores, and induc- tion of systemic ... management. ... Indole acetic acid (IAA)-like molecule production was de- ..... bacteria; in International Biological Programme Handbook n○.

  18. Intelligence quotient and perceptual ability: an inter-relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Cognitive ability refers to the characteristic approach by the brain in processing ... The study is based on resting brainwave of fifty samples and focused on the left and right prefrontal cortex.

  19. Inter-relationship Between Marine Meiobenthos and Microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A

    of the cases, the sediments associated with microbiota supply energy to the benthic meiofauna while bacteria and diatoms are responsible for the spatial heterogeneity among meiobenthos (Fenchel, 1969; Hargrave, 1970). In a trophic pyramid, generally the larger...) is strictly linked with the availability of bacterial food and their grazing rates from a functional response angle to changes in the environment. One of the most important ecological advantages the hetrotrophic bacteria will acquire as a consequence of being...

  20. Interrelationships of locus of control content dimensions and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L C; Thomas, L L

    1985-07-01

    Items from three locus of control (LOC) tests and the Beck Hopelessness Scale were administered to 197 college students. Factor analyses produced multiple factors for each LOC test, but the Beck scale proved to be unidimensional. Factor scales were constructed for each test, and scores were factor analyzed to discover common content. Each LOC test contained a salient dimension that described belief in luck, chance, or fate, and corresponding scales were well correlated. Internal control was the second common theme, with variations according to whether control was attributed to oneself or to people in general. The third common component expressed a personal helplessness or powerlessness. Each common factor was loaded by the Hopelessness Scale, which also correlated with all but one LOC factor scale.

  1. Interrelationship of pollination conditions, fertilization and sunflower seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four commercially important sunflower hybrids (NS-H-45, NS-H-l 11, NS-H-702 and Velja and their parental components (Ha-74B, Ha-98B, CMS-3-8B, Ha-26B, RHA-583, RHA-R-PI-2/1 and RHA-113N were used over a period of two years to study the following traits: disk flower corolla length, nectar content, pollen viability, bee visitation, fertilization percentage and seed yield. Relations among the traits were determined by path coefficient analysis. The simple correlation coefficients showed that fertilization percentage and bee visitation had a highly significant influence on seed yield. The corolla length had a positive effect on nectar content, while nectar content had a significant negative influence on pollen viability. The highest significant direct influence on seed yield was that of fertilization percentage, while the effect on nectar content on seed yield was negative but not significant. The coefficient of determination was 0.8071.

  2. Hormonal-Pheromonal Interrelationships in Ticks and Parasitic Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    II. Maturation and pherumone activity. 15 J. * V IBID 20: 424-439. Gaber , S.H.A., G.M. Khalil, D.E. Sonenshine, and M.A. Moez. Precocene-2 effects on...the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedarii. I. Adult responses. IBID 20: 534-540. Khalil, G.M., S.H.A. Gaber , D.E. Sonenshine, and S.M. Gad. IBID. 2. Larval

  3. Interrelationships between personality traits and organisational culture / Anne Aidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aidla, Anne, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti üldhariduskoolide töötajate hulgas läbiviidud uuringu tulemustest, mis näitasid, et organisatsioonikultuurile annavad kõrgemaid hinnanguid keskmisest kõrgema ekstravertsuse, sotsiaalsuse, meelekindluse ja madala neurootilise määraga inimesed. Tabelid

  4. Interrelationship among physical activity, quality of life, clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    sociodemographic factors in a group of Nigerian patients with type 2 diabetes. The study was ... 50 years and older (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.21-3.67) increased the odds of having lower quality of life, while .... focused instrument (Diabetes Control and Complications ..... diabetes patients that fall into these categories should be.

  5. Inter-relationship between major ions, total dissolved solids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulphate and magnesium concentrations were highest in station 7 while other parameters (potassium, chloride, calcium, alkalinity, conductivity and total dissolved solids (T. D. S.)) were highest in station 6. The ponds belong to class 1 of the African waters since they all have electrical conductance of less than 600 s cm-1.

  6. The interrelationship between permanent maxillary incisors and neuropsychiatric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenrad, Astrid Breum; Kjær, Inger

    2016-01-01

    of the face and posteriorly including the septum nasii. In this short communication we will highlight 2 different kinds of tooth malformations within this field. Most publications on dental malformations in the frontonasal field are case reports and only few scientific publications are based on several cases...

  7. Interrelationships between information and energy using knowledge management tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Martínez, A. María

    2014-01-01

    Edward Fredkin was an enthusiastic advocate of information-based theoretical physics, who, in the early 1980s, proposed a new theory of physics based on the idea that the universe is ultimately composed of software. According to Fredkin, reality should be considered as being composed not of particles, matter and forces or energy but of bits of data or information modified according to computational rules. Fredkin went on to demonstrate that, while energy is necessary for storing and retrieving information, it can be arbitrarily reduced in order to carry out any particular instance of information processing, and this operation does not have a lower bound. This implies that it is information rather than matter or energy that should be considered at the ultimate fundamental constituent of reality. This possibility had already been suggested by other scientists. Norbert Wiener heralded a fundamental shift from energy to information and suggested that the universe was founded essentially on the transformation of information, not energy. However, Konrad Zuse was the first, back in 1967, to defend the idea that a digital computer is computing the universe. Richard P. Feynman showed this possibility in a similar light in his reflections on how information related to matter and energy. Other pioneering research on the theory of digital physics was published by Kantor in 1977 and more recently by Stephen Wolfram in 2002, who thereby joined the host of voices upholding that it is patterns of information, not matter and energy, that constitute the cornerstones of reality. In this paper, we introduce the use of knowledge management tools for the purpose of analysing this topic

  8. Women in a hidrogymnastic class: experienced the grouping Interrelationship

    OpenAIRE

    Vládia Teles Moreira; Maria Gorette Andrade Bezerra; Karla Maria Carneiro Rolim; Maria de Fátima Maciel Araújo

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the practice experienced by nurses whose goal was to contribute with theuse of dynamic’s groups promoting a reflection about the self-care in health, in a group of women with the age between 60 and 80 years old who were joining the hydro gymnastic class. The experience was developed during the months of May and June of 2002, at an Olympic park of a sport center of a private school in Fortaleza, Ceara. The methodology of the process was developed through educational workshop...

  9. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...... an unequivocally positive academic learning effect. The review extracts and discusses some of the factors that are consistently emphasized in the research literature as central to ensuring successful subject integration in school gardens. Taking these as a point of departure, it is concluded that developing...

  10. An Essential Interrelationship: Healthy Self-Esteem and Productive Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    This paper defines the term "self-image" or "self-esteem" and defines the term "creativity" from psychoanalytic and humanist interpretations. It then proposes the theory that a positive self-image enhances the possibilities for creative productivity or lifestyle. Practical implications for child rearing are offered. (JDD)

  11. Interrelationships of child appetite, weight and snacking among Hispanic preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. Th...

  12. Stress-affected microstructural development and creep-swelling interrelationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R.; Flinn, J.E.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1977-05-01

    Macroscopic measurement of the deformations arising from swelling and creep during neutron irradiation indicate that both processes are dependent on the magnitude and possibly the sign of the applied stress state. Current modeling efforts also indicate that a strong interaction exists between swelling and creep through the stress state. Because the macroscopic distortions arise from the integrated microscopic strains associated with specific microstructural elements, the effect of applied stress on microstructural development has been studied

  13. The interrelationship between clinical and immunity variables in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin Vladimir V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The role of cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, as an interaction between immunity and clinical and neurobiological variables is not properly understood.

  14. Interrelationships existing between body weight and egg production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty 76 weeks old Olympia Black layers were randomly selected, individually caged and intensively reared for a period of 16 weeks to study the effect of body weight on some egg production traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P<0.01) except egg index ...

  15. interrelationships between grain yield and other physiological traits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Combined analysis of variance, cluster analysis and genotype-by- ... all phenological and morphological traits, except grain yield and associated yield components. ... egg, and other protein-rich foods (Alghali, 1991). ... systematic modelling approach. ... MD IT98 K -132 – 3 .... traits based on Principal Component axes (PC)1.

  16. A review of the interrelationship between vestibular dysfunction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    functions, the effect of rehabilitation focused on the functioning of a specific canal, and the effect of different rehabilitation programmes on different vestibular deficiencies are suggested. Keywords: Vestibular dysfunction; Motor development; Learning disabilities; Posture; Rehabilitation and exercises. South African Journal ...

  17. Interrelationships between cellulase activity and cellulose particle morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johan Pelck; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Borch, Kim

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose follows a reaction pattern where an initial phase of relatively high activity is followed by a gradual slow-down over the entire course of the reaction. This phenomenon is not readily explained by conventional factors like substrate...... on this observation we argue that cellulose structure, specifically surface area and roughness, plays a major role in the ubiquitous rate loss observed for cellulases....... depletion, product inhibition or enzyme instability. It has been suggested that the underlying reason for the loss of enzyme activity is connected to the heterogeneous structure of cellulose, but so far attempts to establish quantitative measures of such a correlation remain speculative. Here, we have...... to observe and quantify structural features at μm and nm resolution, respectively. We implemented a semi-automatic image analysis protocol, which allowed us to analyze almost 3000 individual micrographs comprising a total of more than 300,000 particles. From this analysis we estimated the temporal...

  18. The interrelationship between bile acid and vitamin A homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, Ali; Hoekstra, Mark; Hoeke, Martijn Oscar; Heegsma, Janette; Faber, Klaas Nico

    Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin important for vision, reproduction, embryonic development, cell differentiation, epithelial barrier function and adequate immune responses. Efficient absorption of dietary vitamin A depends on the fat-solubilizing properties of bile acids. Bile acids are

  19. Use of genetic variability estimates and interrelationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the analysis of linear regression of the measured traits against seed yield per ha, nodule dry weight, root dry weight, pods plant-1 and 100-seed weights with the greatest genotypic variation, contributed the highest to drought tolerance. However, the contribution of catalase (CAT) was higher under Ws ...

  20. Interrelationship between structure and corrosion behaviour of zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, T [Bayer A.G., Leverkusen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-05-01

    Due to plant failures caused by the break-down of zirconium grade 702 subjected to sulphuric acid the structure and corrosion behaviour of welded and as delivered specimens were tested for various heat treatments. It was shown by structure investigations and electron microprobe analysis that the corrosion behaviour of zirconium (in boiling 65 pct sulphuric acid) is strongly infuenced by the structure, which in its turn is dependent on the grade of purity and the prehistory of the material. Type, amount, and distribution of residual elements or precipitations caused by them are responsible for the corrosion resistance. This is valid particularly for the element iron. The plant failures mentioned here coincided with the examination results. Measures to improve the chemical resistance of pure zirconium subjected to extremely aggressive media were derived.

  1. Interrelationship between cloud cover and sensible heat flux over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Formation of deep depression in the north Bay of Bengal where u∗ is friction velocity and θ∗ is character- istic temperature. As temperature and wind were measured at the same levels during MONTBLEX, in Businger–Dyer forms of the universal functions, the stability parameter (Z/L) is replaced in terms of the Richardson ...

  2. Does intensity of physical activity moderate interrelationships among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to determine whether perceived intensity of training ... intensity of training and functional capacity with various measures of health. Perceived intensity of training had marginally moderating effects on physical ...

  3. Interrelationships of glycosylation and aggregation kinetics for Peniophora lycii phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg-Nielsen, R.; Fuglsang, C.C.; Arleth, L.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of thermally induced aggregation of the glycoprotein Peniophora lycii phytase (Phy) and a deglycosylated form (dgPhy) was studied by dynamic (DLS) and static (SLS) light scattering. This provided a detailed insight into the time course of the formation of small aggregates (similar...

  4. Morphology, Taxonomy and Interrelationships of Tristichopterid Fishes (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha)

    OpenAIRE

    Snitting, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Tristichopterids (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) form a monophyletic group of exclusively Devonian fishes. This thesis consists of descriptions of new material of tristichopterids and closely related taxa, as well as new interpretations and descriptions of previously figured material. Redescribed specimens were originally figured as far back as 1861, and publications as old as this are almost always of limited use as anatomical and systematical references, in addition to being difficult to a...

  5. Interrelationship between nuclear safety, safeguards and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2007-01-01

    As preventive activities against danger within nuclear systems, three major areas exist; nuclear safety, safeguards and nuclear security. Considering the purpose of these activities, to prevent non-peaceful use is common in nuclear security in general and safeguards. At the same time, measures against sabotage, one of the subcategory in nuclear security, is similar to nuclear safety in aiming at preventing nuclear accidents. When taking into account the insider issues in nuclear security, the distinction between measures against sabotage and nuclear safety becomes ambiguous. Similarly, the distinction between measures against theft, another subcategory in nuclear security, and safeguards also becomes vague. These distinctions are influenced by psychological conditions of members in nuclear systems. Members who have the intention to make nuclear systems dangerous to human society shall be the 'enemy' to nuclear systems and thus be the target for nuclear security. (author)

  6. Interrelationship of growth hormone, glucose and lipid metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After an overnight fast (10-12 hours), blood was taken from the subjects into heparinised tubes, centrifuged at 5,000rpm for 5 minutes and the plasma separated. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS)was determined by glucose oxidase method,, total cholesterol ,LDL, HDL and, Triglyceride were determined by enzymatic methods.

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Background Information Document (BID): Public Comments and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 20, 2002, the EPA proposed national emission standards for HAP emissions from lime manufacturing plants located at major source facilities (67 FR 78046). Summaries of the comments, and the EPA's responses, are presented in this BID.

  8. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  9. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year)

  10. Risk-assessments Environmental Impact Statement. NESHAPs (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) for radionuclides. Background information document. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The publication contains a chapter on each radionuclide source category studied. The chapters include an introduction, category description, process description, control technology, health impact assessment, supplemental control technology, and cost. It has an appendix which contains the inputs to all the computer runs used to generate the risk assessment

  11. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, D A

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA).

  12. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA)

  13. Regulatory Impact Analysis: Amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and New Source Perofrmance Standards (NSPS) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the regulatory process, EPA is required to develop a regulatory impact analysis (RIA). This August 2010 RIA includes an economic impact analysis (EIA) and a small entity impacts analysis and documents the RIA methods and results for the 2010 rules

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers - Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this July 2012 document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule.

  15. The inter-relationship between the periodontium and contours of artificial crowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, K.; Omar, R.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of axial contour of artificial crowns has and continues to be highly controversial. Much of the controversy centers arounrj whether the gingival sulcus is really in need of protection from buccal and/or lingual convexities, or whether a flatter emergence profile affords self cleansing muscle action. Evidence is reviewed in this part which suggests that overcontouring is probably more detrimental to gingival health than undercontouring. The critical role played by proper tooth reduction in attaining correct axial contour is shown and a rationale presented for the important interplay between preparation design, properties of the restorative materials to be employed and physiologic contour. (author)

  16. Mindsets of commitment and motivation: interrelationships and contribution to work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, Adalgisa; Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported that investigate the relationships among commitment and motivation mindsets and their contribution to work outcomes. Study 1 involved 487 nurses from a hospital in the center of Italy. Results showed that commitment's facets were related to parallel dimensions of work motivation. Study 2 involved 593 nurses from a hospital in the north of Italy. Analyses indicated that commitment and motivation were important antecedents of working attitudes and behaviors. Moreover, self-determined motivation played a critical mediating role in positive behaviors. Findings are discussed in terms of their practical implications for organizations and employees.

  17. Acid-sensing ion channel 2 (asic 2) and trkb interrelationships within the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Antonio; Viña, Eliseo; Cabo, Roberto; Vázquez, Gorka; Cobo, Ramón; García-Suárez, Olivia; García-Cosamalón, José; Vega, José A

    2015-01-01

    The cells of the intervertebral disc (IVD) have an unusual acidic and hyperosmotic microenvironment. They express acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), gated by extracellular protons and mechanical forces, as well as neurotrophins and their signalling receptors. In the nervous tissues some neurotrophins regulate the expression of ASICs. The expression of ASIC2 and TrkB in human normal and degenerated IVD was assessed using quantitative-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, we investigated immunohistochemically the expression of ASIC2 in the IVD of TrkB-deficient mice. ASIC2 and TrkB mRNAs were found in normal human IVD and both increased significantly in degenerated IVD. ASIC2 and TrkB proteins were also found co-localized in a variable percentage of cells, being significantly higher in degenerated IVD than in controls. The murine IVD displayed ASIC2 immunoreactivity which was absent in the IVD of TrkB-deficient mice. Present results demonstrate the occurrence of ASIC2 and TrkB in the human IVD, and the increased expression of both in pathological IVD suggest their involvement in IVD degeneration. These data also suggest that TrkB-ligands might be involved in the regulation of ASIC2 expression, and therefore in mechanisms by which the IVD cells accommodate to low pH and hypertonicity.

  18. Interrelationships of VEL1 and ENV1 in light response and development in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Bazafkan

    Full Text Available Sexual development is regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism in fungi. For Trichoderma reesei, the light response pathway was shown to impact sexual development, particularly through the photoreceptor ENVOY. Moreover, T. reesei communicates chemically with a potential mating partner in its vicinity, a response which is mediated by the velvet family protein VEL1 and its impact on secondary metabolism. We therefore studied the regulatory interactions of ENV1 and VEL1 with a focus on sexual development. Although individual mutants in both genes are female sterile under standard crossing conditions (light-dark cycles, an altered light regime enabled sexual development, which we found to be due to conditional female sterility of Δenv1, but not Δvel1. Phenotypes of growth and asexual sporulation as well as regulation of the peptide pheromone precursors of double mutants suggested that ENV1 and VEL1 balance positive and negative regulators of these functions. Additionally, VEL1 contributed to the strong deregulation of the pheromone system observed in env1 mutants. Female sterility of Δvel1 was rescued by deletion of env1 in darkness in MAT1-1, indicating a block of sexual development by ENV1 in darkness that is balanced by VEL1 in the wild-type. We conclude that ENV1 and VEL1 exert complementing functions in development of T. reesei. Our results further showed that the different developmental phenotypes of vel1/veA mutants in T. reesei and Aspergillus nidulans are not due to the presence or function of ENV1 in the VELVET regulatory pathway in T. reesei.

  19. Interrelationships and consequential effects among technological innovation, service consistency, customer satisfaction and loyalty in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Asare Yaw Obeng; Mkhize L Peter

    2017-01-01

    The key to long-term success in banking is consistent improvement and delivering of quality product and or value-added service that conform to the expectations of customers. IT-innovative products/services and processes (technological innovation) facilitate these key elements of customer satisfaction and critical factors for retaining valued customers. The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of technological innovation on service consistency and the consequential effects on cust...

  20. The inter-relationships between vegetarianism and eating disorders among females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Maldonado, Christine R; Lawson, Melissa A; Smith, Roma; Robinson, D Paul

    2012-08-01

    When individuals with a suspected or diagnosed eating disorder adopt a vegetarian diet, health care professionals might worry that this choice could function as a socially acceptable way to legitimize food avoidance. Yet only limited research has examined vegetarianism in relation to eating disorders. Our study objectives were to compare individuals with and without an eating disorder history and individuals at different stages of eating disorder recovery on past and current vegetarianism and motivations for and age at becoming vegetarian. Participants were females seen at some point for an eating disorder (n=93) and controls who never had an eating disorder (n=67). Recruitment and data collection for this cross-sectional study occurred in 2007-2008. χ(2) analyses and analyses of variance and covariance were used to examine the research questions. Compared with controls, individuals with an eating disorder history were considerably more likely to ever have been vegetarian (52% vs 12%; Pmotivated by weight-related reasons (42% vs 0%; Pmotives for vegetarianism). Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet, and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    infants to investigate the association between maternal age, diet, preeclampsia , and infant birth weight, and hormone levels using the infants’ cord... etiology of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1983;47:757–62. 31. Wang CC, Vittinghoff E, Hua LS, Yun WH, Rong KM. Reducing pregnancy and induced abortion...the etiology of oral and pharyngeal cancer among women from the Southern United States. Cancer Res. 1984; 44: 1216–22. 8 Franco EL, Kowalski LP

  2. Interrelationships of Hormones, Diet, Body Size and Breast Cancer among Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    hypotheses. There were several limitations of this study. We were unable to assess maternal preeclampsia , history of having been breastfed, and paternal age... Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer Conference, January 20, 2003, Waikoloa, HI. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1987 Cancer Epidemiol

  3. The interrelationship between purchasing maturity, internal customer satisfaction and purchasing performance : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Poucke, E.; Weele, van A.J.; Matthyssens, P.

    2014-01-01

    So far, academic literature has paid extensive attention to the importance of purchasing development within the context of the current business environment, emphasizing value creation and delivery and integrated supply chain management. In addition, the contribution of purchasing’s (internal

  4. Interrelationships of metal transfer factor under wastewater reuse and soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, D; Kalavrouziotis, I K; Koukoulakis, P H; Papadopoulos, F; Psoma, P

    2018-06-15

    The transfer of heavy metals under soil pollution wastewater reuse was studied in a Greenhouse experiment using a randomized block design, including 6 treatments of heavy metals mixtures composed of Zn, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, where each metal was taking part in the mixture with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/kg respectively, in four replications. The Beta vulgaris L (beet) was used as a test plant. It was found that the metal transfer factors were statistically significantly related to the: (i) DTPA extractable soil metals, (ii) the soil pollution level as assessed by the pollution indices, (iii) the soil pH, (iv) the beet dry matter yield and (v) the interactions between the heavy metals in the soil. It was concluded that the Transfer Factor is subjected to multifactor effects and its real nature is complex, and there is a strong need for further study for the understanding of its role in metal-plant relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stakeholder Valuing: A Process for Identifying the Interrelationships between Firm and Stakeholder Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Carlon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As firms are creating and recreating themselves as stakeholder corporations, tensions mount between a firm’s fiduciary duties to its shareholders and the broader responsibilities inherent in a stakeholder focus. Firms have employed several techniques to help resolve this tension with limited success. We suggest that the next step in reducing this tension is formally accounting for stakeholder value through changes in financial reporting. We contend that stakeholders have a financial value to the firm that can and should be accounted for through the firm’s financial reporting system. We propose a three-step process we call stakeholder valuing (SV to begin a conversation regarding how such a method can be created. SV begins with codifying the firm’s identity as a stakeholder entity, moves to assessing stakeholder value that’s consistent with that identity, and concludes with accounting for and reporting that value. What we are suggesting will be seen by some as a radical change in accounting practices but we believe it is necessary as we move toward a consistent, reliable, verifiable, transparent, and comparable means of accounting for the true value of a stakeholder corporation.

  6. Interrelationship between a brand’s environmental embeddedness, brand awareness and company performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana First

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to define and measure a brand’s environmental embeddedness that, unlike the constructs used in previous environmental research, measures to which extent brand identity is embedded in environmental values. The purpose was also to assess a correlation of this variable to brand awareness and company performance. This study is based on three overlapping theoretical backgrounds: brand management, corporate social responsibility and organizational culture. Secondary data as well as content analysis and survey-based primary data were used. The results indicate a correlation between the environmental embeddedness of brands and brand awareness, but no correlation of these two variables to company performance. Such results support the idea that companies should indeed invest in being environmentally friendly so as to increase their chances of being recognized, while also indicating that the companies that own strong brands cannot afford not to be environmentally conscious as that could hurt their corporate brand values.

  7. Interrelationships between morphometric variables and rounded fish body yields evaluated by path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP; head length (CC; head height (AC; body height (A1; and body width (L1. For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios. These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly.

  8. Leach testing of waste forms: interrelationship of ISO and MCC type tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Leach testing experiments were conducted on SYNROC-D material to examine the parameters which affect leaching results and to measure the activation energy for leaching of elements from SYNROC-D. Measured leach rates were found to be controlled by precipitation of insoluble phases for those tests where the sample surface area to volume of leachant (SA/V) multiplied by leaching time (t) exceeded 0.3 cm -1 d for leach tests at 90 0 C. In these cases the apparent activation energy for leaching was approximately 10 kcal/mole based on Na and Si data. For leach tests at 90 0 C with (Sa/V)(t) less than 0.2 cm -1 d, the activation energy for Na and Si dissolution was 18.5 kcal/mole for sample S29 and 14.5 kcal/mole for sample LSO4. The effect of sample geometry was investigated by leaching a series of crushed samples of different grain size. The results support the view that geometric surface area should be used in leach rate calculations rather than gas adsorption BET surface area. Comparison of results on S29 leaching of crushed samples and monoliths show that data from MCC-1 and ISO type leach tests may be directly compared when the data are examined at constant (SA/V)(t). 5 figures, 13 tables

  9. The orthodontic-periodontic interrelationship in integrated treatment challenges: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, N; Christou, P; Topouzelis, N

    2010-05-01

    Orthodontic treatment aims at providing an acceptable functional and aesthetic occlusion with appropriate tooth movements. These movements are strongly related to interactions of teeth with their supportive periodontal tissues. In recent years, because of the increased number of adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment, orthodontists frequently face patients with periodontal problems. Aesthetic considerations, like uneven gingival margins or functional problems resulting from inflammatory periodontal diseases should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning. Furthermore, in cases with severe periodontitis, orthodontics may improve the possibilities of saving and restoring a deteriorated dentition. In modern clinical practice, the contribution of the orthodontist, the periodontist and the general dentist is essential for optimized treatment outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review is to highlight the relationship between orthodontics and periodontics in clinical practice and to improve the level of cooperation between dental practitioners. Potentials and limitations that derive from the interdisciplinary approach of complex orthodontic-periodontal clinical problems are discussed.

  10. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  11. Interrelationships between Health Behaviors and Coping Strategies among Informal Caregivers of Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Kent, Erin E.; Rowland, Julia H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent research among cancer survivors suggests that health behaviors and coping are intertwined, with important implications for positive behavior change and health. Informal caregivers may have poor health behaviors, and caregivers' health behaviors have been linked to those of survivors. Aims: This hypothesis generating study…

  12. Interrelationships between lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status in sedentary controls and unprofessional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Gregorio; Canino, Baldassare; Lo Presti, Rosalia

    2010-01-01

    We examined the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as an index of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status (TAS) in 81 unprofessional athletes subdivided into three subgroups. The first group included 28 subjects who practised endurance sports, the second included 30 subjects who practised mixed sports, the third included 23 subjects who practised power sports. We enrolled also a group of 61 sedentary controls (SC). TBARS were increased and TAS was decreased in the whole group of athletes in comparison with SC; an almost similar behaviour was present also subdividing athletes according to the practised sport. A significant negative correlation between these two parameters emerged in SC but not in the whole group of athletes. Unless for the athletes that practised endurance sports a similar trend was found in athletes that practised mixed and power sports. In conclusion, at rest the symmetrical behaviour between the lipid peroxidation increase and the TAS decrease, observed in sedentary controls, was not evident in unprofessional athletes who practised different sports.

  13. The Interrelationship of Self-Determination, Mental Illness, and Grades among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockelman, Karin F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships among self-determination, mental illness, and GPAs of university students. Participants were 375 undergraduate students at a large state university. Two instruments based on Self-determination theory were used in this study: the Basic Needs Scale (see Baard, Deci, & Ryan, 2004) and the…

  14. The Inter-relationships between Personality, Divergent Thinking and School Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel J.; Bennett, S. Neville

    1977-01-01

    Overall correlations between personality/motivation and verbal reasoning, divergent thinking, and creative writing in 1,416 children, aged 10-13 were low, suggesting that classroom climate and teaching methods may affect this relationship. (Tests are appended.) (Available in microfiche from: Carfax Publishing Company, Haddon House,…

  15. Quantifying bone thickness, light transmission, and contrast interrelationships in transcranial photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Ostrowski, Anastasia K.; Li, Ke; Kaanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad

    2015-03-01

    We previously introduced photoacoustic imaging to detect blood vessels surrounded by bone and thereby eliminate the deadly risk of carotid artery injury during endonasal, transsphenoidal surgeries. Light would be transmitted through an optical fiber attached to the surgical drill, while a transcranial probe placed on the temporal region of the skull receives photoacoustic signals. This work quantifies changes in photoacoustic image contrast as the sphenoid bone is drilled. Frontal bone from a human adult cadaver skull was cut into seven 3 cm x 3 cm chips and sanded to thicknesses ranging 1-4 mm. For 700-940 nm wavelengths, the average optical transmission through these specimens increased from 19% to 44% as bone thickness decreased, with measurements agreeing with Monte Carlo simulations within 5%. These skull specimens were individually placed in the optical pathway of a 3.5 mm diameter, cylindrical, vessel-mimicking photoacoustic target, as the laser wavelength was varied between 700-940 nm. The mean optical insertion loss and photoacoustic image contrast loss due to the bone specimens were 56-80% and 46-79%, respectively, with the majority of change observed when the bone was <=2 mm thick. The decrease in contrast is directly proportional to insertion loss over this thickness range by factors of 0.8-1.1 when multiple wavelengths are considered. Results suggest that this proportional relationship may be used to determine the amount of bone that remains to be drilled when the thickness is 2 mm or less.

  16. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Carmona Moreno, C.; Céspedes Lorente, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper) from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP - Human Development against Poverty, AP - Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR - Water Resources, ODA - Official Development Aid, CEC - Country Environmental Concern). Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered. This new classification of countries is useful in identifying countries with a less advanced position and weaknesses to be tackled. The relevance of indicators gathered to represent environmental and water resources state is questioned in the discussion section. The paper concludes with the necessity to increase the reliability of current indicators and calls for further research on specific indicators, in particular on water quality at national scale, in order to better include environmental state in analysis to WSS.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Iranian preschoolers: Interrelationship with physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Agha-Alinejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The preschool years are a crucial time to study the determinants of childhood obesity, as it is when eating and physical activity habits are becoming established. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers living in the capital of Iran and to determine relationships between overweight and obesity and selected motor- and health-related fitness parameters. Materials and Methods: This exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted with 190 boys and 191 girls aged 5−6 years. Study children were selected from the kindergartens in Tehran, the capital of Iran. All children underwent anthropometric, motor- and health-related fitness tests. Height, body mass, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and percentage of body fat (PBF were measured for anthropometric assessments. Sit-and-reach, modified sit-ups, modified pull-ups, the 4 m × 9 m shuttle run, the 20 m sprint test and the 20 m multistage shuttle run test were measured for motor- and health-related fitness tests. Overweight and obesity prevalence was determined by the International Obesity Task Force, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization standard criteria. Results: International Obesity Task Force criteria indicate almost 12% (23/190 of boys and 22.5% (43/191 of girls were overweight or obese with 4.73% (9/190 of boys and 10.99% (21/191 of girls in the obese category. Significant correlations were found between modified pull-ups test and body mass, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, PBF in boys and modified pull-ups and modified sit-ups tests were significantly correlated with body mass, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and PBF in girls. Compared to their counterparts, overweight and obese boys demonstrated inferior performance in modified pull-ups and predicted VO 2max and overweight and obese girls demonstrated inferior performance in modified pull-ups, modified sit-ups, 4 m × 9 m agility shuttle run and predicted VO 2max Conclusion: This study highlighted the relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity in both genders of preschoolers and found that overweight and obesity were associated with poor fitness performances. The findings provided evidence to support the establishment of tailored physical fitness intervention programs to manage and prevent obesity in preschoolers.

  18. Interrelationships between the precautionary principle, prediction strategies, and sustainable use of the planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, John

    2003-06-01

    In this article, I examine the relationships between new concepts of human activity in the environment and several prevention strategies used to plot a course toward sustainable use. Natural capitalism and industrial ecology are relatively new concepts that provide a framework for environmental management. Although the precautionary principle puts into policy a determination to prevent environmental damage before it occurs, natural capitalism and industrial ecology go beyond the prevention of environmental damage to the optimization of environmental interactions. The risk assessment tools necessary for preventive management continue to be essential. However, additional tools are needed to go beyond prevention to optimization. A holistic, scientific approach to the human place within the environment is needed, including both interdisciplinary and large-scale research.

  19. Pittsburgh Science Technology Society Project: Instruction Modules. Interrelationships Science--Technology--Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, George, Ed.

    This collection of instruction modules studies the interactions of science, technology, and society (STS) using five activity sets. The introduction module includes activities which show students the STS relationships in their world, develop good organizational skills, develop an understanding of who and what a scientist is, develop graphing…

  20. Microbial-meiofaunal interrelationships in coastal sediments of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Al-Talasat, Abdul Allah R; Gewik, Mohamed M

    2016-05-01

    Population density and biomass of bacteria and meiofauna were investigated seasonally in the sediments of the north-western bank of Red Sea. Samples of sediments were collected seasonally from three different stations to determine microphytobenthic biomass (chlorophyll a), protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and total organic matter concentrations. These investigations revealed that microbial components tended to increase their dominancy, whereas sensitive meiofauna were extremely reduced during the entire study period. Thus a very low density of the total meiofauna (with an annual average of 109 ± 26 ind./10 cm(2)) was recorded whilst the benthic microbial population densities exhibited higher values (ranging from 0.31 ± 0.02 × 10(8) to 43.67 ± 18.62 × 10(8)/g dry sediment). These changes in the relative importance analysis of benthic microbial components versus meiofaunal ones seem to be based on the impact of organic matter accumulation on the function and structure of these benthic communities. Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates showed very low concentration values, and the organic matter mostly consisted of carbohydrates, reflecting lower nutritional values for benthic fauna in general and meiofauna in particular. The distribution of microbial and meiofaunal communities seems to be dependent on the quality of the organic matter rather than on its quantity. Total organic matter concentrations varied between 5.8 and 7.6 mg/g, with organic carbon accounting for only 32% of the total organic matter. Chlorophyll a attained very low values, fluctuating between 0.11 and 0.56 μg/g, indicating the oligotrophy of the studied area. The very low concentration of chlorophyll a in the Red Sea sediment suggests that the sedimentary organic matter, heterotrophic bacteria and/or protozoa constitute an alternative resource that is consumed by meiofauna when algae are less abundant. Protozoa, therefore, represent the "missing link in bacteria-meiofauna interaction in the Red Sea marine sediment ecosystem.

  1. The Comorbidity Between Internet Gaming Disorder and Depression: Interrelationship and Neural Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet gaming disorder (IGD is characterized by cognitive and emotional deficits. Previous studies have reported the co-occurrence of IGD and depression. However, extant brain imaging research has largely focused on cognitive deficits in IGD. Few studies have addressed the comorbidity between IGD and depression symptoms and underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we systematically investigated this issue by combining a longitudinal survey study, a cross-sectional resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC study and an intervention study. Autoregressive cross-lagged modeling on a longitudinal dataset of college students showed that IGD severity and depression are reciprocally predictive. At the neural level, individuals with IGD exhibited enhanced rsFC between the left amygdala and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, inferior frontal and precentral gyrus, compared with control participants, and the amygdala-frontoparietal connectivity at the baseline negatively predicted reduction in depression symptoms following a psychotherapy intervention. Further, following the intervention, individuals with IGD showed decreased connectivity between the left amygdala and left middle frontal and precentral gyrus, as compared with the non-intervention group. These findings together suggest that IGD may be closely associated with depression; aberrant rsFC between emotion and executive control networks may underlie depression and represent a therapeutic target in individuals with IGD.Registry name: The behavioral and brain mechanism of IGD;URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02550405;Registration number: NCT02550405.

  2. Interrelationship among some yield characters and the productivity of mutants of three grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubaihayo, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of gamma-ray irradiation dosage and environmental conditions on yield component correlations was studied on food beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), white haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soy beans (Glycine max L.). It was found that in general radiation dosage had no significant effects on these factors. Differences in the relationships in different generations were attributed to the environmental conditions under which the plants were grown during different generations. (author)

  3. An analysis of the inter-relationship between savings product usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    products such as savings accounts, money market investments and fixed deposits ... financial services, satisfaction, SERVQUAL, marginal utility, savings ... they were being exploited by their financial advisors, who were receiving commission.

  4. Moderation and Teacher Learning: What Can Research Tell Us about Their Interrelationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipkins, Rosemary; Robertson, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This report is a synthesis that explores "opportunities for professional learning" that might occur when teachers work together to moderate their judgments about students' work. Since such conversations are inherently social, the synthesis employs the lens of sociocultural learning theory. It draws together key themes from the small…

  5. Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.

  6. Interrelationships of Hormones, Diet, Body Size and Breast Cancer among Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    susceptible, gain excess weight due to physical inactivity, and consume a high-fat, low-fiber diet during adolescence and adulthood. It is clear...status, and use of oral contraceptives , as well as physical activity levels. In summary, the findings of our study that serum leptin concentrations were...history of breast cancer, age at menarche, menopausal status, age at menopause, parity, age at first live birth, BMI, use of oral contraceptives , use of

  7. Interrelationships and consequential effects among technological innovation, service consistency, customer satisfaction and loyalty in banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asare Yaw Obeng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The key to long-term success in banking is consistent improvement and delivering of quality product and or value-added service that conform to the expectations of customers. IT-innovative products/services and processes (technological innovation facilitate these key elements of customer satisfaction and critical factors for retaining valued customers. The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of technological innovation on service consistency and the consequential effects on customer satisfaction and loyalty covering seven universal banks in Ghana. The results of the empirically tested model reveal new/improved product/process functionalities, service consistency and innovative product/process satisfaction contribute significantly to customer loyalty (p < 0.001. Service consistency has a marginal higher impact (β = .373 on customer loyalty than the others. Product/process quality contributes significantly (with β ranging from .345 to .742 and p < 0.001 to each of the above three antecedents than all other items.

  8. Interrelationships between strength, anthropometrics, and strongman performance in novice strongman athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winwood, Paul W; Keogh, Justin W L; Harris, Nigel K

    2012-02-01

    The sport of strongman is relatively new; hence, specific research investigating this sport is currently very limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between anthropometric dimensions and maximal isoinertial strength to strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. Twenty-three semiprofessional rugby union players with considerable resistance training and some strongman training experience (age 22.0 ± 2.4 years, weight 102.6 ± 10.8 kg, height 184.6 ± 6.5 cm) were assessed for anthropometry (height, body composition, and girth measurements), maximal isoinertial performance (bench press, squat, deadlift, and power clean), and strongman performance (tire flip, log clean, and press, truck pull, and farmer's walk). The magnitudes of the relationships were determined using Pearson correlation coefficients, and interpreted qualitatively according to Hopkins (90% confidence limits ∼±0.37). The highest relationship observed was between system force (body mass + squat 1-repetition maximum) and overall strongman performance (r = 0.87). Clear moderate to very large relationships existed between performance in all strongman events and the squat (r = 0.61-0.85), indicating the importance of maximal squat strength for strongman competitors. Flexed arm girth and calf girth were the strongest anthropometric correlates of overall strongman performance (r = 0.79 and 0.70, respectively). The results of this study suggest that body structure and common gymnasium-based exercise strength are meaningfully related to strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. Future research should investigate these relationships using more experienced strongman athletes and determine the relationships between changes in anthropometry, isoinertial strength, and strongman performance to determine the role of anthropometry and isoinertial strength in the sport of strongman.

  9. Thermodynamic assessments and inter-relationships between systems involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perron, A., E-mail: perron1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Turchi, P.E.A.; Landa, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Oudot, B.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA-Centre de Valduc, 21120, Is sur Tille (France)

    2016-12-15

    A newly developed self-consistent CALPHAD thermodynamic database involving Al, Am, Ga, Pu, and U is presented. A first optimization of the slightly characterized Am-Al and completely unknown Am-Ga phase diagrams is proposed. To this end, phase diagram features as crystal structures, stoichiometric compounds, solubility limits, and melting temperatures have been studied along the U-Al → Pu-Al → Am-Al, and U-Ga → Pu-Ga → Am-Ga series, and the thermodynamic assessments involving Al and Ga alloying are compared. In addition, two distinct optimizations of the Pu-Al phase diagram are proposed to account for the low temperature and Pu-rich region controversy. The previously assessed thermodynamics of the other binary systems (Am-Pu, Am-U, Pu-U, and Al-Ga) is also included in the database and is briefly described in the present work. Finally, predictions on phase stability of ternary and quaternary systems of interest are reported to check the consistency of the database.

  10. Inter-Relationships among Attachment to Mother and Father, Self-Esteem, and Career Indecision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle, Vignoli

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of adolescents' global self-esteem, based on the relationship between adolescents' mother or father attachment and their career indecision; as well as the mediating role of adolescents' career indecision on the relationship between mother or father attachment and self-esteem. Two hundred and forty-one…

  11. University students' conceptions of the electric and magnetic fields and their interrelationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesonen, M H P; Asikainen, M A; Hirvonen, P E

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on students' conceptions of electric and magnetic fields at university level and of the interrelations between them. A total of 33 students participated in a paper and pencil test after the completion of first-year electricity and second-year electromagnetism courses. The conceptions were investigated in the contexts of a charged particle, a charging capacitor, electromagnetic induction, and an electromagnetic plane wave. The results show that students do not include the vector nature of field quantities in their reasoning. In addition, learning the interactions between electric and magnetic fields is very challenging for university students. Even after completing relevant studies, the students had difficulty in recognizing the symmetry relations between the electric and magnetic fields in all of the areas under study. Consequently, it appears that the concepts of electric and magnetic fields and their interrelations should be emphasized not only in the context of electromagnetism but also in other relevant areas such as electricity and optics. Explicit recommendations are presented in the discussion section at the end of this paper.

  12. Genetic interrelationships of North American populations of giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazsalovicsová, E.; Kráľová-Hromadová, I.; Štefka, Jan; Minárik, G.; Bokorová, S.; Pybus, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAY 28 2015 (2015), s. 288 ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematoda * Fasciolidae * Mitochondrial DNA * Cytochrome c oxidase * Nicotinamide dehydrogenase * Spatial distribution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  13. Interrelationships of serum testosterone and free testosterone index with FFM and strength in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tracey Ann; Blackman, Marc R; Harman, S Mitchell; Tobin, Jordan D; Schrager, Matthew; Metter, E Jeffery

    2002-08-01

    Muscle mass and strength losses during aging may be associated with declining levels of serum testosterone (T) in men. Few studies have shown a direct relationship between T and muscle mass and strength. Subjects were 262 men, aged 24-90 yr, from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who had T and sex hormone-binding globulin sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) measurements, from which the free T index (FTI) was calculated (T/SHBG) from serum samples collected longitudinally since 1963, total body fat mass and arm and leg fat-free mass (FFM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and arm and leg strength by dynanomometry. Mixed-effects models estimated T and FTI at the time of mass and strength measurements. Age, total body fat, arm and leg FFM, T, and FTI were significantly associated with concentric and eccentric strength. FTI, not T, was modestly, but directly, related to arm and leg strength after fat, arm and leg FFM, height, and age were accounted for and indirectly through body mass. FTI is a better predictor of arm and leg strength than T in aging men.

  14. Interrelationship of organizational culture with organizational characteristics : the grounds for typology / Maaja Vadi, Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vadi, Maaja, 1955-

    2006-01-01

    Organisatsiooni suuruse ja tegevusvaldkonna seotusest organisatsioonikultuuri orientatsioonide avaldumisega ning võimalikest seaduspärasustest, mis on väljendatavad organisatsioonikultuuri tüüpidena. Tabelid. Skeemid

  15. Phytoplankton-zooplankton inter-relationships in tropical waters - Grazing and gut pigment dynamics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goes, J.I.; Caeiro, S.; Gomes, H.

    An examination of the feeding mechanisms in two taxonomically dissimilar classes of tropical planktonic harbivores Evadne tergestina (Cladocera) and Acrocalanus spp. (Copepoda) revealed a distinct rhythmicity of food intake. Brief bouths...

  16. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  17. The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The "L" vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for "L" parameter. The redness value "a" is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = -0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = -0.268). The "b" showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETANOL AND TORULA YEAST IN AN AGROINDUSTRIAL FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz de los Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The links between the ethanol and fodder yeast productions belonging to an agro-industrial complex, concerning the use of the carbon sources supplied by sugar cane juice for both productions, are analyzed through mathematical modeling and simulation in this work. The relations of these carbon sources with some operation parameters of the distillery and their influences on the production of fodder yeast are also considered. In order to conduct this research, a simulation model in Microsoft Excel has been elaborated in which, using mass balances, the COD of vinasse and its incidence in the production of fodder yeast are estimated. This work shows the convenience of the use of indirect heating in the ethanol distillation column as an alternative for the increase of the carbon concentration in the vinasse meant to yeast production. It also analyzes the effect of both, the efficiency of the alcoholic fermentation and of the alcoholic level of the wine on the COD of vinasse; and it shows the convenience of working with a high alcoholic level to benefit both productions. The methodology used allows to predict the environmental response of this type of productions.

  19. Inter-relationships among Diet, Obesity and Hippocampal-dependent Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Terry L.; Hargrave, Sara L.; Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Fu, Xue; Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD...

  20. Inter-relationships among diet, obesity and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T L; Hargrave, S L; Swithers, S E; Sample, C H; Fu, X; Kinzig, K P; Zheng, W

    2013-12-03

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD, on ketogenic (KETO) diet, which is high in saturated fat and low in sugar and other carbohydrates, or continued maintenance on chow (CHOW). Confirming and extending previous findings, diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed WD showed impaired FN performance, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and increased fasting blood glucose levels compared to CHOW controls and to diet-resistant (DR) rats that did not become obese when maintained on WD. For rats fed the KETO diet, FN performance and BBB integrity were more closely associated with level of circulating ketone bodies than with obesity phenotype (DR or DIO), with higher levels of ketones appearing to provide a protective effect. The evidence also indicated that FN deficits preceded and predicted increased body weight and adiposity. This research (a) further substantiates previous findings of WD-induced deficits in hippocampal-dependent FN discriminations, (b) suggests that ketones may be protective against diet-induced cognitive impairment, and (c) provides evidence that diet-induced cognitive impairment precedes weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inter-relationship between nuclei and gross characteristics of manganese nodules, Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, C; Iyer, S.D.; Hazra, S.

    More than 200 samples of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were studied for their different parameters. The study included various aspects such as morphology, texture, mineralogy, and composition of the nodules. The nuclei...

  2. Interrelationships of periodontitis and diabetes: A review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chun Chang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and periodontitis are common chronic diseases in the world, and abundant epidemiological evidence implies a bidirectional relationship between the two diseases. It appears that diabetes is a risk factor for greater periodontal destruction, whereas managing periodontitis can also contribute to better glycemic control. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are also bidirectional. The hyperglycemic status may directly alter subgingival microbial compositions, impair cellular function, and change collagen metabolism. The formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs can further modify the extracellular matrix, and establishment of cellular receptor binding can amplify inflammation. Moreover, periodontitis also induces hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. This cyclical relationship converges via overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Thus, this article highlights the importance of maintaining periodontal health to eliminate systemic complications and meticulous metabolic control to prevent further periodontal destruction. From a systemic aspect, targeting proinflammatory cytokines or receptors of AGEs could be a potential modality for treating periodontitis.

  3. Interrelationships between man, energy, and water quality: a new methodology for integrative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The STORET/MSP option was used to obtain county aggregated information on ambient water quality for sixty parameters during the period 1950 to 1978. Masks, extended EXTRACT specifications and bounds on allowable values limited inclusion of erroneous data. Remark codes were required to aggregate STORET parameters to obtain increased numbers of observations. Numerous statistical analyses led to the conclusions that medians were more useful than means, that trimming on number of observations was required to eliminate counties with extreme values, and that many parameters required logarithmic transformation to be useful in regional analyses. County aggregated data for nineteen water quality parameters were examined in terms of their ability to describe qualitative chemical characteristics of water. Anion--cation balances as well as expected relationships between conductivity and other parameters were correctly accounted for. Factor analysis indicated the existence of three principal components describing patterns between metal ions, non-metal ions, and alkalinity-bicarbonate, respectively. These factors were used in place of the original complete set of water quality parameters in a structural equation approach describing relationships between variables of mans activites. It was found that counties with high industrial electric consumption, farming and mineral shipments tended to have increased levels of most water quality parameters. It was also found that simpler path diagrams may be indicated to reduce the effects of redundancy in adequately describing energy--water relationships

  4. Physical abuse, smoking, and substance use during pregnancy: prevalence, interrelationships, and effects on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Parker, B; Soeken, K

    1996-05-01

    To establish the singular and combined occurrence of physical abuse, smoking, and substance use (i.e., alcohol and illicit drugs) during pregnancy and its effect on birth weight. Prospective cohort analysis. Urban public prenatal clinics. 414 African American, 412 Hispanic, and 377 white pregnant women. Occurrence of physical abuse was 16%; smoking, 29.5%; and alcohol/illicit drug use, 11.9%. Significant relationships existed between physical abuse and smoking for African American and white women. For African American women, 33.7% of women who were not abused smoked, versus 49.5% of women who were abused (chi 2 = 8.21; df = 1; p drug use was 20.8% for nonabused women compared with 42.1% for abused women (chi 2 = 18.18; df = 1; p abused smoked, versus 59.6% of those who were abused (chi 2 = 5.22; df = 1; p abuse, smoking, and alcohol/ illicit drug use were significantly related to birth weight (F[3, 1040] = 30.19, p abuse during pregnancy is common, readily detected with a five-question screen, and associated with significantly higher use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Clinical protocols that integrate assessment and intervention for physical abuse, smoking, and substance use are essential for preventing further abuse and improving smoking and substance cessation rates.

  5. Interrelationships of somatic cell count, mastitis, and milk yield in a low somatic cell count herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluyker, H A; Gay, J M; Weaver, L D

    1993-11-01

    In a high yielding low SCC herd, changes in milk yield associated with SCC and occurrence of clinical mastitis and differences in SCC with parity, clinical mastitis, and DIM were investigated. Milk yield data were obtained at every milking, and SCC was measured once every 48 h in 117 cows during the first 119 d postpartum. Effects of SCC and clinical mastitis on cumulative milk yield in the first 119 d postpartum were evaluated with least squares linear regression. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect changes in SCC. The SCC was highest at lactation onset, and cows with clinical mastitis had significantly higher SCC. During the 10 d prior to onset of clinical mastitis, SCC was higher in affected cows than in matched unaffected controls and surged just prior to diagnosis. During the 10-d period following a mastitis treatment, SCC differences between treated and control cows remained significant but became smaller with time and returned to the premastitis differences. Occurrence of clinical mastitis was associated with 5% milk yield loss. Cows with mean SCC > 245,000 cells/ml over the 119 d showed 6.2% yield loss compared with cows with SCC 245,000 cells/ml) because a greater percentage of cows (26%) had clinical mastitis than elevated SCC (12.5%).

  6. THE DYNAMIC INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBESITY AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE: NEW EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son; Hoang, Viet-Ngu; Vu, Xuan-Binh; Wilson, Clevo

    2017-12-04

    This paper proposes a new empirical model for examining the relationship between obesity and school performance using the simultaneous equation modelling approach. The lagged effects of both learning and health outcomes were included to capture both the dynamic and inter-relational aspects of the relationship between obesity and school performance. The empirical application of this study used comprehensive data from the first five waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), which commenced in 2004 (wave 1) and was repeated every two years until 2018. The study sample included 10,000 children, equally divided between two cohorts (infants and children) across Australia. The empirical results show that past learning and obesity status are strongly associated with most indicators of school outcomes, including reading, writing, spelling, grammar and numeracy national tests, and scores from the internationally standardized Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Matrix Reasoning Test. The main findings of this study are robust due to the choice of obesity indicator and estimation methods.

  7. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

    2013-08-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42- show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42- unlike snow SO42-, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42- (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42--enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3- : SO42- ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3- : SO42- ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3- : SO42- ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42- precursors.

  8. The Interrelationship of Emotion and Cognition when Students Undertake Collaborative Group Work Online: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine how emotions and cognition are experienced during collaborative group work online students' descriptions of their learning experience were interpreted using a qualitative approach. A common feature of these accounts was reference to difficulties and problems. Four main themes were identified from this data set. Two of the…

  9. The Inter-relationship of Science and Religion: A typology of engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Pam; Bennett, Judith; Ratcliffe, Mary

    2014-05-01

    This study explores whether the religious background of students affects their opinions about and attitudes to engaging with scientific explanations of the origins of the universe and of life. The study took place in four English secondary schools representing three different contexts (Christian faith-based; non-faith with majority Muslim catchment; and non-faith, mixed catchment). It comprised questionnaires and focus groups with over 200 students aged 14-16, supplemented by teacher interviews. The analysis approach was informed by grounded theory and resulted in the development of an engagement typology, which has been set in the context of the cross-cultural border crossing literature. It divides students into categories depending on both the nature and amount of engagement they were prepared to have with the relationship between science and religion. The model takes into account where students sit on four dimensions. These assess whether a student's preferred knowledge base is belief-based or fact-based; their tolerance of uncertainty (do they have a need for resolution?); their open mindedness (are they unquestioning or inquiring?); and whether they conceptualise science and religion as being in conflict or harmony. Many Muslim students resisted engagement because of conflicting religious beliefs. Teachers did not always appreciate the extent to which this topic troubled some students who needed help to accommodate clashes between science and their religious beliefs. It is suggested that increased appreciation of the complexity represented by their students can guide a teacher towards an appropriate approach when covering potentially sensitive topics such as the theory of evolution.

  10. What's in a name? The role of graphics, functions, and their interrelationships in icon identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Siné; Isherwood, Sarah

    2009-05-01

    Communication using icons is now commonplace. It is therefore important to understand the processes involved in icon comprehension and the stimulus cues that individuals utilize to facilitate identification. In this study, we examined predictors of icon identification as participants gained experience with icons over a series of learning trials. A dynamic pattern of findings emerged in which the primary predictors of identification changed as learning progressed. In early learning trials, semantic distance (the closeness of the relationship between icon and function) was the best predictor of performance, accounting for up to 55% of the variance observed, whereas familiarity with the function was more important in later trials. Other stimulus characteristics, such as our familiarity with the graphic in the icon and its concreteness, were also found to be important for icon design. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, with particular emphasis on the parallels with picture naming. The icon identification norms from this study may be downloaded from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  11. [Research on characteristic of interrelationship between toxic organic compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Yan, Long; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Zi-Jian

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella vulgaris and removal capacity of BPA by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that a low concentration (0-20 mg x L(-1)) of BPA promoted the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas a relative high concentration (20-50 mg x L(-1)) of BPA inhibited the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and the inhibition effect was positively correlated with the concentration of BPA. Likewise, a high dose of initial BPA (> 20 mg x L(-1)) led to a decline in the content of chlorephyll a. Chlorella vulgaris had BPA removal capacity when initial BPA concentration ranged from 2 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1). There was positive correlation between the removal rate of BPA per cell and initial BPA concentration. The removal rate of BPA was the highest when initial BPA was 50 mg x L(-1), which appeared between lag phase and logarithmic phase.

  12. Interrelationships among Facets of Self, Motivation, and Conspicuous and Sustainable Consumption Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on a process the current researchers label intra-negotiation-which deals with resolution of an individual's potential conflict across facets of oneself-and its influence on two distinctly different kinds of consumption (one favouring consumption, the other reducing the import of it. Specifically, we explore the discrepancy between actual-, ideal-, and ought-self and investigate the effect of these gaps on consumption behaviour. Moreover, attention is given to the association between three dominant human motives and consumption behaviour. The findings reveal that (1 ideal-actual self-discrepancy is inversely associated with achievement motivation, and (2 affiliation motivation is negatively related to conspicuous consumption. Affiliation motivation is ascertained to be positively related to sustainable consumption, whereas power motivation is discerned to be positively associated with conspicuous consumption. Neither conspicuous nor sustainable consumption is associated with the ideal-actual self or ought-actual self discrepancy. Possible rationales for the findings of the study, as well as study implications, are proffered.

  13. Internal Barriers to the Realization of Potential: Correlates and Interrelationships among Gifted and Talented Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Constance L.; Fleming, Elyse S.

    1984-01-01

    Gifted female adolescents (N=284) completed comprehensive career assessment batteries. Examination of diagnostic criteria and associated personality dimensions revealed commonalities and differences among the six diagnostic groups. Findings suggest the need for encouraging the students with low assertiveness or low achievement motivation to…

  14. Interrelationships of Non-Formal Mother Tongue Education and Citizenship in Guinea and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Andrea; Yerende, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Guinea and Senegal are multilingual countries that use French as a language of instruction in the formal educational sector with some significant exceptions. As in many other African countries, such exceptions in Guinea and Senegal, use local African languages primarily in the non-formal sector for a variety of purposes, such as adult literacy and…

  15. Interrelationships among Vertical and Horizontal Collectivism, Modesty, and Self-Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurman, Jenny; Sriram, N.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among self-enhancement, modesty, and vertical and horizontal collectivism-individualism, surveying high school students from Singapore, urban Israel, and Israeli kibbutzes. Modesty was highest and self-enhancement lowest among Singaporeans. Modesty related positively to vertical collectivism and negatively to…

  16. The interrelationship between the periodontium and the margins of artificial crowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, Ridwaan

    1989-01-01

    Opinions have changed from the assumption that only poor restorative treatment leads to periodontal disease. Presently, it is believed that even clinically sound restorations may be an important etiological factor in the initiation of periodontal disease. The two aspects which are probably most intimately related to the supporting tissues are the manner in which the restoration establishes marginal contact with the tooth and the external contour of the restoration. In this paper, the objectives of margin placement will be reviewed; features of variously proposed designs will be compared and contrasted in the light of current materials and techniques. (author)

  17. Critical issues in population-development interrelationships and policy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuzora, C L

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in Africa is examined. Using the example of Tanzania, the author argues that population growth has had no causal effect on development, although development variables have affected demographic variables. However, it is noted that rapid population growth limits the efforts of government to provide services and is associated with environmental degradation, and that there is a need to control population growth by lowering fertility.

  18. Interrelationship between milk constituents, serum oestradiol and vaginal mucus indicators of oestrus in Egyptian buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiel, M M M; El-Naggar, R A M; Abdel-Ghaffar, A E; Sosa, G A M; Abou El-Roos, N A

    2014-02-01

    The intensity of heat signs in buffaloes is generally low and the incidence of suboestrus varied from 15 to 73% (Buffalopedia). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of monitoring the changes in some milk constituents, oestradiol levels and electrical conductivity of vaginal mucus during peri-oestrous period in prediction of the timing of oestrus in buffaloes. Twenty-one Egyptian buffaloes aged 3-9 year, 1st-6th lactations, were examined by oestrous detector and ultrasonographically for monitoring the ovarian and uterine activity for 7 days around the time of standing oestrus. Sodium, potassium, chloride and lactose were assayed in aqueous phase of milk; besides, oestradiol was estimated in serum. Current results declared highly significant acute changes in milk constituents at the time of oestrus characterized by peaking of chloride and sodium levels and lowering of potassium and lactose values. The alternation in milk composition when arranged in decreasing order of magnitude, sodium was the highest (77.78 ± 0.69%), followed by chloride (61.60 ± 1.52%) and potassium (-58.14 ± 10.89%). Concomitantly, milk lactose decreased by 26.07 ± 7.97% compared to baseline levels. Synchronously, vaginal electrical resistance (VER) showed a significant (p milk during peri-oestrous period may be used as a practical non-invasive indicator for oestrous detection and prediction of ovulation in Egyptian buffaloes. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  20. Variation and Inter-relationship ,Between Yield aJld,SQQl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'fh~~;m(;JC(iztj~ii of.v~'n.'ails 'trails with'}rield.· The a;riWinediDz~lysis over two yeafs was used to estif11!lte genetic. Ycir.lance!~:I{e!irabjjit}/ dJ;zd,e'xpected ... J.e~ semrd.":aIf vanet~e~ has n~t .. ', f' Id' '~". " b S 1.",-. Af'. 'th. Been successfulm Tanzama due to poor gram major Ie 'crops.~m;su: aUd.lan: _ n.£C! ,\\Yl. an.,. . .....

  1. An analysis of the inter-relationship between savings product usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article maintains that improved participation in the financial services industries seems to be dependent on satisfaction levels regarding financial services product usage. Empirical evidence shows that higher usage and higher satisfaction regarding basic savings products such as savings accounts, money market ...

  2. Health behaviours in a Canadian community college sample: prevalence of drug use and interrelationships among behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, C M; Faris, P D; Stam, H J; Egger, L A

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of drug use among a Canadian college sample and the covariation of drug taking and other health-related behaviours. A representative sample of students at a community college in Alberta were interviewed using telephone surveys, mail-in questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Data was collected on drug, alcohol and caffeine use, cigarette smoking, eating habits, sleep habits and exercise. While use of illicit drugs did not appear to be widespread, alcohol appeared to be a primary substance abuse problem for a minority of subjects. Factor analysis indicated that the various health habits did not form one dimension of health-related behaviours. Four separate factors emerged: abusive drinking, eating habits, a drug use factor (caffeine intake, smoking, cannabis and hallucinogen use), and exercise levels. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research, treatment and intervention.

  3. C-reactive protein in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica: interrelationship with sex steroids and metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, R; Bhattacharya, S

    2000-04-01

    C-reactive protein in Achatina fulica (ACRP) is a normal component of the hemolymph. Its concentration varied from 1mg/ml in the newly hatched male, 3-5 mg/ml in the most active hermaphrodite and 1.5-2.8 mg/ml in the sedentary female showing a direct relationship of the protein with the active phase of the animal. ACRP has a molecular mass of 400 kDa and showed high absorbance in the region of 200-230 nm. It has four subunits with relative molecular masses of 110, 90, 62 and 60 kDa, respectively. Interestingly, rat platelet aggregation in vitro was significantly enhanced by ACRP in presence of 10 microM ADP and 2 mM Ca(2+) suggesting a probable role of ACRP in the aggregation of amoebocytes during the formation of plug in injured tissue. Like other vertebrate CRPs, ACRP also acts as a scavenger of chromatin fragments as evidenced by its binding to poly-L-arginine. Among the sex steroids, 4-androstenedione induces ACRP synthesis in the newly hatched male reaching the level found in the most active hermaphrodite phase (4 mg/ml). A very high molar ratio (5) of mercury binding to ACRP confirmed its sequestration property of heavy metals as observed in vertebrates. The level of metallothionein (MT) in the hemolymph gradually increased from the male to the hermaphrodite to the female, a pattern distinctly different from that of the ACRP titer. Since both MT and ACRP can sequester inorganic mercury, the high level of MT compensates functionally for the low titer of ACRP in the sedentary female.

  4. The Economics of MOOCs and Their Interrelationship to Competitiveness and Cohesiveness: The Case of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Higher education contributes to state competitiveness via human capital development that provides future returns to the economy through increases in labour productivity. Additionally, higher education is an infrastructure for future state-level social cohesiveness. Those countries where the education system produces more equitable outcomes are…

  5. Political myths and totalitarianism: an anthropological analysis of their causal interrelationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the key political, anthropological and socio-cultural functions of political myths in the appearance and functioning of totalitarian regimes. A special emphasis is put on structural elements of the myth (mythemes) and the mythic content (narratives) in the processes of artificial construction of a new society (community) based on the myth-inspired ideological postulates. The paper argues that the establishment of totalitarianism marked a certain anthropological devolution. This devolution, in turn, proceeds through the deconstruction of civil society as an organic social sphere and the artificial construction of a new political community based on ideological postulates and political myths. In support of this assertion, it is first shown how the mythical narratives--transformed into political concepts and programs--were the basis of (re)interpretation of the world, society and individual, and essentially determined the nature and functioning of the totalitarian regimes. Then, the specific political myths are analyzed and compared, as well as their content and origin, and particularly their dual function. It in turn is analyzed in the framework of the classical society-community dichotomy, where the (civil) society is founded socio-politically on the social contract, and the (political) community socio-anthropologically on political myth. In a situation of identity and legitimacy crisis, anomie and the weakening of social cohesion--the characteristic conditions of the great economic and political crisis of the early twentieth century that enabled the emergence of totalitarianism--society as a contracting community does not work. A strong need for meaning (at the individual and societal level) affects the citizens' susceptibility to (political) concepts of (re)constitution of (political) community with which they can identify. Right there, totalitarian movements use the cohesive power of the political myth that replaces the rationally based constitution of society, and becomes a means of ideological mystification and political manipulation. Affecting the mind of the citizens, it moves their feelings and motivations and directs their behavior toward the goals of the totalitarian political power. Recent iterations of totalitarianism (Great-Serbian aggression), with the same tragic consequences, were a warning on the actuality of political myths and the danger of a resurgence of totalitarian tendencies.

  6. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December–February) and during the monsoon season (July–September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5–6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42−, NO3−, and Cl–, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42− show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42− unlike snow SO42−, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42− (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42−-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3− : SO42− ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3− : SO42− ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3− : SO42− ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42− precursors. PMID:24432030

  7. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorooshian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December–February and during the monsoon season (July–September. Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5–6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+ exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42−, NO3−, and Cl−, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42− show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42− unlike snow SO42−, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42− (and precursors and the varying degree to which SO42−-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3− : SO42− ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3− : SO42− ratios; and (iii they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3− : SO42− ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42− precursors.

  8. A process dissociation approach to objective-projective test score interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2002-02-01

    Even when self-report and projective measures of a given trait or motive both predict theoretically related features of behavior, scores on the 2 tests correlate modestly with each other. This article describes a process dissociation framework for personality assessment, derived from research on implicit memory and learning, which can resolve these ostensibly conflicting results. Research on interpersonal dependency is used to illustrate 3 key steps in the process dissociation approach: (a) converging behavioral predictions, (b) modest test score intercorrelations, and (c) delineation of variables that differentially affect self-report and projective test scores. Implications of the process dissociation framework for personality assessment and test development are discussed.

  9. Interrelationships of Hormones, Diet, Body Size and Breast Cancer among Hispanic Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Gerson

    2005-01-01

    ...). These women have a relatively low incidence of breast cancer compared with non-Hispanic white women, but in comparison with Hispanic women in the rest of the United States, the Hispanic women...

  10. Origins and interrelationship of Intraseasonal rainfall variations around the Maritime Continent during boreal winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi; Wu, Renguang

    2018-04-01

    Large intraseasonal rainfall variations are identified over the southern South China Sea (SSCS), tropical southeastern Indian Ocean (SEIO), and east coast of the Philippines (EPHI) in boreal winter. The present study contrasts origins and propagations and investigates interrelations of intraseasonal rainfall variations on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales in these regions. Different origins are identified for intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over the SSCS, SEIO, and EPHI on both time scales. On the 10-20-day time scale, strong northerly or northeasterly wind anomalies related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) play a major role in intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS and EPHI. On the 30-60-day time scale, both the intraseasonal signal from the tropical Indian Ocean and the EAWM-related wind anomalies contribute to intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS, whereas the EAWM-related wind anomalies have a major contribution to the intraseasonal rainfall variations over the EPHI. No relation is detected between the intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SEIO and the EAWM on both the 10-20-day and 30-60-day time scales. The anomalies associated with intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS and EPHI propagate northwestward and northeastward, respectively, on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales. The intraseasonal rainfall anomalies display northwestward and northward propagation over the Bay of Bengal, respectively, on the 10-20- and 30-60-day time scales.

  11. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS, being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation. These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP – Human Development against Poverty, AP – Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR – Water Resources, ODA – Official Development Aid, CEC – Country Environmental Concern. Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered. This new classification of countries is useful in identifying countries with a less advanced position and weaknesses to be tackled. The relevance of indicators gathered to represent environmental and water resources state is questioned in the discussion section. The paper concludes with the necessity to increase the reliability of current indicators and calls for further research on specific indicators, in particular on water quality at national scale, in order to better include environmental state in analysis to WSS.

  12. The inter-relationship of ascorbate transport, metabolism and mitochondrial, plastidic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Asard, Han

    2013-09-20

    Ascorbate, this multifaceted small molecular weight carbohydrate derivative, plays important roles in a range of cellular processes in plant cells, from the regulation of cell cycle, through cell expansion and senescence. Beyond these physiological functions, ascorbate has a critical role in responses to abiotic stresses, such as high light, high salinity, or drought. The biosynthesis, recycling, and intracellular transport are important elements of the balancing of ascorbate level to the always-changing conditions and demands. A bidirectional tight relationship was described between ascorbate biosynthesis and the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (mETC), since L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH), the enzyme catalyzing the ultimate step of ascorbate biosynthesis, uses oxidized cytochrome c as the only electron acceptor and has a role in the assembly of Complex I. A similar bidirectional relationship was revealed between the photosynthetic apparatus and ascorbate biosynthesis since the electron flux through the photosynthetic ETC affects the biosynthesis of ascorbate and the level of ascorbate could affect photosynthesis. The details of this regulatory network of photosynthetic electron transfer, respiratory electron transfer, and ascorbate biosynthesis are still not clear, as are the potential regulatory role and the regulation of intracellular ascorbate transport and fluxes. The elucidation of the role of ascorbate as an important element of the network of photosynthetic, respiratory ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle will contribute to understanding plant cell responses to different stress conditions.

  13. Interrelationship of density and lithological characteristics of intersaline deposits of the Pripyatskiy basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anpilogov, A.P.; Bulyga, V.Kh.; Ksenofontov, V.A.; Ur' yev, I.I.

    1980-01-01

    Based on materials of lithological study and zoning of the lower Zadonskiy, upper Zadonskiy and Yeletskiy deposits of the Pripyatskiy basin with regard for the depth of occurrence of the rocks, a map was compiled for isodensities of the intersaline complex. Variability in the values of density over the area and the total correspondence of the configuration of isodens to the extent of the lithological fields and the main geostructural elements are established.

  14. The interrelationship between the work experience of distance education students, job satisfaction, andacademic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Welman

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the cooperative education strategy of technikons, students are expected to do subject-relevant work in the industry/commerce to gain practical experience. The degree of subject-relevant work performed by 166 distance education students, and how this is related to their academic performance, was investigated. It was found that in contrast to older Afrikaans- and English-speaking male students, it was mainly students who speak a black language who do not gain subject-relevant work experience, have minimal job satisfaction and do not earn high marks in the third-year subject (Organizational Behaviour. It is suggested that the State integrate the issues of work provision, education and training for the success of cooperative education in South Africa. Opsomming  Volgens die kooperatiewe onderwysstrategie van technikons word daar van studente verwag om vakrelevante werk in die bedryf/handel te doen om praktykervaring op te doen. Die graad van vakrelevante werk wat 166 afstandsonderrigstudente doen en die verband daarvan met hul akademiese prestasie is ondersoek. Daar is gevind dat in teenstelling met ouer, manlike, Afrikaans- en Engelssprekende studente/ dit veral swarttaalsprekende studente is wat nie vakrelevante werkservaring opdoen nie, 'n lae graad van werkstevredenheid beleef/ en nie hoe punte in die derdejaarvak (Organisasiegedrag verdien nie. Daar word voorgestel dat die Staat die kwessies van werkverskaffing, onderwys en opieiding integreer ten einde kooperatiewe onderwys in Suid-Afrika te laat slaag.

  15. [Poverty, malnutrition and obesity: interrelationships among the nutritional status of members of the same family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ignez Salas; Marinho, Sheila Pita; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; de Araújo, Eutália Aparecida Cândido

    2007-01-01

    Chronic malnutrition in infancy and obesity associated with short stature in adulthood may share common biological and socio-environmental determinants. An analysis of intra-family nutrition status distribution patterns may provide elements for understanding the risk factors common to these physiological conditions. The purpose of this study is to ascertain how the intra-family distribution of nutritional conditions in pauperized families occurs, examining related social, environmental and biological factors. An impoverished population (income less than US$ 70) was studied in two rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil: Monteiro Lobato and Santo Antônio do Pinhal. The sample consisted of members of these families, with 215 children younger than 71.11 months; mothers (197), fathers (167) and siblings (6 to 18 years of age). A hierarchical logistic regression analysis model was prepared. The mothers' educational levels, the number of rooms in the home, age below 24 months and problems at birth, were all associated with height deficits in children, together with short maternal stature, especially when associated with obesity. Additionally, a marked association was noted between height deficits in these children and chronic malnutrition among their older siblings (6 to 18 years old). Children aged 24 months or less presented more severe risks of delayed growth.

  16. Interrelationship of crystal structure, infrared spectra and physicochemical properties of perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazuev, G V; Shveikin, G P [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Khimii

    1975-12-01

    In the range 400-800 cm/sup -1/ a study has been made of infrared absorption spectra of perowskites ABO/sub 3/, where A is a rare-earth element or yttrium, B is Ti or V. A common feature of the infrared absorption spectra of perowskites ABO/sub 3/ is the presence of two intensive wide bands in the range 400-700 cm/sup -1/ one of which (low-frequency) is splitted into two or three components. The spectrum of LaTiO/sub 3/ is distinguished from spectra of other compounds. In the range measured this compound is non-transparent for electromagnetic radiation. On the basis of determination of temperature dependences of the electric resistance it is found that LaTiO/sub 3/ has metallic conductivity unlike other perowskites studied which are semiconductors. The spectrum of EuTiO/sub 3/ also differs from other spectra. It is close in its structure and position of bands to the spectrum of cubic perowskite, SrTiO/sub 3/. The splitting of the low-frequency band into two and in the case of TbVO/sub 3/ into three components is caused by deformation of crystal structures of these compounds. A direct dependence between the value of splitting and the deformation degree is observed.

  17. Sibling Relationships and Adolescents' Mental Health: The Interrelationship of Structure and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2009-01-01

    Although sibling structure influences some aspects of adolescents' well-being, including deviance and educational achievement, little research has explored the association between sibling structure and adolescents' mental health. This study explores how sibling structure (the number of siblings, full versus step- or half-siblings, the relative age…

  18. Interrelationship between Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence of Secondary Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is an ability to control our emotions in abnormal situations. Now it is widely accepted that emotional intelligence also a key determent for success and also in development in personality. Personality is a sum total of emotions. By taking a sample of 200 secondary school teachers an attempt has made to find out the…

  19. Use of multivariate and neutron activation analysis on studying element interrelationships in Brazilian phosphorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.U.; Carvalho, J.L.S.; Tauhata, L.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to determine U, Th and other constituent elements in mineral matrices through Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), have been widely utilized due to their capability to extract a large quantity of information from small samples. In the present work, an experimental methodology based on INAA associated to the cluster statistics technique was used to determine the uranium concentration and its correlation with other elements present in the mineral phosphorites from the northeast region of Brazil. Data for 22 elements including rare-earth elements are presented. A good correlation between uranium and rare-earth elements is observed. For the transition metals, correlation with uranium was not noted. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Interrelationships between Cd, Zn and birth weight in neonates of women who smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnert, B.R.; Kuhnert, P.M.; Groh-Margo, S.; Webster, S.; Erhard, P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased cadmium level in pregnant women who smoke alters the metabolism of zinc in the maternal-fetal unit, and that this altered Zn metabolism may contribute to lower birth weight infants. One hundred-thirty mother/infant pairs were studied. Maternal whole blood and placental Cd were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry; maternal and fetal plasma, red blood cell and placental Zn by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Maternal plasma thiocyanate (SCN) levels were used as an index of smoking status. Zn intake was estimated by diet history in a subgroup of 34 patients. The data were analyzed using t-tests, correlation and stepwise multiple regression techniques. No differences in Zn intake were found between pregnant women who smoked and those who did not. The average daily intake of Zn was 10.2 +/- 5 mg; this is less than the RDA for Zn during pregnancy. The data show that there are significant positive correlations between SCN levels and levels of whole blood Cd, placental Cd, and placental Zn. Cord vein samples from infants of mothers who smoked had decreased red blood cell Zn. This was particularly true in nulliparous patients. In all patients, maternal whole blood Cd was found to be negatively related to birth weight and cord vein red blood cell Zn was positively related to birth weight. The results support the hypothesis of a Cd-Zn interaction in pregnant women who smoke. Additional findings suggest an effect of parity on the interaction between Cd and Zn. Placental Cd was found to be negatively related to birth weight in nulliparous patients (n=21). In multiparous patients (n=109) placental Zn was inversely related to birth weight. In patients with parity 2 or greater (n=54), placental Cd was directly predictive of placental Zn. These results may reflect a less favorable Zn nutritional status with increasing parity

  1. Interrelationships between measured running intensities and agility performance in subelite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Stuart; Sullivan, Lee O; Davies, Bruce; Wiltshire, Huw; Baker, Julien S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate agility performance of rugby players using various intensity running tests. A further aim was to investigate if any differences existed between playing positions in relation to agility performance. Nineteen subelite players (mean +/- SD age, 23.0 +/- 5.4 years) participated in the study. Players underwent measurements of anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of four skinfolds). Running tests investigated were speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), agility (T Test and Illinois), and multistage fitness tests (20 m, 10 m, and 5 m), with all tests for agility measured against the Illinois agility test. Results indicated that backline players produced significant correlations (P rugby-specific agility programs to aid performance may be of greater benefit and of higher priority in training programs designed for backs rather than forwards.

  2. Interrelationships and distribution of hydrochemical parameters in coastal waters off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Rao, T.V.N.; RamaRaju, V.S.; Rathod, V.; Suguna, C.

    The distribution of hydrochemical parameters in the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam during the July 1979-June 1980 showed distinct changes with time The observed supersaturation and saturation of oxygen in surface waters was due to favourable...

  3. The interrelationship between orthorexia nervosa, perfectionism, body image and attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marta A; Caltabiano, Marie L

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether perfectionism, body image, attachment style, and self-esteem are predictors of orthorexia nervosa. A cohort of 220 participants completed a self-administered, online questionnaire consisting of five measures: ORTO-15, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scale (MBSRQ-AS), the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Correlation analysis revealed that higher orthorexic tendencies significantly correlated with higher scores for perfectionism (self-oriented, others-oriented and socially prescribed), appearance orientation, overweight preoccupation, self-classified weight, and fearful and dismissing attachment styles. Higher orthorexic tendencies also correlated with lower scores for body areas satisfaction and a secure attachment style. There was no significant correlation between orthorexia nervosa and self-esteem. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that overweight preoccupation, appearance orientation and the presence of an eating disorder history were significant predictors of orthorexia nervosa with a history of an eating disorder being the strongest predictor. Orthorexia nervosa shares similarities with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with regards to perfectionism, body image attitudes, and attachment style. In addition, a history of an eating disorder strongly predicts orthorexia nervosa. These findings suggest that these disorders might be on the same spectrum of disordered eating.

  4. Diagnosis and interrelationships of fishes of the genus Channa Scopoli (Teleostei: Channidae of northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vishwanath

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic characters of nine species of the genus Channa Scopoli of northeastern India are given. Examination of morphological and osteological characters revealed that the fish under study comprised two phylectic groups: marulius and gachua. The Marulius group is characteristic by having a very prominent V-shaped sharp isthmus, cephalic sensory pores arranged in groups, absence of scales on the lower jaw, a sharp prominent spinelike hypurapophysis, more branchial toothplates than epibranchial, and an elongated urostyle. The Gachua group is characterized by a U-shaped isthmus, cephalic sensory pores evenly arranged in a single row, the presence of one or two large cycloid scales on each side of the lower jaw, absence of a sharp prominent spine-like hypurapophysis, absence or presence of one tooth plate in the epibranchial, and absence of an elongated urostyle. An elongated bone is present in between two last hemal spines of all species examined. A key to known species of Channa of northeastern India is also given

  5. A geo-informatics approach for estimating water resources management components and their interrelationships

    KAUST Repository

    Liaqat, Umar Waqas; Awan, Usman Khalid; McCabe, Matthew; Choi, Minha

    2016-01-01

    strongly correlated (R = 0.94) with groundwater abstraction and rainfall, with the strength of this relationship significantly (p < 0.01 and 0.05) impacted by cropping seasons and land use practices. Similarly, the net groundwater recharge showed a good

  6. Interrelationships between trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort predict phonological processing efficiency, but not effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) describes the mechanisms associated with the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performance. We investigated the relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort on phonological performance using a simple (forward-) and complex (backward-) word span task. Ninety undergraduate students participated in the study. Predictor variables were cognitive trait anxiety, indexed using questionnaire scores; situational stress, manipulated using ego threat instructions; and perceived level of mental effort, measured using a visual analogue scale. Criterion variables (a) performance effectiveness (accuracy) and (b) processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) were analyzed in separate multiple moderated-regression analyses. The results revealed (a) no relationship between the predictors and performance effectiveness, and (b) a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency for both the simple and complex tasks, such that at higher effort, trait anxiety and situational stress did not predict processing efficiency, whereas at lower effort, higher trait anxiety was associated with lower efficiency at high situational stress, but not at low situational stress. Our results were in full support of the assumptions of ACT and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Discussion on the interrelationship between structural, optical, electronic and elastic properties of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Kamal A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The calculated values of bulk modulus in Reddy et al. [1] are now recalculated correctly. • Eq. (11) suggested by Reddy et al. [1] is not suitable to calculate the bulk modulus, B, for any element or material. • Eq. (12) in Ref. [1] is suitable to calculate, B, for all elements and materials except the underlined materials in Table 4. • All values of the electronic polarizability have been recalculated by different methods. • The bulk modulus, B, and microhardness parameter, H are different; Eq. (8) gives the relation between B and H. - Abstract: In reference Reddy et al. (2009) the correlations between energy gap, optical electronegativity and electronic polarizability for different materials have been studied. The authors of this paper (Reddy et al., 2009) aimed to make extinction or complete some previous works (Bahadur and Mishra, 2013; Reddy et al., 1999, 2000, 1998, 2005, 2008; Reddy and Nazeer Ahammed, 1996; Oshcherin, 1979; Neumann, 1983, 1987; Deus and Schneider; 1985; Deus et al., 1983; Kumar et al. 1992). However, this paper (Reddy et al., 2009) contains many fundamental errors in the calculation of bulk modulus, especially Tables 4–6. As a result, all the obtained values of the bulk modulus and consequently the electronic polarizability are incorrect. Moreover in Table 4 (Reddy et al., 2009), the bulk modulus of II−VI group semiconductors have been calculated by substituting the values of the band gap, E g , into Eq. (11) (B = 14.91 E g + 23.3). The obtained values of B using Eq. (11) are conflicted with that calculated values of B based on the electronegativity and the published previously data. Therefore Eq. (11) in reference Reddy et al. (2009) is not suitable for calculating the values of B for any element or materials. When I recalculated the values of B for all materials in Tables 1 and 4–6 in paper (Reddy et al., 2009) using Eq. (12), I found that, Eq. (12) gives acceptable values of B for all materials except the underlined materials in Table 4 in the present note. The aim of this note is to recalculate both bulk modulus and electronic polarizability for all materials found in Reddy et al. (2009) to introduce the errors present in this paper

  8. Religious Human Rights and Peace Interrelationship between Human Rights and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Wellman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assumes the author’s conceptual analysis of rights as complexes of Hohfeldian positions that confer dominion on the right-holder in face of one or more second parties and his theory of moral reasons as essentially social dual-aspect practical reasons, both explained in previously published books. It analyses the international human right to have or adopt a religion or belief of one’s choice and the international human right to manifest one’s religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching as liberties of individual human beings protected by duties of non-interference and immunities from extinction holding against State Parties. It then identifies their moral grounds, the most important moral justifications for recognizing and maintaining these religious human rights in international law. It suggests that these are analogous moral religious human rights and some of the morally proper purposes of international law, including the promotion of international peace. It explains how the problematic human rights to change one’s religion or belief and to proselytize one’s religion or belief can be derived from the more basic human rights to have or adopt a religion or belief and to manifest one’s religion or belief respectively. It examines the reasons that many deny these rights and argues that, correctly interpreted, they are morally justified. Finally it reexamines the question as to whether the human rights to have or adopt a religion or belief and to manifest one’s religion or belief do more to threaten or to promote peace. It argues that although these human rights threaten peace to a limited extent, on balance they would, if universally respected, protect and enhance both internal and international peace even more. It concludes that there are two important relations between these religious human rights and peace. Both would be conducive to peace were they universally respected. And this fact is one of the moral grounds of these human rights in international law. زیر بنای این مقاله دو نظریه‌ای است که نویسنده همین مقاله در کتاب‌های قبلی خود تحلیل و بررسی نموده‌است. نظریه‌ی اول تحلیل مفهومی حقوق است که نویسنده آن‌را مجموعه‌ای از نظرات هوهفیلدی( hohfeldian می‌داند که در دعاوی میان افراد سلطه را به ذی‌حق واگذار می‌کند. دومین فرض این مقاله نظریه نویسنده در مورد مبانی اخلاق است که آن‌ها را مبانی عملی و دو وجهی از نظر اجتماعی می‌داند. این مقاله با در نظر گرفتن این فرضیات به تحلیل دو حق بین‌المللی می‌پردازد. اول، حق داشتن دین یا پذیرفتن یک دین و یا یک اعتقاد خاص از روی میل و رغبت و دوم، حق بین‌المللی اظهار دین از طریق عبادت، مراعات، رعایت و یا تعلیم آن. هر دوی این حق از جمله آزادی‌هایی هستند از دولت انتظار می‌رود به‌صورت غیرمداخله‌گرایانه در حفظ آن‌ها بکوشد و یا از انقراض آن جلوگیری کند. این مقاله در ادامه به‌بررسی مبانی اخلاقی این دو حق و یا به‌عبارتی بررسی مهم‌ترین استدلال‌های اخلاقی در مورد به‌رسمیت شناختن و حفظ این دو حق مذهبی در نظام حقوق بین‌المللی می‌پردازد و این نظریه را مطرح می‌کند که مبانی نظری این حقوق مشابه یکدیگر هستند و با بعضی از اهداف نظام بین‌المللی من جمله ارتقای صلح بین‌المللی نیز هم‌خوانی دارند. در این مقاله این مسئله نیز مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد که چگونه حق جنجالی تغییر دین و یا ترغیب دیگران به تغییر دین با این دو حق یعنی حق داشتن و یا پذیرفتن یک دین و یا ابراز آن هم‌خوانی دارد. در این مقاله استدلال‌های عده زیادی که که این حقوق را انکار می‌کنند نیز مورد بررسی قرار خواهد گرفت و نویسنده استدلال می‌کند که اگر برداشت صحیحی از این حقوق وجود داشته باشد از نظر اخلاقی کاملا توجیه پذیرند. در پایان این مقاله مجددا به بررسی این سوال می‌پردازد که آیا حق داشتن یا پذیرفتن یک دین خاص هم‌چنین حق اظهار آن باعث تهدید صلح جهانی و یا افزایش آن می‌شود و در جواب این سوال استدلال می‌کند که اگرچه این حقوق تا حدی این صلح را به خطر می‌اندازند اما اگر همگان به این حقوق احترام بگذارند در نهایت باعث حفظ و افزایش صلح در داخل کشورها و صلح بین‌المللی خواهد شد. به‌عنوان نتیجه‌گیری این مقاله دو رابطه مهم بین حقوق مذهبی و صلح بین‌المللی را مورد اشاره قرار می‌دهد و این گونه استدلال می‌کند که این دو حق به صلح منجر خواهد شد به شرط آنکه همگان این حقوق را مورد احترام قرار دهند و این واقعیت یکی از دلایل و مبانی اخلاقی این حقوق در نظام بین‌المللی‌است.

  9. Normative Values and Interrelationship of MDVP Voice Analysis Parameters Before and After Endotracheal Intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Kryspin; Durck, Tina Trier; Bork, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    normative values for adults and investigates the correlation between these MDVP parameters in relation to the "standardized" trauma of endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative assessments of vocal fold pathology with flexible videolaryngoscopy and voice analysis with MDVP using...... the best-of-three standardized recording were performed in 121 patients with normal voices included consecutively in the RCT. The procedures of anesthesia were standardized. RESULTS: The normative MDVP values of this study are consistently lower compared with most normative values presented in other...... studies. The preoperative to postoperative differences in jitter values (jitter and relative average perturbation) were closely correlated to the shimmer values for patients with postoperative vocal fold edemas. In the patients with edema, the preoperative to postoperative differences in jitter had...

  10. Interrelationship between growth and development in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Nguyen, Phuong

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood growth failure is a significant public health problem in developing countries. We examine relationships between low birthweight and stunting with child development. Compared to children born with normal birthweight, low birth-weight children have substantially poorer cognitive and schooling outcomes later in life. Linear growth failure leading to stunting mostly occurs before age 2 years, with stunting in older children reflecting growth failure in early life. Many studies show that stunting is associated with poor mental and motor development in infants and with low scores in cognitive tests, increased frequency of behavioral problems and poor school achievement in older children. Very few studies have assessed the relative importance for development of prenatal vs. postnatal growth failure and even fewer have done so using appropriate statistical techniques. The limited evidence to date suggests growth during the first 2 years of life is more important than growth at any other time, including the prenatal period, for predicting later cognitive development, schooling and educational achievement. In conclusion, children in settings of poverty who experience growth failure prior to age 2 years have reduced potential to succeed in school and to be productive members of society. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Dietary and hormonal interrelationships among vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists and nonvegetarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, B J; Shultz, T D

    1985-07-01

    The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17 beta, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels was investigated in 12 Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) vegetarian (SV), 10 SDA nonvegetarian (SNV), and 8 non-SDA nonvegetarian (NV) men. Fasting blood samples and 3-day dietary intake information were obtained from each subject. The SV subjects consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber than the SNV and NV subjects, respectively. Plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta were significantly lower in the SV than in the omnivores. Additionally, the plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta of the combined groups (SV, SNV, and NV) revealed a significant negative relationship with their crude and dietary fiber intakes. These subjects hormonal milieu was related to specific dietary constituents, possibly leading to a decreased plasma concentration of androgen and estrogen in vegetarians. Implications include the possible modification of prostate cancer risk through dietary intervention.

  12. Interrelationships between Amerindian tribes of lower Amazonia as manifest by HLA haplotype disequilibria.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, F L

    1984-01-01

    HLA B-C haplotypes exhibit common disequilibria in populations drawn from four continents, indicating that they are subject to broadly active selective forces. However, the A-B and A-C associations we have examined show no consistent disequilibrium pattern, leaving open the possibility that these disequilibria are due to descent from common progenitors. By examining HLA haplotype distributions, I have explored the implications that would follow from the hypothesis that biological selection pl...

  13. Interrelationships between Amerindian tribes of lower Amazonia as manifest by HLA haplotype disequilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F L

    1984-11-01

    HLA B-C haplotypes exhibit common disequilibria in populations drawn from four continents, indicating that they are subject to broadly active selective forces. However, the A-B and A-C associations we have examined show no consistent disequilibrium pattern, leaving open the possibility that these disequilibria are due to descent from common progenitors. By examining HLA haplotype distributions, I have explored the implications that would follow from the hypothesis that biological selection played no role in determining A-C disequilibria in 10 diverse tribes of the lower Amazon Basin. Certain haplotypes are in strong positive disequilibria across a broad geographic area, suggesting that members of diverse tribes descend from common ancestors. On the basis of the extent of diffusion of the components of these haplotypes, one can estimate that the progenitors lived less than 6,000 years ago. One widely encountered lineage entered the area within the last 1,200 years. When haplotype frequencies are used in genetic distance measurements, they give a pattern of relationships very similar to that obtained by conventional chord measurements based on several genetic markers; but more than that, when individual haplotype disequilibria in the several tribes are compared, multiple origins of a single tribe are discernible and relationships are revealed that correlate more closely to geographic and linguistic patterns than do the genetic distance measurements.

  14. INTERRELATIONSHIP S BETWEEN HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: WHAT CONSEQUENCES FOR ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Drabo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and th e consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis, it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations' health (and other channels and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environment quality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.

  15. Glutamate system, amyloid β peptides and tau protein: functional interrelationships and relevance to Alzheimer disease pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revett, Timothy J.; Baker, Glen B.; Jhamandas, Jack; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent form of dementia globally and is characterized premortem by a gradual memory loss and deterioration of higher cognitive functions and postmortem by neuritic plaques containing amyloid β peptide and neurofibrillary tangles containing phospho-tau protein. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain and is essential to memory formation through processes such as long-term potentiation and so might be pivotal to Alzheimer disease progression. This review discusses how the glutamatergic system is impaired in Alzheimer disease and how interactions of amyloid β and glutamate influence synaptic function, tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, glutamate not only influences amyloid β production, but also amyloid β can alter the levels of glutamate at the synapse, indicating that small changes in the concentrations of both molecules could influence Alzheimer disease progression. Finally, we describe how the glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine, has been used in the treatment of individuals with Alzheimer disease and discuss its effectiveness. PMID:22894822

  16. Review: Vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in Leishmaniasis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This manuscript proposes a new hypothesis and a new concept in Leishmaniasis transmission, that points to a “vector-host-parasite” specificity. This concept will open a new approach for analysis of Leishmania/sandfly problems in transmission. Indeed, it will help to answer the following questions: 1-Why transmission ...

  17. Teaching the Interrelationships among Costs, Expense, and Liability of a Defined Benefit Pension Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Godwin, Norman H.

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 158 "Employers' Accounting for Defined Benefit Pension and Other Postretirement Plans" (SFAS #158). Their intent is to comprehensively reconsider the accounting for postretirement benefit plans in phases. The first phase was to provide…

  18. Investigating the Interrelationships among Conceptions of, Approaches to, and Self-Efficacy in Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lanqin; Dong, Yan; Huang, Ronghuai; Chang, Chun-Yen; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between primary school students' conceptions of, approaches to, and self-efficacy in learning science in Mainland China. A total of 1049 primary school students from Mainland China participated in this study. Three instruments were adapted to measure students' conceptions of learning science,…

  19. Interrelationships of adult attachment orientations, health status and worrying among fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paula; Costa, Maria Emilía

    2009-11-01

    This study examined associations between adult attachment dimensions, perceived health status and worrying (coping strategy with chronic pain), and explored whether worrying mediated observed relationships between attachment dimensions and health outcomes within a sample of 128 Portuguese female fibromyalgia patients. Physical health status was inversely correlated with dependence and worrying; mental health status was positively correlated with trust, and inversely related to attachment-related ambivalence, dependence and worrying. Finally, worrying mediated relationships between dependence and both physical and mental health status; moreover, worrying partially mediated the relationship between ambivalence and mental health status. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Interrelationship between core interventions and core competencies of forensic psychiatric nursing in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkanen, Helena; Tiihonen, Jari; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Kinnunen, Juha

    2011-03-01

    The importance of core competencies (CC) and their relationship to core interventions in clinical practice guidelines on schizophrenia (CPGS), and the abilities to master these competencies were studied among registered nurses (RN) and practical mental nurses (PMN) in a forensic psychiatric setting. Data were collected from RNs, PMNs, and managers of all five forensic psychiatric facilities in Finland. The research material was obtained by using a 360-degree feedback method. The response rate was 68% (N = 428). The differences between the nurse groups were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) regarding the importance of and ability to master the following CCs: (1) pharmacotherapy, (2) knowledge in forensic psychiatry and violent behavior, (3) the treatment of violent patients, (4) processing patient's and own emotion, and (5) need-adapted treatment of the patient. Overall, RNs exceeded PMNs in mastering the CCs, however the principles of the CPGS were not achieved within the current resources in Finland. In summary, RNs, rather than PMNs, should be recruited for work in forensic psychiatric nursing, although a considerable amount of specific training would still be required to achieve competence. Implications of our research indicate that all nurses working in this area need to receive further education in forensic psychiatry and in forensic psychiatric nursing. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  1. Climate Change Influences on Species Interrelationships and Distributions in High-Arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. R., Klein; Bruun, H. H.; Lundgren, R.

    2008-01-01

    , reproduction, and dispersal of all life forms present. Climate-associated changes in the biotic communities of the region are altering inter-species interactions, notably pollination, seed dispersal and plant-herbivore relations. Sexual reproduction and dispersal of propagules, primarily seeds, are essential...... be of particular significance to long-distance seed dispersal. In Northeast Greenland, dispersal of viable seeds may frequently occur by passage through the guts of geese and musk oxen. Research at Zackenberg on the role of insects in pollination of flowering plants has shown that Diptera species, primarily flies...... Cassiope tetragona, and mountain avens Dryas octopetala are the primary species represented in the pollen present on pollinating insects at Zackenberg. The effects of climate warming that may enhance environmental conditions for plant growth in Northeast Greenland and accelerate invasion of new species...

  2. Modelling Inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Lopez-Puga, J.; Carmona-Moreno, C.

    2012-04-01

    Improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). This inter-dependency has been recognised with the adoption of the "Integrated Water Resources Management" principles that push for the integration of these various dimensions involved in WSS delivery to ensure an efficient and sustainable management. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector in particular in developing countries where WSS still represent an important leverage for livelihood improvement. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed a coherent database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 29 indicators from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data focusing on developing countries (Celine et al, 2011 under publication). The aim of this work is to model the WatSan4Dev dataset using probabilistic models to identify the key variables influencing or being influenced by the water supply and sanitation access levels. Bayesian Network Models are suitable to map the conditional dependencies between variables and also allows ordering variables by level of influence on the dependent variable. Separated models have been built for water supply and for sanitation because of different behaviour. The models are validated if complying with statistical criteria but either with scientific knowledge and literature. A two steps approach has been adopted to build the structure of the model; Bayesian network is first built for each thematic cluster of variables (e.g governance, agricultural pressure, or human development) keeping a detailed level for interpretation later one. A global model is then built based on significant indicators of each cluster being previously modelled. The structure of the relationships between variable are set a priori according to literature and/or experience in the field (expert knowledge). The statistical validation is verified according to error rate of classification, and the significance of the variables. Sensibility analysis has also been performed to characterise the relative influence of every single variable in the model. Once validated, the models allow the estimation of impact of each variable on the behaviour of the water supply or sanitation providing an interesting mean to test scenarios and predict variables behaviours. The choices made, methods and description of the various models, for each cluster as well as the global model for water supply and sanitation will be presented. Key results and interpretation of the relationships depicted by the models will be detailed during the conference.

  3. Interrelationships among Elements of Formal Mentoring and the Dimensions of Organizational Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Organizations created formal mentoring programs to replicate the benefits of informal mentoring. With regard to measuring mentoring functions, organizations are using informal measures to measure formal mentoring programs. As a result, empirical measurements of the effectiveness of university formal mentoring programs are limited. Researchers…

  4. Interrelationships between romance, life quality, and medical training of female residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jung Wang

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Romance and quality of life were significantly influenced by the pattern of medical training in female residents. Setting duty-hour limits and initiating a new hobby were determined to be potentially beneficial to their quality of life and attitudes toward romance.

  5. Lower Cretaceous paleo-Vertisols and sedimentary interrelationships in stacked alluvial sequences, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Ludvigson, G. A.; Kirkland, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    The Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in Poison Strip, Utah, USA, consists of stacked, erosionally bounded alluvial sequences dominated by massive mudstones (lithofacies Fm) with paleo-Vertisols. Sediment bodies within these sequences grade vertically and laterally into each other at pedogenic boundaries, across which color, texture, and structures (sedimentary vs. pedogenic) change. Slickensides, unfilled (sealed) cracks, carbonate-filled cracks, and deeper cracks filled with sandstone; the latter features suggest thorough desiccation during aridification. Thin sandstones (Sms) in some sequences, typically as well as laminated to massive mudstones (Flm) with which they are interbedded in some cases, are interpreted as avulsion deposits. The termini of many beds of these lithofacies curve upward, parallel to nearby pedogenic slickensides, as the features we call ;turnups.; Turnups are overlain or surrounded by paleosols, but strata sheltered underneath beds with turnups retain primary sedimentary fabrics. Turnups were produced by movement along slickensides during pedogenesis, by differential compaction alongside pre-existing gilgai microhighs, or by a combination of both. Palustrine carbonates (lithofacies C) appear only in the highest or next-highest alluvial sequences, along with a deep paleo-Vertisol that exhibits partially preserved microrelief at the base of the overlying Poison Strip Member. The attributes of the Yellow Cat Member suggest comparatively low accommodation, slow accumulation, long hiatuses in clastic sedimentation, and substantial time intervals of subaerial exposure and pedogenesis; it appears to be distinct among the members of the Cedar Mountain Formation in these respects.

  6. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG GROWTH IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR, POVERY AND INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid SAEED

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between growth in agricultural sector and poverty in Pakistan. It explores that how much the poor people have gained from growth in agricultural sector of Pakistan by considering growth magnitude and benefits obtained by the poor people resulting from growth for the period of 1985 to 2005 through applying OLS Regression Technique. The results indicate that the variable of growth in agricultural sector is significantly and negatively associated with the variable of poverty, i.e., the growth in agricultural sector of Pakistan will result in reducing the level of poverty in Pakistan.

  7. Benign vascular sexual headache and exertional headache: interrelationships and long term prognosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Silbert, P L; Edis, R H; Stewart-Wynne, E G; Gubbay, S S

    1991-01-01

    There is a definite relationship between the vascular type of benign sexual headache and benign exertional headache. Forty five patients with benign vascular sexual headache were reviewed. Twenty seven (60%) experienced benign vascular sexual headache alone and eighteen (40%) had experienced both benign vascular sexual headache and benign exertional headache on at least one occasion. The mean age was 34.3 years with a male:female ratio of 5.4:1. Thirty patients with a history of benign vascul...

  8. A study of dose effect response and the interrelationship between cell survival, mutation and chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.; Werry, P.A.Th.J.; Ramulu, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    Research was carried out on four topics: generation of cell reproductive death and mutation induction in cell cultures of Haplopappus gracilis by ionizing radiation; radiation induced repair in Saintpaulia epidermis cells; analysis of the combined effect of radiation with other mutagens; and the effect of very low doses of radiation on the Oenothera model system. (Auth.)

  9. INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG USE, ANOMIE, ALIENATION AND AUTTHORITARIANISM AMONGST UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ravi K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Dang, Ravinder

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY The degree of addictive substance usage score and three personality variables, namely, authoritarianism, alienation, and anomie were measured in 197 university students through a self-administered questionnaire. WHO's Youth Survey Questionnaire for drag use, Varma et al.'s scale of Authoritarianism, Srole's scale of Anomie, and Pearlin's scale of Alienation, were used. A study of the relationship between the co-variables was studied and is discussed. PMID:22058449

  10. Interrelationship of glyocen metabolism and lactose synthesis in mammary epithelial cells of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerman, J T; Bartley, J C; Bissell, M J

    1980-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism in mammary epithelial cells was investigated (i) by studying the conversion of glucose into glycogen and other cellular products in these cells from virgin, pregnant and lactating mice and (ii) by assaying the enzymes directly involved with glycogen metabolism. We find that: (1) mammary epithelial cells synthesized glycogen at rates up to over 60% that of the whole gland; (2) the rate of this synthesis was modulated greatly during the reproductive cycle, reaching a peak in late pregnancy and decreasing rapidly at parturition, when abundant synthesis of lactose was initiated. We propose that glycogen bynthesis restricts lactose synthesis during late pregnancy by competing successfully for the shared UDP-glucose pool. The physiological advantage of glycogen accumulation during late pregnancy is discussed.

  11. Developmental Inter-Relationships Among Concrete Operational Tasks: An Investigation of Piaget's Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Wesley

    1977-01-01

    Two models of intertask relations, Wohlwill's divergent-decalage and reciprocal-interaction patterns, were evaluated for their fit to cross-classification tables which showed the joint classification of 101 children's performance on all possible pairs of eight concrete operational tasks. (SB)

  12. Interrelationship of dietary lipids and ascorbic acid with hepatic enzymes of cholesterol metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Mukherjee, S

    1997-01-01

    Effect of unsaturated and saturated fats on cholesterol metabolism was studied in ascorbate sufficient and deficient guineapigs. Experimental animals were made chronic ascorbic acid deficient by allowing oral intake of 0.5 mg ascorbic acid/day/animal. Elevation in serum and liver cholesterol and triglyceride along with depression in cholesterol oxidation and 7 alpha-hydroxylation in liver was observed in unsaturated fat fed guineapigs with ascorbate deficiency. Liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 level was found to be low in ascorbate deficient animals. Polyunsaturated fat intake could not lower the serum cholesterol level in ascorbate deficiency. Today polyunsaturated fat in the diet is encouraged all over the world for its hypocholesterolemic effect. This study indicates that polyunsaturated fat intake with ascorbic acid deficiency may produce hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Thrombocytopenia in Dengue: Interrelationship between Virus and the Imbalance between Coagulation and Fibrinolysis and Inflammatory Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV. In general, dengue is a self-limiting acute febrile illness followed by a phase of critical defervescence, in which patients may improve or progress to a severe form. Severe illness is characterized by hemodynamic disturbances, increased vascular permeability, hypovolemia, hypotension, and shock. Thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction are common in both cases and are related to the clinical outcome. Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain DENV-associated thrombocytopenia, including the suppression of bone marrow and the peripheral destruction of platelets. Studies have shown DENV-infected hematopoietic progenitors or bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, anti-platelet antibodies would be involved in peripheral platelet destruction as platelets interact with endothelial cells, immune cells, and/or DENV. It is not yet clear whether platelets play a role in the viral spread. Here, we focus on the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction in DENV infection. Because platelets participate in the inflammatory and immune response by promoting cytokine, chemokine, and inflammatory mediator secretion, their relevance as “immune-like effector cells” will be discussed. Finally, an implication for platelets in plasma leakage will be also regarded, as thrombocytopenia is associated with clinical outcome and higher mortality.

  14. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet, and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanderson, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    ... activity would modify the effect of insulin resistance on breast cancer. Specific aims were: 1) to undergo intensive training in cancer biology, and nutritional, molecular and genetic epidemiology, 2...

  15. Research on the National Culture–Intellectual Capital Inter-Relationship in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan-Franc Valeriu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the paper aims at identifying the type and the intensity of the relationship between the national culture dimension and the intellectual capital dimension. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the correlations of the national culture dimensions, based on the Geert Hofstede approach, with the three dimensions of the intellectual capital within the EU countries. The research procedures were: content analysis of the most representative models and methodologies for evaluating the intellectual capital and the national culture dimensions, and correlation analysis. The main outcome of our research reveals the influence of the national culture on the intellectual capital performance. It also shows that some dimensions of the national culture, such as Individualism versus Collectivism and Indulgence versus Restraint, correlate positively with the intellectual capital, while other dimensions, such as Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance correlate with it negatively.

  16. Amelogenesis imperfecta and anterior open bite: Etiological, classification, clinical and management interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachioti, Xanthippi Sofia; Dimopoulou, Eleni; Vlasakidou, Anatoli; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2014-01-01

    Although amelogenesis imperfecta is not a common dental pathological condition, its etiological, classification, clinical and management aspects have been addressed extensively in the scientific literature. Of special clinical consideration is the frequent co-existence of amelogenesis imperfecta with the anterior open bite. This paper provides an updated review on amelogenesis imperfecta as well as anterior open bite, in general, and documents the association of these two separate entities, in particular. Diagnosis and treatment of amelogenesis imperfecta patients presenting also with anterior open bite require a lengthy, comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which should aim to successfully address all dental, occlusal, developmental, skeletal and soft tissue problems associated with these two serious clinical conditions.

  17. Interrelationship betwen material strength and component design under elevated temperature for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    Structural design under elevated temperature for fast breeder reactor plant is very troublesome compared to that of for lower temperature. This difficulty can be mainly discussed from two different stand points. One is design and design code, another is material strength. Components in FBR are operated under creep regime and time dependent creep behaviour should be elevated properly. This means the number and combinations of design code and material strength are significantly large and makes these systems very complicated. Material selection is, in no words, not an easy job. This should be done by not only material development but also component design stand point. With valuable experience of construction and research on FBR, a lot of information on component design and material behaviour is available. And it is a time to choose the ''best material'' from the entire stand points of component construction. (author)

  18. Examining the interrelationships between social anxiety, smoking to cope, and cigarette craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; VanderVeen, Joseph W; Cohen, Lee M; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Morrell, Holly E R

    2012-08-01

    Smokers with symptoms of social anxiety often report smoking as a way to cope with negative affect. These individuals have lower success rates when attempting cessation compared with the general population. However, there is a paucity of research examining the role of social anxiety in nicotine dependence. The present study explored the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, smoking to cope with these symptoms during social situations (STC), and cigarette craving. Thirty-eight participants completed measures of social anxiety and STC at baseline. Cigarette craving was subsequently assessed pre and post exposure to smoking-related images during periods of nicotine satiation and deprivation. Regression analyses revealed that greater symptoms of social anxiety predicted the frequency of STC behaviors and the number of cigarettes participants thought they would need in order to feel more comfortable in social situations. Symptoms of social anxiety and several behaviors associated with STC (e.g., avoiding social situations in which smoking is not permitted) predicted increases in craving during nicotine deprivation, but not satiation. These findings suggest that symptoms of social anxiety and STC behaviors may play a role in the maintenance of smoking behaviors. Further, targeting symptoms of social anxiety within the context of smoking cessation treatment may be particularly helpful and may improve the rates of smoking cessation among individuals with symptoms of social anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain and Plasma Molecular Characterization of the Pathogenic TBI-AD Interrelationship in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    encephalopathy in the elderly: clinical expression and structural substrates. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 37, 570 -584. Crawford, F., Crynen, G., Reed, J...Beaulieu-Abdelahad, D., Lin, Y., Jin, C., Crawford, F., and Mullan, M. (2014). The Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (syk) Regulates Alzheimer’s Aβ

  20. Perinatal outcome and the social contract: interrelationships between health and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, P A

    1998-04-01

    Rates of infant mortality and prematurity or low birthweight serve as indirect measures of the health of a nation. This paper presents current population data documenting the still serious problem of perinatal outcome in the USA as well as in other economically developed countries. International comparisons suggest that nations which have the greatest inequality of income and social opportunity also have the most adverse perinatal, child and adult health outcomes. Furthermore, the data assert that these effects are independent of average national wealth or gross national economic productivity. Health status differs by social class and race, even among the most affluent sectors of the population. All social classes, even the wealthiest, suffer the health consequences of social inequalities. An explanatory socio-psychological theory of causality is proposed.

  1. Perinatal outcome and the social contract--interrelationships between health and humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, P A

    1998-01-01

    Rates of infant mortality and prematurity or low birth weight serve as indirect measures of the health of a nation. This paper presents current population data documenting the still serious problem of perinatal outcome in the United States as well as in other economically developed countries. International comparisons suggest that nations with the greatest inequality of income and social opportunity also have the most adverse perinatal, child, and adult health outcomes. Furthermore, the data assert that these effects are independent of average national wealth or gross national economic productivity. Health status differs by social class and race, even among the most affluent sectors of the population. All social classes, even the wealthiest, suffer the health consequences of social inequalities. An explanatory sociopsychologic theory of causality is proposed.

  2. Commuting-related fringe benefits in the Netherlands : Interrelationships and company, employee and location characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Linda; Dijst, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Mobility management measures taken by firms could potentially result in more sustainable transport choices and hence reduce traffic congestion and emissions. Fringe benefits offered to employees are a means to implement those measures. This paper explores the most common commuting-related fringe

  3. Fact Sheets: Air Toxics Rules for the Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 1999 fact sheet for the proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins and a September 2014 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP

  4. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  5. 77 FR 14777 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ...; Approved without change. EPA ICR Number 1712.08; NESHAP for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair Facilities... filed comment on 02/03/2012. EPA ICR Number 2028.07; NESHAP for Industrial, Commercial, and...

  6. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  7. 78 FR 3893 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...; NESHAP for Aluminum, Copper, and Other Non- Ferrous Foundries; 40 CFR part 63 subparts A and ZZZZZZ; was... ICR Number 1894.07; NESHAP for Secondary Aluminum Production; 40 CFR part 63 subparts A and RRR; was...; NESHAP for Chromium Emissions from Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing...

  8. 75 FR 68354 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... 1801.09; NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry; 40 CFR part 63, subparts A and LLL; was....04; NESHAP for Metal Can Manufacturing Surface Coating; 40 CFR part 63, subparts A and KKKK; was... Number 1966.04; NESHAP for Boat Manufacturing; 40 CFR part 63, subparts A and VVVV; was approved on 10/01...

  9. 75 FR 39244 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    .... EPA ICR Number 1801.08; NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry; 40 CFR part 63.... EPA ICR Number 1790.05; NESHAP for Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing and Phosphate Fertilizers Production... with change. EPA ICR Number 1160.09; NSPS/NESHAP for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants...

  10. Study of inter-relationship of depression, seizure frequency and quality of life of people with epilepsy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that can have profound physical, social and psychological consequences. We aimed to assess the clinical predictors of quality of life of people with epilepsy. We recruited 31 patients suffering from epilepsy in this cross-sectional study. Their clinical profile was recorded. Quality Of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31 was used to assess quality of life of our patients. Depression was screened by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory in Epilepsy (NDDI-E. Among all the clinical variables, only seizure frequency significantly correlated with seizure worry (P=0.002, emotional well-being (P=0.026 and social functions (P=0.013 subscales of QOLIE-31. NDDI-E score showed a significant negative correlation with all the subscales of QOLIE-31 except medication effects (P=0.993. A significant positive correlation was also noted between seizure frequency and NDDI-E score (r=0.417, P=0.020. Seizure frequency and depression are the most important predictors of quality of life in epilepsy patients. The management of patients with epilepsy should not only be aimed at just preventing seizures but the treating clinicians should also be cognizant about depression which itself can significantly affect the quality of life of patients.

  11. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissim Silanikove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal.

  12. The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, Nissim; Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi

    2015-08-31

    Humans learned to exploit ruminants as a source of milk about 10,000 years ago. Since then, the use of domesticated ruminants as a source of milk and dairy products has expanded until today when the dairy industry has become one of the largest sectors in the modern food industry, including the spread at the present time to countries such as China and Japan. This review analyzes the reasons for this expansion and flourishing. As reviewed in detail, milk has numerous nutritional advantages, most important being almost an irreplaceable source of dietary calcium, hence justifying the effort required to increase its consumption. On the other hand, widespread lactose intolerance among the adult population is a considerable drawback to dairy-based foods consumption. Over the centuries, three factors allowed humans to overcome limitations imposed by lactose intolerance: (i) mutations, which occurred in particular populations, most notably in the north European Celtic societies and African nomads, in which carriers of the lactose intolerance gene converted from being lactose intolerant to lactose tolerant; (ii) the ability to develop low-lactose products such as cheese and yogurt; and (iii) colon microbiome adaptation, which allow lactose intolerant individuals to overcome its intolerance. However, in a few examples in the last decade, modern dairy products, such as the popular and widespread bio-cultured yogurts, were suspected to be unsuitable for lactose intolerant peoples. In addition, the use of lactose and milk-derived products containing lactose in non-dairy products has become widespread. For these reasons, it is concluded that it might be important and helpful to label food that may contain lactose because such information will allow lactose intolerant groups to control lactose intake within the physiological limitations of ~12 g per a single meal.

  13. Coronary, Carotid, and Lower-extremity Atherosclerosis and Their Interrelationship in Danish Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, Susan Due; Poulsen, Mikael Kjaer; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is highly prevalent among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but has been demonstrated predominantly in non-European SLE cohorts and few investigations have included more than 1 imaging modality. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of atherosclerosis...... regression model, age (p Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC; p = 0.008) were significant independent risk factors for atherosclerosis at any vascular territory. CONCLUSION: Atherosclerosis is highly prevalent among Danish patients with SLE...

  14. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.

  15. Towards a global system of compensation for transboundary nuclear damage: reflexions on the interrelationship of civil and international state liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, G.

    1993-01-01

    International state liability is an essential complementary element of any global and comprehensive nuclear compensation system. Civil liability alone will not be able to fully compensate victims of a nuclear accident and will therefore not fully internalize the costs of nuclear activities. To make it effective and politically acceptable, state liability must be fully integrated procedurally with any civil liability system as a last tier of compensation following a simple process for handling together both civil and state liability claims at the international level, with individuals being able to sue Installation States. 69 refs

  16. The study of interrelationship between raw water quality parameters, chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Yee, Lim Fang; Ata, Sadia; Abdullah, Abass; Ishak, Basar; Abidin, Khairul Nidzham Zainal

    Disinfection is the most crucial process in the treatment of drinking water supply and is the final barrier against bacteriological impurities in drinking water. Chlorine is the primary disinfectant used in the drinking water treatment process throughout Malaysia. However, the occurrence of various disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids created a major issue on the potential health hazards which may pose adverse health effects in both human and animals. To simulate real water treatment conditions and to represent the conditions inherent in a tropical country, this study was performed at an urbanized water treatment plant with a daily production of about 549,000 m 3 of treated water. The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between the water quality parameters in the raw water with chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products. This study also investigated the possibility of the statistical model applications for the prediction of chlorine demand and the THM formation. Two models were developed to estimate the chlorine demand and the THM formation. For the statistical evaluation, correlation and simple linear regression analysis were conducted using SPSS. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the estimation of goodness-of-fit of the dependent variables of the models to the normal distribution showed that all the dependent variables followed the normal distribution at significance level of 0.05. Good linear correlations were observed between the independent parameters and formation of THM and the chlorine demand. This study also revealed that ammonia and the specific ultraviolet absorbent (SUVA) were the function of chlorine consumption in the treatment process. Chlorine dosage and SUVA increase the yield of THM. Chlorine demand and THM formation was moderately sensitive, but significant to the pH. The level of significance ( α) for the statistical tests and the inclusion of a variable in the model was 0.05. A better understanding of these relationships will help the water utilities or plant operators to minimize the THM formation, providing a healthier and better drinking water quality as well as optimizing the chlorine dosage in the disinfection process.

  17. Market Orientation and Business Performance: a Study of Interrelationships and Effects in a Small sized Hotels within Lagos State Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.A. Ladipo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between market orientation and business performance has been a subject of debate in marketing literature. To date, there is no consensus opinion and empirical study in the context of small sized-hotels in Nigeria is scanty. This study examines the relationship between market orientation and business performance. Cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Questionnaire was used to obtained data from 300 employees of the selected hotels within Lagos metropolis. Data collected were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The results suggest that only customer orientation is significantly contributing to the performance of the small sized hotel operators. Specifically, both competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination, though practiced by the hotels are not significantly linked to its performance. Furthermore, the study discovered that market orientation practices significantly influence business performance of the selected hotels. Based on the findings, the study concludes that hotel operators need market orientation practices to enhance their performance. Hence, market orientation will continue to be a vital strategy not only in improving firm’s understanding of customers’ and competitors, but to enhance synergy across the organization. From the preceding conclusion, the study recommends that hotel operators should commit substantial resources and effort in cultivating a customer oriented culture, and transmit it across the organization to create strategic alignment. Furthermore, the competitive environment should be closely monitored to identify profitable business opportunity and threats that could affect their growth and sustainability.

  18. Modes of Alphabet Letter Production during Middle Childhood and Adolescence: Interrelationships with Each Other and Other Writing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Alstad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although handwriting is typically taught during early childhood and keyboarding may not be taught explicitly, both may be relevant to writing development in the later grades. Thus, Study 1 investigated automatic production of the ordered alphabet from memory for manuscript (unjoined, cursive (joined, keyboard letter modes (alphabet 15 sec, their relationships with each other, and spelling and composing in typically developing writers in grades 4 to 7 (n =113. Study 2 compared students with dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=27, dyslexia (impaired word spelling, n=40, or oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD (impaired syntax composing, n=11 or controls without specific writing disabilities (n=10 in grades 4 to 9 (n=88 on the same alphabet 15 modes, manner of copying, spelling, and sentence composing. In Study 1, sequential multilevel model regressions of predictor alphabet 15 letter production/selection modes on spelling and composition outcomes, measured annually from grade 4 to grade 7 (ages 9 to 13 years, showed that only the cursive mode uniquely, positively, and consistently predicted both spelling and composing in each grade. For composing, in grade 4 manuscript mode was positively predictive and in grades 5-7 keyboard selection was. In Study 2 all letter production modes correlated with each other and one’s best and fast sentence copying, spelling, and timed sentence composing. The groups with specific writing disabilities differed from control group on alphabet 15 manuscript mode, copy fast, and timed sentence composing. The dysgraphia and dyslexia groups differed on copying sentences in one’s best handwriting, with the dysgraphia group scoring lower. The educational and theoretical significance of the findings are discussed for multiple modes and manners of letter production/selection of the alphabet that support spelling and composing beyond the early grades in students with and without specific writing disabilities.

  19. Developing the Total Disability Index Based on an Analysis of the Interrelationships and Limitations of Oswestry and Neck Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Matthew A; Lafage, Renaud; Lafage, Virginie; Ryan, Devon; Marascalchi, Bryan; Trimba, Yuriy; Ames, Christopher; Harris, Bradley; Tanzi, Elizabeth; Oren, Jonathan; Vira, Shaleen; Errico, Thomas; Schwab, Frank; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective. This study assessed the feasibility of combining Oswestry and Neck Disability Index (ODI and NDI) into 1 shorter "Total Disability Index" (TDI) from which reconstructed scores could be computed. ODI and NDI are not pure assessments of disability related to back and neck, respectively. Because of similarities/redundancies of questions, ODI scores may be elevated in neck-pain patients and the converse is true for NDI in back-pain patients. Spine patients completed ODI and NDI, and complaints were recorded as back pain (BP), neck pain (NP), or both (BNP). Questionnaire scores were compared across cohorts via descriptives and Spearman (ρ) correlations. In exploring the feasibility of merging ODI/NDI, TDI was constructed from 9 ODI and 5 NDI items. Extracting questions from TDI, reconstructed 9-item rODI and 10-item rNDI indices were formed and compared with true ODI/NDI. There were a total of 1207 patients: 741 BP, 134 NP, and 268 BNP. Mean ODI was 37 ± 21 and mean NDI was 32 ± 21. Patients with concurrent BP and NP had significantly more disability. Seventy-eight patients of 134 (58%) patients with NP only had at least "moderate disability" by ODI and 297 of 741 (40%) patients with back pain only, had at least "moderate disability" by NDI. ODI versus NDI correlation was ρ = 0.755; ODI versus reconstructed rODI correlated at ρ = 0.985, and NDI versus reconstructed rNDI correlated at ρ = 0.967 (P disability in 1 region affects scores on both surveys. This study constructed a 14-item TDI that represents every domain of ODI/NDI with exception of ODI "Sex Life." From this TDI, reconstructed scores correlated near perfectly with true scores. TDI provides a more global assessment of spinal disability and is a questionnaire that reduces the time burden to patients. The TDI allows for simultaneous assessment of back, neck, and global spinal disability.

  20. Inter-relationships between light and respiration in the control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Yu, Jianping; Gómez, Facundo; Fernández, Laura; McIntosh, Lee; Foyer, Christine H

    2006-01-01

    The effects of growth irradiance and respiration on ascorbic acid (AA) synthesis and accumulation were studied in the leaves of wild-type and transformed Arabidopsis thaliana with modified amounts of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) protein. Plants were grown under low (LL; 50 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), intermediate (IL; 100 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), or high (HL; 250 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) light. Increasing growth irradiance progressively elevated leaf AA content and hence the values of dark-induced disappearance of leaf AA, which were 11, 55, and 89 nmol AA lost g(-1) fresh weight h(-1), from LL-, IL-, and HL-grown leaves, respectively. When HL leaves were supplied with L-galactone-1,4-lactone (L-GalL; the precursor of AA), they accumulated twice as much AA and had double the maximal L-galactone-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (L-GalLDH) activities of LL leaves. Growth under HL enhanced dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. Leaf respiration rates were highest in the HL leaves, which also had higher amounts of cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activities, as well as enhanced capacity of the AOX and CCO electron transport pathways. Leaves of the AOX-overexpressing lines accumulated more AA than wild-type or antisense leaves, particularly at HL. Intact mitochondria from AOX-overexpressing lines had higher AA synthesis capacities than those from the wild-type or antisense lines even though they had similar L-GalLDH activities. AOX antisense lines had more cytochrome c protein than wild-type or AOX-overexpressing lines. It is concluded that regardless of limitations on L-GalL synthesis by regulation of early steps in the AA synthesis pathway, the regulation of L-GalLDH activity via the interaction of light and respiratory controls is a crucial determinant of the overall ability of leaves to produce and accumulate AA.

  1. Interrelationship between family history of alcoholism and generational status in the prediction of alcohol dependence in US Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, K G; Thomas, N S; Kendler, K S

    2017-01-01

    Both a family history of alcoholism and migration-related factors like US v. foreign nativity increase the risk for developing alcohol use disorders in Hispanic Americans. For this study, we integrated these two lines of research to test whether the relationship between familial alcoholism and alcohol dependence changes with successive generations in the United States. Data were from the waves 1 and 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Subjects self-identified Hispanic ethnicity (N = 4122; n = 1784 first, n = 1169 second, and n = 1169 third or later generation) and reported ever consuming ⩾12 drinks in a 1-year period. A family history of alcoholism was assessed in first- and second-degree relatives. Analyses predicting the number of alcohol dependence symptoms were path models. Alcohol dependence symptoms were associated with a stronger family history of alcoholism and later generational status. There was a significant interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status; the relationship of familial alcoholism with alcohol dependence symptoms increased significantly with successive generations in the United States, more strongly in women than men. Acculturation partially mediated the interaction effect between familial alcoholism and generational status on alcohol dependence, although not in the expected direction. Familial alcoholism interacted with generational status in predicting alcohol dependence symptoms in US Hispanic drinkers. This relationship suggests that heritability for alcoholism is influenced by a higher-order environmental factor, likely characterized by a relaxing of social restrictions on drinking.

  2. Semen quality parameters, their inter-relationship and post-washing sperm attributes of Rhode Island Red roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Richard Churchil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present experiments were conducted (a to evaluate the semen attributes of older Rhode Island Red (RIR roosters and the inter-trait relationships, (b to test sperm washing and storage duration suitable for gene transfer experiments. Materials and Methods: The semen characteristics of older RIR roosters were studied, and Pearson correlation analysis was done to demonstrate the inter-trait relationships. Progressive motility and percent live sperms were tested at different post-washing intervals to identify suitable sperm processing conditions for gene transfer experiments. Results: The volume, appearance score, initial motility, sperm count and percent live and abnormal spermatozoa were 0.38 ml, 3.58, 80.34%, 4.03 × 109 sperms/ml, 83.18% and 4.52% respectively. Positive correlation was observed among appearance score, motility, live sperm and sperm count. Semen volume is negatively correlated with all the other characters except live sperms, whereas, percent abnormal sperms negatively associated with all the other traits. Significant (p<0.05 decrease in terms of motility and live sperm was recorded at 60 min post-washing. Conclusion: The semen attributes of RIR roosters compares well with the other breeds of chicken. The appearance score can be used to assess fertility where microscopic evaluation facilities are limited. The sperm washing protocol tested in the experiment is suitable for gene transfer experiments.

  3. Nucleic acid hybridization and radioimmunoassay techniques for studying the interrelationships among the progressive pneumonia viruses of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    In Section I of this thesis, experiments were performed to determine if three representative ''slow'' viruses of sheep VV, MV and PPV replicate by way of a DNA ''provirus'' in a manner similar to the RNA tumor viruses. The approach used was to determine if unique virus-specific DNA sequences not present in normal cells could be detected in the DNA of infected cell cultures. The results presented demonstrate that infection by VV, MV and PPV results in the synthesis of proviral DNA. Sections II and III examine the similarities among VV, MV and PPV. In Section II, the RNA genomes of these viruses were compared by nucleic acid hybridization. The homology among these viral RNAs was determined from the extensive competition of homologous viral RNA-cDNA hybrids by heterologous RNA and from the thermal stability of homologous and heterologous RNA-cDNA hybrids. The 70S RNAs of visna and maedi virus were indistinguishable but only partially homologous to that of progressive pneumonia virus. Section III describes the purification of the major internal protein component of VV, p27, the development of a radioimmunoassay to study its antigenic relatedness to the corresponding proteins of PPV and MV, and its use in the detection of cross-reacting proteins in progressive pneumonia virus infected sheep lung. The ability to detect unique virus-related DNA sequences and viral antigens in infected sheep tissues makes it now feasible to search for slow virus related DNA sequences and/or antigens in human diseases which bear resemblance to the slow diseases of sheep

  4. The Interpretive Function of the CJEU and the Interrelationship of EU and National Levels of Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howells Geraint

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the ways in which the Unfair Contract Terms and Unfair Commercial Practices Directives try to steer a path between imposing a common European standard and allowing national variation. The open wording of the norms and safeguard clauses in both directives allows room for their flexible application. The differentiated role between the Court of Justice, as the interpreter of European law, and the national courts, as the party that applies it, provides a release valve to prevent any direct clashes and allows a subtle way for national perspectives to be reflected.

  5. Functional interrelationship between TFII-I and E2F transcription factors at specific cell cycle gene loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Nar, Rukiye; Fan, Alex X; Aryan, Mahmoud; Hossain, Mir A; Gurumurthy, Aishwarya; Wassel, Paul C; Tang, Ming; Lu, Jianrong; Strouboulis, John; Bungert, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Transcription factor TFII-I is a multifunctional protein implicated in the regulation of cell cycle and stress-response genes. Previous studies have shown that a subset of TFII-I associated genomic sites contained DNA-binding motifs for E2F family transcription factors. We analyzed the co-association of TFII-I and E2Fs in more detail using bioinformatics, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. The data show that TFII-I interacts with E2F transcription factors. Furthermore, TFII-I, E2F4, and E2F6 interact with DNA-regulatory elements of several genes implicated in the regulation of the cell cycle, including DNMT1, HDAC1, CDKN1C, and CDC27. Inhibition of TFII-I expression led to a decrease in gene expression and in the association of E2F4 and E2F6 with these gene loci in human erythroleukemia K562 cells. Finally, TFII-I deficiency reduced the proliferation of K562 cells and increased the sensitivity toward doxorubicin toxicity. The results uncover novel interactions between TFII-I and E2Fs and suggest that TFII-I mediates E2F function at specific cell cycle genes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. SNF verification requirements imposed through 10 CFR Part 961: Interrelationship with MC ampersand A requirements for the OCRWM safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, N.; Vance, S.

    1994-01-01

    Article VI.B.2 of the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961, Standard Contract) provides that spent nuclear fuel shall be subject to verification prior to acceptance by the Department of Energy. As part of the overall process for scheduling deliveries of spent nuclear fuel, the Standard Contract requires contract holders to submit detailed descriptions of the spent nuclear fuel they intend to deliver. Thus, the provision for verification in the Standard contract allows the Department the opportunity to ensure that the spent nuclear fuel intended for deliver is consistent with the description provided, and that the material is properly loaded, packaged, marked, and labeled. The Department is currently evaluating the verification requirements for spent nuclear fuel that it will establish pursuant to Article VI.B.2 of the Standard Contract. The Department recognizes that there may be significant overlap between these verification requirements and the requirements established for material control and accountability (MC ampersand A). Therefore, the Department may recommend modifications to the process established in the Standard Contract to ensure that the verification and MC ampersand A functions and activities are fully integrated

  7. An Investigation into the Inter-relationship among Work, Family and Part-time Education in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Humphry; Mondejar, Reuben

    2001-01-01

    A study of 459 part-time graduate and undergraduate students with full-time jobs in Hong Kong found that support of employers and families had a significant relationship with perceived job performance and satisfaction with family and work life. Academic performance was not significantly correlated with perceived employer and family support.…

  8. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments. We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013) and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014). Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters). Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only). Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations. Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7-7.4) and 7.5% (5.9-9.4) in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5-9.4) in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4-11.7) in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment) was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting participation restrictions. Tools to assess reported functional limitation alone are insufficient to identify all persons with participation restrictions and moderate or severe clinical impairments. A self-reported functional limitation tool followed by clinical screening of all those who report any level of difficulty would identify 94% of people with disabilities in Cameroon and 95% in India, meeting the study criteria.

  9. The inter-relationship between work-life balance and organisational culture: an empirical study of Nigerian health sector

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa, Toyin, A

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. This exploratory study examines the relationship between the work-life balance and organisational culture of medical doctors and nurses in Nigeria. There has been an overwhelming majority of work-life balance studies undertaken in Western countries. This leaves Africa, most notably Nigeria, an understudied area of investigations. In order to achieve this objective, this study applie...

  10. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in TBI-related mortality: Interrelationships between Genetics and Acute Systemic and CNS BDNF Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, Michelle D.; Conley, Yvette P.; Wagner, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults have higher mortality rates after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to younger adults. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is altered in aging and is important to TBI given its role in neuronal survival/plasticity and autonomic function. Following experimental TBI, acute BDNF administration has not been efficacious. Clinically, genetic variation in BDNF (reduced signaling alleles: rs6265, Met-carriers; rs7124442, C-carriers) were protective in acute mortality. Post-acutely, these genotypes carried lower mortality risk in older adults, and greater mortality risk among younger adults. Objective Investigate BDNF levels in mortality/outcome following severe TBI in the context of age and genetic risk. Methods CSF and serum BDNF were assessed prospectively during the first week following severe TBI (n=203), and in controls (n=10). Age, BDNF genotype, and BDNF levels were assessed as mortality/outcome predictors. Results CSF BDNF levels tended to be higher post-TBI (p=0.061) versus controls and were associated with time until death (p=0.042). In contrast, serum BDNF levels were reduced post-TBI versus controls (pBDNF serum and gene*age interactions were mortality predictors post-TBI in the same multivariate model. CSF and serum BDNF tended to be negatively correlated post-TBI (p=0.07). Conclusions BDNF levels predicted mortality, in addition to gene*age interactions, suggesting levels capture additional mortality risk. Higher CSF BDNF post-TBI may be detrimental due to injury and age-related increases in pro-apoptotic BDNF target receptors. Negative CSF and serum BDNF correlations post-TBI suggest blood-brain barrier transit alterations. Understanding BDNF signaling in neuronal survival, plasticity, and autonomic function may inform treatment. PMID:25979196

  11. Late Holocene (~ 2 ka) East Asian Monsoon variations inferred from river discharge and climate interrelationships in the Pearl River Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nan, Q.; Li, T.; Chen, J.; Nigam, R.

    A sediment core from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) was analyzed for grain size and organic geochemistry parameters (TOC and δ13Corg). The results showed that high mean grain-size value and increased sand content were correlated...

  12. Interrelationship between chromosome 8 aneuploidy, C-MYC amplification and increased expression in individuals from northern Brazil with gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Seabra, Aline Damaceno; Khayat, André Salim; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Faria, Mario Henrique Girão; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Ferreira, Márcia Valéria Pitombeira; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate chromosome 8 numerical aberrations, C-MYC oncogene alterations and its expression in gastric cancer and to correlate these findings with histopathological characteristics of gastric tumors. METHODS: Specimens were collected surgically from seven patients with gastric adenocarcinomas. Immunostaining for C-MYC and dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for C-MYC gene and chromosome 8 centromere were performed. RESULTS: All the cases showed chromosome 8 aneuploidy and C-MYC amplification, in both the diffuse and intestinal histopathological types of Lauren. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the level of chromosome 8 ploidy and the site, stage or histological type of the adenocarcinomas. C-MYC high amplification, like homogeneously stained regions (HSRs) and double minutes (DMs), was observed only in the intestinal-type. Structural rearrangement of C-MYC, like translocation, was observed only in the diffuse type. Regarding C-MYC gene, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the two histological types. The C-MYC protein was expressed in all the studied cases. In the intestinal-type the C-MYC immunoreactivity was localized only in the nucleus and in the diffuse type in the nucleus and cytoplasm. CONCLUSION: Distinct patterns of alterations between intestinal and diffuse types of gastric tumors support the hypothesis that these types follow different genetic pathways. PMID:17036397

  13. Research on Interrelationship between some Species of Freshwater Fish and Helmintic Larvae within Aquatic Ecosystems Polluted with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdeş

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of some larvae of cestodes and nematodes which live infreshwater fish (intermediate hosts, to exhibit an uptake of heavy metals.According to some scientifical papers treating this subject, only adult worms were able to absorb successfully heavymetals within their hosts. Furthermore, it is believed that only the adults would act as biofilters and consequently astrustworthy indicators of environmental pollution.This study, carried out on the Danube Delta area, comes to prove the ability of the larvae to absorb heavy metalswithin their hosts, even when the pollution level with respect to heavy metals is very low.Following the biochemical analyses of water, sediment, aquatic plants, larvae and fish tissues (liver and musclesamples, it resulted that the larvae were able to absorb important quantities within their hosts, so that only scarceamounts to be found in the muscle and liver. Both parasites were able to accumulate some heavy metals within theirhosts, although only one of them did it successfully.

  14. The Structure of Enterprise Law: Interrelationships among contracts, markets, and laws in the bargaining structure of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    SHISHIDO Zenichi

    2010-01-01

    The firm is an ongoing joint project requiring both financial and human capital. Like other joint projects, the firm cannot maximize added value without achieving an efficient incentive bargain among the indispensable capital providers, i.e., shareholders and creditors as the monetary capital providers, and management and employees as the human capital providers. To stimulate efficient incentive bargaining at the firm level and, consequently, to enhance the efficiency of the whole economy, I ...

  15. Chlorinated pool attendance, airway epithelium defects and the risks of allergic diseases in adolescents: Interrelationships revealed by circulating biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alfred, E-mail: Alfred.bernard@uclouvain.be; Nickmilder, Marc; Dumont, Xavier

    2015-07-15

    It has been suggested that allergic diseases might be epithelial disorders driven by various environmental stressors but the epidemiological evidence supporting this concept is limited. In a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents (365 boys; mean age, 15.5 yr), we measured the serum concentrations of Club cell protein (CC16), surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) and of total and aeroallergen-specific IgE. We used the serum CC16/SP-D concentration ratio as an index integrating changes in the permeability (SP-D) and secretory function (CC16) of the airway epithelium. In both sexes, early swimming in chlorinated pools emerged as the most consistent and strongest predictor of low CC16 and CC16/SP-D ratio in serum. Among girls, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds (lowest vs. highest tertile) for pet sensitization (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.19–8.22) and for hay fever in subjects sensitized to pollen (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.28–14.4). Among boys, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds for house-dust mite (HDM) sensitization (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.11–3.73), for allergic rhinitis in subjects sensitized to HDM (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.22–11.1) and for asthma in subjects sensitized to any aeroallergen (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.17–11.0), HDM (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.40–24.2) or pollen (OR 5.82, 95% CI 1.51–27.4). Odds for allergic sensitization or rhinitis also increased with increasing SP-D or decreasing CC16 in serum. Our findings support the hypothesis linking the development of allergic diseases to epithelial barrier defects due to host factors or environmental stressors such as early swimming in chlorinated pools. - Highlights: • We conducted a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents. • The airway epithelium integrity was evaluated by measuring serum pneumoproteins. • The risk of allergic diseases was associated with a defective airway epithelium. • Childhood swimming in chlorinated pools can cause persistent epithelial alterations.

  16. Economic interrelationships and impacts of the aviation/aerospace industry in the state of Florida using input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealan George, Kelly

    The study provided a detailed description of the interrelatedness of the aviation and aerospace industry with principal industries in Florida and Volusia County (VC) using Input-Output (IO) analysis. Additionally, this research provided an economic impact analysis of the creation of a university research park in Daytona Beach (DB). The economic impact measures included not only direct economic output and industry employment descriptions but also described the multiplier effects in the form of indirect and induced impacts using data for 2012. This research concluded the average labor income of the aviation and aerospace industry was higher than average labor income in Florida and VC. A substantive difference between the Florida and VC average labor income for the aviation and aerospace industry existed because VC's aerospace sector was only concentrated in the search, detection, and navigation instruments manufacturing sector. VC's transport by air sector was one-fifth the size of Florida's. Differences in the aviation and aerospace industry composition between Florida and VC are important because the economic impacts from a shock to the entire aviation and aerospace industry will be distributed differently. Since the aviation and aerospace average labor income is higher than the average labor income in Florida and VC, it would be a positive move for Florida's economy to attract and grow the aviation and aerospace industry. It would be highly unlikely that the entirety of newly created jobs would be resourced from the local population. Nonetheless, growing the aviation and aerospace industry jobs would have a positive influence on the region's economy and tax revenues. It would be a desirable course of action to spur the growth of this sector, as its direct effect would culminate with additional jobs in Florida that would bring higher wage jobs to the state. The interdependencies of the aviation and aerospace industry in Florida and VC with other industries had a positive indirect and induced effect in the economy providing almost a two-fold indirect and induced effect. However, the benefits were not equal. Florida's average labor income of the most sensitive non-aviation and aerospace industry was 15% lower than the average Florida labor income. The average labor income in VC of the most sensitive non-aviation and aerospace industry was significantly higher than the average VC labor income. Industry interdependencies also presented risk. If the aviation and aerospace industry experiences a contraction, then through the interdependencies of the industries, the region would contract twice as much as the aviation and aerospace industry. The overall impact of a university research park would benefit Florida's economy. Since the research park project is currently funded partially by public state money, 14 sectors of the economy experienced negative impacts. While the net result was an increase in additional labor income, the employment growth was characterized by gaining more lower-paying jobs while losing less higher-paying jobs. The most expected outcome, an expansion of the aviation and aerospace industry, was not evidenced by the model results.

  17. Exploring the inter-relationship of smoking age-at-onset, cigarette consumption and smoking persistence: genes or environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Katherine I; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Treloar, Susan A; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to covariation between smoking age-at-onset, cigarette consumption and smoking persistence. Multivariate biometrical modelling methods were applied to questionnaire data from Australian twins and their siblings (14 472 individuals from 6247 families). The contributions of genetic and environmental factors to covariation between the three traits were estimated, allowing for sex differences in both trait prevalence and the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects. All traits were moderately heritable in males and females (estimates between 0.40 and 0.62), but there were sex differences in the extent to which additive genetic influences were shared across traits. Twin-specific environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in smoking age-at-onset in females (0.19) and males (0.12), but had little influence (smoking age-at-onset (0.17 for females, 0.19 for males), but a stronger influence on other traits (between 0.39 and 0.49). These results provide some insight into observed sex differences in smoking behaviour, and suggest that searching for pleiotropic genes may prove fruitful. However, further work on phenotypic definitions of smoking behaviour, particularly persistence, is warranted.

  18. A Study of the Interrelationships among Service Recovery, Relationship Quality, and Brand Image in Higher Education Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the direction and strength of the relationships among service recovery, relationship quality, and brand image in higher education industries. This research provides a framework for school managers to understand service recovery from an operations perspective. Structural equation models were used to test the proposed…

  19. The Interrelationship of Helicase and Nuclease Domains during DNA Translocation by the Molecular Motor EcoR124I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šišáková, Eva; Weiserová, Marie; Dekker, C.; Seidel, R.; Szczelkun, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 384, č. 5 (2008), s. 1273-1286 ISSN 0022-2836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/07/0325 Grant - others:XE(XE) Eu projekt BioNano-Switch 043288 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : single molecule * enzyme disorder * translocase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.146, year: 2008

  20. Understanding the inter-relationship between improved glycaemic control, hypoglycaemia and weight change within a long-term economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, P; Evans, M; Kan, H; Bergenheim, K

    2010-05-01

    Current guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes advocate the attainment of sustained near normal glycaemia levels. Metformin is widely accepted as the treatment of choice for the initiation of pharmacotherapy; however, secondary failure of oral monotherapy occurs in 60% of patients resulting in the need for multiple pharmacotherapies. Therapy-related consequences of treatment, such as weight gain and hypoglycaemia impact on the cost-effectiveness profile of various agents. We therefore sought to ascertain the respective contribution of hypoglycaemia, weight change and improved blood glucose control on second-line therapy options added to metformin. This study uses a simulation model designed to evaluate the cost utility of new therapies in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Standard model outputs include incidence of micro- and macrovascular complications and diabetes-specific and all-cause mortality. The mean discounted quality-adjusted life year (QALY) predicted by the model was 12.31 years. Reducing Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) by 1% gave a predicted gain of 0.413 QALYs per patient. A 3-kg weight loss and 30% reduction in hypoglycaemia frequency produced a combined QALY gain of 0.355, whereas the reverse gave a QALY decrement of 0.356. The results of this analysis quantify the QALY decrement that may result from adverse therapy effects. The beneficial effects of improved glycaemic control on QALYs may be offset by characteristic treatment-specific adverse effects, such as weight gain and hypoglycaemia frequency.

  1. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  2. Response of selected binomial coefficients to varying degrees of matrix sparseness and to matrices with known data interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, A.W.; Maples, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous departures from ideal relationships are revealed by Monte Carlo simulations of widely accepted binomial coefficients. For example, simulations incorporating varying levels of matrix sparseness (presence of zeros indicating lack of data) and computation of expected values reveal that not only are all common coefficients influenced by zero data, but also that some coefficients do not discriminate between sparse or dense matrices (few zero data). Such coefficients computationally merge mutually shared and mutually absent information and do not exploit all the information incorporated within the standard 2 ?? 2 contingency table; therefore, the commonly used formulae for such coefficients are more complicated than the actual range of values produced. Other coefficients do differentiate between mutual presences and absences; however, a number of these coefficients do not demonstrate a linear relationship to matrix sparseness. Finally, simulations using nonrandom matrices with known degrees of row-by-row similarities signify that several coefficients either do not display a reasonable range of values or are nonlinear with respect to known relationships within the data. Analyses with nonrandom matrices yield clues as to the utility of certain coefficients for specific applications. For example, coefficients such as Jaccard, Dice, and Baroni-Urbani and Buser are useful if correction of sparseness is desired, whereas the Russell-Rao coefficient is useful when sparseness correction is not desired. ?? 1989 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Inter-relationship of intelligence-quotient and self-concept with dental caries amongst socially handicapped orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Pks; Jain, R L; Pathak, A; Sharma, U; Rajput, J S

    2012-01-01

    India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ) and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997). To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student's unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson's coefficient of co-relation was applied. the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.

  4. Interrelationships and Continuities in Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders from Age 4 to 10 in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Silje Merethe; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-07-01

    Childhood oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has commonly been thought to increase the risk of conduct disorder (CD) in late childhood and adolescence. However, symptoms of CD may also emerge during preschool and middle childhood. The few studies that have examined whether ODD increases the risk of such early onset CD have produced equivocal results, potentially due to methodological issues. In this study, a community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds (n = 1042, 49.9 % males) was examined bi-annually over four waves of data collection. Symptoms of ODD, CD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depressive disorders were measured through interviews with parents and children using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. The results showed that at all ages, more symptoms of ODD predicted more symptoms of CD at the next age of examination even after adjusting for previous CD and comorbid conditions. The effect of previous ODD on CD two years later did not differ according to gender, SES, or parental cohabitating status at any point in time. There was modest homotypical continuity in symptoms of CD and moderate homotypical continuity in symptoms of ODD. Symptoms of ODD increased from age 4 to 8 and declined to age 10. In conclusion, symptoms of ODD increase the risk of early onset symptoms of CD. The continuity in symptoms of ODD, and to some extent CD, combined with an increased risk of early symptoms of CD forecasted by symptoms of ODD, underscore the importance of detection, prevention and treatment of behavioral disorders already in early childhood.

  5. The inter-relationship of diabetes and left ventricular systolic function on outcome after high-risk myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M; Uno, Hajime; Køber, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a potent risk factor for death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization following myocardial infarction (MI). Whether diabetes modifies the relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and outcomes in the post-MI population is unknown.......Diabetes is a potent risk factor for death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization following myocardial infarction (MI). Whether diabetes modifies the relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and outcomes in the post-MI population is unknown....

  6. Interrelationship between 3,5,3´-triiodothyronine and the circadian clock in the rodent heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio; Prévide, Rafael Maso; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Young, Martin Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) is an important modulator of cardiac metabolism and function, often through modulation of gene expression. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock is a transcriptionally based molecular mechanism capable of regulating cardiac processes, in part by modulating responsiveness of the heart to extra-cardiac stimuli/stresses in a time-of-day (TOD)-dependent manner. Although TOD-dependent oscillations in circulating levels of T3 (and its intermediates) have been established, oscillations in T3 sensitivity in the heart is unknown. To investigate the latter possibility, euthyroid male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle or T3 at distinct times of the day, after which induction of known T3 target genes were assessed in the heart (4-h later). The expression of mRNA was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Here, we report greater T3 induction of transcript levels at the end of the dark phase. Surprisingly, use of cardiomyocyte-specific clock mutant (CCM) mice revealed that TOD-dependent oscillations in T3 sensitivity were independent of this cell autonomous mechanism. Investigation of genes encoding for proteins that affect T3 sensitivity revealed that Dio1, Dio2 and Thrb1 exhibited TOD-dependent variations in the heart, while Thra1 and Thra2 did not. Of these, Dio1 and Thrb1 were increased in the heart at the end of the dark phase. Interestingly, we observed that T3 acutely altered the expression of core clock components (e.g. Bmal1) in the rat heart. To investigate this further, rats were injected with a single dose of T3, after which expression of clock genes was interrogated at 3-h intervals over the subsequent 24-h period. These studies revealed robust effects of T3 on oscillations of both core clock components and clock-controlled genes. In summary, the current study exposed TOD-dependent sensitivity to T3 in the heart and its effects in the circadian clock genes expression.

  7. Sarcomas as a mise en abyme of mesenchymal stem cells: exploiting interrelationships for cell mediated anticancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Safwat, Akmal; Grisendi, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Mise en abyme meaning "placed into abyss or infinite recurrence" is an apt paradigm for the relentless growth of sarcoma cells. Its alternative meaning, "self-reflexive embedding" fits the central role attributed to cancer stem cells (CSCs). Diversely sourced and defined, mesenchymal stem cells...

  8. An Exploratory Study of Individual and Organizational Variable Interrelationships in Research and Development Organizations within Air Force Systems Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    31:493). Farace defines communication as "the exchange of symbols 6 that are commonly shared by the individuals involved, and which evoke 13 Ip...1981). r 9. Evans, C. George. Supervising R&D Personnel. New York: American Management Association, 1969. 10. Farace , Richard V. and others

  9. Chlorinated pool attendance, airway epithelium defects and the risks of allergic diseases in adolescents: Interrelationships revealed by circulating biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alfred; Nickmilder, Marc; Dumont, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that allergic diseases might be epithelial disorders driven by various environmental stressors but the epidemiological evidence supporting this concept is limited. In a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents (365 boys; mean age, 15.5 yr), we measured the serum concentrations of Club cell protein (CC16), surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) and of total and aeroallergen-specific IgE. We used the serum CC16/SP-D concentration ratio as an index integrating changes in the permeability (SP-D) and secretory function (CC16) of the airway epithelium. In both sexes, early swimming in chlorinated pools emerged as the most consistent and strongest predictor of low CC16 and CC16/SP-D ratio in serum. Among girls, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds (lowest vs. highest tertile) for pet sensitization (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.19–8.22) and for hay fever in subjects sensitized to pollen (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.28–14.4). Among boys, a low CC16/SP-D ratio was associated with increased odds for house-dust mite (HDM) sensitization (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.11–3.73), for allergic rhinitis in subjects sensitized to HDM (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.22–11.1) and for asthma in subjects sensitized to any aeroallergen (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.17–11.0), HDM (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.40–24.2) or pollen (OR 5.82, 95% CI 1.51–27.4). Odds for allergic sensitization or rhinitis also increased with increasing SP-D or decreasing CC16 in serum. Our findings support the hypothesis linking the development of allergic diseases to epithelial barrier defects due to host factors or environmental stressors such as early swimming in chlorinated pools. - Highlights: • We conducted a cross-sectional study of 835 school adolescents. • The airway epithelium integrity was evaluated by measuring serum pneumoproteins. • The risk of allergic diseases was associated with a defective airway epithelium. • Childhood swimming in chlorinated pools can cause persistent epithelial alterations

  10. Marriage choices and social reproduction.: The interrelationship between partner selection and intergenerational socioeconomic mobility in 19th-century Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dribe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationship between partner selection and socioeconomic status (SES attainment and mobility in five rural parishes in southern Sweden, 1815-1894. Three different aspects of partner selection are considered: age, social origin, and geographical origin. We use an individual-level database containing information on the SES origin (parental land holding and occupation, age difference, and place of birth of the married couple. The results show a powerful association between partner selection and SES attainment and mobility. Social heterogamy was particularly important, but age heterogamy and geographic exogamy was also clearly related to both SES attainment and mobility.

  11. The inter-relationship of diabetes and left ventricular systolic function on outcome after high-risk myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M; Uno, Hajime; Køber, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a potent risk factor for death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization following myocardial infarction (MI). Whether diabetes modifies the relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and outcomes in the post-MI population is unknown....

  12. Interrelationships between soil biota and soil physical properties in forest areas of the Pieniny National Park (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Dzierwa, Agata

    2017-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park (PNP) in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). Investigated soil belonged to Eutric Cambisols and had silt or silt loam texture. The purpose of this research was to investigated relationship between soil biota, such as microbial activity, soil Oligochaeta (Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae) and soil physical properties, such as water retention or aggregates stability. This research was conducted at six forest monitoring areas of the PNP. Sampling was collected in the September 2016. For each of the 6 places, undisturbed and disturbed soil samples were taken from the 0-15-cm and 15-30-cm layer in 3 to 5 replicates. Undisturbed soil was taken: i) into Kopecky cylinders to determined soil physical properties; ii) a soil cores to determined enchytraeids and fine roots biomass (RB). Disturbed soil was collected in 3 reps and homogenized. Next such soil samples were divided into three parts: i) fresh one to determined dehydrogenase activity (ADh), microbial carbon biomass (MC) and labile carbon (LC); ii) air-dried, passed through a sieve (2-mm mesh size) and used for analysis: pH, organic carbon and bulk density; iii) last part air dried was used to determined stability of different size aggregates. In field, earthworms were collected in 3 reps using hand sorting method. Investigated soils were strongly acidic to neutral (pH 4.8-6.8). Organic carbon (Corg) content was varied from 0.8% to 4.5% and was higher in 0-15-cm layers than in 15-30-cm layers. Higher Corgcontent was connected with lower bulk density. Enchytraeids density was ranged from 1807 ind. m-2 to 88855 ind. m-2 and was correlated with microbial activity (ADh and MB) and RB. Earthworms density (ED) was ranged from 7 ind. m-2to 507 ind. m-2. In investigated soil was 6 genus and 7 species (Octolasion lacteum, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea jassyensis, Lumbricus rubellus, Eisenia lucens, and Fitzingeria platyura depressa). ED was closely related with soil moisture and water field capacity. This Research was financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland, No. BM - 4175/16

  13. A Simulation Study of Threats to Validity in Quasi-Experimental Designs: Interrelationship between Design, Measurement, and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado-Tello, Fco P; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Pérez-Gil, José A

    2016-01-01

    The Campbellian tradition provides a conceptual framework to assess threats to validity. On the other hand, different models of causal analysis have been developed to control estimation biases in different research designs. However, the link between design features, measurement issues, and concrete impact estimation analyses is weak. In order to provide an empirical solution to this problem, we use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a first approximation to operationalize the analytical implications of threats to validity in quasi-experimental designs. Based on the analogies established between the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and causal analysis, we describe an empirical study based on SEM in which range restriction and statistical power have been simulated in two different models: (1) A multistate model in the control condition (pre-test); and (2) A single-trait-multistate model in the control condition (post-test), adding a new mediator latent exogenous (independent) variable that represents a threat to validity. Results show, empirically, how the differences between both the models could be partially or totally attributed to these threats. Therefore, SEM provides a useful tool to analyze the influence of potential threats to validity.

  14. Study on the inter-relationship between serum cytokines levels and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongchun; Xie Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role played by serum cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 27 diabetic patients without complications, 18 patients with early nephro or retinopathy and 33 controls. Results: (1) Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly higher in the diabetic patients than those in controls (P<0.01). (2) Levels of the cytokines in diabetic patients with early complications were significantly higher than those in patients without complications (P<0.02). (3) The serum levels of these cytokines were mutually positively correlated. Conclusion: The cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α participated in the development and pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and monitoring their plasma level changes would be clinically useful. (authors)

  15. L2 Motivation, Anxiety and Self-Efficacy: The Interrelationship of Individual Variables in the Secondary School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniel, Katalin; Csizér, Kata

    2013-01-01

    Our study describes the relationship of second language learning motivation, self-efficacy, and anxiety; that is, how motivation, cognition, and affect might interact during the process of second language learning. Questionnaire data were collected from 236 Hungarian students studying at various secondary schools. Structural equation modeling was…

  16. Seasonal inter-relationships in atmospheric methane and companion delta13C values: effects of sinks and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassey, K. R.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E. (NIWA, Wellington (New Zealand)), e-mail: k.lassey@niwa.co.nz; Allan, W. (Allan Planning and Research Ltd., Petone (New Zealand))

    2011-07-15

    Recent developments in applying carbon-isotope information to better understand regional and global methane budgets infer a strong role by a highly fractionating seasonal sink such as atomic chlorine. Specifically, OH as the predominant seasonal sink cannot account for the 'phase ellipses' based on observed seasonal cycles of methane mixing ratio and isotope ratio, delta13C. Although a strong role by atomic chlorine is inferred empirically, open questions remain about the interplay between sources and sinks in determining the properties of phase ellipses. This paper employs a simple didactic model of the seasonal cycling of atmospheric methane to understand such interplay. We demonstrate that a single seasonal sink and seasonal source act together to imprint anti-phase seasonalities on atmospheric methane and delta13C, which lead to phase ellipses that collapse onto a straight line with slope characteristic of that sink. This explains empirical findings of these anti-phase relationships in three-dimensional modelling studies. We also demonstrate that multiple seasonal sinks acting with a seasonal source can yield surprising properties for the phase ellipse that not only explain some features of phase ellipses reported in modelling studies but also have the potential to explain marked inter-annual variation in phase ellipses based on observation

  17. Interrelationship between Mini-Mental State Examination scores and biochemical parameters in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantharekha, Ramasamy; Priyanka, Hannah P; Swarnalingam, Thangavel; Srinivasan, Avathvadi Venkatesan; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide first-hand information about the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Tamil Nadu, a southern state in India, and examine if there exists a relationship between cognitive functions and biochemical parameters in these patients. Surveys were collected from adults, older men and women (n = 3126) from different regions of Tamil Nadu, which were followed up after 12 months for 1337 participants. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, lipid profile, and liver function tests were carried out in the elderly, MCI and AD patients. Based on the MMSE scores, the elderly population was classified into old control (28.97 ± 1.49; n = 1868), MCI (19.58 ± 1.17; n = 734) and AD (7.18 ± 1.38; n = 304) groups. Peripheral blood samples were collected after overnight fast from both male and female volunteers (n = 40 per group) who were categorized as young adult control, old control, MCI and AD. AD patients showed lower MMSE scores compared with the young adults, old and MCI groups, and MMSE further decreased at follow-up examination a year later. In the serum of AD patients, high-density lipoprotein, alkaline phosphatase activity and bilirubin levels were lower, whereas low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were higher. MMSE was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein, and negatively correlated with other lipid parameters in AD. Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for AD that might result in neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment. Dysfunction of lipoprotein and heme metabolism might also provide additional targets for AD diagnosis. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1737-1745. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Closing the gap: training for healthcare workers and people with disabilities on the interrelationship of HIV and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Alli, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    HIV and disability are interrelated providing a double burden to HIV endemic countries in East and Southern Africa and their already fragile health systems. Although literature reveals that people with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to HIV and that HIV, its opportunistic infections and treatments can cause disability, only few interventions target this issue and none have been evaluated in this region. Formative evaluation was undertaken with regard to the effectiveness of a workshop-based intervention for healthcare workers and people with disabilities on the intersection of disability and HIV in order to inform the further development of this intervention. The formative evaluation assessed participants' perception of the inclusion of disability in HIV services and of opportunities to initiate change after the workshops. It also captured their experiences in utilising knowledge and skills after the workshops using quantitative (short checklist and ranking exercise) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) methods of inquiry. Frequencies and conventional content analysis were used in the analysis of the data. This study presents an example of applied research conducted under real-world conditions. 60 healthcare workers and people with disabilities took part in this pilot workshop training and participated in the formative evaluation. Healthcare workers and people with disabilities alike identified various barriers to access health services. Reasonable accommodation was perceived as being mainly absent by most participants, while some participants indicated a lack of physical accessibility in the form of universal design. Participants also identified a lack of integration of services and disability-related skills within the healthcare staff. Participants reported a number of enablers, success and challenges while implementing the knowledge from the workshops related to structural issues, service provision and integration. While participants worked on health workers' attitudes and accessibility of services, screening and referrals practice was not improved through the workshops. Formative evaluation indicates that the workshops can be effective not only in sensitising healthcare workers and people with disabilities to opportunities to improve services for people with disabilities but also to provide knowledge and skills to initiate improvements. Skills that need more practical training (e.g. screening for disability) need to be trained in more detail, and this will inform the adaptation of the workshops. However, the workshop evaluation also revealed that without policy implementation and budget allocations this change would only be limited. Implications for Rehabilitation HIV, its co-morbidities and treatments cause health conditions and impairments that have the potential to develop into disability. People with disabilities are at increased risk of exposure to HIV. Rehabilitation professionals, healthcare workers and people with disabilities can be sensitised in a three-day workshop on the relationship of disability and HIV. However, the trained participants can only implement no or low-cost elements of interventions, while high-cost interventions need budget allocations at provincial and national level.

  19. Associations of the fatty liver and hepatic steatosis indices with risk of cardiovascular disease: Interrelationship with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Bakker, Stephan J L; Blokzijl, Hans; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-03-01

    The fatty liver index (FLI) and the hepatic steatosis index (HSI), are biomarker-based algorithms developed as proxies for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed associations of FLI and HSI with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The FLI and HSI were estimated at baseline in the PREVEND cohort involving 6340 participants aged 28-75years without pre-existing CVD. During a median follow-up of 10.5years, 631 CVD events occurred. In age-and sex-adjusted analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for CVD comparing FLI≥60 versus FLI36 versus HSI<30, the corresponding adjusted HRs were 1.29 (1.02-1.65), 0.84 (0.65-1.09) and 0.79 (0.55-1.13) respectively. Subgroup analyses suggested a positive association in younger participants (<50years) for FLI and inverse associations in older participants (≥50years) for both indices (P for interaction for all=0.001). Current data suggest age interactions in the association of NAFLD (as assessed by FLI or HSI) with CVD risk in a general Caucasian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-05-28

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  1. Interrelationship of motivation for and perceived constraints to physical activity participation and the well-being of senior center participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoko Miyake; Ellen Rodgers

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of motivation for and perceived constraints to physical activity (PA) participation and the well-being of senior center participants. A survey instrument made up of modified versions of the Sport Motivation and Perceived Constraints Scales, the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, and the Geriatric Depression Scale was administered at the...

  2. Influence of Meteorology and interrelationship with greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at a suburban site of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Gaddamidi; Mahesh, Pathakoti; Subin, Jose; Lakshmi Kanchana, Asuri; Venkata Narasimha Rao, Pamaraju; Dadhwal, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impacts on the climate system. The present study brings out first continuous measurements of atmospheric GHGs using high-precision LGR-GGA over Shadnagar, a suburban site of Central India during the year 2014. The annual mean CO2 and CH4 over the study region are found to be 394 ± 2.92 and 1.92 ± 0.07 ppm (μ ± 1σ) respectively. CO2 and CH4 show a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum (minimum) CO2 observed during pre-monsoon (monsoon), while CH4 recorded the maximum during post-monsoon and minimum during monsoon. Irrespective of the seasons, consistent diurnal variations of these gases are observed. Influences of prevailing meteorology (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity) on GHGs have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 show a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon with correlation coefficients (Rs) equal to 0.80, 0.80, 0.61, and 0.72 respectively, indicating a common anthropogenic source for these gases. Analysis of this study reveals the major sources for CO2 are soil respiration and anthropogenic emissions while vegetation acts as a main sink, whereas the major source and sink for CH4 are vegetation and presence of hydroxyl (OH) radicals.

  3. Interrelationships of Land Use/Cover Change and Topography with Soil Acidity and Salinity as Indicators of Land Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramita Manandhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As soil is the basis of all terrestrial ecosystems, degraded soil means lower fertility, reduced biodiversity and reduced human welfare. Therefore the focus of this paper is on elucidating the influence of land use and land cover (LULC change on two important soil quality indicators that are fundamental to effective measures for ameliorating soil degradation; namely soil acidity and soil salinity in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia. First, Analysis of Variance was used to elucidate the effects of LULC categories on soil acidity and salinity. The results indicate that soils under Vineyard have significantly higher pH. In contrast there is no significant effect of LULC or its change on soil salinity. To further elucidate the complex interactions of these soil quality indicators with landscape attributes over 20 years and other terrain attributes, multivariate ordination techniques (correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis were used. The results show that elevation exerted a more dominant influence on pH than the LULC types and their dynamics. In comparison, salinity of the soil appears to be higher in subsoil layers under woodland than under other LULC categories. The environmental implications of these interactions, as evidenced by this study, provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  4. Love in the Middle Years: The Interrelationship Between Love and Marital Status, Parental Roles, and Occupational Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Rebecca

    There are four different types of love possible between men and women in the middle years. The type they feel for each other depends not upon their ages but upon whether they are married, whether they have children, and what is happening in their occupational careers. The intense feelings of romantic love are dampened by long association. Conjugal…

  5. Analysis of interrelationship between the protein fractions content and blood serum immunoglobulins with irradiation of atomic industry enterprises workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel'nov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    989 workers of atomic industry at the age from 35 to 78 years old subjected to the general external gamma radiation and incorporation of plutonium 239 in a wide range of doses about 17-40 years ago have been examined for the protein indices with the radiation effect bearing in mind nine non-radiation factors. The step-by-step regression analysis revealed a positive linear link for the total protein level, absolute content of alpha-1-globulins with the total dose of external gamma radiation. Increasing of serum proteins entropy, correlated with external radiation by protein shifts effect, had not coincided with its age increasing. The influence of plutonium-239 incorporation on the examined protein parameters was not found

  6. The Teaching and Learning of Foreign Languages in Spain from the Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries: Influences and Inter-Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Suso

    2018-01-01

    This study of the learning of foreign languages in Spain between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries sets out to demonstrate the importance of situating research on any given era in a pan-European plurilingual context. A brief historiographical overview is followed by a discussion of language teaching materials and methods from a sociocultural…

  7. Interrelationships among cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenendione exposures in the management of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria T; Willis, Brian A; Brundage, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocortisone is the standard replacement therapy for children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Relationships between cortisol exposures and pharmacodynamic responses of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione exposures have not been systematically evaluated. (1) Assess individual oral hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics; (2) relate the observed cortisol exposure in each subject to the observed exposures of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione; (3) determine potential individualized treatment regimens based on each subject's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. Thirty-four patients (18 boys, 16 girls, aged 1.4 to 18.1 years) with CAH underwent 6-hour pharmacokinetic studies. Results were analyzed by noncompartmental methods to obtain the area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione; maximum concentration and time-to-maximum concentration for cortisol; and minimum and time-to-minimum concentration for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione. Mean (SD) cortisol half-life and Cmax were 1.01 (0.20) hours and 24.4 (5.4) μg/dL, respectively. The AUCs for cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione were 40.8 (14.5) μg hour/dL, 29,490 (23,539) ng hour/dL, and 680 (795) ng hour/dL, respectively. No significant relationships existed between cortisol AUCs and the AUCs of either 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P=0.32) or androstenedione (P=0.99); nor were there differences between the change-from-baseline concentrations for cortisol with either 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P=0.80) or androstenedione (P=0.40). Cortisol simulations indicated that although four daily doses decreased 24-hour hypercortisolemia and hypocortisolemia, substantial periods of each remained. Concentration profiles of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione are highly variable in children with CAH, and knowledge of them can assist in personalizing the therapy of CAH patients. Hydrocortisone's rapid half-life and the lack of a sustained-released product make it difficult to closely approximate normal circadian profiles.

  8. Interrelationships between Working Memory, Processing Speed, and Language Development in the Age Range 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored associations between working memory and language in children aged 2-4 years. Method: Seventy-seven children aged 24-30 months were assessed on tests measuring language, visual cognition, verbal working memory (VWM), phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and processing speed. A standardized test of receptive and…

  9. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  10. Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between…

  11. A new species of the basal "kangaroo" Balbaroo and a re-evaluation of stem macropodiform interrelationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Black

    Full Text Available Exceptionally well-preserved skulls and postcranial elements of a new species of the plesiomorphic stem macropodiform Balbaroo have been recovered from middle Miocene freshwater limestone deposits in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northwestern Queensland, Australia. This constitutes the richest intraspecific sample for any currently known basal "kangaroo", and, along with additional material referred to Balbaroo fangaroo, provides new insights into structural variability within the most prolific archaic macropodiform clade--Balbaridae. Qualitative and metric evaluations of taxonomic boundaries demonstrate that the previously distinct species Nambaroo bullockensis is a junior synonym of B. camfieldensis. Furthermore, coupled Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal that our new Balbaroo remains represent the most derived member of the Balbaroo lineage, and are closely related to the middle Miocene B. camfieldensis, which like most named balbarid species is identifiable only from isolated jaws. The postcranial elements of Balbaroo concur with earlier finds of the stratigraphically oldest balbarid skeleton, Nambaroo gillespieae, and suggest that quadrupedal progression was a primary gait mode as opposed to bipedal saltation. All Balbaroo spp. have low-crowned bilophodont molars, which are typical for browsing herbivores inhabiting the densely forested environments envisaged for middle Miocene northeastern Australia.

  12. The Interrelationship of Sex, Visual Spatial Abilities, and Mathematical Problem Solving Ability in Grade Seven. Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann Koch

    This three-volume report deals with the hypothesis that males are more successful at solving mathematical and spatial problems than females. The general relationship between visual spatial abilities and mathematical problem-solving ability is also investigated. The research sample consisted of seventh graders. Each pupil took five spatial tests…

  13. Spathebothriidea: survey of species, scolex and egg morphology, and interrelationships of a non-segmented, relictual tapeworm group (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Pearson, R.; Scholz, Tomáš; Ditrich, O.; Olson, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 331-346 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eucestoda * taxonomy * scanning electron microscopy * 28S rDNA * 18S rDNA * ITS2 * phylogenetic relationships * phylogenetic relationships Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  14. Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., Snow Algae: Snow albedo changes, algal-bacterial interrelationships and ultraviolet radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.H.; Duval, B.

    1995-01-01

    In the Tioga Pass area (upper LeeVining Creek watershed) of the Sierra Nevada (California), snow algae were prevalent in the early summers of 1993 and 1994. Significant negative correlations were found between snow water content. However, red snow caused by algal blooms did not decrease mean albedos in representative snowfields. This was due to algal patchiness; mean albedos would not decrease over the whole water catchment basin; and water supplies would not be affected by the presence of algae. Albedo was also reduced by dirt on the snow, and wind-blown dirt may provide a source of allochthonous organic matter for snow bacteria. However, several observations emphasize the importance of an autochthonous source for bacterial nutrition. Bacterial abundances and production rates were higher in red snow containing algae than in noncolored snow. Bacterial production was about two orders-of-magnitude lower than photosynthetic algal production. Bacteria were also sometimes attached to algal cells. In experiments where snow algae were contained in UV-transmitting quartz tubes, ultraviolet radiation inhibited red snow (collected form open, sunlit areas) photosynthesis about 25%, while green snow (collected from forested, shady locations) photosynthesis was inhibited by 85%. Methanol extracts of red snow algae had greater absorbances in blue and UV spectral regions than did algae from green snow. These differences in UV responses and spectra may be due to habitat (sun vs shade) differences, or may be genetic, since different species were found in the two snow types. However, both habitat and genetic mechanisms may be operating together to cause these differences. 53 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Interrelationship of Cytokines, Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hormones, and Psychosocial Variables in the Prediction of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, B.D.; Grove, J.; Bonney, E.A.; Bliwise, N.; Dudley, D.J.; Schendel, D.E.; Thorsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims To examine the relationship of biological mediators (cytokines, stress hormones), psychosocial, obstetric history, and demographic factors in the early prediction of preterm birth (PTB) using a comprehensive logistic regression model incorporating diverse risk factors. Methods In this prospective case-control study, maternal serum biomarkers were quantified at 9–23 weeks’ gestation in 60 women delivering at order interactions. Results Among individual biomarkers, we found that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α were statistically significant predictors of PTB at all cutoff levels tested (75th, 85th, and 90th percentiles). We fit multifactor models for PTB prediction at each biomarker cutoff. Our best models revealed that MIF, CRP, risk-taking behavior, and low educational attainment were consistent predictors of PTB at all biomarker cutoffs. The 75th percentile cutoff yielded the best predicting model with an area under the ROC curve of 0.808 (95% CI 0.743–0.874). Conclusion Our comprehensive models highlight the prominence of behavioral risk factors for PTB and point to MIF as a possible psychobiological mediator. PMID:20160447

  16. The Interrelationship ofthe Market-Driving Approachand the Organizational Culture : A qualitative study of the market-driving companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gansuwan, Phansamon; Siribunluechai, Athipa

    2011-01-01

    Thee market-driving approach has been cited by several business academic scholars (Jaworski,Kohli, & Sahay, 2000; Carpenter, Glazer, & Nakamoto, 2000; Kumar, Scheer, & Kotler, 2000;Harris & Cai, 2002; Hills & Sarin, 2003; Carrillat, Jaramillo, & Locander, 2004; Schindehutte,Morris, & Kocak, 2008) as a significant approach of the market-oriented company that canprovide a sustainable competitive advantage. Moreover, the organizational cultures developed bythe transfo...

  17. Interrelationship between implant and orthognathic surgery for the rehabilitation of edentulous cleft palate patients: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Scarelli LOPES

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old woman with a unilateral cleft lip and palate, presenting a totally edentulous maxilla and mandible with marked maxillomandibular discrepancy, attended the Prosthodontics section of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo for treatment. She could not close her mouth and was dissatisfied with her complete dentures. Treatment planning comprised placement of six implants in the maxilla, four in the mandible followed by prostheses installation and orthognathic surgery. The mandibular full arch prosthesis guided the occlusion for orthognathic positioning of the maxilla. The maxillary complete prosthesis was designed to assist the orthognathic surgery with a provisional prosthesis (no metal framework, allowing reverse treatment planning. Maxillary and mandibular realignment was performed. Three months later, a relapse in the position of the maxilla was observed, which was offset with a new maxillary prosthesis. This isa complex interdisciplinary treatment and two-year follow-up is presented and discussed. It should be considered that this type of treatment could also be applied in non-cleft patients.

  18. Social support and its interrelationships with demand-control model factors on presenteeism and absenteeism in Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Hanley, Sharon J B; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2017-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of social support and its interrelations with other demand-control-support (DCS) model factors on presenteeism and absenteeism, and to determine which DCS factors were most influential. Questionnaires from 2535 local government employees were analyzed. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) was used to assess DCS factors including job demand, job control, and social support from supervisors and coworkers. The Stanford Presenteeism Scale 13-item version (SPS-13) was used to evaluate both absenteeism (absent days) and presenteeism. For the latter, the Work Impairment Score (WIS) and the Work Output Score (WOS) were also used. Possible confounder-adjusted logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for WIS and WOS and relative risks (RRs) for absenteeism according to DCS factors. Higher job control had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in both males and females and a lower WOS in males. Based on a point estimate of an OR per 1 standard deviation change of each DCS factor, job control had the strongest effect on higher WIS in both males and females and a lower WOS in males. Higher job demand resulted in significantly higher ORs for both male and female WIS, and a lower WOS in females. Support from supervisors had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in females and a lower WOS in males. Support from coworkers had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in males. Higher support from coworkers had a significantly protective effect on absenteeism among both males and females, and higher job control had a significantly protective effect in females. The combination of high job strain and low support from supervisors had a significantly worsening effect, except for absenteeism in females. High job strain and low support from coworkers had a significantly worsening effect except for WOS in males. The results suggest job control was the DCS factor most related to presenteeism. Higher support from supervisors and coworkers had a protective effect on presenteeism, and higher job demand had a worsening effect. Higher support from coworkers had a protective effect on absenteeism among both males and females. Interventions should focus on improving job control as a possible countermeasure to presenteeism, and encouraging support from coworkers as a possible countermeasure to absenteeism.

  19. Sustainability in Canadian Post-Secondary Institutions: The Interrelationships among Sustainability Initiatives and Geographic and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Dan; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip; Wright, Tarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a census of high-level sustainability initiatives at all accredited post-secondary institutions in Canada by documenting the institutions that have undertaken sustainability assessments, have signed one or more sustainability declarations, have sustainability offices or officers or have sustainability…

  20. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozoemena OF

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OFN Ozoemena1, JO Ezugworie2, AU Mbah3, EA Esom4, BO Ayogu5, FE Ejezie61Department of Anatomy and Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, 4Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus; 5Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla; 6Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%–70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility.Methods: Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed.Results: Of 216 men, 173 (80.1% were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30–55 years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33–61 years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80% primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%, and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%. Among the 111 (64.2% cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55% cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, 52 (46.85% of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and four (3.60% of hyperprolactinemia. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values between the two groups (χ2 < 1.414; P > 0.05 for hormonal indices.Conclusion: The hormonal profile should be considered as the gold standard for diagnosis and management of male infertility.Keywords: infertility, hormonal indices, males

  1. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  2. Transportation and Warehousing Sector (NAICS 48-49)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the transportation and warehousing, including NESHAPs for RICE and gasoline dispensing facilities, effluent guidelines, power wash discharges, and border and port compliance

  3. Fact Sheet for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities Residual Risk and Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities to address the results of the residual risk and technology review

  4. 40 CFR 63.5780 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers... for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for reinforced plastic composites production. This subpart also...

  5. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  6. Water and Sewage Utilities Sector (NAICS 2213)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulation information for water utilities, including drinking and wastewater treatment facilities. Includes links to NESHAP for POTW, compliance information, and information about pretreatment programs.

  7. Example Annual Certification & Compliance Reports for Sources with and without Visible Emissions Testing: NESHAP Area Source Standards for Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories 40 CFR 63 Subpart XXXXXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains examples of the type of information that must be submitted to fulfill the Notification of Compliance Status requirement of 40 CFR 63, subpart XXXXXX for sources reporting and not reporting visible emissions information.

  8. Example Owner/Operator Certification for Painter Training Under National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP): Area Source Standards for Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories 40 CFR 60 Subpart XXXXXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This example training certification format and any attached training documentation may be used to demonstrate, document and certify successful completion of required training topics under 40 CFR 63.11515(d)(6) for personnel, who spray apply surface coating

  9. 76 FR 19771 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP for Vinyl Chloride (Renewal... . Title: NESHAP for Vinyl Chloride (Renewal). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 0186.12, OMB Control Number 2060... performance tests, and periodic reports and results. Owners or operators are also required to maintain records...

  10. 75 FR 16458 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP for Plastic Parts and Products... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C... . Title: NESHAP for Plastic Parts and Products Surface Coating (Renewal). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 2044...

  11. 77 FR 37904 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP for Reinforced Plastic... compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this document announces that an...: NESHAP for Reinforced Plastic Composites Production (Renewal) ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 1976.05, OMB...

  12. 78 FR 20630 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP for Plastic Parts and Products... compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this document announces that an... www.regulations.gov . Title: NESHAP for Plastic Parts and Products Surface Coating (Renewal). ICR...

  13. 76 FR 67728 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...). The RICE NESHAP requires certain subcategories of four-stroke rich burn spark-ignition RICE to meet an... provisions to allow owners and operators of spark-ignition four-stroke rich burn engines that meet an... to revise the RICE NESHAP to allow owners and operators of spark-ignition 4-stroke rich burn engines...

  14. 76 FR 26899 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments on Sixty-Four Proposed Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    .... Title: NESHAP for Integrated Iron and Steel Manufacturing (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart FFFFF). ICR Numbers... 31, 2012. (60) NESHAP for Integrated Iron and Steel Manufacturing (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart FFFFF... for the Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart QQQQQ). ICR Numbers: EPA...

  15. 76 FR 76401 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP for Cellulose Products... in paper, will be made available for public viewing at http://www.regulations.gov as EPA receives... information about the electronic docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov . Title: NESHAP for Cellulose...

  16. 75 FR 20838 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; NESHAP for Wood Furniture... electronic docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov . Title: NESHAP for Wood Furniture Manufacturing..., install, and utilize technology and systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, and verifying...

  17. Interrelationship between Polymorphisms of incA, fusogenic properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains, and clinical manifestations in patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Spaargaren, Joke; Langerak, Ankie A. J.; Merks, Judith; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2005-01-01

    IncA variation among Dutch Chlamydia trachomatis isolates was investigated. Of 98 strains, two carried an incA with a premature stop codon, lacked IncA, and were nonfusogenic, while 96 contained an intact incA, expressed IncA, and were fasogenic. Among these 96 strains, nine IncA sequence types were

  18. Interrelationship among School Characteristics, Parental Involvement, and Children's Characteristics in Predicting Children's Victimization by Peers: Comparison between the United States and Three Eastern Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang; Kim, Yanghee

    2016-01-01

    To identify ways that national culture, school characteristics, and individual attributes impact the victimization of students in Grade 8, data from the United States and three East Asian countries (i.e., Japan, S. Korea, and Taiwan) were compared using the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Hierarchical Liner…

  19. Insights into the annealing process of sol-gel TiO2 films leading to anatase development: The interrelationship between microstructure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E.; Domínguez, M.; González-Leal, J. M.; Márquez, E.; Outón, J.; Ramírez-del-Solar, M.

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films, prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique on glass substrates, were inspected. After deposition, the films were annealed at several temperatures in the 400-850 °C range and the resulting nanostructured films were studied by different techniques showing that their structural and optical characteristics evolved significantly with the increased annealing temperature. The analysis of these results by the assumption of the Tauc Lorenz model and the use of Wemple-DiDomenico equation leads to a correlation between microstructural aspects and optical characteristics of the films. Thus, crystallization processes (nucleation, growth and phase transformation) and the evolution of films texture and thickness with increasing annealing temperatures are related with the variation of the refractive index, average gap and extinction coefficient during annealing. Finally, the free-carrier concentration in the films, estimated from the Spitzer-Fan model, ranged from 1.44 × 1019 cm-3 to 3.07 × 1019 cm-3 with the changing annealing temperature, which is in agreement with those obtained in similar anatase thin films from electrical measurement techniques.

  20. Diagram-based Analysis of Causal Systems (DACS): elucidating inter-relationships between determinants of acute lower respiratory infections among children in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfuess, Eva A; Best, Nicky; Briggs, David J; Joffe, Mike

    2013-12-06

    Effective interventions require evidence on how individual causal pathways jointly determine disease. Based on the concept of systems epidemiology, this paper develops Diagram-based Analysis of Causal Systems (DACS) as an approach to analyze complex systems, and applies it by examining the contributions of proximal and distal determinants of childhood acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagram-based Analysis of Causal Systems combines the use of causal diagrams with multiple routinely available data sources, using a variety of statistical techniques. In a step-by-step process, the causal diagram evolves from conceptual based on a priori knowledge and assumptions, through operational informed by data availability which then undergoes empirical testing, to integrated which synthesizes information from multiple datasets. In our application, we apply different regression techniques to Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets for Benin, Ethiopia, Kenya and Namibia and a pooled World Health Survey (WHS) dataset for sixteen African countries. Explicit strategies are employed to make decisions transparent about the inclusion/omission of arrows, the sign and strength of the relationships and homogeneity/heterogeneity across settings.Findings about the current state of evidence on the complex web of socio-economic, environmental, behavioral and healthcare factors influencing childhood ALRI, based on DHS and WHS data, are summarized in an integrated causal diagram. Notably, solid fuel use is structured by socio-economic factors and increases the risk of childhood ALRI mortality. Diagram-based Analysis of Causal Systems is a means of organizing the current state of knowledge about a specific area of research, and a framework for integrating statistical analyses across a whole system. This partly a priori approach is explicit about causal assumptions guiding the analysis and about researcher judgment, and wrong assumptions can be reversed following empirical testing. This approach is well-suited to dealing with complex systems, in particular where data are scarce.