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Sample records for ostrich eggshell beads

  1. Ostrich eggshell as an alternative raw material for hydroxyapatite synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliman, L.B.; Gouvea, D.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of ostrich eggshell for hydroxyapatite synthesis, a biomaterial of great medical importance due to its high biocompatibility. The eggshell was used as calcium ions source due its great containing of CaCO3. For its utilization, the eggshell was calcined and the obtained oxide (CaO) was transformed into Ca(OH)_2. Hydroxyapatite synthesis consisted in a wet precipitation reaction between Ca(OH)_2 and commercial H_3PO_4. The X ray Diffraction analysis has shown that the precipitated Hydroxyapatite calcined at 800°C resulted in a bifasic powder of Hydroxyapatite and β-Tricalcium Phosphate, which proves that this precipitated Hydroxyapatite was deficient in calcium. The Infrared Spectroscopy, showed the presence of CO_3"2"- ions, result of carrying out the reaction in open atmosphere. By Scanning Electron Microscopy nanometric particles arranged in agglomerates were observed and Specific Surface Area measurement resulted in 11,70 m²/g. Following this procedure, the ostrich eggshell gets a technological profitable reuse also environmentally friendly, being transformed in a new product of high aggregate value. (author)

  2. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  3. Suitability of Ostrich eggshell for radiocarbon dating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available deposits cannot be guaranteed. A more direct approach would be to ana- lyze modern ostrich eggs of which the date of laying is known. It is necessary to know exactly when the eggs were laid because the elevated 14C content of the environment caused... sample we also analyzed the organic contents of the egg—a mixture of the egg white and yolk. Also given is the 14C content of the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere in the month in which the eggs were laid. This closely reflects the 14C content...

  4. Vibration properties of the ostrich eggshell at impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Stoklasová, Pavla; Strnková, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2013), s. 1873-1880 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell * impact * surface displacement Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing http://acta.mendelu.cz/61/6/1873/same_authors/

  5. Microstructure and Thermal Expansion Properties of Ostrich Eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    A.Rodriguez-Hernindez, E. Villarreal4, A. Martinez, M.V. Garcia-GardufiolŖ, V.A. Basiuk 3ř, L. Bucio and E. Orozco Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apdo. Postal 20...Ku, Yokohama 240-8501.41nstituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. Mexico ABSTRACT Textures of calcite crystals from ostrich...364, 01000 Mexico D.F., Mexico ’Facultad de Ciencias UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. Mexico 2 Div. de Posgr. e Invest., Facultad de Odontologia UNAM, 04510

  6. The timing of ostrich existence in Central Asia: AMS 14C age of eggshells from Mongolia and southern Siberia (a pilot study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurochkin, Evgeny N.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Antoshchenko-Olenev, Igor V.; Zabelin, Vladimir I.; Krivonogov, Sergey K.; Nohrina, Tatiana I.; Lbova, Ludmila V.; Burr, G.S.; Cruz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Asiatic ostrich in Central Asia in the later Cenozoic time is well-documented; nevertheless, a few direct age determinations existed until recently. We performed AMS 14 C dating of ostrich eggshells found in Mongolia, Transbaikal, and Tuva. It shows that ostriches existed throughout the second part of Late Pleistocene, until the Late Glacial time (ca. 13,000-10,100 BP). It seems that Asiatic ostrich went extinct in Central Asia just before or even in the Holocene.

  7. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da; Campos, J.B. de

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  8. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J.R.M.; Louro, L.H.L.; Costa, A.M.; Silva, M.H. Prado da [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, J.B. de, E-mail: josericardo@r-crio.com, E-mail: louro@ime.eb.br, E-mail: andrea@r-crio.com, E-mail: brantjose@gmail.com, E-mail: marceloprado@ime.eb.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite. (author)

  9. Ostrich eggshell as calcium source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. M. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, hydroxyapatite and Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized using ostrich eggshell as a calcium source. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun, and X-ray diffraction (XRD to identify the present phases, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative chemical analysis of the synthesized and heat treated powders. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used before and after heat treatments at 700, 900 and 1100 °C in order to identify the functional groups present, as an additional technique to the XRD analysis. The results presented in this study represent a promising method for synthesis of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite partially substituted with zinc, since the results showed no undesirable phases or impurities in the produced powders. It was observed that Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite showed higher thermal stability, when compared to pure hydroxyapatite.

  10. Stable isotopes in modern ostrich eggshell: a calibration for paleoenvironmental applications in semi-arid regions of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Beverly J.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1998-07-01

    An isotopic study of modern ostrich eggshell (OES) is presented as a calibration for terrestrial paleoenvironmental applications. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionations of OES were determined for various organic fractions of eggshell by measuring the isotopic ratios of modern OES samples collected from controlled settings (i.e., zoos and farms) and corresponding ostrich diet. These fractionations were used to evaluate the relationship between the isotope composition of OES laid by free-range birds living in South Africa and their environment. The carbon isotope composition of the total organic and inorganic fractions of OES were enriched by 2 and 16‰, respectively, relative to the diet. In natural settings, the δ 13C values of both the organic and inorganic fractions of OES reflected that of ambient vegetation, with a noted dietary preference for C 3 plants. The nitrogen isotope composition of the total organic fraction of OES was 3‰ enriched relative to the diet, and varied inversely with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in natural settings. A decrease in MAP of 100 mm was accompanied by an increase in δ 15N values of approximately 1‰. The oxygen isotope composition of the inorganic fraction of the OES varied linearly with that of the drinking water in controlled settings. However, in natural settings, the δ 18O of OES values were highly variable and are thought to be controlled primarily by the δ 18O of ingested plant leaf-water. The stability of the isotopic signal in the organic fraction of OES through geologic time was evaluated through a series of heating experiments. The δ 13C and δ 15N values of the total organic fraction of heated OES increased by less than 0.6 and 0.2‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, in spite of extensive diagenetic alteration and changes in the amino acid composition of the samples. The results of this study indicate that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of OES is relatively stable

  11. Ultrasonic-assisted production of biodiesel from transesterification of palm oil over ostrich eggshell-derived CaO catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Shan, Rui; Shi, Jiafu; Yan, Beibei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, waste ostrich eggshell-derived calcium oxide (denoted as CaO(OE)) particles were synthesized and explored as cost-effective catalysts for the ultrasonic-assisted transesterification of palm oil. The physicochemical properties of the resultant catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, XRF and Hammett indicator, while the catalytic activity was evaluated through transesterification of palm oil with methanol under ultrasonic conditions. More specifically, the CaO(OE) showed comparable catalytic activity to the one derived from commercial calcium carbonate (denoted as CaO(Lab)). Moreover, under ultrasonic conditions, the catalytic activity of CaO(OE) could be enhanced significantly. The maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters could reach 92.7% under the optimal condition of reaction time of 60 min with ultrasonic power of 60% (120 W), methanol-to-oil ratio of 9:1, and catalyst loading of 8 wt.%. The results indicated that the CaO(OE) catalysts showed good catalytic performance and reusability, and may potentially reduce the cost of biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Beads served both as ornaments and as a medium of exchange, and the Indians manufactured them from such natural sources as bones, stones, beans, nuts, animal teeth, and polished antlers. Even after the introduction of European glass beads, the Indians continued to make their favorite beads from the natural sources. (DS)

  13. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  15. The Ostrich in Us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Arna; Pagel, Michaela

    to positive. We argue that our findings cannot be explained by rational theories of inattention. Instead our findings are consistent with Ostrich effects and anticipatory utility as the main motivation for paying attention to financial accounts and thus provide new tests for information- or belief......A number of theoretical research papers in micro as well as macroeconomics model and analyze attention but direct empirical evidence remains scarce. This paper investigates the determinants of attention to financial accounts using panel data from a financial management software provider containing...

  16. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  17. Fertility of female ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irek Malecki

    Fertilisation rate in ostrich eggs is high because most eggs contain excessive ... The ostrich breeding system is complex and a “breeding unit” can range from a .... commercial ostrich farm in Western Australia and brought to the Field Station at ...

  18. Ancient DNA Reveals Late Pleistocene Existence of Ostriches in Indian Sub-Continent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Jain

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA analysis of extinct ratite species is of considerable interest as it provides important insights into their origin, evolution, paleogeographical distribution and vicariant speciation in congruence with continental drift theory. In this study, DNA hotspots were detected in fossilized eggshell fragments of ratites (dated ≥25000 years B.P. by radiocarbon dating using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. DNA was isolated from five eggshell fragments and a 43 base pair (bp sequence of a 16S rRNA mitochondrial-conserved region was successfully amplified and sequenced from one of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequence revealed a 92% identity of the fossil eggshells to Struthio camelus and their position basal to other palaeognaths, consistent with the vicariant speciation model. Our study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of ostriches in India, complementing the continental drift theory of biogeographical movement of ostriches in India, and opening up a new window into the evolutionary history of ratites.

  19. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  20. Ostrich recruitment dynamics in relation to rainfall in the Mara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ostrich recruitment dynamics in relation to rainfall in the Mara–Serengeti ... To understand how rainfall influences ostriches, we related changes in ostrich recruitment in the Mara–Serengeti ecosystem to rainfall. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Anaesthetic management of ostrich. Initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccarino, M.; Mauthe Degerfeld, M. von

    1997-01-01

    Different anaesthetic induction and maintenance protocols were used in 2 adult ostriches and 3 juvenile ostriches. After the intramuscolar (im) administration of an induction agent, like ketamine or tiletamine/zolazepam, general anaesthesia in 4 cases was maintained with isoflurane or halothane. General anaesthesia for radiological examinations was also performed with metedomidine/ketamine im [it

  2. Declawing ostrich ( Struthio camelus domesticus ) chicks to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leather is one of the main products derived from ostrich farming. Current rearing practices lead to a high incidence of skin damage, which decreases the value of ostrich skins. In the emu and poultry industry, declawing is commonly practiced to reduce skin damage and injuries. We consequently investigated declawing of ...

  3. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Frei S; Dittmann MT; Reutlinger C; Ortmann S; Hatt J-M; Kreuzer M; Clauss M

    2015-01-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports however claimed a very low methane emission from ostricheswhichwould be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed ostrich meatwould represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant—and generally mammalian—meat by representing a particularly low emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured by...

  4. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  6. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...... isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids......, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has...

  7. Engineering Tough Materials: Biomimetic Eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Fellow Dr. David Labonte Cambridge University Engineering Dept., Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK ~ Approved for public release; distribution...with a brief outlook, including next steps to pursue in the new cooperative research arrangement between ERDC and the University of Cambridge . Summary...HCl in 2 h at room temperature. Shell & Membrane Shell Outer membrane Inner membrane Figure 1: Cross section of an eggshell illustrating the direct

  8. Declawing ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) to minimize skin damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anel

    Abstract. Preliminary genetic parameters for nodule traits of ostrich skins were estimated to examine whether genetic improvement of skin quality is feasible. Average nodule size and density per dm² were determined on five localities on each of 439 ostrich skins. An animal model with random animal and skin permanent.

  9. Feed preference of grower ostriches consuming diets differing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed costs contribute the largest proportion of the input costs of slaughter birds in an intensive ostrich production unit. Alternative, cheaper feedstuffs, such as lupins (sweet and bitter cultivars), were therefore evaluated to determine the optimal lupin inclusion level in ostrich rations without affecting feed preference and ...

  10. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  11. Ostrich production in Zimbabwe | Cooper | Zimbabwe Science News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has increased the need for producers to improve their efficiency on the farm (Hallam, 1992). It is only with the dedication of producers that continual improvements in domestic ostrich production practices will ensure adequate and increased breeding success, and the successful raising of ostriches up to slaughter age ...

  12. Histological and histometrical changes of ostrich thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal changes of ostrich thyroid structure in Tehran, which has a hot summer and a relatively cold winter, were studied. The study was conducted on thyroid glands of 20 ostriches in two groups (summer and winter group). The samples were collected by autopsy with a maximum of 0.5 cm thickness and were fixed in ...

  13. Gas exchange of the ostrich embryo during peak metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) excretion of ostrich embryos were studied on 45 ostrich eggs in various stages of development. A closed respirometry system was used for eggs subjected to ????10 days of incubation, while an open flow system was used for older eggs. A total of 102 measurements ...

  14. The effects of dietary energy and protein concentrations on ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were investigated of energy and protein concentrations (with associated amino acid concentrations) in ostrich diets on leather quality of the skins of 50 ostriches. Energy concentrations were 9.0, 10.5 and 12.0 MJ ME/kg diet and protein concentrations were 130, 150 and 170 g/kg diet. The physical leather ...

  15. Correlates of eggshell thickness | Okereke | Global Journal of Pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study discussed the effects of age and genotype of birds and location of farm on eggshell thickness. The ultimate objective of the study is to determine the correlates of eggshell thickness which may be relevant to improve eggshell thickness. Secondary data on eggshell thickness collected from the Agricultural ...

  16. Electromechanical-conductive natural rubber doped eggshell and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main composition of eggshells is calcium carbonate (CaCO3) of high purity more than 96.35 wt% whereas the main composition of eggshell membrane is fibrous protein in terms of collagen. The best condition is addition of eggshell 40 phr (formula 3) and eggshell membrane 20 phr (formula 5) to obtain the highest ...

  17. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  18. Growth, feed intake and body composition of ostriches (Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the ostrich breeding flock of the Klein Karoo Agricultural. Development Centre and ... The diet was initially formulated according to poultry values. (Du Preez et al., 1984; Du ...... body weight on high or low nutrient density diets. Proc. 9th Symp.

  19. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age. Kh M Mahrose, AI Attia, IE Ismail, DE Abou-Kassem, ME Abd El-Hack ...

  20. Behaviour of eggshell membranes at tensile loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnková, M.J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Kumbár, V.

    46 B, December (2014), s. 44-48 ISSN 0324-1130 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tensile loading * loading rate * stress * strain strength Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.201, year: 2014

  1. Structural attributes contributing to locomotor performance in the ostrich

    OpenAIRE

    Schaller, Nina U.

    2008-01-01

    As the fastest long-endurance runner, the bipedal ostrich (Struthio camelus) was selected as a prime model organism to investigate the physical attributes underlying this advanced locomotor performance. A specific integrative approach combining morphological, morphometric, kinematic and pedobarographic methods was developed. The comparative morphometric analysis of the hind limbs of all ratite species revealed that leg segment ratios in the ostrich are the most specialised for efficient locom...

  2. Processing, physicochemical, and sensory analyses of ostrich meat hamburger

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza; Jaqueline Yumi Sasaki; Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza Franco; Maria José Baptista Barbosa; Rejane Machado Cardozo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. Using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein. Physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories wer...

  3. Medicinal and commercial uses of ostrich products in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magige, Flora; Røskaft, Eivin

    2017-08-23

    Traditional communities have been utilizing animal products for numerous purposes and have for a long time contributed to the accumulation of world knowledge. Local people in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa, have been using birds including ostriches as pets or their products such as meat, eggs as food; their body parts such as feathers, bones and hide for ornaments but more importantly have used such products in traditional medicine and rituals. Nevertheless, there is a general lack of information about the differences that exist between local people with different cultures, and the best use of such products to improve their livelihoods. This study aimed to determine the use of ostrich products among people residing around Serengeti National Park and explore the potential of improving livelihoods through game ranching. Use of the products was compared between that of agriculturalists with long hunting traditions in the Serengeti District to the west of Serengeti National Park (SNP) and the largely pastoral community in the Ngorongoro District to the east by using semistructured questionnaires in June 2006. A total of 115 respondents were interviewed, and the majority (74.5%) in the Serengeti district admitted that ostriches were mainly hunted for their products by snares, while in the Ngorongoro district, 98.2% of the respondents said that villagers only gathered products such as feathers and eggs. Ostriches were hunted for food, ornamentation, medical and economic purposes, and eggs and oil, which are believed to have medicinal properties, were used for the treatment of various ailments, including asthma. This indigenous knowledge of the medicinal value of ostrich products must be integrated with scientific knowledge to prove the supposed medical efficacy of the products. Ostrich products also had market value and were thus sold to the villagers. Since it has been found that ostrich products are commercially used, legal establishment of markets through game

  4. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The bioreactor containing algal beads (4 mm diameter) with 1.5 x 106 cells bead-1 (cell stocking) at concentration of 10.66 beads ml-1 wastewater (1:3 bead: wastewater, v/v) achieved ...

  5. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne C. Fecheyr-Lippens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  6. Chicken eggshell as suitable calcium source at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucas R; Lupo, Maela; Delorenzi, Damián A; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2013-09-01

    Taken into consideration that the deficiency of calcium (Ca) in the diet is a common problem, the aim of this work was to study the chicken eggshell as Ca source at home. It was evaluated: (1) different mechanisms to process eggshells and find an easy way to determine the required amount of Ca at home and; (2) the flavor and the texture for eggshell fortified food. Chemical and mechanical methods of eggshell processing were evaluated. Changes in flavor and texture were evaluated in volunteers coordinated by a professional chef. A single eggshell contains 2.07 ± 0.18 g of Ca; therefore half an eggshell could provide the amount of Ca needed by adult human beings per day. The best way to use chicken eggshell as Ca dietary supplement is powdered to add to bread, pizza or spaghetti as there were small changes in texture and no changes in flavor.

  7. Eggshells as an index of aedine mosquito production. 2: Relationship of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshell density to larval production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, D S; Ritchie, S A; Webber, L A; Van Essen, F

    1992-03-01

    To test if eggshell density could be used as an index of aedine mosquito production, we compared eggshell density with the larval production of Aedes taeniorhynchus in Florida mangrove basin forests. Quantitative (n = 7) and categorical (n = 34) estimates of annual larval production were regressed against the number of eggshells per cc of soil. Significant regressions were obtained in both instances. Larval production was concentrated in zones with the highest eggshell density. We suggest that eggshell density and distribution can be used to identify oviposition sites and the sequence of larval appearance.

  8. Eggshells as an index of aedine mosquito production. 1: Distribution, movement and sampling of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S A; Addison, D S; van Essen, F

    1992-03-01

    The distribution of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshells in Florida mangrove basin forests was determined and used to design a sampling plan. Eggshells were found in 10/11 sites (91%), with a mean +/- SE density of 1.45 +/- 0.75/cc; density did not change significantly year to year. Highest densities were located on the sloping banks of hummocks, ponds and potholes. Eggshells were less clumped in distribution than eggs and larvae and thus required a smaller sample size for a given precision level. While eggshells were flushed from compact soil that was subject to runoff during heavy rain, mangrove peat, the dominant soil of eggshell-bearing sites, was less dense and had little runoff or eggshell flushing. We suggest that eggshell surveys could be used to identify Ae. taeniorhynchus oviposition sites and oviposition patterns.

  9. Tensile Strength of the Eggshell Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnková, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2016), s. 159-164 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tesile test * loading rate * tensile strength * fracture strain Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  10. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 78, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moult patterns in the Long-tailed Hawk Urotriorchis macrourus · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Michel Louette, 577-582. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/OSTRICH.2007.78.3.4.315 ...

  11. Website Review Africa Climate exChange | Cizek | Ostrich: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://www.africa-climate-exchange.org/ BirdLife International, Africa Partnership Secretariat, ICIPE Campus, Kasarani, PO Box 3502, 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya Launched online 17 February 2010, with later revisions (accessed 30 April and 16 August 2010) OSTRICH 2010, 81(3): 281–284 ...

  12. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits | Brand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (CWT). Between ...

  13. Basic and applied aspects of female reproduction in farmed ostriches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronneberg, R.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigated basic and applied aspects of female reproduction in farmed ostriches throughout the 48h egg laying cycle, during the egg production season, and, the non-breeding season. The main objectives were: (1) to evaluate the use of transcutaneous ultrasound scanning to visualize

  14. Fermentative digestion in the ostrich (Struthio camelus var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical. VFA concentrations in the samples were determined by gas ... Column temperature was programmed ... hindgut of the ostriches was calculated assuming combustion ... (270 mCi/mmol) and [U_14C]-acetate (57.9 mCi/mmol) were.

  15. Staphylococci Related to Farm Ostriches and Their Sensitivity to Enterocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandričáková, Anna; Lauková, Andrea; Ščerbová, Jana

    2016-03-01

    In Slovakia, ostriches are reared mainly for their meat. There is still limited information related to microflora of ostriches, including staphylococci. Knowing the composition of microflora is very important for the recognition of potential pathogenic agents. Recently, a frequent problem in animals is the occurrence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to detect staphylococcal species in feces of farm ostriches and to test their sensitivity to antibiotics and enterocins. Altogether 140 ostriches from three age groups were sampled (n = 18, faecal mixture samples from each group) on a farm in Slovakia or on Slovak farm. From 54 fecal samples, the staphylococcal count reached an average 4. 3 ± 0. 63 (log10) CFU/g. Twenty-four lactic acid producing strains were taxonomically classified to eight species of the genus Staphylococcus: Staphylococcus equorum, S. xylosus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. cohnii, S. succinus, S. warneri, and S. hominis. Strains were evaluated by secure probable species identification/probable species identification (score value up to 2.299) confirmed also by phenotypization. Most strains were sensitive to antibiotics. Four strains (S. haemolyticus SHae 111, S. haemolyticus SHAe 371, S. xylosus SX 2133, and S. warneri SW 292) were resistant to methicillin but sensitive to six or five of the seven enterocins tested (inhibitory activity 200-12,800 AU/mL). S. warneri SW 292 was sensitive to all enterocins (activity up to 12,800 AU/mL).

  16. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 79, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Luangwa Valley, Zambia: flyway and stopover site for White Storks Ciconia ciconia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Birgit Gerkmann, Michael Kaatz, Klaus Riede, Renate van den Elzen, 171-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/OSTRICH.2008.79.2.6.580 ...

  17. Application of a sex identification technique in juvenile ostriches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA-based sex identification provides a solution and is amenable to large-scale application. The application of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the sex of 6-months old juvenile ostriches. The blood from four mature males and four mature females were used to verify the assay. The test ...

  18. THE QUANTIFYING OF FLUE QUALITY IN OSTRICH PLUMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    portant economic traits in the fashion plume industry to the general belief among ostrich farm€rs and featier. (Swa , 1979). The quality ofthe flue is determined main- dealers, that the fatty appearance ofthe flue is one ofthe ly by subjective traits such as handling, fatty appeannce, most important single components of flue ...

  19. Test of a mosquito eggshell isolation method and subsampling procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P A; Streever, W J

    1997-03-01

    Production of Aedes vigilax, the common salt-marsh mosquito, can be assessed by determining eggshell densities found in soil. In this study, 14 field-collected eggshell samples were used to test a subsampling technique and compare eggshell counts obtained with a flotation method to those obtained by direct examination of sediment (DES). Relative precision of the subsampling technique was assessed by determining the minimum number of subsamples required to estimate the true mean and confidence interval of a sample at a predetermined confidence level. A regression line was fitted to cube-root transformed eggshell counts obtained from flotation and DES and found to be significant (P eggshells present. Eggshells obtained with the flotation method can be used to predict those from DES using the following equation: DES count = [1.386 x (flotation count)0.33 - 0.01]3.

  20. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Wagner

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  1. Determination of insoluble avian eggshell matrix proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Sedláková, Pavla; Lacinová, Kateřina; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 397, č. 1 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/0675; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : eggshell proteins * insoluble proteins * matrix proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.841, year: 2010

  2. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  3. A String of Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Kelly C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she designed a math activity she called Beads to use in conjunction with their school's 100th day celebration. Beads has provided her kindergarten class with many opportunities to practice a variety of math skills - counting, patterning, sorting, comparing, making sets, predicting, identifying numerals,…

  4. The microbial burden load of eggshells from different poultry rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the study revealed that eggshell samples from different poultry rearing systems (battery cage, deep litter and free-range chicken eggs) were contaminated with bacterial and fungal species of public health concern. Microbial species isolated from eggshells were Enterobacter aerogenes, ...

  5. Effect of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different limestone particle sizes had no effect on any of the tested egg production and eggshell quality parameters. These results suggested that larger particles limestone are not necessarily essential to provide sufficient Ca2+ to laying hens for egg production and eggshell quality at end-of-lay, provided that the dietary Ca ...

  6. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the ... Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. .... obtain fine powder. ..... using pig waste and cassava peels. ... from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas.

  7. Review of ostrich ( Struthio carmelis ) production and its adaptability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can digest high levels of fiber. During breeding season, onset of which depends on location, females lay about 50-100 eggs of 2.0-3.0 kg depending on type of habitat. In the wild, female and male both incubate the eggs during the day and night respectively, for about 42 days. Good number of ostrich can be found living in ...

  8. Ostrich Management practices in three states of Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshelia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify management practices associated with ostrich farming in Kano, Kaduna and Plateau States of Nigeria. Seven farms were purposively selected as units of analysis. Primary data were generated by means of a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, administered to the sampled respondents. A simple inductive statistics was applied to the primary data. The result reveals a commercial production of ostrich by 86 % with all the farms engaged in production of other livestock species. Similarly, all the farms had shelter for chicks and breeders which were all erected using wire mesh and poles at above 5 feet fencing level. More over, 100 % of the farms were densely stocked (below 500 m2 for a pair of ostrich with facilities below recommended levels. The result also showed that 100 % of the farms compound feed locally using premix without no providing grit and low (14 % usage of succulent feed. About 29 % of the farms use endoparasitic and anthelminthic drugs as health management practices. On the reproductive practices, only trio (29 % and colony (71 % configurations were practiced. The prominent biosecurity measures include division of farm into disease control unit (100 % and employee enlightenment (86 %. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 64-67

  9. Processing, physicochemical, and sensory analyses of ostrich meat hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. Using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein. Physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories were performed. The formulations underwent sensory analysis by 52 potential ostrich meat consumers, who evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and purchase intent. The formulations containing textured soybean protein showed the highest yield, lowest shrinkage percentage, and highest water retention capacity. Lipid content varied from 0.58 to 4.99%; protein from 17.08 to 21.37%; ash from 3.00 to 3.62%; moisture from 73.87 to 76.27%; cholesterol from 22.54 to 32.11 mg.100 g-1; and calorie from 87.22 to 163.42 kcal.100 g-1. All formulations showed low cholesterol and calorie levels, even that containing 10% bacon and 3.5% textured soybean protein, which achieved the best scores and acceptance by the panelists.

  10. Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch/eggshell powder composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootklad, Munlika; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2013-09-12

    Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared using compression molding and chicken eggshell was used as a filler. The effect of the eggshell powder (EP) on the properties of TPS was compared with the effect of commercial calcium carbonate (CC). The organic compound on the surface of the eggshell powder acted as a coupling agent that resulted in a strong adhesion between the eggshell powder and the TPS matrix, as confirmed by SEM micrographs. The biodegradation was determined by the soil burial test. The TPS/EP composites were more rapidly degraded than the TPS/CC composites. In addition, the eggshell powder improved the water resistance and thermal stability of the TPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Frozen Storage on the Fatty Acid Composition of Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the duration (24 hours, 60 days and 120 days) of frozen storage (−20 ºC) on the fatty acid composition of meat from ostriches supplemented with linseed and rapeseed. The study was carried out on muscles of 40 ostriches raised on five dietary groups: control with no ...

  12. Effect of age on leather and skin traits of slaughter ostriches | Cloete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the factors affecting leather and skin traits in ostriches. The effect of age on physical skin traits of slaughter ostriches was consequently investigated. Forty skins representing slaughter ages ranging from five to 14 months were selected to represent means of the respective age groups with regard to skin ...

  13. Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While. Scopus 37(2): 38–41, July 2017 ... tivity (Nyahongo 2004). Ostriches inside the park are speculated to be highly vigilant and form groups .... The Ostrich Communal Nesting System. Princeton: Princeton University. Press. F.J. Magige. 40 ...

  14. Nutrients Composition in Fit Snacks Made from Ostrich, Beef and Chicken Dried Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Żaneta; Marchewka, Joanna; Horbańczuk, Jarosław Olav; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka; Lipińska, Paulina; Jóźwik, Artur; Atanasov, Atanas G; Huminiecki, Łukasz; Sieroń, Aleksander; Sieroń, Karolina; Strzałkowska, Nina; Stelmasiak, Adrian; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Hecke, Thomas; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-05-25

    The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich ( m. ambiens ), beef ( m. semimembranosus ), and broiler chicken meat ( m. pectoralis major ). The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared. We show that meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat were characterized by high concentration of nutrients including proteins, minerals (heme iron especially in ostrich, than in beef), biologically active peptides (carnosine-in beef, anserine-in ostrich then in chicken meat). The, beneficial to human health, n -3 fatty acids levels differed significantly between species. Moreover, ostrich jerky contained four times less fat as compared to beef and half of that in chicken. In conclusion we can say that dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat could be a good source of nutritional components.

  15. Nutrients Composition in Fit Snacks Made from Ostrich, Beef and Chicken Dried Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Zdanowska-Sąsiadek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich (m. ambiens, beef (m. semimembranosus, and broiler chicken meat (m. pectoralis major. The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared. We show that meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat were characterized by high concentration of nutrients including proteins, minerals (heme iron especially in ostrich, than in beef, biologically active peptides (carnosine—in beef, anserine—in ostrich then in chicken meat. The, beneficial to human health, n-3 fatty acids levels differed significantly between species. Moreover, ostrich jerky contained four times less fat as compared to beef and half of that in chicken. In conclusion we can say that dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat could be a good source of nutritional components.

  16. Effect of natural antioxidants on the stability of ostrich meat during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Arab, E. A.; Abu-Salem, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    Meat from the ostrich is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), {alpha}-tocopherol (Toc) and rosemary herb (Ros) on the stability of ostrich meat during storage. The chemical composition of ostrich meat showed low fat content (1.5 %) combined with high protein content (22.4 %). The combination of AA Ros, Toc Ros and AA Toc was more effective in reducing the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and peroxide values. The antioxidant showed insignificant effects on acidity as oleic acid. The addition of the efficient role of AA, Toc and Ros showed an improvement in the color stability of ostrich steaks and the combined treatment was more effective in color stability. In conclusion, the addition of AA, Toc and Ros had a positive effect on aroma quality, rancidity and discoloration of refrigerated ostrich meat. (Author) 41 refs.

  17. Ratite eggshells from lanzarote, canary islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz Sauer, E G; Rothe, P

    1972-04-07

    Struthious and aepyornithoid eggshells from Tertiary calcareous sediments on Lanzarote prove the presence, until about 12 million years ago, of large flightless birds. The calcarenite horizon is recognized as an old land surface. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the basement of the volcanic islands of Lanzarote and neighboring Fuerteventura indicate that at least part of the Canary Archipelago is underlain by continental crust. Separation of the eastern Canaries from Africa raight have been by rifting, and a land connection might still have existed in the lower Pliocene.

  18. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  19. Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeera Ujin; Kamran Shavarebi Ali; Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith

    2016-01-01

    This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement....

  20. Embryonic eggshell thickness erosion: A literature survey re-assessing embryo-induced eggshell thinning in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Hałupka, Lucyna

    2015-01-01

    Although eggshell thinning has been described mainly in the context of environmental pollution, it can also be the effect of reproductive changes induced by a developing embryo. On the basis of a literature survey of 25 bird species (26 published papers) we reviewed data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in three groups of birds: precocials, semi-precocials and altricials. The average EET at the equator of the eggs was 6.4% (median = 4.7%). Our review did not confirm a general prediction of elevated EET at the egg equator in precocial species: altricial birds exhibited the highest EET (average = 12.0%), followed by precocials (7.6%) and semi-precocials (4.2%). We make certain critical recommendations based on the results of this study. Studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness should examine intrinsic factors affecting shell properties of avian eggs, like thickness, which are the result of anatomical or reproductive changes. - Highlights: • We reviewed literature data on embryo-induced eggshell thinning (EET) in birds. • The average EET at the equator of the eggs of 25 bird species was 6.4%. • Altricial birds exhibited the highest EET, followed by precocials and semi-precocials. • All studies on variation in eggshell thickness should take EET into consideration. - Our study emphasizes the need to consider embryo-induced eggshell thinning in studies aiming to assess variation in eggshell thickness

  1. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the unicellular green microalga Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Different cell stockings in beads, different bead sizes and different algal bead concentrations in wastewaters were tested. Significant higher nutrients ...

  2. Phalangeal joints kinematics during ostrich (Struthio camelus locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich is a highly cursorial bipedal land animal with a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint supported by only two toes. Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running ostriches have been examined, these studies have been largely limited to above the metatarsophalangeal joint. In this study, kinematic data of all major toe joints were collected from gaits with double support (slow walking to running during stance period in a semi-natural setup with two selected cooperative ostriches. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of locomotor gait on toe joint kinematics. The MTP3 and MTP4 joints exhibit the largest range of motion whereas the first phalangeal joint of the 4th toe shows the largest motion variability. The interphalangeal joints of the 3rd and 4th toes present very similar motion patterns over stance phases of slow walking and running. However, the motion patterns of the MTP3 and MTP4 joints and the vertical displacement of the metatarsophalangeal joint are significantly different during running and slow walking. Because of the biomechanical requirements, osctriches are likely to select the inverted pendulum gait at low speeds and the bouncing gait at high speeds to improve movement performance and energy economy. Interestingly, the motions of the MTP3 and MTP4 joints are highly synchronized from slow to fast locomotion. This strongly suggests that the 3rd and 4th toes really work as an “integrated system” with the 3rd toe as the main load bearing element whilst the 4th toe as the complementary load sharing element with a primary role to ensure the lateral stability of the permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint.

  3. Ostrich (Struthio camellus carcass yield and meat quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balog

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at compiling recent studies on the main factors that influence ostrich meat quality and carcass yield. Few articles investigated the effect of subspecies, which generally are not even mentioned. There are important dietary effects, particularly those caused by dietary protein to energy ratio. Rigor mortis follow-up studies showed that there are no losses in meat quality when carcasses are hot-deboned. Age at slaughter influences some meat quality traits, such as tenderness and lipid content. Few effects of gender have been observed, and at the same age at slaughter, both male and female present the same meat quality traits.

  4. The Microbial Burden Load of Eggshells from Different Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    In this study, the microbial load of egg shell from different poultry system in .... eggshell surface and also decrease bacterial and fungal invasion ... measures of central tendency (mean ± standard .... Salmonella Contamination and Disinfection.

  5. The Effect of Eggshell Thickness on Hatching Traits of Partridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    US Yamak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Incubation is an important factor in poultry production, particularly in species with relatively low fertility and hatchability rates. This study examined the effect of eggshell thickness on hatching traits of partridges (A. chukar. A total of 462 eggs from intensively reared partridges were separated into three groups according to eggshell thickness, which was measured ultrasonically before incubation. Hatchability, chick weight, and chick length were assessed at the end of the incubation period. Hatching times were recorded during hatching. Embryonic mortalities in unhatched eggs were classified according to mortality stage at the end of incubation. The effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability was found to be insignificant for all groups. Moreover, eggshell thickness had no significant effect on chick weight or length.

  6. Analysis of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Eggshell Proteome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam; Sedmera, David

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2018), s. 21-37 ISSN 1572-3887 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02972S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : protein s of eggshell * eggshell pigment * crocodile Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.139, year: 2016

  7. Sangadzhi Kononov, Buddhist Prayer Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton; Kovaeva, Bair

    2016-01-01

    Prayer beads have special dividers that divide the beads into 7, 21 and 33. Apart from using in prayers, the Kalmyks also keep beads as amulets that are believed to have strong energy. After prayers, old people often bless their children and grandchildren with their beads. Such beads are also kept in families from one generation to the next. Sangadzhi believes that prayer beads store inside them the energy of mantras that have been read with them. There is an interesting story about the pray...

  8. Half bead welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Holz, P.P.

    1978-05-01

    The ORNL has employed the Section XI half-bead procedure for six repair welds. Table 2 identifies the repairs and the components upon which they were accomplished. The weld repairs were performed to permit us to evaluate material properties, residual stresses, weld repair procedures, and structural behavior of repaired pressure vessels. As a consequence of our study we concluded that when the half bead procedure is correctly applied: (1) there is no metallurgical degradation of the base material, (2) residual stresses of yield point magnitude will be present, and (3) the structural integrity of the pressure vessel is not impaired at Charpy V-notch upper shelf temperatures

  9. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  10. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  11. Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio camelus ... minute) among different group sizes in late 2006 in Serengeti National Park, ... be influenced by factors other than group size, such as body size and habitat type.

  12. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dziekońska Anna; Kinder Marek; Fraser Leyland; Strzeżek Jerzy; Kordan Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  13. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziekońska Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  14. Comparative evaluation of quality and composition of ostrich, turkey and broiler meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jukna V.; Klementavičiūtė J.; Meškinytė-Kaušilienė E.; Pečiulaitienė N.; Samborskytė M.; Ambrasūnas L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article are presented research data on comparative evaluation of meat quality of various poultry species. The study was made on 5 samples of ostrich, turkey and broiler meat. Samples were weighed 500 to 550 grams. Qualitative and nutritional properties of meat from different species of poultry were estimated. The chemical composition, pH, color, firmness, water holding capacity, cooking loss, drip loss of ostrich, turkey and broiler meat were analyz...

  15. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; den Toonder, J.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil

  16. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O 2 ), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10 1 -10 6 CFU/cm 2 ). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10 4 CFU/cm 2 inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO 2 mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Eggshell thickness variation in red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) from Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castilla, Aurora M.; de Aragón, Juan Martínez; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Eggshell thickness is commonly used as an indicator of habitat quality and effects of environmental pollution on avian reproduction. We present the first data available on eggshell thickness for Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa) in Spain. We compared eggshell thickness between eggs collected...

  19. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  20. Entamoeba sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus) (Aves: Struthionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Herrera, S; Castro, A; Ponce, F

    2000-10-01

    The first case of Entamoeba of the 1-nucleate mature cyst group in birds is described. Trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba have been found in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from farms located all over Spain. The cysts are large (13.47microm mean diameter); they possess one nucleus when mature, with a large endosome and peripheral chromatine arranged in small granules; chromatoid bodies, when present, are large and elongated. Trophozoites are large (19. 88microm mean diameter), with a clear differentiation between ecto- and endoplasm, this containing numerous vacuoles; the nucleus is large and diffuse. The characteristics of this amoeba resembles but do not completely fulfill those of E. suis and E. chattoni; also, these species are from mammals.

  1. The hand of birds revealed by early ostrich embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Alan; Nowicki, Julie

    2002-08-01

    The problem of resolving the homology of the digits of the avian hand has been framed as a conflict between paleontological and embryological evidence, the former thought to support a hand composed of digits I, II, III, because of similarity of the phalangeal formulae of the earliest known bird Archaeopteryx to that of Mesozoic pentadactyl archosaurs, while embryological evidence has traditionally favored a II, III, IV avian hand. We have identified the critical developmental period for the major features of the avian skeleton in a primitive bird, the ostrich. Analysis of digit anlagen in the avian hand has revealed those for digits/metacarpals I and V, thus confirming previous embryological studies that indirectly suggested that the avian hand comprises digits II, III, IV, and was primitively pentadactyl.

  2. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  3. Characteristics of global organic matrix in normal and pimpled chicken eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Song, L; Zhang, F; He, W; Linhardt, R J

    2017-10-01

    The organic matrix from normal and pimpled calcified chicken eggshells were dissociated into acid-insoluble, water-insoluble, and facultative-soluble (both acid- and water-soluble) components, to understand the influence of shell matrix on eggshell qualities. A linear correlation was shown among these 3 matrix components in normal eggshells but was not observed in pimpled eggshells. In pimpled eggshells, the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix (the total matrix, acid-insoluble matrix, water-insoluble matrix, and facultative-soluble matrix) were significantly higher than that in normal eggshells. The amounts of both total matrix and acid-insoluble matrix in individual pimpled calcified shells were high, even though their weight was much lower than a normal eggshell. In both normal and pimpled eggshells, the calcified eggshell weight and shell thickness significantly and positively correlated with the amounts of all 4 groups of matrix in an individual calcified shell. In normal eggshells, the calcified shell thickness and shell breaking strength showed no significant correlations with the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix. In normal eggshells, only the shell membrane weight significantly correlated with the constituent ratios of both acid-insoluble matrix and facultative-soluble matrix in the whole matrix. In pimpled eggshells, 3 variables (calcified shell weight, shell thickness, and breaking strength) were significantly correlated with the constituent proportions of both acid-insoluble matrix and facultative-matrix. This study suggests that mechanical properties of normal eggshells may not linearly depend on the organic matrix content in the calcified eggshells and that pimpled eggshells might result by the disequilibrium enrichment of some proteins with negative effects. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, S. S.; Ramesh, P.; Sivakumar, K.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) has been carried out under 293 K temperature conditions. The ostrich is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate in erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich heamoglobin. Haemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. The oxygen-binding properties of haemoglobin are regulated through the binding of allosteric effectors. The respiratory system of avian species is unique and complex in nature when compared with that of mammals. In avian species, inositol pentaphosphate (inositol-P 5 ) is present in the erythrocytes of the adult and is thought to be the major factor responsible for the relatively high oxygen affinity of the whole blood. The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate (inositol-P 4 ) in its erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich haemoglobin. Ostrich haemoglobin was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Haemoglobin crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant in 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.2. Data were collected using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals of ostrich haemoglobin diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit; the unit-cell parameters were a = 80.93, b = 81.68, c = 102.05 Å

  5. Hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of snake (Naja atra) and turtle (Ocadia sinensis) eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin; Chen, Po-Yu

    2016-02-01

    After hundreds of million years of evolution, natural armors have evolved in various organisms, and has manifested in diverse forms such as eggshells, abalone shells, alligator osteoderms, turtle shells, and fish scales. Eggshells serve as multifunctional shields for successful embryogenesis, such as protection, moisture control and thermal regulation. Unlike calcareous avian eggshells which are brittle and hard, reptilians have leathery eggshells that are tough and flexible. Reptilian eggshells can withstand collision damages when laid in holes and dropped onto each other, and reduce abrasion caused by buried sand. In this study, we investigate structure and mechanical properties of eggshells of Taiwan cobra snake (Naja atra) and Chinese striped-neck turtle (Ocadia sinensis). From Acid Fuchsin Orange G (AFOG) staining and ATR-FTIR examination, we found that both eggshells are mainly composed of keratin. The mechanical properties of demineralized snake and turtle eggshells were evaluated by tensile and fracture tests and show distinctly difference. Turtle eggshells are relatively stiff and rigid, while snake eggshells behave as elastomers, which are highly extensible and reversible. The exceptional deformability (110-230% tensile strain) and toughness of snake eggshells are contributed by the wavy and random arrangement of keratin fibers as well as collagen layers. Multi-scale toughening mechanisms of snake eggshells were observed and elucidated, including crack deflection and twisting, fibers reorientation, sliding and bridging, inter-laminar shear effect, as well as the α-β phase transition of keratin. Inspirations from the structural and mechanical designs of reptilian eggshells may lead to the synthesis of tough, extensible, lightweight composites which could be further applied in the flexible devices, packaging and bio-medical fields. Amniotic eggshells serve as multifunctional shields for successful embryogenesis. The avian eggshells have been extensively

  6. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana and ostriches (Struthio camelus from farms of different Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Brentano Almeida

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the occurrence of antibodies againstToxoplasma gondii in rheas (Rhea americana and ostriches (Struthio camelus commercially breeding in Brazil. Blood samples from 20 rheas and 46 ostriches (young and adults were serologically tested using a technique known as modified agglutination test (MAT at an initial titration of 1:16 for ostriches and 1:25 for rheas. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 50% (10/20 of the rheas, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:6,400. The incidence of antibodies against T. gondii in ostriches was 17.4% (8/46 with titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:256. Birds showing titers higher than 1:200 forT. gondii were mainly the young ones. Therefore, rheas and ostriches may be parasitized by T. gondii, showing high levels of antibodies against this parasite.

  7. Technological and nutritional properties of ostrich, emu, and rhea meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horbańczuk Olaf K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a growing demand for ratite meat, including ostrich, emu, and rhea has been observed all over the world. However, consumers as well as the meat industry still have limited and scattered knowledge about this type of meat, especially in the case of emu and rhea. Thus, the aim of the present review is to provide information on technological and nutritional properties of ostrich, emu, and rhea meat, including carcass composition and yields, physicochemical characteristics, and nutritive value. Carcass yields and composition among ratites are comparable, with the exception of higher content of fat in emu. Ostrich, emu, and rhea meat is darker than beef and ratite meat acidification is closer to beef than to poultry. Ratite meat can be recognised as a dietetic product mainly because of its low level of fat, high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, favourable n6/n3 ratio, and high iron content in comparison with beef and chicken meat. Ratite meat is also rich in selenium, copper, vitamin B, and biologically active peptides such as creatine (emu and anserine (ostrich, and has low content of sodium (ostrich. The abundance of bioactive compounds e.g. PUFA, makes ratite meat highly susceptible to oxidation and requires research concerning elaboration of innovative, intelligent packaging system for protection of nutritional and technological properties of this meat.

  8. An Effective Ostrich Oil Bleaching Technique Using Peroxide Value as an Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Seng Chiew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness.

  9. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  10. Effects of ultrasonic waves on eggshell strength and hatchability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tarek shafey

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... eggs (Trial 1), and egg weight loss, embryo weight, hatchability and CHW of ... 5, 10 and 15 minutes in a water bath (W5, W10 and W15) or a ULT bath (ULT5, ... eggshell strength between ULT-treated eggs and the control.

  11. Eggshell membranes as a noninvasive sampling for molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noninvasive sampling is of prime essential on conservation genetics and molecular ecology. It is particularly preferred to use in the genetic identification of individuals and genetic analysis. A simple and efficient sampling is described for molecular studies from eggshell membranes in an endemic population of Chinese ...

  12. Proteomic analysis of chicken eggshell cuticle membrane layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Ergang, Peter; Pácha, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, č. 29 (2014), s. 7633-7640 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mass spectrometry * bioanalyticalmethods * cuticle * chicken proteins * insoluble proteins * eggshell Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  13. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydes with active methylene compounds using calcined eggshell (CES) as an efficient ... of the important reactions to achieve carbon–carbon ... solid catalyst for biodiesel production,24 as a catalyst ... which supports for adsorption of water on CaO and ... The organic phase .... After extraction of the product with ethylac-.

  14. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from waste egg-shell by Precipitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the samples. At optimal conditions, calculated stoichiometric ratio of Ca/P of the synthesized HAp powder (74 - 0565) of 1.65 closed to the theoretical value of Ca/P ratio (1.67) and amenable to biomedical applications, was obtained. Keywords: Hydroxyapatite; Egg-shell; Precipitation Method, Ca/P Stoichiometric Ratio.

  15. The evolution of eggshell cuticle in relation to nesting ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Avian eggs are at risk of microbial infection prior to and during incubation. A large number of defence mechanisms have evolved in response to the severe costs imposed by these infections. The eggshell's cuticle is an important component of antimicrobial defence, and its role in preventing contamination by microorganisms in domestic chickens is well known. Nanometer-scale cuticular spheres that reduce microbial attachment and penetration have recently been identified on eggs of several wild avian species. However, whether these spheres have evolved specifically for antimicrobial defence is unknown. Here, we use comparative data on eggshell cuticular structure and nesting ecology to test the hypothesis that birds nesting in habitats with higher risk of infection (e.g. wetter and warmer) are more likely to evolve cuticular nanospheres on their eggshells than those nesting in less risky habitats. We found that nanostructuring, present in 54 of 296 analysed species, is the ancestral condition of avian eggshells and has been retained more often in taxa that nest in humid infection-prone environments, suggesting that they serve critical roles in antimicrobial egg defence. PMID:27488648

  16. Effects of seasonal variations on thermoregulation of ostrich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuony, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve ostrich aged 7 months old were used during summer and winter from the breeding flock of the ostrich farm, at the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas, of Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. In the study all birds were exposed to ambient temperatures in summer and winter, and the birds were fed grower ration ad libitum (19% protein and 2450 K cal ME /Kg).The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters, the daily feed consumption (g/bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) these parameters were measured during 7 days in each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 am and once in the afternoon at 3 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cell (RBCs) counts and total white blood cell (WBCs) counts, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. Serum, total protein (TP), albumen (A) and globulin (G) concentrations were measured. Furthermore, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Also, serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and aldosterone levels were estimated. Also, the amount of total body water was determined by the antipyren method. Finally, serum protein profile it was conducted by Native-PAGE method (Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) on vertical slab gel to determine protein profiles in blood proteins of ostrich. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature increased significantly during the

  17. Ostrich meat buying intention and sensory studies: a proposing orientation for producers in Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Yáñez-Moneda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional markets positioning of new products are a hard work. In this work, consumer’s buying intention and sensory attributes of ostrich meat were performed. Polled persons (n= 218 indicate that most desirable sensory attributes (odor, texture, general appearance had a score of 4 in a 5 points scale. Although 74% had no idea of the ostrich meat flavor, after tasting samples the 76.8% commented that they will be disposed to buy ostrich meat. For the proposed price range, 38.1% indicated $60.00 to $80.00/kg, but 32.1% indicated that they will pay between $40.00 to $60.00/kg. Suggested prices were low for the production cost (around $150.00. Promotion strategy needs to be focused to added values meats market in order to reach a competitive price.

  18. Microfabricated Passive Magnetic Bead separators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Smistrup, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The use and manipulation of functionalized magnetic beads for bioanalysis in lab-on-a-chip systems is receiving growing interest. We have developed microfluidic systems with integrated magnetic structures for the capture and release of magnetic beads. The systems are fabricated in silicon by deep...

  19. A 700-year record of mercury in avian eggshells of Guangjin Island, South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Liqiang; Liu Xiaodong; Sun Liguang; Chen Qianqian; Yan Hong; Liu Yi; Luo Yuhan; Huang Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ancient eggshells over the past 700 years were extracted from an ornithogenic sediment profile on Guangjin Island, South China Sea. Based on SEM and nitrogen isotope analyses, we determined that neither post-depositional processes nor seabirds' dietary changes had a large influence on eggshell Hg levels. The historical change of Hg in these eggshells was reconstructed. Eggshell Hg was a marker for past Hg deposition in marine environment. The eggshell Hg showed three small peaks at around 1300AD, 1600 AD and 1700-1750AD and rapid increase since 1800 AD. Before 1970 AD the Hg deposition in the Xisha area had global distribution characteristics, with increased Hg emissions due to global anthropogenic activities in industrial times. However, after 1970 AD, a further sharp increase up to present day occurred, implying that the Hg production center had gradually shifted from Europe and America to Asia. - Research highlights: → Eggshell Hg is a marker for past mercury deposition in marine environment. → This is a Hg record from ancient sequential eggshell samples. → The 700-year record of eggshell Hg is closely related to human activities. → Eggshell Hg suggests the increase of Hg production in Asia over the past decades. - Our work provides a potential use of ancient sequential eggshells to reconstruct past mercury deposition in marine ecosystems.

  20. A 700-year record of mercury in avian eggshells of Guangjin Island, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Liqiang [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Center, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Liu Xiaodong, E-mail: ycx@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun Liguang, E-mail: slg@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Chen Qianqian; Yan Hong; Liu Yi; Luo Yuhan; Huang Jing [Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Ancient eggshells over the past 700 years were extracted from an ornithogenic sediment profile on Guangjin Island, South China Sea. Based on SEM and nitrogen isotope analyses, we determined that neither post-depositional processes nor seabirds' dietary changes had a large influence on eggshell Hg levels. The historical change of Hg in these eggshells was reconstructed. Eggshell Hg was a marker for past Hg deposition in marine environment. The eggshell Hg showed three small peaks at around 1300AD, 1600 AD and 1700-1750AD and rapid increase since 1800 AD. Before 1970 AD the Hg deposition in the Xisha area had global distribution characteristics, with increased Hg emissions due to global anthropogenic activities in industrial times. However, after 1970 AD, a further sharp increase up to present day occurred, implying that the Hg production center had gradually shifted from Europe and America to Asia. - Research highlights: > Eggshell Hg is a marker for past mercury deposition in marine environment. > This is a Hg record from ancient sequential eggshell samples. > The 700-year record of eggshell Hg is closely related to human activities. > Eggshell Hg suggests the increase of Hg production in Asia over the past decades. - Our work provides a potential use of ancient sequential eggshells to reconstruct past mercury deposition in marine ecosystems.

  1. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Sr in eggshells may be associated with lower hatching success of some passerine birds. - Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2-35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell

  2. bEADS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    While there are a great variety of digital musical interfaces available to the working musician, few offer the level of immediate, nuanced and instinctive interaction that one finds in an acoustic shaker. bEADS is a prototype of a digital musical instrument that utilises the gestural vocabulary...... associated with shaken idiophones and expands on the techniques and sonic possibilities associated with them. By using a bespoke physically informed synthesis engine, in conjunction with accelerometer and pressure sensor data, an actuated handheld instrument has been built that allows for quickly switching...... between widely differing percussive sound textures. The prototype has been evaluated by three experts with different levels of involvement in professional music making....

  3. [The oxygen consumption of ostrich embryos during incubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, G; Dzapo, V

    1995-02-01

    This work deals with the oxygen consumption of ostrich chicks during incubation. Brood eggs were incubated in a hermetic isolated acrylic-glass cylinder. Reduction of oxygen content in the air surrounding the egg was measured using an oxygen-sensitive electrode. A sigmoid curve could be drawn during incubation, with the steepest phase being around day 26. Maximum oxygen consumption was reached on day 36. It was slightly decreased until day 39, when the embryo switches to lung circulation, followed again by an increase until hatching. Average oxygen consumptions for the whole brood interval were calculated to 63.6 liters. Oxygen volumes consumed on day 36 result in a demand about to 240 liters of fresh air per egg and day. Oxygen consumption of the embryos on day 36 was significantly positive correlated with their vitality. Numb or less vital embryos could be clearly differentiated from others. The higher a chick's oxygen consumption, the earlier and shorter its hatching. Possible applications of the method in regard to the evaluation of incubation parameters or chicken constitution are discussed.

  4. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: An integrated mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahtab [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hashimoto, Yohey [Department of Bioresource Science, Mie University, 1577 Kurima-machiya, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Moon, Deok Hyun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Soo, E-mail: sslee97@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ok, Yong Sik, E-mail: soilok@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eggshell and calcined eggshell immobilized Pb in the shooting range soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcined eggshell was more effective on Pb immobilization compared to eggshell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchangeable Pb fractions were transformed to carbonate bound fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcined eggshell stabilized Pb by enwrapping into calcium silicate hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil Pb toxicity can be reduced by applying eggshell and calcined eggshell. - Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to {approx}1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0-47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH){sub 2}] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb{sub 2}O(SO{sub 4})]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils.

  5. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: An integrated mechanistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Hashimoto, Yohey; Moon, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Eggshell and calcined eggshell immobilized Pb in the shooting range soil. ► Calcined eggshell was more effective on Pb immobilization compared to eggshell. ► Exchangeable Pb fractions were transformed to carbonate bound fractions. ► Calcined eggshell stabilized Pb by enwrapping into calcium silicate hydrate. ► Soil Pb toxicity can be reduced by applying eggshell and calcined eggshell. - Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to ∼1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0–47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH) 2 ] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb 2 O(SO 4 )]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils.

  6. Eggshell and Bacterial Cellulose Composite Membrane as Absorbent Material in Active Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose and eggshell composite was successfully developed. Eggshell was mixed with bacterial cellulose suspension and it was casted as a composite film. CaCO3 derived from eggshell was compared with its commercial availability. It can be noted that good dispersion of eggshell particle was prepared. Eggshell particle was irregular in shape with a variation in size. It existed in bacterial cellulose network. Characterization on composite was focused on thermal and mechanical properties. It showed that flexibility and thermal stability of composite were enhanced. No significant effect of mechanical properties was therefore observed. The thermal stability of composite was stable up to 300°C. The adsorption experiment on water and vegetable oil capacity was performed. The enhancement on adsorption was due to the existence of eggshell in bacterial cellulose composite. It exhibited the potential to be a good candidate for absorbent material in active packaging.

  7. Studies on improving ostrich egg hatch ability and its relation with some factors affecting embryonic development during artificial incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, N.S.I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out in co-operation between the Ostrich Production Farm, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt and the Faculty of Agriculture, AL-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Ostrich eggs were obtained from Resk Company for Ostrich Production and set for incubation at ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Sharkia, Egypt. The objectives are:1- To follow up changes in some vital physiological parameters and blood components associated with ostrich embryonic development during incubation and to provide reference blood biochemical baseline values for future studies of avian species and to document novel information on some normal changes associated with growth of the developing ostrich embryo during the incubation, as no similar and complete data could be found on this aspect in the literature. 2- In an effort to improve the hatch ability and hatching performance of ostrich eggs by testing the effect of in ovo injection of several nutrients. Two trials were carried out: 1-First trial To follow up changes in some vital physiological parameters and blood components associated with ostrich embryonic development during incubation. A total number of 60 ostrich eggs weighed between 1300 and 1500 g were obtained from from Resk Company for Ostrich Production. Eggs were collected weekly in patches of 25 eggs and Egg incubation was performed in ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Egypt. Egg weight and egg weight loss during incubation were determined on each eggs.2- Second Trial In vivo injection In an effort to improve the hatch ability and hatching performance of ostrich eggs by testing the effect of in ovo injection of several nutrients. A total of 100 fertile ostrich eggs weighed between 1300 and 1500 g were obtained from from Resk Company for Ostrich Production. Eggs were collected weekly in patches of 25 eggs and egg incubation was performed in ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Egypt. Eggs were injected at the 7 th day of incubation to deposit test material in

  8. Evolution and characterization of eggshell as a potential candidate of raw material

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, T.; Mostari, Mst. S.; Mahmood, Md. A. Al; Rahman, Md. S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Characterization of both uncalcined and calcined eggshells was done in this work. Raw eggshells turned out as a good source of calcite phase. Calcined eggshells had a mixture of lime and portlandite phase. A significant impact of calcination temperature on the percentage of generated phases was observed. Qualitative as well as semi-quantitative phase analysis, morphological characterization and physical property estimation was done for the produced powder. The influence of synthesize...

  9. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2–35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell should not be ignored.

  10. Evolution and characterization of eggshell as a potential candidate of raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zaman

    Full Text Available Abstract Characterization of both uncalcined and calcined eggshells was done in this work. Raw eggshells turned out as a good source of calcite phase. Calcined eggshells had a mixture of lime and portlandite phase. A significant impact of calcination temperature on the percentage of generated phases was observed. Qualitative as well as semi-quantitative phase analysis, morphological characterization and physical property estimation was done for the produced powder. The influence of synthesized raw material on soil stabilization and biomaterial formation was further assessed. The eggshell turned out as a potential source of raw material for various sectors.

  11. Recycled Aluminium Cans/Eggshell Composites: Evaluation of Mechanical and Wear Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Agunsoye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium based metal matrix composites have been produced from recycled aluminium cans and 150µm sized eggshell particles using a stir cast process. The mechanical properties of the control and aluminium can/eggshell composites produced have been investigated. The microstructures of the aluminium can/eggshell composites were examined with the aids of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM after the sample surfaces have been carefully prepared and etched with aqueous solution of 0.5 cm3 nitric acid. Micrographs revealed that there was a homogenous distribution of eggshell particles within the aluminium can matrix. An indication of effective stirring action during the melting process. The wear resistance was also investigated under different applied loads (6 to 14 N on an abrasive surface emery paper of grade 220. The results revealed an increase in Young’s modulus of elasticity and yield stress from 1,206.45 and 50.23 Mpa respectively of the cast aluminium can with 0 % eggshell particle to the maximum of 3,258.87and 73.2 MPa of aluminium can/12 % eggshell composites. The hardness values increased from 66.23 to 75.13 VN. There was a gradual increase in wear rate of the tested samples as the applied load increased. However, the wear resistance of the aluminium can/6 % eggshell and aluminium can/12 % eggshell composites increased significantly. Hence, recycling of aluminium cans and eggshells can be harnessed into development of useful engineering metal matrix composite materials.

  12. SPECIAL FEATURES THE FEEDING OF YOUNG OSTRICHES UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISA CAISÎN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There was analyzed and compared the nutritional posture of the young ostriches of different ages, reside at the farm “Anataction Investagro SRL” in conditions of Republic of Moldavia with offered pastures based on different normative dates and there was held the comparative analysis on the contends of food-value substances in them.

  13. SPECIAL FEATURES THE FEEDING OF YOUNG OSTRICHES UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    LARISA CAISÎN; NATALIA GROSU

    2008-01-01

    There was analyzed and compared the nutritional posture of the young ostriches of different ages, reside at the farm “Anataction Investagro SRL” in conditions of Republic of Moldavia with offered pastures based on different normative dates and there was held the comparative analysis on the contends of food-value substances in them.

  14. Do Ostriches Struthio camelus reject parasitic eggs by making use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ostrich communal breeding system involves several females laying in a single nest. Only the 'major' female and the territorial male, however, provide parental care from incubation to fledging of chicks. Eggs are turned and displaced frequently upon the onset of incubation, and the major female evicts excess eggs out of ...

  15. Influence of frozen storage on the fatty acid composition of ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-16

    May 16, 2015 ... the level of inclusion of oil seeds in the diet influences the level of fatty acid deposition (Hoffman et al., 2005;. Poławska et al., 2012; 2013) and it is therefore worthwhile to evaluate a range of oil seed inclusion levels. Ostrich meat is typically sold as entire muscles (Sales & Horbańczuk, 1998; Hoffman, 2008) ...

  16. A case report of crimean congo hemorrhagic Fever in ostriches in iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moradi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonosis, which is usually transmitted via tick bites or close contact with infected blood or tissue. This disease can cause a case fatality rate of up to 25%-30% in humans. CCHF Infection in birds is less documented. An ostrich can reproduce...

  17. Evaluation Of Some Blood Biochemical And Hormonal Levels During Different Ages Of Ostrich Embryonic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; FARGHALY, H.A.M.; MAHROSE, KH.

    2010-01-01

    Eighty ostrich eggs were collected from the breeding flock at the ostrich farm in the Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during the period from March to May 2008 to evaluate some blood constituents during ostrich embryonic development. All adult birds were kept under the same managerial, hygienic and environmental conditions and had 2.1 kg palletized feed per bird per day. Eggs were collected at 15.00 pm each day. Eggs were washed and weighed on an electric balance(±)0.01 g.The eggs were placed in the setter for 39 days at 36.5 0 C and 25 % relative humidity. After 39 days, eggs were transferred to hatcher machine at 35.5 0 C and 40 - 45 % relative humidity until hatch. Blood samples were collected at days 21, 28, 35 and 39 of embryonic development and at one day age after 12 hours of hatch. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea and uric acid levels were determined. Serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and triiodothyronine levels were estimated. The results showed that chicks of one day old and older embryos of ostriches had significant higher values of serum blood components than younger embryos.On the other hand, blood serum cholesterol level was decreased significantly with age advancement during embryonic development and as well as chicks of one day old.

  18. An outbreak of infectious hepatitis in commercially reared ostriches associated with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, C.P.; On, S.L.W.; Gibson, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    A disease causing high morbidity and mortality was observed in young ostriches from six properties in southeast Queensland, Australia. The disease affected birds from 2-8 weeks of age and was characterised clinically by bright-green urates and pathologically by severe necrotic hepatitis. The live...

  19. Changes in the air cell volume of artificially incubated ostrich eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% ...

  20. Histoanatomical study on the uveal coat of eye in mature ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadali Ebrahimi saadatlou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the uveal coats of 20 healthy adult ostriches were studied anatomically and histologically. At first, the appearance, dimension, structure and vicinity of choroid, ciliary body and iris were evaluated macroscopically. Then they were studied microscopically after preparing histological slides and staining by H&E, Verhoeff, Van Gieson, and P.A.S. Tapetum lucidum was not seen in the choroid. The average thickness of ciliary body was measured as 1.48±0.01 centimeters. Moreover, the number of macroscopic ciliary body process in the ostrich eye was about 120. Iris thickness in the normal state is 0.7 centimeters and the diameter of pupil was measured as 1.2 centimeters. Pupil is round shaped in ostrich. There is a hyaline cartilage membrane between the sclera and choroid. There is bruch's membrane in the choroid and the total thickness of the choroid was measured as 350 µm. The ciliary body was supported by a hyaline cartilage. Skeletal muscle fibers in the ciliary body were seen as separated masses. Epithelium is lacking on the anterior surface of the iris. Iridial muscle fibers were smooth. The posterior epithelium of the iris had two pigmented layers with the inner layer acting as myoepithelial cells. In conclusion, the uveal coat of ostrich was similar to other birds although there were little differences in anatomical dimensions and histological characteristics

  1. Analysis of immunoglobulin transcripts in the ostrich Struthio camelus, a primitive avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To better understand the Ig genes and their evolutionary development in birds, we analyzed the Ig genes in the ostrich (Struthio camelus, which is one of the most primitive birds. Similar to the chicken and duck, the ostrich expressed only three IgH chain isotypes (IgM, IgA and IgY and λ light chains. The IgM and IgY constant domains are similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. Although conventional IgM, IgA and IgY cDNAs were identified in the ostrich, we also detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound form of IgA (lacking the last two C(H exons that was undetectable at the protein level. No IgD or κ encoding genes were identified. The presence of a single leader peptide in the expressed heavy chain and light chain V regions indicates that gene conversion also plays a major role in the generation of antibody diversity in the ostrich. Because the ostrich is one of the most primitive living aves, this study suggests that the distinct features of the bird Ig genes appeared very early during the divergence of the avian species and are thus shared by most, if not all, avian species.

  2. Dioxins and PCBs in ostrich meat and eggs: levels and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Strucinski, Pawel; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Pajurek, Marek; Maszewski, Sebastian; Pietron, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (DL-) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market, in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared with the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably. The percentage share of total WHO toxic equivalency factor (WHO-TEQ) content indicates the dominant role of PCDD/Fs. High concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCBs, in the range of 0.85-74.48 pg WHO-TEQ g -1 fat, were found in ostrich eggs; this exceeds the maximum level permitted for chicken eggs by a factor of up to 15. Eight of the 11 egg samples exceeded the action level for hen eggs. Although the ostrich meat concentrations of PCDD/Fs do not exceed the limit established for poultry muscle (1.75 pg g -1 fat), average contents of PCDD/Fs exceeded almost four times the levels in chicken and turkey muscle. Human exposure was evaluated and the resulting risk was characterised. Taking into account the low average consumption of ostrich eggs, the resulting exposure to dioxins for the general population can be considered as negligibly low. However, the individuals who frequently consume such eggs may be at risk of elevated exposure. Although ostrich products are not consumed frequently, such data are nevertheless useful for food safety purposes.

  3. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  4. or without eggshell's contamination that produced in Tabriz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khakpoor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic bacterial diseases are considered as the most important human infectious diseases. In this category, a disease that transfer and infect human through food has an special role. Among foods with animal origin, eggs due to their application as food ingredient in food products, like sauces, spices, ice creams and other food products that may use in half cooked or crude forms, always has the potential to transfer microbial pathogens to human. This study is about to prove that presence of remainder feces on eggshells leads the penetration of bacterial agents into egg yolk. A total of 120 daily egg samples (with and without fecal contamination were collected from henneries around Tabriz and transferred immediately to microbiology laboratory. After performing microbial examinations (using BHI Broth, BHI Agar, Blood Agar, Selenite F, Tetrationate, XLD,SS Agar,Gram Staining, Oxidase and Catalase tests, bacteria of eggshells and egg yolks has been identified. Out of 120 eggs, 15.83% bacterial contaminants were found in egg yolks samples. Among them, 73.68%  were gram negative and 26.31% were gram positive. Among gram negatives, Pseudomonas with occurrence of 8.3% and in gram positives group, Bacillus with abundance of  4.16% were the most frequent bacterias. Also in samples collected from eggshells, 99.16% of the eggs demonstrated bacterial contamination which 23.55% of positive samples were among gram negative group and 76.44% were gram positive. The most contribution of eggshell gram negative bacterias were relevant to Pseudomonas, E.coli, Proteus and Citrobacter with respectively 18.33%,10.83%,5.83% and 4.16% rations. Among gram positive bacteria that isolates form eggshell samples for the most frequent bacterias, were Bacillus, Staphylococccus, Streptococcus, Rhodococcus and Micrococcus with respectively 80.00%, 34.16%, 15%, 9.16% and 7.5% rations. Use and consumption of eggs with shells contaminated with faces in food products is a serious

  5. CRITICAL QUALITY PARAMETERS VEGETABLE FEED FOR OSTRICHES (STRUTHIO CAMELUS DOMESTICUS ON AN ARTIFICIAL PASTURE IN TcChR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of studying nutrition African ostriches for different ages in zoos, nurseries and small farms evaluated the nutritional value and balance of each of the components of plant feed, providing the needs for normal growth of poultry, development and productivity, to increase body weight, to increase egg production, quality hatching eggs, meat quality, output and quality of the young. Currently, in most cases, bird feed by copying the natural food, but it is the species, age and seasonal specifics, ensure that in the conditions of the zoo, nursery and farm problematic. Therefore, to solve this problem, we proposed the formulation of plant feed for feeding African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms that promote bird health, increase the rate of feeding, increase egg production, increase their survival, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw mat erials at cheaper developed using the optimization program "Food Optima Expert". To sustain ostriches exchange energy feed should be not less than 260 kcal / 100 g, protein content not less than 16 %. The complex research to develop formulations of plant feed for African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms and the quality of their analysis may be of interest in the full feeding African ostriches. The proposed formulation can extend its range of multi-component feed with a sufficiently high biological, energy value, the balanced composition of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals adapted for ostriches, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw materials at lower cost.

  6. Molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses in Ostriches (Struthio camelus L.): further evidences of recombination within avian paramyxovirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanbo; Cortey, Martí; Zhang, Yi; Cui, Shangjin; Dolz, Roser; Wang, Jianlin; Gong, Zhenhua

    2011-05-05

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains isolated from ostriches have been genotyped for the first time by partial sequencing of the F gene to determine the epidemiologic role that this species can play within ND outbreaks. Fifteen additional NDV strains, mostly isolated from chickens but also from pigeons and penguins, were also included in the study to determine genetic relationships with ostriches NDV isolates. High genetic diversity was demonstrated in ostrich NDV isolates, as the 10 isolates were grouped in four distinct NDV genotypes. In agreement with the results obtained when chicken isolates have been molecularly characterized, the predominant genotype in ostriches was the genotype VII. More interestingly, evidences of recombination between genotype II and VII were observed in one ostrich isolate and in two further chicken isolates. Therefore, it seems that ostriches may play a relevant role in the ecology and epidemiology of ND particularly in those regions where they have an increasing farming importance as minor poultry species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative proteomics of matrix fractions between pimpled and normal chicken eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangguo; Song, Lingzi; Lu, Lizhi; Zhang, Xianfu; Zhang, Fuming; Wang, Kehua; Linhardt, Robert J

    2017-09-07

    Eggshell matrix can be dissociated into three matrix fractions: acid-insoluble matrix (M1), water-insoluble matrix (M2) and acid-water facultative-soluble matrix (M3). Matrix fractions from pimpled and normal eggshells were compared using label-free proteomic method to understand the differences among three matrix fractions and the proteins involved with eggshell quality. A total of 738 and 600 proteins were identified in the pimpled and normal calcified eggshells, respectively. Both eggshells showed a combined proteomic inventory of 769 proteins. In the same type of eggshell, a high similarity was present in the proteomes of three matrix fractions. These triply overlapped common proteins formed the predominant contributor to proteomic abundance in the matrix fractions. In each matrix fraction and between both eggshell models, normal and pimpled eggshells, a majority of the proteomes of the fractions were commonly observed. Forty-two common major proteins (iBAQ-derived abundance ≥0.095% of proteomic abundance) were identified throughout the three matrix fractions and these proteins might act as backbone constituents in chicken eggshell matrix. Finally, using 1.75-fold as up-regulated and using 0.57-fold as down-regulated cutoff values, twenty-five differential major proteins were screened and they all negatively influence and none showed any effect on eggshell quality. Overall, we uncovered the characteristics of proteomics of three eggshell matrix fractions and identified candidate proteins influencing eggshell quality. The next research on differential proteins will uncover the potential mechanisms underlying how proteins affect eggshell quality. It was reported that the proteins in an eggshell can be divided into insoluble and soluble proteins. The insoluble proteins are thought to be an inter-mineral matrix and acts as a structural framework, while the soluble proteins are thought as intra-mineral matrix that are embedded within the crystal during

  8. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  9. Sorption mechanism of Cd(II) from water solution onto chicken eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cano, Jose Valente; Leyva-Ramos, Roberto; Mendoza-Barron, Jovita; Guerrero-Coronado, Rosa María; Aragón-Piña, Antonio; Labrada-Delgado, Gladis Judith

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism and capacity of eggshell for sorbing Cd(II) from aqueous solution was examined in detail. The eggshell was characterized by several techniques. The eggshell was mainly composed of Calcite (CaCO3). The surface charge distribution was determined by acid-base titration and the point of zero charge (PZC) of the eggshell was found to be 11.4. The sorption equilibrium data were obtained in a batch adsorber, and the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir fitted the data quite well. The sorption capacity of eggshell increased while raising the pH from 4 to 6, this tendency was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the Cd2+ in solution and the surface of the eggshell. Furthermore, the sorption capacity was augmented by increasing the temperature from 15 to 35 °C because the sorption was endothermic. The sorption of Cd(II) occurred mainly onto the calcareous layer of the eggshell, but slightly on the membrane layer. It was demonstrated that the sorption of Cd(II) was not reversible, and the main sorption mechanisms were precipitation and ion exchange. The precipitation of (Cd,Ca)CO3 on the surface of the eggshell was corroborated by SEM and XRD analysis.

  10. Impact of egg holding temperatures on the recovery of Salmonella from eggshells and stainless steel coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to determine the impact of egg holding temperature on the ability to recover Salmonella from eggshells after 24 h. Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (nalidixic acid resistant marker strain) inoculated eggshells and stainless steel coupons (SSC, 14 mm diameter) were held a...

  11. Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: Piglet studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A.; Beelen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Powdered chicken eggshells might be an interesting and widely available source of calcium. In two studies using piglets we determined the digestibility of calcium from different diets. The first study compared casein-based diets with CaCO3 (CasCC) or eggshell powder (CasES). The second study

  12. Incubation reduces microbial growth on eggshells and the opportunity for trans-shell infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Wayne J. Arendt

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggshells harbour microbes shortly after laying, and under appropriate ambient conditions they can multiply rapidly, penetrate through shell pores, infect egg contents and cause embryo mortality. We experimentally examined how incubation affects bacterial processes on the eggshells of pearl-eyed thrashers Margarops fuscatus nesting in tropical montane and lowland...

  13. Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution in parent and aluminum-modified eggshells: thermodynamics and kinetics, adsorption mechanism, and diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ziyan; Li, Jiuhai; Guo, Zhaobing; Guo, Qingjun; Zhu, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Parent and aluminum-modified eggshells were prepared and characterized with X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscope, respectively. Besides, phosphorus adsorptions in these two eggshells at different temperatures and solution pH were carried out to study adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics as well as the mechanisms of phosphorus adsorption and diffusion. The results indicated that high temperature was favorable for phosphorus adsorption in parent and aluminum-modified eggshells. Alkaline solution prompted phosphorus adsorption in parent eggshell, while the maximum adsorption amount was achievable at pH 4 in aluminum-modified eggshell. Adsorption isotherms of phosphorus in these eggshells could be well described by Langmuir and Freundlich models. Phosphorus adsorption amounts in aluminum-modified eggshell were markedly higher compared to those in parent eggshell. Adsorption heat indicated that phosphorus adsorption in parent eggshell was a typically physical adsorption process, while chemical adsorption mechanism of ion exchange between phosphorus and hydroxyl groups on the surface of eggshells was dominated in aluminum-modified eggshell. The time-resolved uptake curves showed phosphorus adsorption in aluminum-modified eggshell was significantly faster than that in parent eggshell. Moreover, there existed two clear steps in time-resolved uptake curves of phosphorus in parent eggshell. Based on pseudo-second order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion model, we inferred more than one process affected phosphorus adsorption. The first process was the diffusion of phosphorus through water to external surface and the opening of pore channel in the eggshells, and the second process was mainly related to intraparticle diffusion.

  14. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  15. Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Gordo, F; Martínez Díaz, R A; Herrera, S

    2004-02-06

    In the present work we identify the species of Entamoeba from ostriches (Struthio camelus). The complete sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene from this organism has been compared with those published for other species of the genus and clear differences have been found. These results confirm previous data which showed differences on parasite morphology and class of host with the other Entamoeba species. Taking all these data together, it can be concluded that the organism from ostriches is a new species whose proposed name is Entamoeba struthionis n.sp. This species probably infects rheas (Rhea americana), but genetic analysis of isolates from this host should be performed to confirm morphological data. Also, comparison of gene sequences with data from other authors on cysts recovered from human stool samples showed the possibility that this amoeba may affect humans. Further studies are needed to determine the risk of transmission of this new species to humans.

  16. Age-related Changes in some Blood Parameters of Ostrich (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodaei Motlagh M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating some blood parameters of blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus with 4 months old after feeding a diet containing 3% sunflower oil for two months. In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, some blood samples were collected from the wing vein of ostriches at the beginning and 60 days of study in department of animal sceince Arak university . The plasma was harvested and analyzed to measure cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-Cholesrerol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C, Very low density lipoproyein-Cholesterol (VLDL_C, total protein, albumin, total immunoglobulin, the activity of AST and ALT. From days 0 to 60, HDL-C concentration decreased (P

  17. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: an integrated mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Hashimoto, Yohey; Moon, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-03-30

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to ≈ 1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0-47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH)(2)] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb(2)O(SO(4))]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and chemical characteristics of dehydrated ostrich eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.A.M.; Swailam, H.M.; Zeid, A.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Role of gamma irradiation on improving hygienic quality of dehydrated Ostrich eggs during cold storage was studied. Irradiation with dose level 6 kGy proved to be quite tool to keep quality of ostrich egg components since it decreased their bacterial counts less than 100 cells/g either after irradiation process or during cold storage for 6 months. Total coliform, E. coli and Staphylococcus sp. were almost eliminated. Twenty one fungi species belonging to eight genera were isolated from the un-treated samples. Most species could not stand cold storage and only five species (Aternaria clamydospora, Aspergillus niger, Asp. oryzae, Cladosporium cladosporioides & Fusarium oxysporum) were detected after 6 months of storage at 5 degree C. Also, five species could endure irradiation with dose level 6 kGy (Al. alternata, Al. clamydospora, Cl. cladosporioides, herbarum & F. oxysporum) and only two species of them could bear cold storage for 6 months (Al. clamydosp ora & Cl. clodosporioides). The effect of cold storage (5 degree C) on total amino acids either essential or non essential was relatively higher than that occurred by irradiating dried albumen ostrich eggs with 6 kGy. Total amino acids decreased from 272.5 mg/g to 241 mg/g after 6 months of cold storage, while they decreased to 256.2 mg/g after the irradiation process. The same trend was observed in case of dried whole yolk or defatted yolk. The effect of gamma rays and cold storage on the relative percentages of fatty acids composition of dried ostrich eggs yolk was different from each other. After exposing the dried yolk to 6 kGy, the percentages of myristic and palmitic acids increased, while palmitoleic and stearic acids decreased. Mean-while after 6 months of cold storage the percentages of palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased, while stearic and oleic acids decreased

  19. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  20. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  1. Effect of the daily consumption of ostrich and bovine meat on the lipid metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Vasconcelos de Carvalho-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of ostrich meat (lliofemuralis internus and bovine meat (Psoas major on the lipid metabolism in adult mice. The analyses of the centesimal composition of the meats and preparation of the diets were accomplished following the recommendations of the American Institute of Nutrition-AIN-93. Three groups of 150 day-old animals: group I (diet I, with casein, group II (diet II, with ostrich meat, and group III (diet III with bovine meat were fed for 13 weeks with the respective diets and weight gain, food efficiency coefficient, total cholesterol, lipoprotein fractions, hepatic, transaminases and body fat percentage and hepatic fat content were evaluated. No difference (p < 0.05 it was found for weight gain and coefficients for feed efficiency among the groups. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, relationship of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol, VLDL, triglycerides and hepatic transaminases were also not different among the groups (p < 0.05. This research suggests that the consumption of ostrich meat or thin bovine meat on a daily basis does not raise concerns about weight gain, and an increase in the plasma concentrations of lipoprotein and levels of hepatic transaminase.

  2. Fabrication of a biocomposite reinforced with hydrophilic eggshell proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, GeunHyung; Min, Taijin; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Koh, Young Ho

    2007-01-01

    Soluble eggshell proteins were used as a reinforcing material of electrospun micro/nanofibers for tissue engineering. A biocomposite composed of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) micro/nanofibers and soluble eggshell protein was fabricated with a two-step fabrication method, which is an electrospinning process followed by an air-spraying process. To achieve a stable electrospinning process, we used an auxiliary cylindrical electrode connected with a spinning nozzle. PCL biocomposite was characterized in water contact angle and mechanical properties as well as cell proliferation for its application as a tissue engineering material. It showed an improved hydrophilic characteristic compared with that of a micro/nanofiber web generated from a pure PCL solution using a typical electrospinning process. Moreover, the fabricated biocomposite had good mechanical properties compared to a typical electrospun micro/nanofiber mat. The fabricated biocomposite made human dermal fibroblasts grow better than pure PCL. From the results, the reinforced polymeric micro/nanofiber scaffold can be easily achieved with these modified processes

  3. Synthesis of nano-textured biocompatible scaffolds from chicken eggshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Waseem; Ilyas, Azhar; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Wan Yuan; Iqbal, Samir M; Kim, Young-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion, morphology and growth are influenced by surface topography at nano and micrometer scales. Nano-textured surfaces are prepared using photolithography, plasma etching and long polymer chemical etching which are cost prohibitive and require specialized equipment. This article demonstrates a simple approach to synthesize nano-textured scaffolds from chicken eggshells. Varieties of pattern are made on the eggshells like micro-needle forests and nanopores, giving very uniform nano-textures to the surfaces. The surfaces are characterized for chemical composition and crystal phase. The novel patterns are transferred to PDMS surfaces and the nano-textured PDMS surfaces are used to study the effect of texturing on human fibroblast cell growth and attachment. The effects of surface topographies, along with laminin coating on cell cultures, are also studied. We find an exciting phenomenon that the initial seeding density of the fibroblast cells affects the influence of the nano-texturing on cell growth. These nano-textured surfaces give 16 times more fibroblast growth when compared to flat PDMS surfaces. The novel nano-textured patterns also double the laminin adsorption on PDMS. (paper)

  4. The impact of eggshell colour and spot area in Japanese quails: II. Slaughter and carcass characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Alasahan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate the effects of eggshell colour and spot properties (colour and size of the spot area on growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica eggs. Study material were allocated to five groups according to their eggshell and spot colours: black spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (I, blue spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (II, diffuse brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (III, brown spots on light green colored eggshell (IV, and small brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (V. The size of the spotted area was determined in each egg group using digital image analysis. The groups did not differ for body weight and length of the shank at the end of the growth period. However, the groups differed significantly for carcass yield after slaughter (not eviscerated and carcass yield. These parameters were highest in Group I (82.08 and 76.09% and lowest in Group III (80.20 and 73.86%. Digital image analysis demonstrated that heart length, cardiac fat area, gizzard width, and intestine length varied between the groups. Cardiac fat area was largest in Group III (0.86 cm2 and smallest in Group V (0.65 cm2. Gizzard width was greatest in Group I (2.63 cm and smallest in Group V (2.47 cm. Intestine length was greatest in Group V (78.45 cm and smallest in Group IV (72.39 cm. Body weight, shank length, and slaughter and carcass weight do not vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area. The lengths of intestine and heart, gizzard width, and cardiac fat area do vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area.

  5. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid and sensitive identification of ostrich meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abdulmawjood

    Full Text Available Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes.

  6. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvell, R J; Jørgensen, P H; Nielsen, O L; Alexander, D J

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5. One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly pathogenic for chickens causing 5/5 deaths by each route of inoculation. The other virus, A/ostrich/Denmark-Q/72420/96 (H5N2) (72420/96), isolated from ostriches in quarantine in Denmark during 1996, was of low pathogenicity for chickens, causing no clinical signs by either route of inoculation. No significant clinical signs were seen in any of the ostriches infected with either of the viruses by either route of infection. Both viruses were recoverable from both species up to 12 days post-infection, and low serological responses were detected in surviving infected ostriches and chickens at 21 days after inoculation.

  7. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Soluble Eggshell Membrane Protein/PLGA Electro spun Nano fibers for Guided Tissue Regeneration Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, J.; Liu, G.; Duan, Y.; Guo, Z.; Yu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in periodontal therapy, which involves the placement of a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells. The objective of this study is to prepare and evaluate a new type of soluble eggshell membrane protein (SEP)/poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano fibers using electro spinning method for GTR membrane application. SEP/PLGA nano fibers were successfully prepared with various blending ratios. The morphology, chemical composition, surface wettability, and mechanical properties of the nano fibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurement, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a universal testing machine. L-929 fibroblast cells were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of SEP/PLGA nano fibers and investigate the interaction between cells and nano fibers. Results showed that the SEP/PLGA electro spun membrane was composed of uniform, bead-free nano fibers, which formed an interconnected porous network structure. Mechanical property of SEP has been greatly improved by the addition of PLGA. The biological study results showed that SEP/PLGA nano fibers could enhance cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation. The study indicated the potential of SEP/PLGA nano fibers for GTR application and provided a basis for future optimization

  9. Microstructural Study on Oxygen Permeated Arc Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Heng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated short circuit of loaded copper wire at ambient atmosphere and successfully identified various phases of the arc bead. A cuprous oxide flake was formed on the surface of the arc bead in the rapid solidification process, and there were two microstructural constituents, namely, Cu-κ eutectic structure and solutal dendrites. Due to the arc bead formed at atmosphere during the local equilibrium solidification process, the phase of arc bead has segregated to the cuprous oxide flake, Cu-κ eutectic, and Cu phase solutal dendrites, which are the fingerprints of the arc bead permeated by oxygen.

  10. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Ahn, Doyeol [Institute of Quantum Information Processing and Systems, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong, Dongdaemun, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo, E-mail: dahn@uos.ac.kr [Research Center for Time-domain Nano-functional Devices and School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam, Sungbuk, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  11. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyeol

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  12. Eggshell Biliverdin and Protoporphyrin Pigments in a Songbird: Are They Derived from Erythrocytes, Blood Plasma, or the Shell Gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Boross, Nóra; Hámori, Susanne; Neuberger, Eszter; Nyiri, Zoltán

    Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments. We found no significant effects of hematocrit level or experimentally elevated anemia on intensity of eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations; therefore, we consider it less likely that eggshell pigments are derived from erythrocytes. In addition, we found no significant associations between female feces biliverdin concentration during egg laying and intensity of eggshell blue-green pigmentation, suggesting that eggshell biliverdin may not originate from the spleen or liver. We found a negative association between plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations during egg laying and eggshell brown chroma. This result suggests that an increased production of protoporphyrin in the liver, which could have elevated plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations, could inhibit eggshell protoporphyrin pigmentation, probably through affecting enzymatic activities. We suggest that both pigments are produced de novo in the shell gland in the canary, but circulating pigment levels may influence shell gland pigment synthesis, thus connecting the physiological status of the female to eggshell coloration.

  13. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  14. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tanaka

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1 covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes, and 2 open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds. Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1 covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs, and 2 open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment

  15. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1) covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes), and 2) open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds). Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity) of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1) covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs), and 2) open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids) were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment. Open nests

  16. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  17. Condition-dependent strategies of eggshell pigmentation: an experimental study of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Cassey, P.; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S.J.; Spencer, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 4 (2013), s. 700-708 ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : body condition * eggshell colouration * food restriction * pigment allocation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2013

  18. UV, VISIBLE AND NIR SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EGGSHELLS IN THE CHARADRIIDAE FAMILY OF BIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We employed reflectance spectrophotometry to quantify color and mineral composition of eggshells from several species of the bird family Charadriidae to characterize species physiology and to distinguish nesting habitat preferences. We used a Shimadzu spectrophotometer to measur...

  19. Experimental Study on the Geometrical and Mechanical Properties of Goose Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zhang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper examined the properties of goose eggshells to determine possible areas of improvement in egg transport and storage. First, we measured goose egg sizes and performed statistical tests, and found that the major axis, minor axis, and egg-shape index presented normal distribution. Eggshell thickness first increased and then decreased from the blunt end to the sharp end. Second, the shape of individual goose eggshell was measured using a 3D scanner. Volume equation, surface equation, and contour function of goose eggshell shape were obtained, exhibiting a highly symmetrical structure. Finally, goose eggs were compressed along their major and minor axes between two plates. Breaking strength was highly dependent on the shape index. A crack was found on the force point along the major axis of each goose egg.

  20. Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-heating reactors: monitoring and end product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Micaela A. R.; Quina, Margarida M. J.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-product not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-heating composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end product quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporati...

  1. Application of eggshell waste for the immobilization of cadmium and lead in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Lee, Sang Soo; Jeon, Weon-Tai; Oh, Sang-Eun; Usman, Adel R A; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Liming materials have been used to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, no studies have evaluated the use of eggshell waste as a source of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) to immobilize both cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of eggshell waste on the immobilization of Cd and Pb and to determine the metal availability following various single extraction techniques. Incubation experiments were conducted by mixing 0-5% powdered eggshell waste and curing the soil (1,246 mg Pb kg⁻¹ soil and 17 mg Cd kg⁻¹ soil) for 30 days. Five extractants, 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl₂), 1 M CaCl₂, 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), 0.43 M acetic acid (CH₃COOH), and 0.05 M ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), were used to determine the extractability of Cd and Pb following treatments with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste. Generally, the extractability of Cd and Pb in the soils decreased in response to treatments with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste, regardless of extractant. Using CaCl₂ extraction, the lowest Cd concentration was achieved upon both CaCO₃ and eggshell waste treatments, while the lowest Pb concentration was observed using HCl extraction. The highest amount of immobilized Cd and Pb was extracted by CH₃COOH or EDTA in soils treated with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste, indicating that remobilization of Cd and Pb may occur under acidic conditions. Based on the findings obtained, eggshell waste can be used as an alternative to CaCO₃ for the immobilization of heavy metals in soils.

  2. Middle and Later Stone Age chronology of Kisese II rockshelter (UNESCO World Heritage Kondoa Rock-Art Sites), Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhorn, Kathryn L.; Kwekason, Amandus; Alex, Bridget; Laird, Myra F.; Marean, Curtis W.; Niespolo, Elizabeth; Nivens, Joelle; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.

    2018-01-01

    The archaeology of East Africa during the last ~65,000 years plays a central role in debates about the origins and dispersal of modern humans, Homo sapiens. Despite the historical importance of the region to these discussions, reliable chronologies for the nature, tempo, and timing of human behavioral changes seen among Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archaeological assemblages are sparse. The Kisese II rockshelter in the Kondoa region of Tanzania, originally excavated in 1956, preserves a ≥ 6-m-thick archaeological succession that spans the MSA/LSA transition, with lithic artifacts such as Levallois and bladelet cores and backed microliths, the recurrent use of red ochre, and >5,000 ostrich eggshell beads and bead fragments. Twenty-nine radiocarbon dates on ostrich eggshell carbonate make Kisese II one of the most robust chronological sequences for understanding archaeological change over the last ~47,000 years in East Africa. In particular, ostrich eggshell beads and backed microliths appear by 46–42 ka cal BP and occur throughout overlying Late Pleistocene and Holocene strata. Changes in lithic technology suggest an MSA/LSA transition that began 39–34.3 ka, with typical LSA technologies in place by the Last Glacial Maximum. The timing of these changes demonstrates the time-transgressive nature of behavioral innovations often linked to the origins of modern humans, even within a single region of Africa. PMID:29489827

  3. Middle and Later Stone Age chronology of Kisese II rockshelter (UNESCO World Heritage Kondoa Rock-Art Sites), Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Christian A; Lewis, Jason E; Ranhorn, Kathryn L; Kwekason, Amandus; Alex, Bridget; Laird, Myra F; Marean, Curtis W; Niespolo, Elizabeth; Nivens, Joelle; Mabulla, Audax Z P

    2018-01-01

    The archaeology of East Africa during the last ~65,000 years plays a central role in debates about the origins and dispersal of modern humans, Homo sapiens. Despite the historical importance of the region to these discussions, reliable chronologies for the nature, tempo, and timing of human behavioral changes seen among Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archaeological assemblages are sparse. The Kisese II rockshelter in the Kondoa region of Tanzania, originally excavated in 1956, preserves a ≥ 6-m-thick archaeological succession that spans the MSA/LSA transition, with lithic artifacts such as Levallois and bladelet cores and backed microliths, the recurrent use of red ochre, and >5,000 ostrich eggshell beads and bead fragments. Twenty-nine radiocarbon dates on ostrich eggshell carbonate make Kisese II one of the most robust chronological sequences for understanding archaeological change over the last ~47,000 years in East Africa. In particular, ostrich eggshell beads and backed microliths appear by 46-42 ka cal BP and occur throughout overlying Late Pleistocene and Holocene strata. Changes in lithic technology suggest an MSA/LSA transition that began 39-34.3 ka, with typical LSA technologies in place by the Last Glacial Maximum. The timing of these changes demonstrates the time-transgressive nature of behavioral innovations often linked to the origins of modern humans, even within a single region of Africa.

  4. Eggshell membrane-templated porous gold membranes using nanoparticles as building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, S.; Khalid, Z. M.; Hussain, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highly porous gold membrane-like structures are formed using eggshell membrane, as such and heat denatured, as a template and gold nanoparticles as building blocks. Gold nanoparticles were produced in-situ on the eggshell membranes without using additional reducing agents. The morphology and loading of gold nanoparticles can easily be controlled by adjusting the pH and thus the redox potential of eggshell membranes. Lower pH favored the formation of irregularly-shaped but dense gold macro/ nanocrystals whereas higher pH(8-9) favored the formation of fairly uniform but less dense gold nanoparticles onto the eggshell membranes. Heat treatment of eggshell membrane-gold nanoparticle composites formed at pH 8-9 led to the formation of highly porous membrane like gold while mimicking the original structure of eggshell membrane. All these materials have been thoroughly characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ISP-AES). These highly porous membrane-like gold materials may have potential applications in catalysis, biosensors, electrode materials, optically selective coatings, heat dissipation and biofiltration. (author)

  5. First record of the nematode Libyostrongylus dentatus Hoberg, Lloyd & Omar, 1995 (Trichostrongylidae) in ostriches (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758) (Struthionidae) outside the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Josiana Gomes de; Kumsa, Bersissa; Ayana, Dinka; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Santos, Clóvis de Paula; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2018-04-13

    Libyostrongylus douglassii, Libyostrongylus dentatus and Libyostrongylus magnus are nematodes that infect ostriches. The first species has been identified in ostriches from Africa, Europe, Americas and Oceania. Although the natural range of ostriches is Africa, L. dentatus was first described in birds from the USA and later identified in Brazil, where co-infections with L. douglassii have been commonly reported. Libyostrongylus magnus is known from the original description only. There are a few reports on infections with L. douglassii in ostriches from Africa and all farmed birds examined are from the southern region of the continent. The aim of this report was to verify Libyostrongylus spp. infections in wild ostriches from Ethiopia. Fecal samples from ostriches, Struthio molybdophanes, were collected and submitted to coproculture. Infective larvae were identified to the species level based on general morphology and morphometry. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was performed. Infective larvae from Ethiopian ostriches had the morphological characteristics of L. dentatus. Confidence interval estimate for sheath tail length from Ethiopian Libyostrongylus sp. isolates overlapped one for Brazilian L. dentatus. Neighbor-joining and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees based on sequences of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions revealed that the Ethiopian samples belong to the L. dentatus species clade. Monospecific infections with L. dentatus were confirmed in Ethiopian wild ostriches, opposed to the co-infections typically found in the Americas. To our knowledge, this is the first record of L. dentatus from African ostriches, the region from which this parasite originated.

  6. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the

  7. Plantar pressure distribution of ostrich during locomotion on loose sand and solid ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The ostrich is a cursorial bird with extraordinary speed and endurance, especially in the desert, and thus is an ideal large-scale animal model for mechanic study of locomotion on granular substrate. Methods The plantar pressure distributions of ostriches walking/running on loose sand/solid ground were recorded using a dynamic pressure plate. Results The center of pressure (COP on loose sand mostly originated from the middle of the 3rd toe, which differed from the J-shaped COP trajectory on solid ground. At mid-stance, a high-pressure region was observed in the middle of the 3rd toe on loose sand, but three high-pressure regions were found on solid ground. The gait mode significantly affected the peak pressures of the 3rd and 4th toes (p = 1.5 × 10−6 and 2.39 × 10−8, respectively, but not that of the claw (p = 0.041. The effects of substrate were similar to those of the gait mode. Discussion Ground reaction force trials of each functional part showed the 3rd toe bore more body loads and the 4th toe undertook less loads. The pressure distributions suggest balance maintenance on loose sand was provided by the 3rd and 4th toes and the angle between their length axes. On loose sand, the middle of the 3rd toe was the first to touch the sand with a smaller attack angle to maximize the ground reaction force, but on solid ground, the lateral part was the first to touch the ground to minimize the transient loading. At push-off, the ostrich used solidification properties of granular sand under the compression of the 3rd toe to generate sufficient traction.

  8. Modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on physiological responses of transported ostrich chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka N. Salka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA on rectal temperature (RT, heterophil to lymphocyte (H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours of ostrich chicks transported by road for 4 h during hot-dry conditions. Twenty ostrich chicks aged 2.5 months, of both sexes and belonging to the Red Neck breed, served as subjects of the study. The chicks were assigned randomly to AA-treated and control groups, consisting of 10 chicks each. The AA-treated group was administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of AA dissolved in 5 mL of sterile water 30 min before transportation, whilst the control group was given the equivalent of sterile water only. The thermal load (TL experienced in the vehicle during transportation fluctuated between 31 °C and 89 °C, as calculated from the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Transportation induced hyperthermia, lymphopenia, heterophilia and aberrant behaviours of pecking, wing fluffing and panting, which were ameliorated by AA administration. The relationships between the TL, journey duration and physiological variables of RT, H to L ratio and aberrant behaviours recorded during transportation were significantly and positively correlated in the control group. In AA-treated group the relationships were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time that AA ameliorated the adverse effects of stress caused by road transportation on the aberrant behaviours, RT and H to L ratio of ostrich chicks during the hot-dry season.

  9. Freestanding eggshell membrane-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors and oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wu, Hao; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-08-01

    A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific capacitances at current densities from 1 to 20 A g-1, with excellent capacitance retention (>90%) at 10 A g-1 for over 10 000 cycles. When employed as an OER catalyst, this eggshell membrane-based electrode exhibits an OER onset potential of 1.53 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and a stable catalytic current density of 20 mA cm-2 at 1.65 V vs. the RHE.A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific

  10. Comparison of non-magnetic and magnetic beads in bead-based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansenová Maňásková, S.; van Belkum, A.; Endtz, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.; Veerman, E.C.I.; van Wamel, W.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex bead-based flow cytometry is an attractive way for simultaneous, rapid and cost-effective analysis of multiple analytes in a single sample. Previously, we developed various bead-based assays using non-magnetic beads coated with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens

  11. Beautiful Beads: A Lesson in Making Beads with Friendly Clay. AMACO[R] Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet; Gamble, David

    This lesson resource includes a brief summary of the history of bead making and historic fascination with beads as adornment. A focus on design elements, color theory, craftsmanship, and technical skill in bead making is encouraged. The plan includes lesson goals and objectives; background preparation; a glossary of terms; a list of supplies; and…

  12. The sensory quality of allergen-controlled, fat-reduced, salt-reduced pork-ostrich sausages during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Brodowska, Marta; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Górska-Horczyczak, Elżbieta; Pogorzelska, Ewelina; Wojtasik-Kalinowska, Iwona; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    New meat products tailored to consumer health should be characterised by reduced sodium, fat and cholesterol contents and other health-promoting benefits. However, the food sector's greatest challenge is allergen-free production. Consumers are not willing to compromise the sensory quality of meat products for health. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of the storage time on the physical properties and consumer acceptance of allergen-controlled, fat-reduced, salt-reduced pork-ostrich sausages. The study focused on pork-ostrich sausages produced in accordance with a new patented technology, which focused on eliminating cross-contamination on-line in the plant, eliminating cross-contamination after preparation, and eliminating spices with high allergy potential. The production was focused on reducing fat (by approximately 50%) and salt (by approximately 30%) levels. No changes in the texture parameters of the sausage were observed during storage time; however, some changes in colour were observed. There were no significant differences in sensory consumer acceptability of pork-ostrich sausage after 14 days of storage; thus, it may be stated that the instrumentally assessed differences in colour did not influence consumer acceptance. The applied fat and NaCl reduction in the pork-ostrich sausages contributed to high consumer ratings and was not correlated with saltiness acceptability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly...

  14. Distribution and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Li, P; Zhang, X T; Ye, L X

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by multiple cell types and affects feeding behavior, metabolic regulation, and energy balance. In the mammalian pancreas, the types of endocrine cells that are immunoreactive to ghrelin vary. However, little was known about its distribution and developmental changes in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus). In the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin-ip cells were found in both the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. The greatest number of ghrelin-ip cells were found in the pancreatic islets, and were primarily observed at the periphery of the islets; some ghrelin-ip cells were also located in the central portion of the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, from postnatal d 1 to d 90, there was a steady decrease in the number of ghrelin-ip cells in the pancreatic islets and acinar cell regions. These results clearly demonstrated that ghrelin-ip cells exist and decreased with age in the African ostrich pancreas from postnatal d 1 to d90. Thus, these findings indicated that ghrelin may be involved in the development of the pancreas in the African ostrich. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Immobilisation of lead and zinc in contaminated soil using compost derived from industrial eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the capacity of a compost obtained by co-composting of industrial eggshell (CES) to immobilise lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in an acidic soil contaminated by mining activities. Mature compost without eggshell (CWES) and natural eggshell (ES) were also tested as soil amendments for comparison purposes. Three different application rates were used for each material, ensuring the same quantity in terms of neutralizing capacity. Incubation experiments were conducted under controlled conditions and CO2 emissions monitored for 94 days. The environmental availability of Pb and Zn in the amended soil was assessed and bioassays were performed at the end of the incubation period. When eggshells were present, the CES compost raised the soil pH to values higher than 6 and reduced the soil mobile fraction for both Pb and Zn, in more than 95%. Soil toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri was also suppressed and environmental risk decreased to "low level". However, the immobilisation in the acid insoluble soil component was significantly achieved only for Zn. In addition, regarding soil carbon dynamics the CO2-C emissions were enhanced, mainly in the case of the highest rate of amendment. Both first order-E and parallel first order models may adequately describe the kinetic data of CO2-C cumulative release. Without eggshells, the CWES compost revealed limited effect on heavy metals immobilisation, likely due to its small capacity to correct soil acidity, at lower application rates. Using solely eggshells, the ES waste had similar outcomes when compared with CES, but at the higher application rate, CO2 emissions were enhanced with the eggshell compost due to the contribution of biotic carbon present therein. Therefore, this study points out that CES is an effective liming material and may be used for in situ remediation of contaminated soil with Pb and Zn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of python eggshell permeability dynamics in a respiration-hydration trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Heulin, Benoit; DeNardo, Dale F

    2010-01-01

    Parental care is taxonomically widespread because it improves developmental conditions and thus fitness of offspring. Although relatively simplistic compared with parental behaviors of other taxa, python egg-brooding behavior exemplifies parental care because it mediates a trade-off between embryonic respiration and hydration. However, because egg brooding increases gas-exchange resistance between embryonic and nest environments and because female pythons do not adjust their brooding behavior in response to the increasing metabolic requirements of developing offspring, python egg brooding imposes hypoxic costs on embryos during the late stages of incubation. We conducted a series of experiments to determine whether eggshells coadapted with brooding behavior to minimize the negative effects of developmental hypoxia. We tested the hypotheses that python eggshells (1) increase permeability over time to accommodate increasing embryonic respiration and (2) exhibit permeability plasticity in response to chronic hypoxia. Over incubation, we serially measured the atomic and structural components of Children's python (Antaresia childreni) eggshells as well as in vivo and in vitro gas exchange across eggshells. In support of our first hypothesis, A. childreni eggshells exhibited a reduced fibrous layer, became more permeable, and facilitated greater gas exchange as incubation progressed. Our second hypothesis was not supported, as incubation O(2) concentration did not affect the shells' permeabilities to O(2) and H(2)O vapor. Our results suggest that python eggshell permeability changes during incubation but that the alterations over time are fixed and independent of environmental conditions. These findings are of broad evolutionary interest because they demonstrate that, even in relatively simple parental-care models, successful parent-offspring relationships depend on adjustments made by both the parent (i.e., egg-brooding behavioral shifts) and the offspring (i

  17. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, Matthew J; Rayfield, Emily J; Barrett, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50). This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  18. Nutritional and social aspects of consumption of ostrich meat: the case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aguilar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of ostrich meat was introduced into Europe in a relatively short time. Considered even today as an exotic meat, its inclusion in the usual sources of animal protein in our context has been repeatedly assessed, because it converge some of the most interesting nutritional characteristics of poultry and red meat. Over ten years later, the consumption of ostrich meat continues crossing a road that lies increasingly away from the exotic to become very slow, in usual. Although information on their nutritional value is still limited, we have more data showing protein values quite similar to other meats but with a smaller proportion of histidine and serine; fat values close to poultry meat low in fat; cholesterol values, vary according to the court, but similar to beef or chicken, and an improved lipid profile compared to the meat of turkey meat, lamb or beef. The information on its vitamins and minerals throws elevated iron and vitamin B12, higher amounts of vitamin E and Zn than other types of meat and a low concentration of sodium.

  19. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cobley

    Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  20. Chemical characteristics and thickness of Podocnemis expansa post-hatching eggshells (Testudines, Podocnemididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Henrique Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on chemical components of the post-hatching eggshell of reptiles may provide indicators of the quality of the diet offered to females kept in captivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the chemical characteristics of the calcareous layer, as well as the thickness of Podocnemis expansa post-hatching eggshells. Eggshell thickness was 183±1.405 µm. This value is similar to that of the eggs of other Testudines with flexible eggshells. As for the chemical composition, the following percentages were observed: nitrogen 7.983 ± 0.054; crude protein 49.91 ± 0.324; crude fat 0.068 ± 0.002; mineral matter 20.302 ± 0.807; calcium 13.374 ± 0.647; and phosphorus 0.176 ± 0.003. Knowledge on chemical composition of the eggshell may aid the nutrition of P. expansa raised in commercial facilities, once this species is an alternative and promising source of exotic meat.

  1. Freestanding eggshell membrane-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors and oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wu, Hao; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-09-14

    A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific capacitances at current densities from 1 to 20 A g(-1), with excellent capacitance retention (>90%) at 10 A g(-1) for over 10,000 cycles. When employed as an OER catalyst, this eggshell membrane-based electrode exhibits an OER onset potential of 1.53 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and a stable catalytic current density of 20 mA cm(-2) at 1.65 V vs. the RHE.

  2. Effects of Eggshell Calcium Supplementation on Bone Mass in Postmenopausal Vietnamese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Seigo; Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Tuyen, Le Danh; Duc, Ha Anh; Masuda, Yasunobu; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Bone mass decreases along with aging, especially for women after menopause because of lower estrogen secretion together with low calcium intake. This study was conducted to study the effect of eggshell calcium supplementation on bone mass in 54 postmenopausal Vietnamese women living in a farming area about 60 km from Hanoi, Vietnam. Sets of 3 subjects matched by age, bone mass, BMI and calcium intake were divided randomly into 3 groups with 18 subjects in each group. The eggshell calcium group was administered 300 mg/d calcium from eggshell, the calcium carbonate group 300 mg/d calcium from calcium carbonate and the placebo group received no calcium supplementation. Bone mass (Speed of Sound (SOS)) was measured at the beginning (the baseline), the middle (6th month) and the end of the study (12th month) by the single blind method. SOS of the eggshell group increased significantly at 12 mo (p0.05). In conclusion, eggshell calcium was more effective in increasing bone mass than calcium carbonate in postmenopausal Vietnamese women.

  3. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  4. Salmonella penetration through eggshells of chickens of different genetic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathgeber, Bruce M; McCarron, Paige; Budgell, Krista L

    2013-09-01

    Eggs have been identified as a source of salmonellosis, making the transmission of Salmonella to eggs of great concern to the poultry industry. The goal of this experiment was to determine the ability of Salmonella to penetrate the eggshell of 5 different breeds of noncommercial chicken, Barred Plymouth Rock, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn, Fayoumi, and Light Sussex, and 1 commercial Lohmann LSL-Lite. Egg weight, breaking force, shell weight, and shell thickness measurements were taken for 30 eggs per breed. A 1 cm in diameter hole was cut out from the narrow end of 30 additional eggs per breed. The shells were filled with plate count agar containing tetracycline and 0.1% 2,3,5-triphenyl terazolium chloride and sealed with paraffin wax. Agar-filled eggs were submerged for 1 min in an overnight culture of tetracycline-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg and incubated at 37°C for 40 h. Eggs were candled and visual colonies were counted and reported as cfu per egg and cfu per gram of shell. The SAS mixed model was used to evaluate differences between breeds for egg quality characteristics and the number of cfu per egg and per gram of shell. Commercial layers (62.6 g) and Barred Plymouth Rock (61.5 g) produced the largest eggs, whereas Fayoumi (47.1 g) produced the smallest (P heritage chicken breeds as a genetic resource for the future.

  5. Fused Bead Analysis of Diogenite Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Beck, B.W.; McSween, H.Y.; Lee, C.T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk rock chemistry is an essential dataset in meteoritics and planetary science [1]. A common method used to obtain the bulk chemistry of meteorites is ICP-MS. While the accuracy, precision and low detection limits of this process are advantageous [2], the sample size used for analysis (approx.70 mg) can be a problem in a field where small and finite samples are the norm. Fused bead analysis is another bulk rock analytical technique that has been used in meteoritics [3]. This technique involves forming a glass bead from 10 mg of sample and measuring its chemistry using a defocused beam on a microprobe. Though the ICP-MS has lower detection limits than the microprobe, the fused bead method destroys a much smaller sample of the meteorite. Fused bead analysis was initially designed for samples with near-eutectic compositions and low viscosities. Melts generated of this type homogenize at relatively low temperatures and produce primary melts near the sample s bulk composition [3]. The application of fused bead analysis to samples with noneutectic melt compositions has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test if fused bead analysis can accurately determine the bulk rock chemistry of non-eutectic melt composition meteorites. To determine this, we conduct two examinations of the fused bead. First, we compare ICP-MS and fused bead results of the same samples using statistical analysis. Secondly, we inspect the beads for the presence of crystals and chemical heterogeneity. The presence of either of these would indicate incomplete melting and quenching of the bead.

  6. Effect of long-term selection for egg production on eggshell quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, M M; El-Dlebshany, A E; El-Deen, M Bahie; Radwan, L M; Rayan, G N

    2016-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate egg quality and ultrastuctural measurements of eggshell using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail. A selection program was applied over 22 consecutive generations for higher egg production and lower broken egg percentage. The results revealed that the females of the selected line produced significantly (P < 0.01) higher egg mass compared to that of the control line. Also, the selection procedure significantly improved feed conversion ratio. The eggshells of the selected line had a higher breaking strength compared to those of the control line, although there was no difference between them in shell thickness. Significantly higher wet (P < 0.01) and dry (P < 0.05) eggshell percentages were found in the selected line. In general, the eggshells of the selected line had a lower total score (good) of ultrastructural evaluation compared to the control line. According to scanning electron microscope data, the incidence of certain structural variants was more common in eggshells of the control line suggesting poor shell strength. The incidence of alignment was more prevalent in control eggshells compared to selected ones, suggesting lower resistance to breakage. Late fusion and large interstitial spaces of the palisade layer indicating decreased resistance to fracture were observed in control eggshells. It could be concluded that the improvement eggshell quality may be caused by the long-term selection for lower cracked and broken egg rates from generation to generation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Zou, Peter; Kokoszka, John

    2009-12-01

    The effective treatment and utilization of biowaste have been emphasized in our society for environmental and economic concerns. Recently, the eggshell waste in the poultry industry has been highlighted because of its reclamation potential. This study presents an economical treatment process to recover useful bioproducts from eggshell waste and their utilization in commercial products. We developed the dissolved air floatation (DAF) separation unit, which successfully recovered 96% of eggshell membrane and 99% of eggshell calcium carbonate (ECC) particles from eggshell waste within 2 h of operation. The recovered ECC particles were utilized as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper and their impact on the ink density and paper gloss were investigated. The addition of the ECC particles as coating pigments enhances the optical density of cyan, magenta and yellow inks while decreasing the black ink density and the gloss of the coated paper.

  8. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  9. Greenlandic Peregrines will have normal eggshell thickness by mid 2030’ies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Riget, Frank Farsø

    haliaetus) in Europe have documented that it took 30 years from DDT was phased out until eggshell thickness was back to normal pre-DDT levels. In Greenland, the peregrine population has been the subject of long-term studies, and a previous study of eggshell thinning found a significant increase over time...... and reinterpreted data for a 43 year time span. Mean shell thickness was estimated for 184 clutches based on fragments from hatched eggs, and for 56 whole addled eggs from 44 clutches. During the period 1972-2014 there was a highly significant increasing trend in the average eggshell thickness of 0.25% per year...... recovery of the shell thickness in the Greenland population as compared to other studies is likely indicative of the slower phasing out of DDT in the Greenlandic peregrine’s wintering grounds in Latin America. The shell thinning in the Greenlandic population crossed the 17% “danger limit” associated...

  10. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells: Nonfatal monitoring for contamination in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    90 Sr was measured in eggshells from Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) that nested on Columbia River islands up- and downstream from deactivated plutonium production reactors on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. We also measured 90 Sr in wing bones of goose carcasses. Background levels of 90 Sr were based on eggshells collected on an island upstream of the reactors. A few eggshells collected from nests on a single island downstream of the reactors had slightly higher than background levels of 90 Sr. This may have resulted from geese eating shoreline plants or crops irrigated with Columbia River water that contained 90 Sr released into the river through groundwater seepage

  11. Physico-mechanical and structural properties of eggshell membrane gelatin- chitosan blend edible films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Rouhi, Milad

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p< 0.05), but r......This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p... interactions introduced by the addition of chitosan to eggshell membrane gelatin as new resources could improve the films’ functional properties....

  12. Clumped isotope paleothermometry of eggshells as an indicator of vertebrate endothermy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, R. R.; Field, D. J.; Therrien, F.; Zelenitsky, D.; Affek, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Isotopic analyses of the calcite or aragonite shells of aquatic organisms are often used in the study of the environmental conditions in which they grow; however, this approach is less straightforward in the terrestrial realm, where environments may be more heterogeneous. In such terrestrial localities, the bioapatite of vertebrate teeth comprises the typical archival material for isotopic analyses. The calcitic eggshells of birds and other reptiles may provide suitable material for isotopic analyses that are aimed at studying their physiology and ecology. Here we apply a novel thermometer, carbonate clumped isotopes (Δ47), to test for endothermy in extinct non-avian dinosaurs in the context provided by eggs of modern reptiles and birds. These Δ47-derived temperatures should reflect the temperature of shell formation, which in endothermic animals such as birds should represent the mother's internal body temperature. In ectothermic animals, the same is true although their body temperatures are more affected by the external environment and thus Δ47 temperatures could more accurately describe local environmental temperatures during eggshell formation. Fossil eggshells represent appropriate material for reconstructing internal body temperatures of extinct non-avian dinosaurs since they mineralized within the mother's body, and fragments of eggshell are commonly recovered from dinosaur-bearing fossil deposits. The dimensions of these fragments provide sufficient material for the relatively large sample required for clumped isotope analysis (~20mg). Fossil eggshell samples from several taxa of Late Cretaceous non-avian dinosaurs were analyzed using Δ47 paleothermometry. Textural inspection was used as a first test for diagenetic alteration of the original calcite, and histological indicators were used for broad taxonomic identifications. Preliminary results of Δ47-derived body temperature estimates from eggshells are consistent with previous body temperatures

  13. Potential ecotoxicological significance of elevated concentrations of strontium in eggshells of passerine birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.; Taylor, Robert J.; Brattin, Bryan L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence and potential ecotoxicological significance of elevated concentrations of strontium (Sr) in eggshells of nine passerine birds from four regions in Arizona. Concentrations of Sr in eggshells ranged from 70 to 1360 µg g−1 dry weight (overall mean  =  684 ± 345 SD µg g−1 dw) for the four regions. 23% of the eggshells had Sr concentrations greater than 1000 µg g−1 dw. To our knowledge, these are among the highest levels of Sr that have been reported in bird eggshells in North America. Of the nine species, Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) had the greatest concentrations of Sr. There was a significant positive correlation between Sr and calcium (Ca), and between barium (Ba) and Ca. Ca, Sr, and Ba interact with each other and can exert similar chemical and pharmacological effects. Mean (n ≥ 3) eggshell∶egg ratios for Sr varied with species and ranged from 6.1∶1 to 40.2∶1; ratios for individual eggs reached 92.7∶1. Mean Sr/Ca values ranged from 1.3 × 10−3 to 3.0 × 10−3 and mean eggshell thickness ranged from 83 ± 6 to 120 ± 9 µm for all species. Eggshell thickness was not significantly correlated with Sr for any species but tended to increase with Sr concentrations. We postulate that high concentrations of Sr in the shell could affect later-stage embryos by possible interference with Ca metabolism and bone growth, resulting in reduced hatching success and potential minor beak deformities.

  14. Heavy metal immobilization in soil near abandoned mines using eggshell waste and rapeseed residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Lim, Jung Eun; El-Azeem, Samy A M Abd; Choi, Bongsu; Oh, Sang-Eun; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils has received great concern due to potential risk to human health. Cadmium and Pb are largely released from abandoned or closed mines in Korea, resulting in soil contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of eggshell waste in combination with the conventional nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium fertilizer (also known as NPK fertilizer) or the rapeseed residue on immobilization of Cd and Pb in the rice paddy soil. Cadmium and Pb extractabilities were tested using two methods of (1) the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and (2) the 0.1 M HCl extraction. With 5 % eggshell addition, the values of soil pH were increased from 6.33 and 6.51 to 8.15 and 8.04 in combination with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue, respectively, compared to no eggshell addition. The increase in soil pH may contribute to heavy metal immobilization by altering heavy metals into more stable in soils. Concentrations of TCLP-extracted Cd and Pb were reduced by up to 67.9 and 93.2 % by addition of 5 % eggshell compared to control. For 0.1 M HCl extraction method, the concentration of 0.1 M HCl-Cd in soils treated with NPK fertilizer and rapeseed residue was significantly reduced by up to 34.01 and 46.1 %, respectively, with 5 % eggshell addition compared to control. A decrease in acid phosphatase activity and an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity at high soil pH were also observed. Combined application of eggshell waste and rapeseed residue can be cost-effective and beneficial way to remediate the soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  15. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasso, Rebecka L., E-mail: rlb1196@uncw.edu [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Polito, Michael J. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States); Lynch, Heather J. [Ecology and Evolution Department, 640 Life Sciences Bldg., Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Naveen, R. [Oceanites Inc., PO Box 15259, Chevy Chase, MD 20825 (United States); Emslie, Steven D. [University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adelie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adelie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell {delta}{sup 15}N or {delta}{sup 13}C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three species of Pygoscelis

  16. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Potential Regulatory Proteins Involved in Chicken Eggshell Brownness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqi Li

    Full Text Available Brown eggs are popular in many countries and consumers regard eggshell brownness as an important indicator of egg quality. However, the potential regulatory proteins and detailed molecular mechanisms regulating eggshell brownness have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis with iTRAQ technology in the shell gland epithelium of hens laying dark and light brown eggs to investigate the candidate proteins and molecular mechanisms underlying variation in chicken eggshell brownness. The results indicated 147 differentially expressed proteins between these two groups, among which 65 and 82 proteins were significantly up-regulated in the light and dark groups, respectively. Functional analysis indicated that in the light group, the down-regulated iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein (Iba57 would decrease the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX; furthermore, the up-regulated protein solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator, member 5 (SLC25A5 and down-regulated translocator protein (TSPO would lead to increased amounts of protoporphyrin IX transported into the mitochondria matrix to form heme with iron, which is supplied by ovotransferrin protein (TF. In other words, chickens from the light group produce less protoporphyrin IX, which is mainly used for heme synthesis. Therefore, the exported protoporphyrin IX available for eggshell deposition and brownness is reduced in the light group. The current study provides valuable information to elucidate variation of chicken eggshell brownness, and demonstrates the feasibility and sensitivity of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis in providing useful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying brown eggshell pigmentation.

  17. Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Polito, Michael J.; Lynch, Heather J.; Naveen, R.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Remote regions such as the Antarctic have become increasingly important for investigations into far-reaching anthropogenic impacts on the environment, most recently in regard to the global mercury cycle. Spatial patterns of mercury availability in four regions of the Antarctic Peninsula were investigated using three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshells with intact membranes from Adélie, Gentoo, and Chinstrap penguins were collected at 24 breeding colonies in the South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, eastern Antarctic Peninsula, and western Antarctic Peninsula during the 2006/2007 austral summer. In addition, we compared eggshell membrane mercury concentrations with eggshell stable isotope values (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) to determine if species-specific trophic or foraging habitat preferences influenced female mercury exposure prior to breeding. With few exceptions, mercury concentrations were found to be fairly homogeneous throughout the Antarctic Peninsula suggesting little spatial variation in the risk of exposure to dietary mercury in this food web. Mercury concentrations in Gentoo and Adélie penguins were similar while Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher eggshell membrane mercury concentrations than their congeners. However, inter and intra-specific differences in eggshell membrane mercury concentration were not related to eggshell δ 15 N or δ 13 C values, a likely result of all three species foraging at similar trophic positions. The lack of regional-scale differences in mercury availability in this marine ecosystem may be a reflection of generally uniform atmospheric deposition and upwelling of regionally homogeneous deep water rather than from geographically distinct point sources. -- Highlights: ► We examined regional patterns of mercury availability in the Antarctic Peninsula. ► Three species of Pygoscelis penguins were used as biomonitors. ► Chinstrap penguins tended to have higher mercury

  18. Growth, body characteristics and blood parameters of ostrich chickens receiving commercial probiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Kivi, R.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Seidavi, A.

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of four commercial probiotics on growth, body characteristics and haematological parameters of ostrich chicks. A total of 25 ostrich chicks (937±68.1 g) were individually allocated and fed the experimental diet for six weeks (n=5 per treatment). Experimental diets consisted of a corn/soybean meal-based diet unsupplemented (T1: Control), and four diets supplemented with probiotics according to the recommendations of the manufacturer (T2: 0.04% Bioplus 2B; T3: 0.09% Primalac; T4: 0.1% Thepax; and T5: 0.03% Protexin). Feed intake (FI), body weight (BW) and seven body characteristics (e.g. height) were measured every week. Blood samples and other body characteristics were also taken in the last week. There was an interaction effect between diet and time on all the growth variables and body characteristics (p<0.05). Both the BW and the BW gain of the ostrich chicks were, in general, higher for those fed the diet T2 than those fed the control diet (0.42, 1.07, 0.99, 1.09, 2.51, and 1.66 kg BW gain vs 0.28, 0.41, 0.83, 0.94, 1.15, and 1.15 kg BW gain at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days respectively), while for those fed the other diets containing probiotics differences were only observed at 42 days (p<0.05). Consuming probiotics over an extended period influenced several of the haematological parameters differently compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). T2 and T3 increased the concentration of total cholesterol (157 and 210 mg/dL respectively), when compared to those fed the control diet (119 mg/dL), while total cholesterol was slightly reduced (p>0.05) for those fed the diet containing Thepax (T4, 79 mg/dL). In conclusion, the effects of commercial probiotics on growth performance, body characteristics and haematological parameters varied among probiotics. (Author)

  19. The Effects of Eggshell Ash on Strength Properties of Cement-stabilized Lateritic

    OpenAIRE

    Okonkwo U. N; Odiong I. C; Akpabio E. E

    2012-01-01

    Eggshell ash obtained by incinerating Fowls’ eggshells to ash has been established to be a good accelerator for cement-bound materials and this would be useful for road construction work at the peak of rainy seasons for reducing setting time of stabilized road pavements. However this should be achieved not at the expense of other vital properties of the stabilized matrix. This is part of the effort in adding value to agricultural materials which probably cause disposal problems. Thus this stu...

  20. Synthesis and chemical and structural characterization of hydroxyapatite obtained from eggshell and tricalcium phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Arboleda, Alejandro; Franco, Manuel; Caicedo, Julio; Tirado, Liliana; Goyes, Clara

    2016-01-01

    The eggshell is a common residue that is usually discarded without giving any use to it. In this paper the results obtained from a proposed procedure to get hydroxyapatite (HA) from eggshell are shown. The HA is a calcium phosphate which has been widely used as implant material due to the close similarity of its composition with the inorganic phase of natural bone. HA generally has a high cost and it is presented as micro and nanostructured bioceramics; the last one is a promising option for ...

  1. Behaviour of captive Ostrich chicks from 10 days to 5 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Freire Amado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of ostrich chicks bred in captivity was studied by using groups with 30 birds in five age groups: from 10 to 40 days of age; from 41 to 60 days of age; from 61 to 90 days of age; from 91 to 120 days of age and from 121 to 150 days of age. Six birds at each age were ringed around one of their feet and observed for four consecutive days for eight hours daily in three periods (in the morning, at noon and in the afternoon, following the "one-zero" method for sampling. The order for observation of behaviour of the six selected birds was performed randomly at every thirty minutes, totalling 16 periods or 80 minutes/bird/day. Fourteen types of behaviour were observed. There were differences among ages for behaviour like standing, walking, running, ingesting stones, ingesting feces, picking and attacking. Non-parametric-tests were used to analyse the behaviour according to age of the bird and to the periods of the day. There was a statistical difference between in the morning and at noon periods on behaviours standing, walking, eating ration and in litophagia, which were observed more frequently at the first hours of the day. When periods of the morning and afternoon were compared, the birds' age had a significant effect on behaviour sand bathing. When the periods noon/afternoon were compared, the behaviours which presented significant differences were walking, running, drinking water, eating ration, litophagia, coprophagia, dancing, sand bathing, whose occurrence was the highest during dusk. It was observed that the behaviour of young ostriches diverge according to the age and to day period.

  2. Physiological and Molecular Response of Ostrich to the Seasonal and Diurnal Variations in Egyptian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.H.; Khalifa, H.H; Elaroussi, M.A.; Elsayed, M.A.; Basuony, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Twelve immature ostrich›s birds, 7 months old were used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature variation and diurnal effect on response changes of some physiological and chemical parameters. All birds were reared out doors and exposed to daily ambient temperatures fluctuations during summer and winter. Blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 Am and once in the afternoon at 3 Pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (summer) (40±2ºC) and the 7 cold days of January (winter) (18±2ºC). Serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, uric acid concentrations and aldosterone level were determined. The amount of total body water (TBW) and serum heat shock proteins (HSP) were estimated. Serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations in ostrich were significantly decreased, while uric acid concentration and aldosterone hormone level were significantly increased in summer as compared in winter during both at morning and at afternoon periods. Concerning the diurnal variation, serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations and aldosterone hormone level in ostrich were significantly increased, while uric acid concentration was significantly decreased at morning as compared at afternoon during both summer and winter seasons. TBW was significantly higher in summer season by 15.04% than winter season. It is concluded from the present study that heat or cold stress has a negative effect on most of the parameters studied and we recommend must be supplement diet with some nutrients like vitamins C, and E, sodium bicarbonate or yeast to overcome the negative effect and to better perform under such conditions

  3. Ontogenetic scaling of locomotor kinetics and kinematics of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola C; Jespers, Karin J; Wilson, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    Kinematic and kinetic parameters of running gait were investigated through growth in the ostrich, from two weeks up to 10 months of age, in order to investigate the effects of increasing body size. Ontogenetic scaling relationships were compared with published scaling relationships found to exist with increasing body size between species to determine whether dynamic similarity is maintained during growth. During the study, ostrich mass (M(b)) ranged from 0.7 kg to 108.8 kg. Morphological measurements showed that lengths scaled with positive allometry during growth (hip height proportional to M(b)(0.40); foot segment length proportional to M(b)(0.40); tarsometatarsus length proportional to M(b)(0.41); tibiotarsus length proportional to M(b)(0.38); femur length proportional to M(b)(0.37)), significantly exceeding the close to geometric scaling observed between mammalian and avian species of increasing body size. Scaling of kinematic variables largely agreed with predicted scaling for increasing size and demonstrated relationships close to dynamic similarity and, as such, ontogenetic scaling of locomotor parameters was similar to that observed with increasing body mass between species. However, the ways in which these scaling trends were achieved were very different, with ontogenetic scaling of locomotor mechanics largely resulting from simple scaling of the limb segments rather than postural changes, likely to be due to developmental constraints. Small deviations from dynamic similarity of kinematic parameters and a reduction in the predicted scaling of limb stiffness (proportional to M(b)(0.59)) were found to be accounted for by the positive allometric scaling of the limb during growth.

  4. Thinner eggshells of dipper (Cinclus cinclus) eggs from an acidified area compared to a non-acidified area in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, S.; Staurnes, M.; Jerstad, K. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-01-01

    Eggs of dippers Cinclus cinclus from a chronically acidified area in Southern Norway were compared with eggs from a non-acidified area in Central Norway. There were no differences in egg size, as measured by volume, weight, length and calculated surface area, between the two areas. Eggshells were 7.0% lighter and 6.1% thinner, as measured by the Ratcliffe index and 7.0% as measured by the eggshell index (shell weight/surface area) in Southern Norway than in Central Norway. The Ratcliffe and eggshell indices were highly correlated. Scanning electron micrography showed that the palisade layer of eggshells of eggs from the acidified area was 10.7% thinner than that of eggshells of eggs from the non-acidified area. Eggshell vapour permeability was not significantly influenced by area. Since the moderately lower thickness in Southern Norway was not accompanied by higher vapour permeability, this indicates that the reduced eggshell thickness did not cause desiccation of dipper eggs in the acidified area. The possibility of underestimating the environmental effects of acidification on dippers is discussed. 42 refs.,2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  6. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  7. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  8. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  9. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Tobias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50µL aliquots were incubated in 850µL BHI broth containing 50µL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37ºC. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm. Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05 growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals.

  10. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  11. Eggshell strength of an obligate brood parasite: a test of the puncture resistance hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonov, A.; Stokke, B. G.; Moksnes, A.; Kleven, O.; Honza, Marcel; Roskaft, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-18 ISSN 0340-5443 Grant - others:Research Council of Norway(NO) 151641/432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * eggshell thickness * puncture resistance * Acrocephalus * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  12. Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution using modified eggshell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Sayed S.; Rizk, Hoda E.; Gasser, Mona S. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center

    2017-07-01

    Green composites emphasize renewable starting materials for better economy using biomass materials. Therefore, low-cost composite biosorbent was prepared by modification of eggshell material using heteropoly acid for removal of strontium ions from aqueous solution. The resulted composite was characterized and evaluated for the sorption process using the batch technique. Low concentration of strontium ions was used to evaluate the sorption sensitivity of the prepared composite. The obtained experimental results illustrated that the modification process of eggshell material enhanced the percent uptake from 49.9 to 95.7%. From kinetic studies, the sorption of strontium ions follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The isotherm studies indicated that Langmuir is more applicable than Freundlich isotherm. Moreover, Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was studied. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption process is spontaneous and has endothermic nature. Strontium ions can be desorbed from the modified eggshell using HNO{sub 3}, desorption percent was found to be 96.4%; the results revealed the reusability of the modified eggshell for further sorption.

  13. Eggshell pigmentation has no evident effects on offspring viability in common kestrels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fargallo, J. A.; López-Rull, I.; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2014), s. 627-637 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biliverdin IX * egg colouration * eggshell proteins * falco tinnunculus * protoporphyrin IX Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.517, year: 2014

  14. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...

  15. Factors Affecting Element Concentrations in Eggshells of Three Sympatrically Nesting Waterbirds in Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Wiącek, Dariusz

    2018-02-01

    Avian eggshells are convenient samples in biomonitoring studies, because they are easily accessible, especially from colonially or semicolonially breeding birds. In the present study, concentrations of 17 elements, including heavy metals and essential elements in post-hatch eggshells, were compared among three species of waterbirds of differing strategies for gaining reserves for egg production and diet: mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (ML, a capital breeder, mainly herbivorous), common tern, Sterna hirundo (CT, an income breeder, piscivorous) and black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (BHG, mixed strategy, omnivorous) and breeding sympatrically in three sites in North Poland. Analyses revealed that Fe, Zn, and Cu levels differed the most in the studied species, which may be explained by various contributions of fish, aquatic plants, and soil invertebrates in their diets. Generally, the studied species' eggshells accumulated amounts of elements comparable to those reported for other waterbirds without putting the growth and development of the embryo at risk. The only exception was very high levels of Cr in ML and CT, which may be explained by their foraging on aquatic organisms in waterbodies polluted by this element. Intersite differences in eggshell concentrations of Ni, Sr, Hg and Cr in CT (an income breeder) may be explained by the influence of local pollution sources (small factories, polluted river).

  16. Microbiome assembly of avian eggshells and their potential as transgenerational carriers of maternal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, H Pieter J; Salles, Joana Falcão; Tieleman, B Irene

    2018-05-01

    The microbiome is essential for development, health and homeostasis throughout an animal's life. Yet, the origins and transmission processes governing animal microbiomes remain elusive for non-human vertebrates, oviparous vertebrates in particular. Eggs may function as transgenerational carriers of the maternal microbiome, warranting characterisation of egg microbiome assembly. Here, we investigated maternal and environmental contributions to avian eggshell microbiota in wild passerine birds: woodlark Lullula arborea and skylark Alauda arvensis. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we demonstrated in both lark species, at the population and within-nest levels, that bacterial communities of freshly laid eggs were distinct from the female cloacal microbiome. Instead, soil-borne bacteria appeared to thrive on freshly laid eggs, and eggshell microbiota composition strongly resembled maternal skin, body feather and nest material communities, sources in direct contact with laid eggs. Finally, phylogenetic structure analysis and microbial source tracking underscored species sorting from directly contacting sources rather than in vivo-transferred symbionts. The female-egg-nest system allowed an integrative assessment of avian egg microbiome assembly, revealing mixed modes of symbiont acquisition not previously documented for vertebrate eggs. Our findings illuminated egg microbiome origins, which suggested a limited potential of eggshells for transgenerational transmission, encouraging further investigation of eggshell microbiome functions in vertebrates.

  17. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J; vanderWal, R

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden.

  18. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.; Van der Wal, R.

    1996-01-01

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden.

  19. Effect of loading rate on hen´s eggshell mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Severa, L.; Nedomová, Š.; Stoklasová, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2012), s. 1-5 ISSN 1927-0887 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : eggshell * strength * elasticity * numerical simulation Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jfr/article/view/19064

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters related to eggshell strength using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Ma, M; Qu, L; Shen, M; Dou, T; Wang, K

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the changes in eggshell strength and the genetic parameters related to this trait throughout a hen's laying life using random regression. The data were collected from a crossbred population between 2011 and 2014, where the eggshell strength was determined repeatedly for 2260 hens. Using random regression models (RRMs), several Legendre polynomials were employed to estimate the fixed, direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The residual effects were treated as independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test week. The direct genetic variance was included with second-order Legendre polynomials and the permanent environment with third-order Legendre polynomials. The heritability of eggshell strength ranged from 0.26 to 0.43, the repeatability ranged between 0.47 and 0.69, and the estimated genetic correlations between test weeks was high at > 0.67. The first eigenvalue of the genetic covariance matrix accounted for about 97% of the sum of all the eigenvalues. The flexibility and statistical power of RRM suggest that this model could be an effective method to improve eggshell quality and to reduce losses due to cracked eggs in a breeding plan.

  1. Thermoluminescence properties of CaO powder obtained from chicken eggshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushana, K.R.; Lokesha, H.S.; Satyanarayana Reddy, S.; Prakash, D.; Veerabhadraswamy, M.; Bhagyalakshmi, H.; Jayaramaiah, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Eggshell wastage has created serious problem in disposal of the food processing industry which has been triggered the thoughts of researchers to use wasted eggshells as good source of calcium. In the present work, calcium oxide (CaO) has been synthesized by combustion process in furnace (F–CaO) and microwave oven (M–CaO) using the source of chicken eggshells. The obtained F–CaO and M–CaO are characterized by XRD, SEM with EDX and thermoluminescence (TL) technique. XRD pattern of both the samples show cubic phase with crystallite size 45–52 nm. TL glow curves are recorded for various gamma radiation dose (300–4000 Gy). Two TL glows, a small peak at 424 K and stronger peak at 597 K are observed. TL response of M–CaO is 2.67 times higher than F–CaO sample. TL kinetic parameters are calculated by computerized curve deconvolution analysis (CCDA) and discussed. - Highlights: • Calcium oxide powders have been synthesized using chicken egg shells as raw material. • Crystallite size was found to be 45–52 nm. • CaO derived from eggshells shows good thermoluminescence TL response. • TL response of the M–CaO is 2.67 times higher than the F–CaO sample.

  2. Synthesis of three-dimensional calcium carbonate nanofibrous structure from eggshell using femtosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural biomaterials from bone-like minerals derived from avian eggshells have been considered as promising bone substitutes owing to their biodegradability, abundance, and lower price in comparison with synthetic biomaterials. However, cell adhesion to bulk biomaterials is poor and surface modifications are required to improve biomaterial-cell interaction. Three-dimensional (3D nanostructures are preferred to act as growth support platforms for bone and stem cells. Although there have been several studies on generating nanoparticles from eggshells, no research has been reported on synthesizing 3D nanofibrous structures. Results In this study, we propose a novel technique to synthesize 3D calcium carbonate interwoven nanofibrous platforms from eggshells using high repetition femtosecond laser irradiation. The eggshell waste is value engineered to calcium carbonate nanofibrous layer in a single step under ambient conditions. Our striking results demonstrate that by controlling the laser pulse repetition, nanostructures with different nanofiber density can be achieved. This approach presents an important step towards synthesizing 3D interwoven nanofibrous platforms from natural biomaterials. Conclusion The synthesized 3D nanofibrous structures can promote biomaterial interfacial properties to improve cell-platform surface interaction and develop new functional biomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications.

  3. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  4. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Pytel, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 7 (2016), s. 1693-1701 ISSN 0032-5791 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg yolk * albumen * liquid whole egg * rheology * eggshell membrane Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2016 http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/

  5. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, O.; Shahir, M.H.; Akhlaghi, A.; Lotfolahian, H.; Hoseini, A.; Lourens, A.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to

  6. Determination of Apparent and True Metabolizable Energy of Alfalfa meal for Ostrich via Chromic Oxide Marker and Total Collection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ayaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn of Alfalfa meal for male ostrich at 90 d of age. Experiment was done as a completely randomized design with 5 treatments of 4 replicate and 4 chicks each. Different levels of Alfalfa meal (0, 15, 30 and 40% were replaced to the basal diet. AME and AMEn were determined via chromic oxid marker and total collection methods. The AME and AMEn of alfalfa meal was 2250±274, 2522±110, 2044±268 and 2366±107 kcal/kg at 40 % of replacement that calculated via chromic oxide marker and total collection excreta respectively. Measurement of TME and TMEn of Alfalfa meal in this experiment calculated by the different levels of feedstuff and were 3165 and 2877 kcal/kg respectively. The result of this experiment showed that using the ME data which calculated via adult leghorn cockerel to formulating the starter diet of ostrich is not suitable and determination of ME via ostrich to using it in the formulation of their diets is necessary.

  7. Ultrastructural features of the uterus in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus during periods of ovarian inactivity and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-C. Madekurozwa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the surface epithelium and tubular glands of the uterus in the immature ostrich is described. In ostriches with inactive ovaries the uterus is lined by a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium, with basally located heterochromatic nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these non-ciliated cells have a dense microvillous cover. A simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium, comprised of non-ciliated and ciliated cells, lines the uterus in birds with active ovaries. The ciliated cells possess a wide luminal region, which contains a nucleus and various organelles. An accumulation of secretory granules was observed in the apical regions of the non-ciliated cells, as well as in a few ciliated cells. In addition to non-ciliated and ciliated cells, a cell type with rarefied cytoplasm was also identified. These cells appear to correspond to calcium secreting cells identified in other avian species. The results of this study indicate that, although uterine differentiation is present in immature ostriches with active ovaries, the production of secretory product appears to occur mainly in non-ciliated epithelial cells.

  8. THE EFFECT OF EGGSHELL MOSAIC TRAINING TOWARD FINE MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY (IDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diadra Finalistiani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of eggshell mosaic toward fine motor skills of children with intellectual and develompental disability. The data was collected with observation, and the analysis technique used analysis in condition and analysis between conditions. The conclusion of this research was eggshell mosaic gives effect toward the fine motor skills of the children, it was shown from fine motor skills of the children before eggshell mosaic treatment, during the treatment and after controlling, and the fine motor skills of the children was improved.

  9. Nesting environment may drive variation in eggshell structure and egg characteristics in the Testudinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D Charles

    2018-05-14

    Testudines exhibit considerable variation in the degree of eggshell calcification, which affects eggshell conductance, water physiology of the embryos, and calcium metabolism of embryos. However, the underlying reason for different shell types has not been explored. Phylogenetically controlled analyses examined relationships between egg size, shell mass, and clutch size in ∼200 turtle species from a range of body sizes and assigned by family as laying either rigid- or pliable-shelled eggs. Shell type affected egg breadth relative to pelvic dimensions, egg mass, and relative shell mass but did not affect size, mass, or total shell mass of the clutch. These results suggest that calcium availability may be a function of body size and the type of shell may reflect in part the interplay between clutch size and egg size. It was further concluded that the eggshell probably evolved as a means of physical protection. Differences in shell calcification may not primarily reflect reproductive parameters but rather correlate with the acidity of a species' nesting environment. Low pH environments may have thicker calcareous layer to counteract the erosion caused by the soil and maintain the integrity of the physical barrier. Limited calcium availability may constrain clutch size. More neutral nesting substrates expose eggshells to less erosion so calcification per egg can be reduced and this allows larger clutch sizes. This pattern is also reflected in thick, calcified crocodilian eggs. Further research is needed to test whether eggshell calcification in the testudines correlates with nest pH in order to verify this relationship. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intraclutch eggshell colour variation in birds: are females able to identify their eggs individually?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Poláček

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One possibility suggested regarding female post-mating strategies is differential allocation into offspring investment. Female birds produce not only the largest, but also most colourful eggs of all oviparous taxa. Larger eggs provide space for bigger embryos, or more nutrition for their development, but the question why eggs are more colourful and why there is variation in eggshell colouration remains. In this context, the focus of interest has been to explain inter-clutch variation but in many bird species, eggshell colouration also varies within a clutch. Surprisingly, less attention has been paid to this phenomenon. Therefore, we propose the “female egg recognition” hypothesis, suggesting that mothers use colour characteristics to interpret egg attributes and allocate further investment into each egg accordingly. To evaluate the feasibility of the hypothesis, we tested several underlying predictions and examined their suitability using a dataset from our tree sparrow (Passer montanus study. We predict (i substantial within-clutch variation in eggshell colouration which, (ii should be related to laying sequence, (iii reflect egg quality and, (iv should stimulate a female response. Methods Eggshell coloration data were obtained via digital photography under standardized conditions, taken after clutch completion. Lightness (L*, representing the achromatic properties of an egg has been chosen as the most important predictor in dark cavities and was related to egg quality and position in the nest. Results In our tree sparrows, first and mainly last eggs were less pigmented, providing information about laying order. Egg volume, which predicts chick quality, positively correlates with eggshell coloration. Finally, we could show that female tree sparrows placed darker, but not bigger, eggs into more central incubation positions. Discussion All basic prerequisites for the “female egg recognition” hypothesis are fulfilled. In this

  11. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  12. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  13. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Duval

    Full Text Available Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control or corticosterone (treatment. We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an

  14. ADSORPTION AND RELEASING PROPERTIES OF BEAD CELLULOSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Morales; E. Bordallo; V. Leon; J. Rieumont

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of some dyes on samples of bead cellulose obtained in the Unit of Research-Production "Cuba 9"was studied. Methylene blue, alizarin red and congo red fitted the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir. Adsorption kinetics at pH = 6 was linear with the square root of time indicating the diffusion is the controlling step. At pH = 12 a non-Fickian trend was observed and adsorption was higher for the first two dyes. Experiments carried out to release the methylene blue occluded in the cellulose beads gave a kinetic behavior of zero order. The study of cytochrome C adsorption was included to test a proteinic material. Crosslinking of bead cellulose was performed with epichlorohydrin decreasing its adsorption capacity in acidic or alkaline solution.

  15. Bead Capture on Magnetic Sensors in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of magnetic beads by gravitational sedimentation and magnetic capture on a planar Hall-effect sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel is studied systematically as a function of the bead concentration, the fluid flow rate, and the sensor bias current. It is demonstrated...... that the sedimentation flux is proportional to the bead concentration and has a power law relation to the fluid flow rate. The mechanisms for the bead accumulation are investigated and it is found that gravitational sedimentation dominates the bead accumulation, whereas the stability of the sedimented beads against...

  16. Development of ostrich thrombocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in culture and the control of Toxoplasma gondii reproduction after macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Farlen J B; Damasceno-Sá, João Cláudio; DaMatta, Renato A

    2016-01-01

    Raising ostriches became an important economic activity after their products became commodities. The health of farm animals is of paramount importance, so assessing basic immunological responses is necessary to better understand health problems. We developed a method to obtain ostrich thrombocytes and macrophages. The thrombocytes died by apoptosis after 48 h in culture, and the macrophages expanded in size and increased the number of acidic compartments. Macrophages were activated by chicken interferon-γ, producing high levels of nitric oxide. Toxoplasma gondii was able to infect these macrophages, and activation controlled parasitic reproduction. T. gondii, however, persisted in these cells, and infection reduced the production of nitric oxide. These results are important for the future assessment of the basic cellular and immunobiology of ostriches and demonstrate T. gondii suppression of nitric oxide production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  18. Variability and interaction of some egg physical and eggshell quality attributes during the entire laying hen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Zampiga, M; Berardinelli, A; Meluzzi, A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variability and relationships between some egg physical (egg weight, width, length, shape index, and surface area) and eggshell parameters (weight and percentage, thickness, breaking strength, and L*, a*, and b* values) during the entire laying hen cycle. A total of 8,000 eggs was collected every 5 wk, from 30 to 81 wk of hen age (10 samplings of 400 eggs/house), in 2 identical poultry houses equipped with enriched cages. For the statistical analysis, ANOVA, Bivariate Correlation, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis were used. An increase of egg weight, length, and eggshell lightness (L*) associated with a reduction of eggshell percentage, breaking strength, and redness (a*) was observed as the hen aged (P 10% of eggshell breaking strength and a*. According to the PCA, the highest changes during the laying cycle are related to egg physical parameters (32%) and to eggshell breaking strength, percentage, and thickness (26%). The egg physical parameters appeared to be strongly correlated to each other, whereas a slight correlation between eggshell breaking strength and color attributes were evidenced (-0.231 and 0.289, respectively, for L* and a*; P quality attributes throughout the entire laying hen cycle.

  19. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Laaksonen, Toni; Morales, Judith; Moreno, Juan; Mateo, Rafael; Belskii, Eugen; Bushuev, Andrey; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Slate, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Eeva, Tapio

    2014-03-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in metal pollution across a species' breeding range. We studied large-scale geographic variation in metal levels in the eggs of a small passerine, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), sampled from 15 populations across Europe. We measured 10 eggshell elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Se, Sr, and Ca) and several shell characteristics (mass, thickness, porosity, and color). We found significant variation among populations in eggshell metal levels for all metals except copper. Eggshell lead, zinc, and chromium levels decreased from central Europe to the north, in line with the gradient in pollution levels over Europe, thus suggesting that eggshell can be used as an indicator of pollution levels. Eggshell lead levels were also correlated with soil lead levels and pH. Most of the metals were not correlated with eggshell characteristics, with the exception of shell mass, or with breeding success, which may suggest that birds can cope well with the current background exposure levels across Europe.

  20. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  1. Carbonized chicken eggshell membranes with 3D architectures as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Li; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Tan, Xuehai; Xu, Zhanwei; Wang, Huanlei; Olsen, Brian C.; Holt, Chris M.B.; Mitlin, David [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT), NRC, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    Supercapacitor electrode materials are synthesized by carbonizing a common livestock biowaste in the form of chicken eggshell membranes. The carbonized eggshell membrane (CESM) is a three-dimensional macroporous carbon film composed of interwoven connected carbon fibers containing around 10 wt% oxygen and 8 wt% nitrogen. Despite a relatively low surface area of 221 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, exceptional specific capacitances of 297 F g{sup -1} and 284 F g{sup -1} are achieved in basic and acidic electrolytes, respectively, in a 3-electrode system. Furthermore, the electrodes demonstrate excellent cycling stability: only 3% capacitance fading is observed after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 4 A g{sup -1}. These very attractive electrochemical properties are discussed in the context of the unique structure and chemistry of the material. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Characteristics of Skeletal Musculature of Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine morphodinamics of development of skeletal musculature of pheasants hatched from eggs of different eggshell colour. Four groups of pheasant eggs (dark brown, light brown, brown/green and blue/green were incubated. Samples of skeletal musculature of leg and breast were taken during the embryonic and neonatal period of development. From taken samples histological preparations were made. In pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs the smaller diameter of leg and breast muscle cells and the higher volume density of connective tissue in leg and breast muscles were recorded. It was concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had the weakest development of skeletal musculature, which can be related to structural differences of eggshell of various colour.

  3. Bio-active synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles using eggshell membrane for energy storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina Selvakumari, J.; Nishanthi, S. T.; Dhanalakshmi, J.; Ahila, M.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized tin oxide (SnO2) particles were synthesized using eggshell membrane (ESM), a natural bio-waste from the chicken eggshell. The crystallization of SnO2 into the tetragonal structure was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction and the crystallite size ranged from 13 to 40 nm. Various shapes including rod, hexagonal and spherical SnO2 nanoparticles were observed from the morphological studies. The electrochemical impedance study revealed a lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) of 8.565 Ω and the presence of a constant phase element which arised due to surface roughness and porosity. Capacitive behavior seen in the cyclic voltammetry curve of the prepared SnO2 nanoparticles, find future applications in supercapacitors.

  4. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken uterine fluid during eggshell biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken eggshell is the protective barrier of the egg. It is a biomineral composed of 95% calcium carbonate on calcitic form and 3.5% organic matrix proteins. Mineralization process occurs in uterus into the uterine fluid. This acellular fluid contains ions and organic matrix proteins precursors which are interacting with the mineral phase and control crystal growth, eggshell structure and mechanical properties. We performed a proteomic approach and identified 308 uterine fluid proteins. Gene Ontology terms enrichments were determined to investigate their potential functions. Mass spectrometry analyses were also combined to label free quantitative analysis to determine the relative abundance of 96 proteins at initiation, rapid growth phase and termination of shell calcification. Sixty four showed differential abundance according to the mineralization stage. Their potential functions have been annotated. The complete proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses are reported in Marie et al., J. Proteomics (2015 [1].

  5. exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Glass bead making techniques and their mass production will help the individual ... communicate cultural values in a symbolic lan- guage which ..... Surface of most of the new beads were rough ... tourism potential to be developed further to.

  6. Can "Ozzie" the Ostrich Prepare the Public for Better Learning about Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Lockwood, L.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing societal issues today, and educators are struggling with how to inform people of all ages and backgrounds about the reality and relevance of climate change. ScienceToGo.org has designed 12 posters that were placed on the Boston subways over the course of 15 months. Surveys of T-riders suggest that Ozzie the Ostrich is highly recognizable, is non-threatening, and is connecting Boston with climate change impacts and solutions. We hypothesize that our advertising campaign not only raises awareness about climate change in Boston and engages the public in thinking and talking about climate change, but also prepares them for learning more about climate change in the future. By exposing students to the 12 posters, we think that fears associated with climate change are lessened, and that students are more willing to explore a variety of media (newspaper articles, internet postings, peer-reviewed journal articles, data, and graphs) compared to students that are not exposed to the posters. Students will complete an initial survey, be exposed (or not exposed) to Ozzie posters, asked to explore a variety of media related to climate change, then surveyed again. Finally, focus groups will be conducted to gain insights on how students interact about climate change with or without exposure to Ozzie. We are interested in learning if exposure to brief, engaging, and humorous advertising messages will change the way students learn about climate change. This presentation will present initial results of this study.

  7. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  8. Comparison of eggshell surface sanitization technologies and impacts on consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajeeli, Morouj N; Taylor, T Matthew; Alvarado, Christine Z; Coufal, Craig D

    2016-05-01

    Shell eggs can be contaminated with many types of microorganisms, including bacterial pathogens, and thus present a risk for the transmission of foodborne disease to consumers. Currently, most United States egg processors utilize egg washing and sanitization systems to decontaminate surfaces of shell eggs prior to packaging. However, previous research has indicated that current shell egg sanitization technologies employed in the commercial egg industry may not completely eliminate bacteria from the surface of eggshells, and thus alternative egg sanitization technologies with the potential for increased microbial reductions on eggshells should be investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare the antimicrobial efficacy and consumer sensory attributes of industry-available eggshell sanitization methods (chlorine and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) applied via spray) to various alternative egg sanitization technologies. Eggs (White Leghorn hens; n=195) were obtained for evaluation of sanitizer-induced reduction in mesophilic aerobic bacteria (n=90) or inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) reduction (n=105). Sanitizing treatments evaluated in this experiment were: chlorine spray (100 ppm available chlorine), QAC spray (200 ppm), peracetic acid spray (PAA; 135 ppm) alone or in combination with ultraviolet light (UV; 254 nm), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 3.5% solution) spray in combination with UV (H2O2+UV). For enumeration of aerobic bacteria, eggs were sampled at 0, 7, and 14 days of storage at 4°C; surviving SE cells from inoculated eggs were enumerated by differential plating. Sensory trials were conducted to determine consumer liking of scrambled eggs made from eggs sanitized with chlorine, QAC, H2O2+UV, or no treatment (control). The H2O2 and UV treatment resulted in the greatest reductions in eggshell aerobic plate counts compared to other treatments throughout egg storage (Peggs represents a novel technology that could have important

  9. Composite Superabsorbent Hydrogel of Acrylic Copolymer and Eggshell: Effect of Biofiller Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Queirós, Marcos Vinícius A.; Bezerra, Maslândia N.; Feitosa, Judith P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Eggshell (ES) is an abundant waste material which is mainly composed of calcium carbonate. A superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on poly(acrylamide-co-potassium acrylate) as matrix containing 17 wt.% of chicken ES powder as a filler was synthesized and compared with the gel without filler. The characterization was carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffr...

  10. Assessment of diagenetic alteration of dinosaur eggshells through petrography and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, M. V.; Eagle, R.; Eiler, J. M.; Tripati, A. K.; Ramirez, P. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Chiappe, L.; Montanari, S.; Norell, M.; Tuetken, T.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope analysis of fossil eggshells has the potential to constrain both the physiology of extinct animals and, potentially, paleoenvironmental conditions, especially when coupled with isotopic measurements of co-occurring soil carbonates. Eggshell samples from both modern vertebrates and Cretaceous Hadrosaurid, Oviraptorid, Titanosaur, Hypselosaurus, Faveoolithus, dinosaur fossils have been collected from Auca Mahuevo, Argentina and Rousett, France, amongst other locations, for geochemical analysis to determine if isotopic signatures could be used to indicate warm- or cold-bloodedness. In some locations soil carbonates were also analyzed to constrain environmental temperatures. In order to test the validity of the geochemical results, an extensive study was undertaken to establish degree of diagenetic alteration. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence characterization of the eggshells were used to assess diagenetic alteration. An empirical 1-5 point scale was used to assign each sample an alteration level, and the observations were then compared with the geochemical results. Specimens displayed a wide range of alteration states. Some of which were well preserved and others highly altered. Another group seemed to be structural intact and only under cathodoluminescence was alteration clearly observed. In the majority of samples, alteration level was found to be predictably related to geochemical results. From specimens with little evidence for diagenesis, carbonate clumped isotope signatures support high (37-40°C) body temperature for Titanosaurid dinosaurs, but potentially lower body temperatures for other taxa. If these data do, in fact, represent original eggshell growth temperatures, these results support variability in body temperature amongst Cretaceous dinosaurs and potentially are consistent with variations between adult body temperature and size — a characteristic of 'gigantothermy'.

  11. Brood parasite and host eggshells undergo similar levels of decalcification during embryonic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Igic, B.; Hauber, M. E.; Moskát, C.; Grim, T.; Shawkey, M. D.; Procházka, Petr; Honza, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 3 (2017), s. 165-173 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * Cuculus canorus * decalcification * eggshell thickness * embryonic development * common cuckoo * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2016

  12. Study on the etched carnelian beads unearthed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Etched carnelian beads originated in the Indus Civilization;this kind of ornaments and its manufacturing techniques were spread to the whole Eurasia Continent.The etched carnelian beads unearthed in China can be classified into four types,the comparisons of which to their foreign counterparts may reveal their different sources and diffusion routes.The etched carnelian beads and their glass imitations unearthed in China had influences to the making of the glass "eye beads" in

  13. Using Eggshell in Acid Orange 2 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Generated dye wastewater by the textile industry is usually toxic, non-biodegradable and resistant in the environment. Eggshell is one of the inexpensive material and for the reason the vesicular structures can be used as a proper adsorbent for pollutants removal. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of eggshell for removal of acid orange 2 dye from aqueous solution. Materials and Methods: In the experimental study was determined the efficacy of variant variables such as contact time (15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, pH (3, 7 and 11, adsorbent dose (10, 25, 50 and 75 g/L, and initial dye concentration (25, 50 and 100 mg/L. The concentration of dye by spectrophotometer ultraviolet/visible in the wavelength 483 nm was examined. Results: The results showed that with increasing contact time and adsorbent dose, the dye removal efficiency was increased, but with increasing pH and initial dye concentration the removal efficiency was decreased. The maximum of removal efficiency of acid orange 2 dye got in the optimum pH: 3, contact time: 90 min, adsorbent dose: 50 g/L and initial dye concentration: 25 mg/L. Adsorption of acid orange 2 dye (R2 = 0.87 follow the Freundlich isotherm. Conclusion: Eggshells can be used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the removal of acid orange 2 dye.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite via mechanochemical method: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A. A.; Salimi, M. N.; Yusoff, A. H. M.

    2017-04-01

    The focus of bone graft properties has developed through generations, from the ability to withstand mechanical stress to the ability to integrate with the biological structure. In recent years, the use of hydroxyapatite (HA) as bone graft material in orthopedic and dental applications has been increasing. HA is a natural occuring mineral with excellent bioactivity but relatively poor mechanical properties. It constitutes 96% portion of enamel in teeth and 67% portion of bone. HA can be extracted from animal bones or fabricated from synthetic or biologic sources. In this study, eggshells were used as raw material to synthesize eggshell-derived HA (EHA) via mechanochemical method. The synthesis of EHA involved CaO, which was obtained from the calcination of eggshells, and reaction with dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrous (DCPD) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The effects of rotational speed and heat treatment temperature on EHA's characteristics were investigated. The characterization studies were carried out by using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HA powder was successfully synthesized with crystallite and particle sizes in the range of 8-47 nm and 250-550 nm respectively. It was observed from this study that the increase of milling rotational speed had increased the phase purity of EHA samples. Furthermore, the higher heating temperature of HA samples resulted in higher degree of crystallinity of HA and the appearance of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as secondary phase.

  15. Antimicrobial properties of a nanostructured eggshell from a compost-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Jones, Darryl N; Badawy, Hope T; Eliason, Chad M; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2014-04-01

    Infection is an important source of mortality for avian embryos but parental behaviors and eggs themselves can provide a network of antimicrobial defenses. Mound builders (Aves: Megapodiidae) are unique among birds in that they produce heat for developing embryos not by sitting on eggs but by burying them in carefully tended mounds of soil and microbially decomposing vegetation. The low infection rate of eggs of one species in particular, the Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami), suggests that they possess strong defensive mechanisms. To identify some of these mechanisms, we first quantified antimicrobial albumen proteins and characterized eggshell structure, finding that albumen was not unusually antimicrobial, but that eggshell cuticle was composed of nanometer-sized calcite spheres. Experimental tests revealed that these modified eggshells were significantly more hydrophobic and better at preventing bacterial attachment and penetration into the egg contents than chicken eggs. Our results suggest that these mechanisms may contribute to the antimicrobial defense system of these eggs, and may provide inspiration for new biomimetic anti-fouling surfaces.

  16. Thermoluminescence properties of CaO powder obtained from chicken eggshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushana, K. R.; Lokesha, H. S.; Satyanarayana Reddy, S.; Prakash, D.; Veerabhadraswamy, M.; Bhagyalakshmi, H.; Jayaramaiah, J. R.

    2017-09-01

    Eggshell wastage has created serious problem in disposal of the food processing industry which has been triggered the thoughts of researchers to use wasted eggshells as good source of calcium. In the present work, calcium oxide (CaO) has been synthesized by combustion process in furnace (F-CaO) and microwave oven (M-CaO) using the source of chicken eggshells. The obtained F-CaO and M-CaO are characterized by XRD, SEM with EDX and thermoluminescence (TL) technique. XRD pattern of both the samples show cubic phase with crystallite size 45-52 nm. TL glow curves are recorded for various gamma radiation dose (300-4000 Gy). Two TL glows, a small peak at 424 K and stronger peak at 597 K are observed. TL response of M-CaO is 2.67 times higher than F-CaO sample. TL kinetic parameters are calculated by computerized curve deconvolution analysis (CCDA) and discussed.

  17. Eggshell thinning and residues in mallards on year after DDE exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, M.A.; Hudson, R.H.

    1974-01-01

    A group of 16 mallard hens (Anas platyrhynchos), that had been given feed containing 40 ppm ofp,p'-DDE for 96 days, laid eggs with shells averaging about 15%?20% thinner than those of ten control birds during and up to 42 days after treatment. In eight of the treated birds killed at that time, whole-body DDE residues averaged 33.1 ppm (wet weight). The other eight treated birds and ten controls were kept through the winter with no additional DDE exposure and penned separately five days for individual egg collection about three weeks after laying began in spring. At that time (nearly 11 months after DDE feeding had stopped), the treated birds laid eggs with shells averaging 7.4% thinner than control eggshells (significant at P<0.05) and their whole-body DDE residues averaged 9.6 ppm (wet weight). Variations in eggshell thickness and DDE residues were considerable among treated birds. However, regression analysis showed moderate negative correlations (r=?0.51 to ?0.62) between eggshell thickness and DDE residues in whole bodies and eggs, and strong positive correlations (r=0.73 and 0.91) between DDE residues in whole bodies and in eggs.

  18. Innate humoural immunity is related to eggshell bacterial load of European birds: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Juan José; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2011-09-01

    Fitness benefits associated with the development of a costly immune system would include not only self-protection against pathogenic microorganisms but also protection of host offspring if it reduces the probability and the rate of vertical transmission of microorganisms. This possibility predicts a negative relationship between probabilities of vertical transmission of symbionts and level of immune response that we here explore inter-specifically. We estimated eggshell bacterial loads by culturing heterotrophic bacteria, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae on the eggshells of 29 species of birds as a proxy of vertical transmission of bacteria from mother to offspring. For this pool of species, we also estimated innate immune response (natural antibody and complement (lysis)) of adults, which constitute the main defence against bacterial infection. Multivariate general linear models revealed the predicted negative association between natural antibodies and density of bacteria on the eggshell of 19 species of birds for which we sampled the eggs in more than one nest. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations for heterotrophic bacteria and for Enterobacteriaceae, a group of bacteria that includes important pathogens of avian embryos. Therefore, these results suggest a possible trans-generational benefit of developing a strong immune system by reducing vertical transmission of pathogens.

  19. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-10-13

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  20. Metal-Containing Polystyrene Beads as Standards for Mass Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Kinach, Robert; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Tanner, Scott; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the suitability of metal-containing polystyrene beads for the calibration of a mass cytometer instrument, a single particle analyser based on an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a time of flight mass spectrometer. These metal-containing beads are also verified for their use as internal standards for this instrument. These beads were synthesized by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with acrylic acid as a comonomer. Acrylic acid acts as a ligand to anchor the metal ions within the interior of the beads. Mass cytometry enabled the bead-by-bead measurement of the metal-content and determination of the metal-content distribution. Beads synthesized by dispersion polymerization that involved three stages were shown to have narrower bead-to-bead variation in their lanthanide content than beads synthesized by 2-stage dispersion polymerization. The beads exhibited insignificant release of their lanthanide content to aqueous solutions of different pHs over a period of six months. When mixed with KG1a or U937 cell lines, metal-containing polymer beads were shown not to affect the mass cytometry response to the metal content of element-tagged antibodies specifically attached to these cells.

  1. Controlled torque on superparamagnetic beads for functional biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, X.J.A.; Schellekens, A.J.; van Ommering, K.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Prins, M.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a rotating magnetic field can be used to apply a controlled torque on superparamagnetic beads which leads to a tunable bead rotation frequency in fluid. Smooth rotation is obtained for field rotation frequencies many orders of magnitude higher than the bead rotation frequency. A

  2. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  3. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Profile in Relation to Phylogenetic Background in Escherichia coli Isolated From Fecal Samples of Healthy Ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohamadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. coli is regarded as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance in foods of animal origin. E. coli can be categories into four mainphylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. The commensal E. coli strains mostly are assigned to the phylo-groups A and B1. Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine the phylogenetic group/subgroups and antibiotic resistance patterns of ostrich E. coli isolates in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 126 E. coli isolates were obtained from cloacae swabs of the healthy ostrich in Kerman, Iran. The E. coliisolates were confirmed using biochemical API 20E identification system. The confirmed isolates were studied to determine phylogeneticbackground by PCR. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance against 12 different antibiotic disk by disk diffusion method. Results: Phylotyping of E. coli isolates indicated that 74 isolates belonged to A, 27 isolates to B1, 7 isolates to B2, and 18 isolates to D groups.Also the isolates fell into six phylogenetic subgroups, including 34 isolates in A0, 40 isolates in A1, one isolate in B22, 6 isolates in B23, 11isolates in D1 and 7 isolates in subgroup D2. In the examined E. coli isolates, the maximum rate of resistance was against tetracycline, andthe minimum rate of resistance was against amoxicillin. Twenty three antibiotic resistance patterns were detected among the isolates. Thecefoxitin and tetracycline resistance pattern was the most prevalent in the isolates that belonged to phylo-group A. Conclusions: In conclusion, the result of the present study revealed a low frequency of antibiotic resistance in ostrich E. coli isolates.The antibiotic resistance patterns were in relation to A and D phylogenetic groups. Further studies are needed to better understand thedistribution of phylogenetic groups in poultry isolates.

  5. Tracking socioeconomic vulnerability using network analysis: insights from an avian influenza outbreak in an ostrich production network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The focus of management in many complex systems is shifting towards facilitation, adaptation, building resilience, and reducing vulnerability. Resilience management requires the development and application of general heuristics and methods for tracking changes in both resilience and vulnerability. We explored the emergence of vulnerability in the South African domestic ostrich industry, an animal production system which typically involves 3-4 movements of each bird during its lifetime. This system has experienced several disease outbreaks, and the aim of this study was to investigate whether these movements have contributed to the vulnerability of this system to large disease outbreaks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ostrich production system requires numerous movements of birds between different farm types associated with growth (i.e. Hatchery to juvenile rearing farm to adult rearing farm. We used 5 years of movement records between 2005 and 2011 prior to an outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N2. These data were analyzed using a network analysis in which the farms were represented as nodes and the movements of birds as links. We tested the hypothesis that increasing economic efficiency in the domestic ostrich industry in South Africa made the system more vulnerable to outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N2. Our results indicated that as time progressed, the network became increasingly vulnerable to pathogen outbreaks. The farms that became infected during the outbreak displayed network qualities, such as significantly higher connectivity and centrality, which predisposed them to be more vulnerable to disease outbreak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken in the context of previous research, our results provide strong support for the application of network analysis to track vulnerability, while also providing useful practical implications for system monitoring and management.

  6. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken eggshell matrix proteins during the primary events of eggshell mineralization and the active growth phase of calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-09-01

    Chicken eggshell is a biomineral composed of 95% calcite calcium carbonate mineral and of 3.5% organic matrix proteins. The assembly of mineral and its structural organization is controlled by its organic matrix. In a recent study [1], we have used quantitative proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses to explore the distribution of 216 eggshell matrix proteins at four key stages of shell mineralization defined as: (1) widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), (2) ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, (3) formation of larger calcite crystal units and (4) rapid growth of calcite as columnar structure with preferential crystal orientation. The current article detailed the quantitative analysis performed at the four stages of shell mineralization to determine the proteins which are the most abundant. Additionally, we reported the enriched GO terms and described the presence of 35 antimicrobial proteins equally distributed at all stages to keep the egg free of bacteria and of 81 proteins, the function of which could not be ascribed.

  7. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken eggshell matrix proteins during the primary events of eggshell mineralization and the active growth phase of calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken eggshell is a biomineral composed of 95% calcite calcium carbonate mineral and of 3.5% organic matrix proteins. The assembly of mineral and its structural organization is controlled by its organic matrix. In a recent study [1], we have used quantitative proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses to explore the distribution of 216 eggshell matrix proteins at four key stages of shell mineralization defined as: (1 widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC, (2 ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, (3 formation of larger calcite crystal units and (4 rapid growth of calcite as columnar structure with preferential crystal orientation. The current article detailed the quantitative analysis performed at the four stages of shell mineralization to determine the proteins which are the most abundant. Additionally, we reported the enriched GO terms and described the presence of 35 antimicrobial proteins equally distributed at all stages to keep the egg free of bacteria and of 81 proteins, the function of which could not be ascribed.

  8. New Nanoparticles Dispersing Beads Mill with Ultra Small Beads and its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkyo, M; Tahara, T; Imajyo, Y

    2011-01-01

    Two of the major problems related to nanoparticle dispersion with a conventional beads mill are re-agglomeration and damage to the crystalline structure of the particles. The Ultra Apex Mill was developed to solve these problems by enabling the use of ultra-small beads with a diameter of less than 0.1mm. The core of this breakthrough development is centrifugation technology which allows the use of beads as small as 0.015mm. When dispersing agglomerated nanoparticles the impulse of the small beads is very low which means there is little influence on the particles. The surface energy of the nanoparticles remains low so the properties are not likely to change. As a result, stable nanoparticle dispersions can be achieved without re-cohesion. The Ultra Apex Mill is superior to conventional beads mills that are limited to much larger bead sizes. The technology of the Ultra Apex Mill has pioneered practical applications for nanoparticles in various fields: composition materials for LCD screens, ink-jet printing, ceramic condensers and cosmetics.

  9. Friction of N-bead macromolecules in solution: Effects of the bead-solvent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, Alexander; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    The role of the bead-solvent interaction has been studied for its influence on the dynamics of an N-bead macromolecule which is immersed into a solution. Using a Fokker-Planck equation for the phase-space distribution function of the macromolecule, we show that all the effects of the solution can be treated entirely in terms of the friction tensors which are assigned to each pair of interacting beads in the chain. For the high-density as well as for the critical solvent, the properties of these tensors are discussed in detail and are calculated by using several (realistic) choices of the bead-solvent potential. From the friction tensors, moreover, an expression for the center-of-mass friction coefficient of a (N-bead) chain macromolecule is derived. Numerical data for this coefficient for 'truncated' Lennard-Jones bead-solvent potential are compared with results from molecular dynamic simulations and from the phenomenological theoretical data as found in the literature

  10. Effect of spatial resolution of soil data on predictions of eggshell trace element levels in the Rook Corvus frugilegus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2016-12-01

    Although a considerable research effort has gone into studying the dietary pathways of metals to the bodies of laying female birds and their eggs in recent years, no detailed investigations have yet been carried out relating the properties of the biogeochemical environment at large spatial scales to eggshell trace element levels in typical soil-invertebrate feeding birds under natural conditions. We used data from a large-scale nationwide monitoring survey of soil quality in Poland (3724 sampling points from the 43 792 available) to predict levels of five trace elements (copper [Cu], cadmium [Cd], nickel [Ni], zinc [Zn] and lead [Pb]) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 42 breeding colonies. Our major aim was to test whether differences exist in the explanatory power of soil data (acidity, content of elements and organic matter, and particle size) used as a correlate of concentrations of eggshell trace elements among four different distances (5, 10, 15 and 20 km) around rookeries. Over all four distances around the rookeries only the concentrations of Cu and Cd in eggshells were positively correlated with those in soil, while eggshell Pb was correlated with the soil Pb level at the two longest distances (15 and 20 km) around the rookeries. The physical properties of soil (primarily the increase in pH) adversely affected eggshell Cd and Pb concentrations. The patterns and factors governing metal bioaccumulation in soil invertebrates and eggshells appear to be coincident, which strongly suggests a general similarity in the biochemical pathways of elements at different levels of the food web. The increasing acidification of arable soil as a result of excessive fertilisation and over-nitrification can enhance the bioavailability of toxic elements to laying females and their eggs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bead-bead interaction parameters in dissipative particle dynamics: Relation to bead-size, solubility parameter, and surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Amitesh; McGrother, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a mesoscale modeling method for simulating equilibrium and dynamical properties of polymers in solution. The basic idea has been around for several decades in the form of bead-spring models. A few years ago, Groot and Warren [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)] established an important link between DPD and the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter theory for polymer solutions. We revisit the Groot-Warren theory and investigate the DPD interaction parameters as a function of bead size. In particular, we show a consistent scheme of computing the interfacial tension in a segregated binary mixture. Results for three systems chosen for illustration are in excellent agreement with experimental results. This opens the door for determining DPD interactions using interfacial tension as a fitting parameter.

  12. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  13. Regional and interspecific variation in Sr, Ca, and Sr/Ca ratios in avian eggshells from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A; Brattin, Bryan; Baxter, Catherine; Rivers, James W

    2011-08-01

    To examine regional variation in strontium (Sr), which at high concentrations may reduce eggshell quality, increase egg breakage and reproductive failure, we analyzed Sr, and calcium (Ca) concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios in eggshells from 20 avian species from California, Texas, Idaho, Kansas, and Michigan. In addition, we included data previously reported from Arizona to expand the regional comparisons and to better establish patterns of Sr, and Sr/Ca ratios in bird species across the United States. We found Sr concentrations varied significantly among regions, among species, and among foraging guilds; this variability is strongly influenced by the Sr/Ca ratios in surface water from locations close to the region where the eggshells were collected. Sr concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios were significantly higher in bird eggshells from the Volta wildlife region in the San Joaquin Valley, California and in various locales from Arizona. Sr concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios in bird eggshells from other locations in the USA were lower than those detected in these two regions. Among foraging guilds, invertivores had the highest Sr concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios and carnivores had the lowest. In general, the Sr/Ca ratio increased strongly with increasing Sr concentrations (R(2) = 0.99, P eggshells suggesting that these values could be determined from Sr/Ca ratios in water. Eggshell thickness was poorly correlated with Sr (R(2) = 0.03) but had a significant and positive correlation with Ca and was more properly correlated by a quadratic equation (R(2) = 0.50, Thickness = 2.13 - 0.02Ca - 3.07 * 10(-5)Ca(2)). Our study provides further evidence that Sr accumulates significantly in the avian eggshell, in some regions at concentrations which could be of concern for potential negative effects on reproduction. We suggest that when assessing the effects of metals on avian reproduction in regions with high Sr deposits in rock and soil, Sr concentrations in the eggshell also should be

  14. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingxiao [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Xin, E-mail: xding@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Tian, Lingling, E-mail: lingling_tian@nus.edu.sg [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration (GHMICR), Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  15. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingxiao; Ding, Xin; Tian, Lingling; Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  16. A study on the relationship between iridium concentration in hen eggshell and iridium-enriched feed by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Gaochuang; Mao Xueying; Wang Jinchun; Lu Yali; Ouyang Hong; Zhang Zhaohui; Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    Four hens were fed by adding ammonium hexachloroiridate into their forage. After two weeks, Ir concentration in three fractions (eggshell, albumen, egg yolk) of their eggs were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Ir was present in all the three parts of the eggs. Further, the highest concentration of Ir was found in the egg yolk fraction, about 10 times higher than that in the eggshell and albumen. Moreover, the longer the Ir-containing feed was used, the higher the Ir concentration in the egg fractions was. After 4-6 day feeding, the Ir concentration became stable. The experimental results indicated that the Ir concentration was about 2-7 x 10 -10 g/g in the eggshell fraction compared to 5.6 x 10 -7 g/g in feed. Therefore, the ratio from the feed over the eggshell via gastrointestinal pathway was estimated to be about 0.08%. The new result is useful to evaluate the iridium-enriched eggshell fossils of dinosauria and to interpret the origin of the mass extinction of dinosauria at the end of Cretaceous. (author)

  17. Aptamer-Modified Magnetic Beads in Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Thomas; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic beads (MBs) are versatile tools for the purification, detection, and quantitative analysis of analytes from complex matrices. The superparamagnetic property of magnetic beads qualifies them for various analytical applications. To provide specificity, MBs can be decorated with ligands like aptamers, antibodies and peptides. In this context, aptamers are emerging as particular promising ligands due to a number of advantages. Most importantly, the chemical synthesis of aptamers enables straightforward and controlled chemical modification with linker molecules and dyes. Moreover, aptamers facilitate novel sensing strategies based on their oligonucleotide nature that cannot be realized with conventional peptide-based ligands. Due to these benefits, the combination of aptamers and MBs was already used in various analytical applications which are summarized in this article. PMID:29601533

  18. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  19. RF Bead Pull Measurements of the DQW

    CERN Document Server

    Jaume, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    This report was written within the framework of the CERN Summer Student Program. It is focused on the Radio Frequency study of the Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity [1] considered for the crab-crossing scheme of the LHC Luminosity upgrade [2]. HFSS simulation [3] and Bead-Pull Measurements technique were used for the characterization of the higher-order terms of the main deflecting mode.

  20. Effect of diet on the metabolic profile of ostriches (Struthio camelus var. domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Moniello, G; De Riu, N; Di Meo, C; Pinna, W; Nizza, A

    2007-05-01

    In order to study the metabolic profile of ostriches in relation to diet, 40 animals of both sexes were divided equally into two groups and fed two diets ad libitum consisting, on a dry matter basis, of the same commercial concentrate (60%) for the two groups and of corn silage (group A) or alfalfa hay (group B). In the morning, after about 12 h of fasting, blood was collected from the wing vein. The following haematological parameters were determined with an automatic system (Ektachem 250 analyser, Kodak): glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate (LAC), total protein (TP), uric acid, total bilirubin (Tbil), creatinine (CREA), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl-), iron (Fe), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cholinesterase (ChE), alpha-amylase (Amyl), lipase (LIP) and gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT). Diet significantly affected some parameters of the metabolic profile. Indeed, owing to the presence of alfalfa hay in the diet, group B showed, in comparison to group A, significantly higher values of uric acid (222.5 vs 387.5 mmol/L, p < 0.01), GGT (8.50 vs 11.3 U/L, p < 0.05), Tbil (8.50 vs 10.7 mmol/L, p < 0.05), Ca (2.41 vs 2.83 micromol/L, p < 0.01), Mg (1.01 vs 1.18 micromol/L, p < 0.05) and K (2.71 vs 3.16 micromol/L, p < 0.01). The levels of creatinine (27.3 vs 32.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05) and AST (344.9 vs 461.4 U/l, p < 0.01) were also higher for group B.

  1. The relationship between the density of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae) eggshells and environmental factors on Kooragang Island, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P A; Streever, W J

    1997-12-01

    Knowledge of oviposition sites selected by wetland mosquitoes could improve mosquito control and guide wetland rehabilitation practices to avoid creating or exacerbating a mosquito problem. Two studies that enumerated Aedes vigilax eggshells found in salt marsh soil on the western portion of Kooragang Island in New South Wales, Australia, allowed an evaluation of oviposition sites. In one study, the density of eggshells found in samples collected from a large area was related to environmental factors, including distance from nearby drainage channels, vegetation cover, elevation, and terrain characteristics. Multiple-regression analysis suggested eggshell densities were positively correlated with the presence of depressions and ponds, vegetation cover, and distance from culverts, but negatively related to elevation. In another study, eggshell density was related to relative elevation and vegetation species within each of two 400-m2 plots on Kooragang Island. In all but one instance, samples from bare soil contained fewer eggshells than samples with vegetation cover at both plots. Eggshell density did not differ between the two dominant vegetation species, Sarcocornia quinqueflora and Sporobolus virginicus, although bare soil of one plot had a mean eggshell density similar to that of soil with S. quinqueflora cover. Eggshells were at highest density at intermediate elevations at one plot but at low elevations at the other.

  2. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  3. Gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches, Struthio camelus, in different regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Nicole Brand; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. Little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. From each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) count, by means of the McMaster technique. Part of the feces sample was used for fecal cultures, to identify 100 larvae per sample. The results were subjected to descriptive central trend and dispersion analysis, using confidence intervals at the 5% error probability level in accordance with the Student t distribution, and Tukey's test with a 95% confidence interval. The mean EPG in the state was 1,557, and the municipality of Três Rios had the lowest average (62). The city of Campos dos Goytacazes presented the highest mean EPG of all the municipalities analyzed. The northern region presented the highest mean EPG, followed by the southern, metropolitan, coastal lowland and central regions. Libyostrongylus species were observed on all the farms: L. douglassii predominated, followed by L. dentatus and Codiostomum struthionis.

  4. Discrete dipole approximation simulation of bead enhanced diffraction grating biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, Khalid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from bead enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of bead material, number of beads forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the beads on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of beads reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various bead materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that bead enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations. - Highlights: • DDA was used to study the relationship between the number of beads forming gratings and ratio of first and zeroth order diffraction intensities. • A very flexible modeling program was developed to design complicated objects for DDA. • Material and spatial effects of bead distribution on surfaces were studied. • It has been shown that bead enhanced grating biosensor can be useful for fast detection of small amounts of biomolecules. • Experimental results qualitatively support the simulations and thus open a way to optimize the grating biosensors.

  5. Adsorption of iron by using hybrid Akar Putra and commercialized chicken eggshells as bio-sorbents from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Nasir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in the environment could cause harmful effects both to human health and aquatic life. Numerous remediation methods had been developed to encounter with the contamination problem prior to degrade, decrease and to purify the contaminated water at minimal concentration as low as possible. Therefore, in current study, commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells were conducted in batch experiment to testify the capabilities of bio-sorbent materials in iron (II ion removal from aqueous solution at optimized level of dosage and equilibrium contact time. The optimum condition for iron (II removal for commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells bio-sorbents reached at 0.30 g with optimum contact time of 50 minutes and 91.83% and 91.07% of removal percentage with 0.60 g at 40 minutes. The final concentration from both bio-sorbents is achieved below than drinking water guideline (0.30 mg/L, 0.1635 mg/L and 0.1785 mg/L, respectively. The isotherm adsorption results showed it fitted better in Langmuir Isotherm Model than in Freundlich Isotherm Model, however with weak bonding, which could not held onto the heavy metal ions in long time period. In brief, commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells have considerable potential in removing heavy metal in aqueous solution. The selection of the bio-sorbent materials is more favorable as it reduces dependency towards chemical usage in water treatment which could have complied with drinking water guideline that can be obtained easily, abundance in amount, cheap and biodegradable.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Composite Waste Material Based Styrofoam, Baggase and Eggshell Powder for Application of Drone Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Mastariyanto; Prastiawan; Hadi, Syafrul

    2017-12-01

    The garbage issue becomes a very serious problem at the moment. Much research has been done to make waste into useful materials. One of the utilization of waste is as the basic material of composite material that can be applied in the field of engineering. Some of the wastes generated are styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell. Styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell can be applied to a composite material. Styrofoam serves as a composite binder material while the bagasse and eggshells serve as a reinforcement. Volume fraction between styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell are 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25%. The aims of research are determine the mechanical properties of composite material based waste materials from styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell. Mechanical properties tested in this study are bending strength and toughness of composite materials. The results showed bending strength of composite for each volume fraction of 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25% are 5.07 MPa, 8.45 MPa, 8.68 MPa, and 11.01 MPa, respectively. Toughness of composite materials for each volume fraction of 80%:10%:10%, 70%:15%:15%, 60%:20%:20%, and 50%:25%:25% are 0.33 J/mm2, 0.42 J/mm2, 0.75 J/mm2, and 0.75 J/mm2, respectively. Composite materials based on waste materials from styrofoam, bagasse and eggshell can be used as an alternative material for drone frames.

  7. A case of radiation enteritis with perforated peritonitis caused by a piece of eggshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hirotaka; Maeda, Kazuya; Miyanaga, Tamonn; Doden, Kenji; Hattori, Masakazu; Hashizume, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The patient was a woman in her sixties who had received radiation therapy for cancer of uterine cervix 7 years earlier and had been suffering from diarrhea for these several years. The patient was seen at our emergency clinic because of a 5 hour-history of lower abdominal pain at the beginning of July 2010. An abdominal CT scan showed free air and ascites. A high density structure 1.5 cm in size was identified within the small intestine, but its relation with the perforation was obscure. Emergency operation was done with the most likely diagnosis of intestinal perforation and general peritonitis. When the lower abdomen was opened by midline incision, about 200 ml of cloudy ascites was observed and the ileum became white in color and hard resulting from the radiation therapy. A perforation was identified in the ileum about 15 cm distant from the ileocecal valve, and a 1.5-cm sized thin and hard material was palpated within the intestine at the same portion. Ilececal resection including the perforated portion was performed and functional end-to-end anastomosis was made at a grossly normal area. There was a piece of eggshell 1.5-cm in size in the perforated portion in the resected specimen. From this together with histopathologial findings, perforation of the small intestine caused by a piece of eggshell associated with radiation enteritis was finally diagnosed. Small bowel perforation must be kept in mind as a possible late complication of radiation therapy, however, no cases of small bowel perforation caused by eggshell have been reported so far. This rare case is reported here, with a review of the literature. (author)

  8. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success.

  9. Ras1 interacts with multiple new signaling and cytoskeletal loci in Drosophila eggshell patterning and morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, J D; Holdcraft, R; Chevalier, B; Berg, C A

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the genes that interact with Ras signaling pathways to regulate morphogenesis. The synthesis of dorsal eggshell structures in Drosophila melanogaster requires multiple rounds of Ras signaling followed by dramatic epithelial sheet movements. We took advantage of this process to identify genes that link patterning and morphogenesis; we screened lethal mutations on the second chromosome for those that could enhance a weak Ras1 eggshell phenotype. Of 1618 lethal P-element mutations tested, 13 showed significant enhancement, resulting in forked and fused dorsal appendages. Our genetic and molecular analyses together with information from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project reveal that 11 of these lines carry mutations in previously characterized genes. Three mutations disrupt the known Ras1 cell signaling components Star, Egfr, and Blistered, while one mutation disrupts Sec61beta, implicated in ligand secretion. Seven lines represent cell signaling and cytoskeletal components that are new to the Ras1 pathway; these are Chickadee (Profilin), Tec29, Dreadlocks, POSH, Peanut, Smt3, and MESK2, a suppressor of dominant-negative Ksr. A twelfth insertion disrupts two genes, Nrk, a "neurospecific" receptor tyrosine kinase, and Tpp, which encodes a neuropeptidase. These results suggest that Ras1 signaling during oogenesis involves novel components that may be intimately associated with additional signaling processes and with the reorganization of the cytoskeleton. To determine whether these Ras1 Enhancers function upstream or downstream of the Egf receptor, four mutations were tested for their ability to suppress an activated Egfr construct (lambdatop) expressed in oogenesis exclusively in the follicle cells. Mutations in Star and l(2)43Bb had no significant effect upon the lambdatop eggshell defect whereas smt3 and dock alleles significantly suppressed the lambdatop phenotype.

  10. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-09-15

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (G(H2O)) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell G(H2O) and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in G(H2O) has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between G(H2O) and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's λ) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the G(H2O) are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher G(H2O) to overcome this constraint and still

  11. Comparison of cadmium adsorption onto chitosan and epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan/eggshell composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmi; Marlina; Nisfayati

    2018-05-01

    The use of chitosan and epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan/eggshell composite for cadmium adsorption from water were investigated. The factors affecting adsorption such as pH and contact time were considered. The results showed that the optimum pH of adsorption was pH = 6.0 and the equilibrium time of adsorption was 40 min. The adsorption isotherm of Cd ions onto chitosan and composite were well fitted to Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity (fitting by Langmuir model) of chitosan and composite were 1.008 and 11.7647 mg/g, respectively. Adsorption performance of composite after regeneration was better than chitosan.

  12. HPMA and HEMA copolymer bead interactions with eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D. Vianna-Soares

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different hydrophilic acrylate beads were prepared via aqueous suspension polymerization. Beads produced of a hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA copolymer were obtained using a polyvinyl alcohol suspending medium. Copolymers of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA beads were obtained using magnesium hydroxide as the suspending agent. Following characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen sorption analysis (NSA and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP, the beads were cultured with monkey fibroblasts (COS7 to evaluate their ability to support cell growth, attachment and adhesion. Cell growth behavior onto small HPMA/EDMA copolymer beads and large HEMA/MMA/EDMA copolymer beads is evaluated regarding their hidrophilicity/hidrophobicity and surface roughness.

  13. Microarray of DNA probes on carboxylate functional beads surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄承志; 李原芳; 黄新华; 范美坤

    2000-01-01

    The microarray of DNA probes with 5’ -NH2 and 5’ -Tex/3’ -NH2 modified terminus on 10 um carboxylate functional beads surface in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) is characterized in the preseni paper. it was found that the microarray capacity of DNA probes on the beads surface depends on the pH of the aqueous solution, the concentra-tion of DNA probe and the total surface area of the beads. On optimal conditions, the minimum distance of 20 mer single-stranded DNA probe microarrayed on beads surface is about 14 nm, while that of 20 mer double-stranded DNA probes is about 27 nm. If the probe length increases from 20 mer to 35 mer, its microarray density decreases correspondingly. Mechanism study shows that the binding mode of DNA probes on the beads surface is nearly parallel to the beads surface.

  14. Microarray of DNA probes on carboxylate functional beads surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The microarray of DNA probes with 5′-NH2 and 5′-Tex/3′-NH2 modified terminus on 10 m m carboxylate functional beads surface in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- carbodiimide (EDC) is characterized in the present paper. It was found that the microarray capacity of DNA probes on the beads surface depends on the pH of the aqueous solution, the concentration of DNA probe and the total surface area of the beads. On optimal conditions, the minimum distance of 20 mer single-stranded DNA probe microarrayed on beads surface is about 14 nm, while that of 20 mer double-stranded DNA probes is about 27 nm. If the probe length increases from 20 mer to 35 mer, its microarray density decreases correspondingly. Mechanism study shows that the binding mode of DNA probes on the beads surface is nearly parallel to the beads surface.

  15. Configurational Statistics of Magnetic Bead Detection with Magnetoresistive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect magnetic beads that, mediated by a target, have bound to a functionalized area. This area is often larger than the area of the sensor. Both the sign and magnitude of the average magnetic field experienced by the sensor from a magnetic bead depends on the location...... of the bead relative to the sensor. Consequently, the signal from multiple beads also depends on their locations. Thus, a given coverage of the functionalized area with magnetic beads does not result in a given detector response, except on the average, over many realizations of the same coverage. We present...... a systematic theoretical analysis of how this location-dependence affects the sensor response. The analysis is done for beads magnetized by a homogeneous in-plane magnetic field. We determine the expected value and standard deviation of the sensor response for a given coverage, as well as the accuracy...

  16. The influence of chicken eggshell powder as a buffer on biohydrogen production from rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) with immobilized mixed culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2017-06-01

    This research observed the influence of chicken eggshell on hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) using batch method at 36 °C and pH 7. Fermentation material were varied in several types, the first type was meat and peel of oranges with VS of 59.152 g.L-1 in A, B, C, and D compositions. The second type was orange meat added with peel (OMP) with VS of 36.852 g.L-1. The immobilized ingredients used in the experiment consisted of 2 % (w/v) alginate and active carbon with the ratio of 1:1. 3.2 g chicken eggshell powder was added to the first type of material (substrates A, B, C, and D). Results showed that pH during fermentation process using chicken eggshell as a buffer was constant at 5.5; however, without the use of chicken eggshell, the pH decreased to 3.8 and increased slightly before it stayed stable at 4.0. The total amount of gas produced in sample using the chicken eggshell was 46,35 mL.mg VS-1 and in sample produced without the eggshell, it was 3,4 mL.mg VS-1. The production of hydrogen in substrate that used chicken eggshell was 1,276 mL.gVS-1 in average on the first day. Meanwhile, for the substrate with no addition of chicken eggshell, the average production of hydrogen was 0,163 mL.gVS-1. The reduction of volatile solid (VS) in sample that used chicken eggshell was 24 %, while in sample produced without addition of chicken eggshell, the reduction was 12 %. The liquid compounds (VFA) produced in the fermentation using chicken eggshell were acetic acid and butyric acid. Meanwhile, without addition of chicken eggshell, the products were acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid. This study shows that addition of chicken eggshell as a buffer effectively contributed to hydrogen production during fermentation of rotten oranges.

  17. Detection of ''beading faults'' in welded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondot, J.

    In the steel tube industry the word ''beading'' refers to a highly localised leak affecting the welded zone. During the pneumatic test its flow rate is generally very low no more than a few thousandths of a mm 3 /second. Detection of such a fault by this test is consequently slow, and those which are choked or at the limit of leakage may escape detection. For greater safety, the tube technician is now using non-destructive testing methods such as eddy-currents and ultrasonics [fr

  18. DETERMINATION OF BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL BASELINE VALUES IN THE OSTRICH AT DIFFERENT AGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; FARGHALY, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty four ostrich birds from the breeding flock in Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Egypt (March 2008) aged from one week old until post-sexual maturity were used to determine blood biochemical baseline values. Blood was drawn from each bird of each group and blood hematological parameters such as total red blood cells (RBC), total white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) percentage were determined. In addition, blood serum was separated to evaluate the concentrations of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glob), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Liver function such a serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined. Also, kidney function such as serum urea (U), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) were measured. Serum total cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides (Trg) and serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) were determined. The results showed that:1- Hb and RBC were positively correlated with age and were significantly increased in males than females. There was non-significant difference in RBC between laying and non-laying birds, but Hb concentration was significantly increased in non-laying than laying birds. 2- WBC count was decreased in young birds than adult birds and it was significantly increased in adult females than males and in laying than non-laying birds. 3- PCV was positively correlated by age and it was increased in males than females and in non-laying than laying birds. 4- The concentrations of serum TP, Alb, Glob, Ca and P were increased as age increased and were increased in males than females and in non-laying than laying birds. 5- Serum T 3 hormone was positively correlated with age until two years old then decreased significantly. It was significantly increased in adult male than females and in laying than non-laying birds.6- Kidney function such as serum U, Cr and UA were increased in young than adult birds. It was decreased in adult females than males while it

  19. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he ostrich industry experiences a high rate of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. Embryonic deaths were studied from data recorded on 37 740 fertile eggs incubated artificially during the 1998-2005 breeding seasons. Roughly 10 000 eggs that sustained embryonic mortalities were classified according to the stage and nature of death, i.e. before 21 days of incubation, after 21 days of incubation, deaths after pipping and rotten eggs. Although infection may have played a role in ~1300 rotten eggs, no detailed knowledge of the pathogens involved was available. The remainder of deaths could not be related to pathogens and the deaths were thus generally referred to as non-infectious. The overall level of embryonic mortality in all the eggs studied was 28.5 %. Overall embryonic mortality was affected by incubator, with higher levels (57.0 % found in eggs incubated in an African Incubator(R and also in eggs that were transferred between incubators during incubation (38.1 %. Overall embryonic mortality also increased in eggs produced by older females. Eggs produced in the autumn had the highest level of embryonic mortality at 53.6 %, whereas eggs produced in the winter had a marginally higher level of embryonic mortalities of 29.2 % compared with eggs produced during summer (27.4 %. Eggs produced by South African (SA Black males crossed to Zimbabwean Blue females had high levels of embryonic losses of 45.7 %. The embryonic mortality of eggs produced by SA Blacks or Zimbabwean Blue breeding birds subjected to pure breeding was similar at ~33-34 %, but embryonic mortality was improved in eggs produced by Zimbabwean Blue males crossed to SA Black females (27 %. Embryonic mortality was increased in eggs that were set directly (32.0 % or subjected to longer than 6 days of storage (43.5 %. Embryonic mortality was affected by year. The results that were obtained will assist in determining non-infectious factors that have a negative

  20. ScienceToGo.org: Using 'Ozzie the Ostrich' to Build Local Partnerships around Climate Change Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Wilson, R.; Rabkin, D.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    How can an informal science learning project about climate change facilitate alliances among unlikely parties? We found a sweet spot of collaboration among private, public, and the non-profit sectors by borrowing strength and leveraging common interests. Using mass transit and out of home media, we created a diverse community around a learning campaign that starred an ostrich named "Ozzie." In 2013-14, ScienceToGo.org ran a series of 12 engaging posters and placards staring 'Ozzie the Ostrich' on the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority's Red and Orange subway lines targeting a daily audience of 400,000+ riders. The curriculum was divided into three phases: reality, relevance, and hope. Phase I established the reality of climate change (3 months). Phase II helped T-riders appreciate the relevancy of climate change to the local environment of Boston (4 months). Phase III engaged Bostonians with an array of hopeful examples of how people, companies, and organizations are effectively creating a more sustainable future (5 months). The focus of this presentation will be on the relationships that emerged from the work that went into Phase III. Engaging urban populations with climate change science is a difficult challenge since cities seem so removed from the 'natural environment.' However, mass transit provides an inherent means of communicating environmental messages with a cross section of the urban population. Our team felt that any messaging curriculum for an urban subway system must complement the scary reality of a changing climate with hopeful solutions that exist for dealing with it effectively. Urban areas such as Boston must develop adaptation and mitigation strategies that will help them not only survive, but thrive in a changing environment. Making our audience aware of the amazing efforts in this area was the goal of Phase III. There were three parts to our efforts: the signage on the subway, above ground ostriches, and social events. During the presentation

  1. Quasi-static and dynamic motions of the columellar footplate in ostrich (Struthio camelus) measured ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Claes, Raf; Aerts, Peter; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2018-01-01

    The nature of the movement of the columellar footplate (CFP) in birds is still a matter of ongoing debate. Some sources claim that rocking motion is dominant, while others propose a largely piston-like motion. In this study, motions of the CFP are experimentally investigated in the ostrich using a post-mortem approach. For quasi-static loads, micro-CT scans of ostrich heads were made under positive and negative middle-ear pressures of 1 kPa. For dynamic loads, laser Doppler vibrometry was used to measure the velocity on multiple locations of the CFP as a function of excitation frequency from 0.125 to 4 kHz, and digital stroboscopic holography was used to assess the 1D full-field out-of-plane displacement of the CFP at different excitation frequencies. To expose the CFP in the experiments, measurements were made from the medial side of the CFP after opening and draining the inner ear. To determine the influence of the inner-ear load on CFP motions, a finite element model was created of the intact ostrich middle ear with inner-ear load included. For quasi-static loads, the CFP performed largely piston-like motions under positive ME pressure, while under negative ME pressure the difference between piston and rocking motion was smaller. For dynamic loads, the CFP motion was almost completely piston-like for frequencies below 1 kHz. For higher frequencies, the motions became more complicated with an increase of the rocking components, although they never exceeded the piston component. When including the inner-ear load to the model, the rocking components started to increase relative to the piston component when compared to the result of the model with unloaded CFP, but only at high frequencies above 1 kHz. In this frequency range, the motion could no longer be identified as purely piston-like or rocking. As a conclusion, the current results suggest that CFP motion is predominantly piston-like below 1 kHz, while at higher frequencies the motion becomes too

  2. Creating nanoshell on the surface of titanium hydride bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO Vyacheslav Ivanovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the modification of titanium hydride bead by creating titanium nanoshell on its surface by ion-plasma vacuum magnetron sputtering. To apply titanium nanoshell on the titanium hydride bead vacuum coating plant of multifunctional nanocomposite coatings QVADRA 500 located in the center of high technology was used. Analysis of the micrographs of the original surface of titanium hydride bead showed that the microstructure of the surface is flat, smooth, in addition the analysis of the microstructure of material surface showed the presence of small porosity, roughness, mainly cavities, as well as shallow longitudinal cracks. The presence of oxide film in titanium hydride prevents the free release of hydrogen and fills some micro-cracks on the surface. Differential thermal analysis of both samples was conducted to determine the thermal stability of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell. Hydrogen thermal desorption spectra of the samples of the initial titanium hydride bead and bead with applied titanium nanoshell show different thermal stability of compared materials in the temperature range from 550 to 860о C. Titanium nanoshells applied in this way allows increasing the heat resistance of titanium hydride bead – the temperature of starting decomposition is 695о C and temperature when decomposition finishes is more than 1000о C. Modified in this way titanium hydride bead can be used as a filler in the radiation protective materials used in the construction or upgrading biological protection of nuclear power plants.

  3. Eggshell membrane as a novel bio sorbent for remediation of boron from desalinated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Khan, Mariam

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the use of eggshell membrane (ESM) as a bio-sorbent and the effect of temperature, pH, and initial concentration on its efficiency. Furthermore, by altering the chemical composition, modified eggshell membrane (MESM) was prepared, and its efficiency was compared with the ESM. Results showed that the adsorption of boron preferred an acidic condition; pH 6 at 35 °C. In addition, the positive value of ΔH° suggested that the reaction favored endothermic pathway, while the negative value for ΔG° further suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous. Furthermore, the ESM could adsorb 97% of boron, while MESM was able to adsorb 95%. From the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), different functional groups were recorded on the surface of the ESM and MESM, and they played key role in the boron adsorption mechanisms. Linear Freundlich model was suggested to best describe the experimental data with 99.4% correlation coefficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of mesh-shaped calcia partially stabilized zirconia using eggshell membrane template as filler composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Gempita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted experimentally to synthesize Calcia Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Ca-PSZ by sol-gel method using eggshell membrane template as a composite filler. The eggshell membrane was used to produce a mesh shaped structure, which hopefully can improve the mechanical properties of the composite. Ca-PSZ filler was synthesized from ZrOCl2 precursor and Ca(NO32 stabilizer with a 24 hours immersion time. Ca-PSZ of synthesis then mixed with the resin matrix to test its composite hardness. The EDS characterization results suggested that the sample contained elements of zirconia, calcium, and oxygen. Whereas, the XRD characterization identified that crystal structures that formed in the sample were nano scale tetragonal. Characterization of SEM showed Ca-PSZ with mesh structured. The average composite hardness value was 15.79 VHN. The composites with Ca-PSZ-synthesized filler could be prepared and its hardness value was higher than the composite with Ca-PSZ filler in spherical particles, but the hardness was still below the composite on the market.

  5. Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-heating reactors: monitoring and end product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida M J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2013-11-01

    Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-product not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-heating composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end product quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporation of 30% (w/w) ES in a composting mixture did not affect mixture biodegradability, nor its capacity to reach sanitizing temperatures. After 25 days of composting, ES addition caused a nitrogen loss of about 10 g N kg(-1) of initial volatile solids, thus reducing nitrogen nutritional potential of the finished compost. This study showed that a composting mixture with a significant proportion of ES (30% w/w) may be converted into calcium-rich marketable compost to neutralize soil acidity and/or calcium deficiencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does contrast between eggshell ground and spot coloration affect egg rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainson, Miri; Hauber, Mark E; López, Analía V; Grim, Tomáš; Hanley, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Obligate avian brood parasitic species impose the costs of incubating foreign eggs and raising young upon their unrelated hosts. The most common host defence is the rejection of parasitic eggs from the nest. Both egg colours and spot patterns influence egg rejection decisions in many host species, yet no studies have explicitly examined the role of variation in spot coloration. We studied the American robin Turdus migratorius, a blue-green unspotted egg-laying host of the brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, a brood parasite that lays non-mimetic spotted eggs. We examined host responses to model eggs with variable spot coloration against a constant robin-mimetic ground colour to identify patterns of rejection associated with perceived contrast between spot and ground colours. By using avian visual modelling, we found that robins were more likely to reject eggs whose spots had greater chromatic (hue) but not achromatic (brightness) contrast. Therefore, egg rejection decision rules in the American robin may depend on the colour contrast between parasite eggshell spot and host ground coloration. Our study also suggests that egg recognition in relation to spot coloration, like ground colour recognition, is tuned to the natural variation of avian eggshell spot colours but not to unnatural spot colours.

  7. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens’ B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I=4.3 and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength.

  8. Biomechanical evidence suggests extensive eggshell thinning during incubation in the Sanagasta titanosaur dinosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martín Hechenleitner

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproduction of titanosaur dinosaurs is still a complex and debated topic. Their Late Cretaceous nesting sites are distributed worldwide and their eggs display substantial morphological variations according to the parent species. In contrast to the typical 1.3–2.0 mm thick shells common to eggs of most titanosaur species (e.g., those that nested in Auca Mahuevo, Tama, Toteşti or Boseong, the Cretaceous Sanagasta eggs of Argentina display an unusual shell thickness of up to 7.9 mm. Their oviposition was synchronous with a palaeogeothermal process, leading to the hypothesis that their extra thick eggshell was an adaptation to this particular nesting environment. Although this hypothesis has already been supported indirectly through several investigations, the mechanical implications of developing such thick shells and how this might have affected the success of hatching remains untested. Finite element analyses estimate that the breaking point of the thick-shelled Sanagasta eggs is 14–45 times higher than for other smaller and equally sized titanosaur eggs. The considerable energetic disadvantage for piping through these thick eggshells suggests that their dissolution during incubation would have been paramount for a successful hatching.

  9. An insight into the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of eggshells hatching broiler chicks and its effects to the hatcher environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanini, C E B; Exadaktylos, V; Hong, S W; Tong, Q; McGonnell, I; Demmers, T G M; Bergoug, H; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Roulston, N; Verhelst, R; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic study of incubated eggs is an important component in the optimisation of incubation processes. However, research on the interaction of heat and moisture transfer mechanisms in eggs is rather limited and does not focus on the hatching stage of incubation. During hatch, both the recently hatched chick and the broken eggshell add extra heat and moisture contents to the hatcher environment. In this study, we have proposed a novel way to estimate thermodynamically the amount of water evaporated from a broken eggshell during hatch. The hypothesis of this study considers that previously reported drops in eggshell temperature during hatching of chicks is the result remaining water content evaporating from the eggshell, released on the inner membrane by the recently hatched wet chick, just before hatch. To reproduce this process, water was sprayed on eggshells to mimic the water-fluid from the wet body of a chick. For each sample of eggshell, the shell geometry and weight, surface area and eggshell temperature were measured. Water evaporation losses and convection coefficient were calculated using a novel model approach considering the simultaneous heat and mass transfer profiles in an eggshell. The calculated average convective coefficient was 23.9 ± 7.5 W/m(2) °C, similar to previously reported coefficients in literature as a function of 0.5-1m/s air speed range. Comparison between measured and calculated values for the water evaporation showed 68% probability accuracy, associated to the use of an experimentally derived single heat transfer coefficient. The results support our proposed modelling approach of heat and mass transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, by estimating the amount of evaporated water in an eggshell post-hatch, air humidity levels inside the hatcher can be optimised to ensure wet chicks dry properly while not dehydrating early hatching chicks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineral, amino acid, and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Pakan, [No Value; Hofstede, GJH; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Veer, E; De Vries, PJF

    2000-01-01

    Chicken eggshell powder (ESP) might be an attractive source of Ca for human nutrition. To study its nutritional value, we analyzed minerals, amino acids, and hormones in commercially available Slovakian ESP. The mineral composition was compared with three Dutch ESP samples that differed in feed and

  11. Effects of breeder age, broiler strain, and eggshell temperature on development and physiological status of embryos and hatchlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker-Hensen, van den Ilona; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Souza Morita, De V.; Kemp, B.; Brand, Van Den H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeder age and broiler strain can influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen, particularly through differences in yolk size and shell conductance. We hypothesized that these egg characteristics might affect embryonic responses to changes in eggshell temperature (EST). This study aimed to

  12. Effect of eggshell temperature and a hole in the air cell on the perinatal development and physiology of layer hatchlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Vries, de S.; Anker, van den I.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of incubation conditions on layer hatchlings, an experiment was performed in which layer eggs were incubated at a normal (37.8°C) or high (38.9°C) eggshell temperature (EST) and a hole was punctured in the air cell of half of the eggs in both EST treatments from d 14 of

  13. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (=intensive agriculture) and eastern (=extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations=5.21-9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15-4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34-0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71-11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (ruralsoil environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  15. Mercury concentrations in eggshells of the Southern Ground-Hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) and Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Jansen, Raymond; Brandao, José D D O; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2015-04-01

    In this study, wild hatched eggshells were collected from the nests of threatened Wattled Crane and South Ground-Hornbill in an attempt to determine their total Hg concentrations. A total of fourteen eggshell samples from both bird species were collected from different study areas in the Mpumlanga and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces of South Africa. The eggshells were acid digested under reflux and their total Hg concentrations were determined using cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). The observed total Hg levels for the South Ground-Hornbill samples ranged from 1.31 to 8.88 µg g(-1) dry weight (dw), except for one outlier which had an elevated 75.0 µg g(-1) dw. The levels obtained for the Wattled Crane samples were relatively high and these ranged from 14.84 to 36.37 µg g(-1) dw. Generally, all the measured total Hg concentrations for the Wattled Crane samples exceeded the estimated total Hg levels derived for eggshell which were known to cause adverse reproductive effects in avian species from previous studies. Based on these findings, it is, therefore, possible that the exposure of these birds to elevated Hg may have contributed to their present population decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidental Mycobacterium-induced granulomatous inflammation of the follicular pharyngeal tonsils in a South African farmed ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina R. Crole

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycobacteriosis (AM is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium aviumcomplex (MAC, which can spread from avians to other farmed animals such as cattle and pigs as well as to humans. This study is the first report of granulomatous inflammation, as a result of avian mycobacteriosis, in the follicular pharyngeal tonsils of a farmed ostrich. The head of an apparently healthy farmed adult ostrich was obtained after slaughter. Each pharyngeal fold displayed a large tissue mass. This tissue was routinely prepared for light microscopy and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Grocott methenamine silver, Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen. Immunohistochemistry (IHC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to identify Mycobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, respectively. Histologically, the tissue masses consisted of confluent mature micro-granulomata that were characterised by central caseous necrosis surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, macrophages and lymphoid cells and an outer mature fibrous connective tissue capsule. Within some foci of caseous necrosis were variably sized colonies of small, Gram-negative, acid-fast bacilli, which showed positive IHC labelling for Mycobacterium spp., leading to a presumptive diagnosis of AM. PCR thus proved useful in excluding the presence of notifiable Mycobacteriumspp. The significance and role of the pharyngeal tonsils of ratites in diseases such as AM warrant specific attention. Moreover, as ratites are known to present with AM infections with apparently no visible loss in body condition, as presumably occurred in the present case, it is imperative that unusual masses in apparently healthy ratites be thoroughly investigated.

  17. A comparison of the efficacy of doramectin, closantel and levamisole in the treatment of the 'oriental eye fluke', Philophthalmus gralli, in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercially reared ostriches at Msengi farm situated in the Chinhoyi area of Mashonaland West province in Zimbabwe were found to be infected with the 'oriental eye fluke', Philopthalmus gralli, in 2001. This was the 1st record of the fluke in Zimbabwe. Trials were conducted to identify a suitable drug for the treatment of this fluke. A total of 12 ostriches confirmed to be infected with the fluke through clinical examination of the eyes and identification of the fluke were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, with each group receiving a different treatment protocol. The 3 drugs used were doramectin, levamisole and closantel. Each of the drugs was used in combination with chloramphenicol as an eye ointment. Levamisole was administered topically into the eye whereas doramectin and closantel were administered parenterally as an intramuscular injection. The results indicated a positive response in levamisole-treated birds but there were no noticeable responses to doramectin and closantel treatments.

  18. A comparative study on the histological structure of the spleen in the ostrich (Struthio camelus), the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlu, Tolunay; Karadag Sari, Ebru; Akaydin Bozkurt, Yesim; Altunay, H

    2011-06-01

    The spleen structurally and functionally belongs to the hematopoietic organs and is also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is known to play a major role in host defense. The histological structure of the spleen was investigated in the ostrich, a non-flying bird, the kestrel, a raptor, and the osprey, a fish-eating bird of prey (fish eagle). For this purpose, Mallory's modified triple stain, methyl green-pyronin and silver stain were used. Germinal centers were not present in the spleen of the osprey. In the spleen of the kestrel, penicillar arterioles and the surrounding lymphoid tissue were markedly dense. Compared to the other two birds, the red and white pulps were clearly distinguishable in the spleen of the ostrich.

  19. TiO2 beads and TiO2-chitosan beads for urease immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, İlyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO 2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO 2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO 2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO 2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2 mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5 mg/ml for A and 1.0 mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0 mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30 °C (A), 40 °C (B) and 35 °C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65 °C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 and TiO 2 -chitosan beads for urease immobilization have been prepared and characterized. • The beads used in this work are good matrices for the immobilization of urease. • The immobilized urease was shown to have good properties and stabilities (pH and thermal stability, operational stability). • The 50

  20. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: orlog@poczta.onet.pl [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań (Poland); Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew [Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Wuczyński, Andrzej [Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lower-Silesian Field Station, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wrocław (Poland); Polechoński, Ryszard [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Mazgajski, Tomasz D. [Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically.

  1. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically

  2. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  3. Growth and morphology of thermophilic dairy starters in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Laurence; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Lamoureux, Maryse

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce concentrated biomasses of thermophilic lactic starters using immobilized cell technology (ICT). Fermentations were carried out in milk using pH control with cells microentrapped in alginate beads. In the ICT fermentations, beads represented 17% of the weight. Some assays were carried out with free cells without pH control, in order to compare the ICT populations with those of classical starters. With Streptococcus thermophilus, overall populations in the fermentor were similar, but maximum bead population for (8.2 x 10(9) cfu/g beads) was 13 times higher than that obtained in a traditional starter (4.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml). For both Lactobacillus helveticus strains studied, immobilized-cell populations were about 3 x 10(9) cfu/g beads. Production of immobilized Lb. bulgaricus 210R strain was not possible, since no increases in viable counts occurred in beads. Therefore, production of concentrated cell suspension in alginate beads was more effective for S. thermophilus. Photomicrographs of cells in alginate beads demonstrated that, while the morphology of S. thermophilus remained unchanged during the ICT fermentation, immobilized cells of Lb. helveticus appeared wider. In addition, cells of Lb. bulgaricus were curved and elongated. These morphological changes would also impair the growth of immobilized lactobacilli.

  4. Towards a programmable magnetic bead microarray in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    to use larger currents and obtain forces of longer range than from thin current lines at a given power limit. Guiding of magnetic beads in the hybrid magnetic separator and the construction of a programmable microarray of magnetic beads in the microfluidic channel by hydrodynamic focusing is presented....

  5. Towards Hypoxia-responsive Drug-eluting Embolization Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Koorosh; Heaysman, Clare L; Phillips, Gary J; Lloyd, Andrew W; Lewis, Andrew L

    2017-05-30

    Drug release from chemoembolization microspheres stimulated by the presence of a chemically reducing environment may provide benefits for targeting drug resistant and metastatic hypoxic tumours. A water-soluble disulfide-based bifunctional cross-linker bis(acryloyl)-(l)-cystine (BALC) was synthesised, characterised and incorporated into a modified poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) hydrogel beads at varying concentrations using reverse suspension polymerisation. The beads were characterised to confirm the amount of cross-linker within each formulation and its effects on the bead properties. Elemental and UV/visible spectroscopic analysis confirmed the incorporation of BALC within the beads and sizing studies showed that in the presence of a reducing agent, all bead formulations increased in mean diameter. The BALC beads could be loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride and amounts in excess of 300mg of drug per mL of hydrated beads could be achieved but required conversion of the carboxylic acid groups of the BALC to their sodium carboxylate salt forms. Elution of doxorubicin from the beads demonstrated a controlled release via ionic exchange. Some formulations exhibited an increase in size and release of drug in the presence of a reducing agent, and therefore demonstrated the ability to respond to an in vitro reducing environment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Concepts for increasing gentamicin release from handmade bone cement beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hermawan N; van der Mei, Henny C; Frijlink, Henderik W; Soegijoko, Soegijardjo; Van Horn, Jim R; Busscher, Hendrik; Neut, Daniëlle

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Commercial gentamicin-loaded bone cement beads (Septopal) constitute an effective delivery system for local antibiotic therapy. These beads are not available in all parts of the world, and are too expensive for frequent use in others. Thus, orthopedic surgeons worldwide make

  7. Beaded Fiber Mats of PVA Containing Unsaturated Heteropoly Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Cheng YANG; Yan PAN; Jian GONG; Chang Lu SHAO; Shang Bin WEN; Chen SHAO; Lun Yu QU

    2004-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber mats containing unsaturated heteropoly salt was prepared for the first time. IR, X-ray diffraction and SEM photographs characterized the beaded fiber mats.The viscoelasticity and the conductivity of the solution were the key factors that influence the formation of the beaded fiber mats.

  8. Optimization of weld bead geometry of MS plate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The considered specimen was checked to harmonize the optimum setting between input factors, for example, welding current, open circuit voltage, and thickness of plate, with respect to obtaining prosperous weld strength as well as bead geometry quality characteristics, for example, tensile strength, bead width, ...

  9. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.

    2017-01-01

    -regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels...

  10. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kh.M. Mahrose; A.I. Attia; I.E. Ismail; D.E. Abou-Kassem; M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The res...

  11. Entrapment of laurel lipase in chitosan hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Ugur

    2017-08-01

    Laurel seed lipase was entrapped within chitosan beads with ionotropic gelatin method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as multivalent covalent counter ion. Immobilization yield was 78%. First, optimum immobilization conditions were determined, and morphology of chitosan beads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Optimum pH and temperature were evaluated as 6.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The immobilized beads saved about 55% of its activities at 60° while saved about 32% at 70 °C for 30 min. V max /K m values were determined as 31.75 and 2.87 using olive oil as substrate for immobilized beads and free enzyme, respectively. Immobilized beads showed the activities during 30 days at +4 °C.

  12. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yongjian; BAI Shu; SUN Yan

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization. Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads. The effects of reaction conditions, such as crosslinking time, the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOtt concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated. The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. The capacity for copper ions is as high as 40mg/g. The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  13. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SYNTHESIZE CHITOSAN BEADS CROSSLINKED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjina; BAIShu; 等

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation describes a novel method for preparing spherical chitosan particles based on crosslinking with epichlorohydrin.Certain amount of pre-crosslinking agent was added to form chitosan gels by traditional inverse phase suspension polymerization.Then the gels were crosslinked by epichlorohydrin at basic condition to obtain chitosan beads.The effects of reaction conditions,such as crosslinking time,the amount of crosslinking agent and the NaOH concentration,on the physical properties of the chitosan beads were investigated.The beads were found to have more amino groups in the polymer chains than the beads crosslinked by glutaraldehyde.The capacity for copper ions in as high as 40mg/g,The beads have good mechanical strength and can be reused.

  14. Bead magnetorelaxometry with an on-chip magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Donolato, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Magnetorelaxometry measurements on suspensions of magnetic beads are demonstrated using a planar Hall effect sensor chip embedded in a microfluidic system. The alternating magnetic field used for magnetizing the beads is provided by the sensor bias current and the complex magnetic susceptibility...... spectra are recorded as the 2nd harmonic of the sensor response. The complex magnetic susceptibility signal appears when a magnetic bead suspension is injected, it scales with the bead concentration, and it follows the Cole-Cole expression for Brownian relaxation. The complex magnetic susceptibility...... signal resembles that from conventional magnetorelaxometry done on the same samples apart from an offset in Brownian relaxation frequency. The time dependence of the signal can be rationalized as originating from sedimented beads....

  15. Graphene Oxide Conjugated Magnetic Beads for RNA Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Xuan-Hung; Baek, Ahruem; Kim, Tae Han; Lee, Sang Hun; Rho, Won-Yeop; Chung, Woo-Jae; Kim, Dong-Eun; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2017-08-04

    A magnetic material that consists of silica-coated magnetic beads conjugated with graphene oxide (GO) was successfully prepared for facile ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction. When the GO-modified magnetic beads were applied to separate the RNA from the lysed cell, the cellular RNAs were readily adsorbed to and readily desorbed from the surface of the GO-modified magnetic beads by urea. The amount of RNA extracted by the GO-modified magnetic beads was ≈170 % as much as those of the control extracted by a conventional phenol-based chaotropic solution. These results demonstrate that the facile method of RNA separation by using GO-modified magnetic beads as an adsorbent is an efficient and simple way to purify intact cellular RNAs and/or microRNA from cell lysates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Oxytetracycline removal from water by novel microbial embedding gel beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Pan, Peng; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Wei; Xu, Chenshan; Zhang, Zongpeng; Liu, Xinyuan; Wang, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    As a common antibiotic in aquatic environment, excessive oxytetracycline (OTC) is urgent to be removed due to its great biological toxicity. Compared with the traditional activated sludge, microbial embedding can enhance the treating efficiency. In this study, novel microbial embedding gel beads were produced with the additional agent of cyclodextrin (CD). Results show that CD could increase the mass transfer of OTC into gel beads, possibly because of its strong affinity for organic matters. In terms of OTC biodegradation, gel beads with CD were comparable to gel beads without CD, while the former’s sucrose removal efficiency was higher than the latter. The biodegradation of OTC only occurred in the presence of sucrose. The respiration test also confirmed these findings. Overall, the produced novel gel beads modified with CD could improve the removal performance of OTC.

  17. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  18. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2-9 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrose, Kh M; Attia, A I; Ismail, I E; Abou-Kassem, D E; El-Hack, M E Abd

    2015-01-01

    The present work was conducted to examine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (18, 21 and 24%) on growth performance (Initial and final body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratio) during 2-9 weeks of age and certain body measurements (body height, tibiotarsus length and tibiotarsus girth) at 9 weeks of age. A total of 30 African Black unsexed ostrich chicks were used in the present study in simple randomized design. The results of the present work indicated that initial and final live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion of ostrich chicks were insignificantly affected by dietary protein level used. Protein efficiency ratio was high in the group of chicks fed diet contained 18% CP. Results obtained indicated that tibiotarsus girth was decreased (P≤0.01) with the increasing dietary protein level, where the highest value of tibiotarsus girth (18.38 cm) was observed in chicks fed 18% dietary protein level. Body height and tibiotarsus length were not significantly different. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ostrich chicks (during 2-9 weeks of age) could grow on diets contain lower levels of CP (18%).

  19. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  20. [Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus) in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Tais F; Soleiro, Carla A; de Cássia A A de Menezes, Rita

    2009-12-01

    In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae.

  1. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  2. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille

    2013-01-01

    . In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid....... by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study...... investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of metallic gold/HA on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf-α), Interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, Il-10, Colony-stimulating factor (Csf)-v2, Metallothionein (Mt)-1/2, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 in cultured J774 macrophages...

  3. On-chip signal amplification of magnetic bead-based immunoassay by aviating magnetic bead chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Uddin M; Jin, Gyeong Jun; Eom, Kyu Shik; Kim, Min Ho; Shim, Joon S

    2017-11-06

    In this work, a Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform is used to electromagnetically actuate magnetic bead chains for an enhanced immunoassay. Custom-made electromagnets generate a magnetic field to form, rotate, lift and lower the magnetic bead chains (MBCs). The cost-effective, disposable LOC platform was made with a polymer substrate and an on-chip electrochemical sensor patterned via the screen-printing process. The movement of the MBCs is controlled to improve the electrochemical signal up to 230% when detecting beta-type human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Thus, the proposed on-chip MBC-based immunoassay is applicable for rapid, qualitative electrochemical point-of-care (POC) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Eggshell membrane: A natural substrate for immobilization and detection of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Preetam Guha; Roy, Somenath, E-mail: sroy@cgcri.res.in

    2016-02-01

    Chemically modified eggshell membranes (ESM) have been explored as potentially novel platforms for immobilization of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of target DNA. The fibrous network of the native ESM as well those functionalized with acetic acid or n-butyl acetate has been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The formation of surface functional moieties has been confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). DNA molecules, with an end terminal − NH{sub 2} group (at 5′ end) have been immobilized on the chemically modified ESM surface. The effect of surface modification on the DNA immobilization efficiency has been investigated using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The above studies concurrently suggest that functionalization of ESM with n-butyl acetate causes a better homogeneity of the DNA probes on the membrane surface. On-chip hybridization of the target DNA with the surface bound capture probes has been performed on the functionalized membranes. It is observed that n-butyl acetate modification of ESM pushes the limit of detection (LOD) of the DNA sensors by at least an order of magnitude compared to the other modification method. - Graphical abstract: Eggshell membranes (ESM) have been chemically modified with acetic acid or n-butyl acetate for immobilization of aminated capture probes and subsequent detection of fluorophore-tagged target DNA molecules. n-Butyl acetate modified ESM exhibits superior homogeneity of capture probe immobilization and lower limit of detection for the target DNA molecules. - Highlights: • Eggshell membranes (ESM) have been explored as potentially novel platforms for immobilization of oligonucleotides. • Compared to native ESM, those modified with acetic acid or n-butyl acetate have shown more efficient loading of DNA probes. • ESM modified with n-butyl acetate pushed the lower limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor down to 10 nM of target DNA

  5. Inhibitive Effect of antibiotic-loaded beads to cure chronic osteomyelitis in developing country : Hand-made vs commercial beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasyid, Hcrmawan N.; Van Horn, Jim R.; Van der Mei, Henny C.; Soegijoko, Sooegijardjo; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle; Ibrahim, F; Osman, NAA; Usman, J; Kadri, NA

    2007-01-01

    Local antibiotic-loaded beads have been approved for standard treatment of orthopaedic pathogens, especially chronic osteomyelitis. Septopal (R), the only commercial local antibiotic bead available on the market, is expensive and contains only gentamicin. This study aimed to compare the in vitro

  6. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Suarez-Garcia, E; Safi, C; Yonathan, K; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3-1mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order kinetics. The process is selective towards proteins over carbohydrates during early stages of milling. In general, smaller beads led to higher kinetic rates, with a minimum specific energy consumption of ⩽0.47kWhkg DW -1 for 0.3mm beads. After analysis of the stress parameters (stress number and stress intensity), it appears that optimal disintegration and energy usage for all strains occurs in the 0.3-0.4mm range. During the course of bead milling, the native structure of the marker protein Rubisco was retained, confirming the mildness of the disruption process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  8. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  9. Bacteriological contamination, dirt, and cracks of eggshells in furnished cages and noncage systems for laying hens: an international on-farm comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reu, K; Rodenburg, T B; Grijspeerdt, K; Messens, W; Heyndrickx, M; Tuyttens, F A M; Sonck, B; Zoons, J; Herman, L

    2009-11-01

    For laying hens, the effects of housing system on bacterial eggshell contamination and eggshell quality is almost exclusively studied in experimental hen houses. The aim of this study was to compare eggshell hygiene and quality under commercial conditions. Six flocks of laying hens in furnished cages and 7 flocks in noncage systems were visited when hens were about 60 wk of age. Farms from Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany were included in the study. The following parameters were determined on eggs sampled at the egg belts: 1) bacterial eggshell contamination, as expressed by total count of aerobic bacteria and number of Enterobacteriaceae; 2) proportion of dirty eggs; and 3) proportion of cracked eggs and eggs with microcracks. Considerable within-flock differences were found in eggshell contamination with total count of aerobic bacteria, both for furnished cages (P < or = 0.001, range 4.24 to 5.22 log cfu/eggshell) and noncage systems (P < or = 0.001, range 4.35 to 5.51 log cfu/eggshell). On average, lower levels of contamination with total count of aerobic bacteria (4.75 vs. 4.98 log cfu/eggshell; P < or = 0.001) were found on eggshells from furnished cages compared with noncage systems. Concerning Enterobacteriaceae, no significant difference in average eggshell contamination between both systems could be shown. The total percentage of cracked eggs was higher (P < or = 0.01) in furnished cages (7.8%) compared with noncage systems (4.1%). This was, however, due to the high percentage of cracked eggs (24%) observed on one of the furnished cage farms. We conclude that bacteriological eggshell contamination and percentage of cracked eggs differed substantially between individual farms using the same housing system. This may also explain some discrepancies between the findings of the present study versus some findings of previous experimental studies or studies on a small number of farms. Although statistically significant, the average differences in

  10. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  11. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of curcumin analogs promoted by activated chicken eggshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana, L.; Ardiansah, B.; Septiarti, A.; Bakri, R.; Kosamagi, G.

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin has been widely known as a multifunctional natural product which has many biological activities. However, the biggest limitation for the large scale application of curcumin is its poor bioavailability. This research presented a cheap, mild and efficient solvent-free synthesis of monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin via Aldol condensation using activated chicken eggshells (ACE). Dibenzalpropanone as a product of Aldol condensation was prepared by mixing benzaldehyde and acetone using a simple glass tube in the presence of ACE under ultrasound irradiation (78 % yield), while dibenzalcyclohexanone was produced from the reaction of benzaldehyde with cyclohenxanone (81 %). The products have been characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and GC-MS instruments. The FTIR spectra show a significant absorption of carbonyl group that attached to the double bond in α,β-position at 1630-1660 cm-1. The molecular cation of m/z of 234 and 274 is in agreement with the products structures.

  12. Organic biowastes blend selection for composting industrial eggshell by-product: experimental and statistical mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Andrade, Sandra R; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is one of the technologies recommended for pre-treating industrial eggshells (ES) before its application in soils, for calcium recycling. However, due to the high inorganic content of ES, a mixture of biodegradable materials is required to assure a successful procedure. In this study, an adequate organic blend composition containing potato peel (PP), grass clippings (GC) and wheat straw (WS) was determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve a desired moisture content, carbon: nitrogen ratio and free air space for effective composting of ES. A blend of 56% PP, 37% GC and 7% WS was selected and tested in a self heating reactor, where 10% (w/w) of ES was incorporated. After 29 days of reactor operation, a dry matter reduction of 46% was achieved and thermophilic temperatures were maintained during 15 days, indicating that the blend selected by statistical approach was adequate for composting of ES.

  13. Trace element composition and distribution in micron area of dinosaur eggshell fossils determined by proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youhong; Zhu Jieqing; Wang Xiaohong; Wang Yimin

    1997-01-01

    The scanning proton microprobe and micro-PIXE quantitative analysis technique have been used to determine composition and distribution of the trace elements in micron areas of dinosaur eggshell fossils from the stratum of Upper Cretaceous system at Nanxiong Basin in Guangdong Province, China. The study shows that the trace elements mainly include Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Sb, Ba and Pb in the micron area, but they present different distributions. While the element Sr is mainly enriched in the near surface layer, others mainly reside in the near inner layer. A preliminary discussion on the reason of the dinosaur extinction is given based on the above study

  14. Trace element composition and distribution in micron area of dinosaur eggshell fossils determined by proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youhong; Zhu Jieqing; Wang Xiaohong; Wang Yimin

    1997-01-01

    The scanning proton microprobe and micro-PIXE quantitative analysis technique have been used to determine composition and distribution of the trace elements in micron areas of dinosaur eggshell fossils from the stratum of Upper Cretaceous system at Nanxiong Basin in Guangdong Province, China. The study shows that the trace elements mainly include Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Sb, Ba and Pb in the micron area, but they present different distributions. While the elements Sr is mainly enriched in the near surface layer, others mainly reside in the near inner layer. A preliminary discussion on the reason of the dinosaur extinction is given based on the above study

  15. The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Møller, A P

    2012-09-01

    Potentially, pathogenic bacteria are one of the main infective agents against which a battery of chemical and physical barriers has evolved in animals. Among these are the secretions by the exocrine uropygial gland in birds. The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells. However, uropygial gland secretions also favour the proliferation of feather mites that feed on secretions and microorganisms living on feathers that would otherwise reach eggshells during incubation if not consumed by feather mites. Therefore, at the interspecific level, uropygial gland size (as an index of volume of uropygial secretion) should be positively related to eggshell bacterial load (i.e. the risk of egg infection), whereas eggshell bacterial loads may be negatively related to abundance of feather mites eating bacteria. Here, we explore these previously untested predictions in a comparative framework using information on eggshell bacterial loads, uropygial gland size, diversity and abundance of feather mites and hatching success of 22 species of birds. The size of the uropygial gland was positively related to eggshell bacterial loads (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae), and bird species with higher diversity and abundance of feather mites harboured lower bacterial density on their eggshells (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus), in accordance with the hypothesis. Importantly, eggshell bacterial loads of mesophilic bacteria, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were negatively associated with hatching success, allowing us to interpret these interspecific relationships in a functional scenario, where both uropygial glands and mutualistic feather mites independently reduce the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria on avian fitness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Makkar

    Full Text Available Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase

  17. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fa Qiong; Li, Ang; Lan, Jing Jing; Wang, Yue Ming; Yan, Mei Jiao; Lian, Sen Yang; Wu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC) supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated) with ABCG2 (up-regulated) and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  18. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa Qiong Xu

    Full Text Available The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated with ABCG2 (up-regulated and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  19. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  20. Risk of Human Infections With Highly Pathogenic H5N2 and Low Pathogenic H7N1 Avian Influenza Strains During Outbreaks in Ostriches in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Marietjie; Treurnicht, Florette K; Buys, Amelia; Tempia, Stefano; Samudzi, Rudo; McAnerney, Johanna; Jacobs, Charlene A; Thomas, Juno; Blumberg, Lucille

    2017-09-15

    Risk factors for human infection with highly pathogenic (HP) and low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza (AI) H5N2 and H7N1 were investigated during outbreaks in ostriches in the Western Cape province, South Africa. Serum surveys were conducted for veterinarians, farmworkers, and laboratory and abattoir workers involved in 2 AI outbreaks in the Western Cape province: (1) controlling and culling of 42000 ostriches during (HPAI)H5N2 outbreaks in ostriches (2011) (n = 207); (2) movement control during (LPAI)H7N1 outbreaks in 2012 (n = 66). A third serosurvey was conducted on state veterinarians from across the country in 2012 tasked with disease control in general (n = 37). Antibodies to H5 and H7 were measured by means of hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays, with microneutralization assay titers >40 considered positive. Two of 207 (1%) participants were seropositive for H5 and 4 of 207 (2%) for H7 in 2011, compared with 1 of 66 (1.5%) and 8 of 66 (13%) in 2012. Although individuals in all professions tested seropositive, abattoir workers (10 of 97; 10.3%) were significantly more at risk of influenza A(H7N1) infection (P = .001) than those in other professions (2 of 171;1.2%). Among state veterinarians, 4 of 37(11%) were seropositive for H7 and 1 of 37 (2.7%) for H5. Investigations of (LP)H7N1-associated fatalities in wild birds and quarantined exotic birds in Gauteng, AI outbreaks in poultry in KwaZulu-Natal, and ostriches in Western Cape province provide possible exposure events. (LPAI)H7N1 strains pose a greater infection-risk than (HPAI)H5N2 strains to persons involved in control of outbreaks in infected birds, with ostrich abattoir workers at highest risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Calcium Pectinate Beads Formation: Shape and Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon-Beng Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationship between process variables and the size and shape of pectin solution droplets upon detachment from a dripping tip as well as Ca-pectinate beads formed after gelation via image analysis. The sphericity factor (SF of the droplets was generally smaller than 0.05. There was no specific trend between the SF of the droplets and the pectin concentration or the dripping tip radius. The SF the beads formed from high-concentration pectin solutions and a small dripping tip was smaller than 0.05. The results show that the Reynolds number and Ohnesorge number of the droplets fall within the operating region for forming spherical beads in the shape diagram, with the exception to the lower boundary. The lower boundary of the operating region has to be revised to Oh = 2.3. This is because the critical viscosity for Ca-pectinate bead formation is higher than that of Ca-alginate beads. On the other hand, the radius of the droplets and beads increased as the dripping tip radius increased. The bead radius can easily be predicted by Tate’s law equation.

  2. Self-organizing magnetic beads for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusenbauer, Markus; Kovacs, Alexander; Reichel, Franz; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Özelt, Harald; Schrefl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the field of biomedicine magnetic beads are used for drug delivery and to treat hyperthermia. Here we propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells using lab-on-chip technologies. Typically blood flows past microposts functionalized with antibodies for circulating tumor cells. Creating these microposts with interacting magnetic beads makes it possible to tune the geometry in size, position and shape. We developed a simulation tool that combines micromagnetics and discrete particle dynamics, in order to design micropost arrays made of interacting beads. The simulation takes into account the viscous drag of the blood flow, magnetostatic interactions between the magnetic beads and gradient forces from external aligned magnets. We developed a particle–particle particle–mesh method for effective computation of the magnetic force and torque acting on the particles. - Highlights: ► We propose to use self-organized bead structures to isolate circulating tumor cells. ► Flexible ways are important to get a high probability of catching cancer cells. ► The beads make it possible to tune the geometry in size position and shape.

  3. Ecohydraulics of Strings and Beads in Bedrock Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.

    2016-12-01

    Twenty years ago, Jack Stanford and others described rivers in bedrock canyons as resembling beads on a string when viewed in planform. The beads are relatively wide, low gradient river segments with floodplains, whereas the strings are the intervening steep, narrow river segments with minimal floodplain development. This pattern of longitudinal variations in channel and valley morphology along bedrock canyon rivers is very common, from small channels to major rivers such as the Colorado. Basic understanding of river ecosystems, as well as limited studies, indicates that the beads are more retentive and biologically productive. Although both strings and beads can provide habitat for diverse organisms, strings are more likely to serve as migration corridors, whereas beads provide spawning and nursery habitat, facilitate lateral (channel-floodplain) and vertical (channel-hyporheic) exchanges and associated habitat diversity, and retain dissolved and particulate organic matter. Recognition of the different characteristics and functions of strings and beads can be used to identify their spatial distribution along a river or within a river network and the hydraulically driven processes that sustain channel form, water quality, and biota within strings and beads. Diverse modeling approaches can then be used to quantify the fluxes of water and sediment needed to maintain these hydraulically driven processes. This conceptual framework is illustrated using examples from mountain streams in the Southern Rockies and canyon rivers in the southwestern United States.

  4. Linguiças frescais elaboradas com carne de avestruz: características físico-químicas Ostrich Brazilian sausage: physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Soares Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A carne de avestruz por apresentar baixos conteúdos de colesterol, gordura intramuscular e altas percentagens de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados ômega-3 é considerada uma carne vermelha saudável e de grande aceitação junto aos consumidores. Considerando que os recortes resultantes da desossa das carcaças de avestruz são partes consideradas menos nobres, desenvolveu-se a produção de três formulações de linguiça frescal tendo como base a carne de avestruz (recortes e aparas, promovendo as análises físico-químicas e colorimétricas com o objetivo caracterizar o perfil físico-químico e colorimétrico dessas diferentes formulações. As três formulações se encontraram dentro dos padrões físico-químicos estipulados pela legislação brasileira (BRASIL, 2000 e não apresentaram diferença significativa entre si, com exceção do teor de cinzas, mais alto nas linguiças mistas. Na análise do teor de pH, observou-se diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, com pH maior nas linguiças puras em relação às mistas. As linguiças puras foram mais escuras e vermelhas que as mistas, sendo que a mista de avestruz, suína e frango foi a mais clara. As linguiças frescais puras ou mistas elaboradas com carne de avestruz são uma opção viável de produção e comercialização, podendo concorrer no mercado com as linguiças tradicionais com perspectiva de êxito.Ostrich's meat has low contents of colestherol and intramuscular fat and high percentages of poliunsaturated fat acid -3 so it's known as a healthy red meat with consumer great acceptability. Considering that ostrich trim (meat resulting from boning is considered a less noble part, three formulations of ostrich (trim Brazilian sausage were produced. Physicochemical analyses and color evaluation (L*, a*, b* were made to determine formulations' physicochemical characteristics and colorimetric profile. The physicochemical results of all formulations were in accord with the

  5. Simulation of non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Tachi, K.; Takano, S.; Irisawa, J.

    2002-01-01

    A ferrite sharpener is a non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads, which produces high-voltage, high-dV/dt pulses. We have been examining the characteristics of ferrite sharpeners experimentally, varying various parameters. Also we have made the simulation of the ferrite sharpener and compared the predictions with the experimental results in detail to analyze the characteristics of the sharpener. In this report, calculating the magnetization M of the ferrite bead, we divide the bead into n sections radially instead of adopting M at the average radius in the previous report. (author)

  6. Random glycopeptide bead libraries for seromic biomarker discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Cló, Emiliano; Clausen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    have developed a random glycopeptide bead library screening platform for detection of autoantibodies and other binding proteins. Libraries were build on biocompatible PEGA beads including a safety-catch C-terminal amide linker (SCAL) that allowed mild cleavage conditions (I(2)/NaBH(4) and TFA...... to other tumor glycoforms by on-bead enzymatic glycosylation reactions with recombinant glycosyltransferases. Hence, we have developed a high-throughput flexible platform for rapid discovery of O-glycopeptide biomarkers and the method has applicability in other types of assays such as lectin...

  7. A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Christensen, T. B.; Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration...... of soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic elements....

  8. A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-bead screening of one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated bead sorting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    One-bead one-compound combinatorial library beads exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-bead screening using TentaGel beads and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated bead sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS bead sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit beads by COPAS bead sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit beads from one-bead one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit bead identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library beads in order to remove autofluorescent beads. (technical note)

  9. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ''Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,'' proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process''. Engineering study BNF-3128, ''Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,'' Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge's non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column's ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  10. Mineral profiling of ostrich (Struthio camelus) seminal plasma and its relationship with semen traits and collection day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M J; Bonato, M; Dzama, K; Malecki, I A; Cloete, S W P

    2018-06-01

    Successful assisted reproduction techniques, with specific focus on in vitro semen storage for artificial insemination, are dependent on certain key elements which includes the biochemical profiling of semen. The objective of this study was to complete an ostrich seminal plasma (SP) evaluation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) among seven males at different daily intervals (day 1, 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28) for a period of 28 days during spring (August to September) for mineral profiling. The effect of collection day and male on sperm concentration, semen volume and seminal plasma volume, was explored as well as the relationships amongst these specific sperm traits and SP minerals. Variation amongst SP mineral concentrations, accounted for by the fixed effects of sperm concentration, semen volume, seminal plasma volume, collection day and male, ranged from 18% to 77%. Male had the largest effect on variation in SP minerals, namely: phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), boron (B), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), barium (Ba), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). Sperm concentration instigated fluctuations of P, magnesium (Mg), B, zinc (Zn), Fe, aluminium (Al), Se, manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb). Semen volume had an effect on Na, K, B, Pb and Ba while seminal plasma volume only influenced variation in Na. There were fluctuations among collection days of specific micro minerals, Ni and Mo, with initial Ni concentrations being relatively greater and Mo at lesser concentrations. Semen volume, seminal plasma volume and sperm concentration varied amongst males. Sperm concentrations during the initial collection days, 1 and 3, were less than that for days 7 to 28. Significant variation of SP minerals and sperm characteristics among ejaculates and males suggest an association of these specific elements with sperm function and are, therefore, considered to be of potential importance to

  11. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  12. THE TREATED EGGSHELLS AS A NEW BIOSORBENT FOR ELIMINATION OF CARBARYL PESTICIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS: KINETICS, THERMODYNAMICS AND ISOTHERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELHAMID BAKKA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treated eggshells (TES for removing the carbaryl pesticide from aqueous solutions was examined by biosorption process. Batch mode experiments were conducted using various parameters such as contact time, temperature, biosorbent amount, carbaryl concentration and pH. Removal efficiency of carbaryl by the TES attained 87.35 % after 60 min of contact time, using 10 mg·L-1 of pesticide and 1.5 g·L-1 of biosorbent. The results indicate that Freundlich equation is well described with the carbaryl adsorption, with correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.99. They showed that the biosorption processes were spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs energy ∆G increased with increase in temperature indicating an increase in feasibility of biosorption at low temperature. These results show that treated eggshells can be employed as an alternative to commercial adsorbents in the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions.

  13. Efficient functionalization of poly(styrene) beads immobilized metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three types of new bead-shaped heterogeneous nanoparticle (NP) catalysts were synthesized by sim- plified procedures .... and Ag+-doped titanium. Therefore, removal ..... References. 1. Storhoff J J, Elghanian R, Mucic R C, Mirkin C A and.

  14. An approach to implement virtual channels for flowing magnetic beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shih-Hao; Chiang, Hung-Wei; Hsieh, Min-Chien; Chang, Yen-Di; Yeh, Po-Fan; Tsai, Jui-che; Shieh, Wung-Yang

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel microfluidic system with virtual channels formed by ‘walls’ of magnetic fields, including collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels. The channels are defined by the nickel patterns. With its own ferromagnetism, nickel can be magnetized using an external magnetic field; the nickel structures then generate magnetic fields that can either guide or trap magnetic beads. A glass substrate is sandwiched between the liquid containing magnetic beads and the chip with nickel structures, preventing the liquid from directly contacting the nickel. In this work, collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels are displayed sequentially. In the collecting channel portion, channels with different shapes are compared. Next, in the transporting channel portion we demonstrate I-, S- and Y-shaped channels can steer magnetic beads smoothly. Finally, in the function channel portion, a switchable trapping channel implemented with a bistable mechanism performs the passing and blocking of a magnetic bead. (paper)

  15. Standard specification for beaded process glass pipe and fittings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers chemically resistant, low expansion Type-I borosilicate glass, Class A, (see Specification E 438) used to manufacture beaded end flanged-glass pipe and fittings for pressure and vacuum applications.

  16. An integrated open-cavity system for magnetic bead manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nimeh, F T; Salem, F M

    2013-02-01

    Superparamagnetic beads are increasingly used in biomedical assays to manipulate, transport, and maneuver biomaterials. We present a low-cost integrated system designed in bulk CMOS to manipulate and separate biomedical magnetic beads. The system consists of 8 × 8 coil-arrays suitable for single bead manipulation, or collaborative multi-bead manipulation, using pseudo-parallel executions. We demonstrate the flexibility of the design in terms of different coil sizes, DC current levels, and layout techniques. In one array module example, the size of a single coil is 30 μm × 30 μm and the full array occupies an area of 248 μm × 248 μm in 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The programmable DC current source supports 8 discrete levels up to 1.5 mA. The total power consumption of the entire module is 9 mW when running at full power.

  17. Influence of recycled polystyrene beads on cement paste properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaroufi Maroua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the requirements of sustainable development, there is a growing interest towards reducing the energy consumption in the construction and rehabilitation of buildings and the promotion of recycling waste in building materials. The use of recycled polystyrene beads in cement-based materials composition constitutes a solution to improve the insulation in buildings. This allows also limiting landfill by reusing the polystyrene waste. The aim of this study is to compare some properties and performances of a cement paste containing polystyrene beads to a reference paste designed with only the same cement. An experimental campaign was conducted and the obtained results showed that adding recycled polystyrene beads to a cement paste improves its hygro-thermal properties. Further studies are however necessary to better understand the real role of the polystyrene beads in the heat and mass transfers.

  18. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Yassine, Omar; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20

  19. TiO₂ beads and TiO₂-chitosan beads for urease immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitive detection of nucleic acids by PNA hybridization directed co-localization of fluorescent beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Büscher, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    )avidin-coated fluorescent beads, differing in size and color [green beads (1 µm) and red beads (5.9 µm)], thereby allowing distinct detection of each PNA probe by conventional fluorescence microscopy. These two PNA beads showed easily detectable co-localization when simultaneously hybridizing to a target nucleic acid...

  1. Ferrite bead effect on Class-D amplifier audio quality

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad , Kevin El; Mrad , Roberto; Morel , Florent; Pillonnet , Gael; Vollaire , Christian; Nagari , Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the effect of ferrite beads on the audio quality of Class-D audio amplifiers. This latter is a switch-ing circuit which creates high frequency harmonics. Generally, a filter is used at the amplifier output for the sake of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC). So often, in integrated solutions, this filter contains ferrite beads which are magnetic components and present nonlinear behavior. Time domain measurements and their equivalence in frequency do...

  2. Plasma membrane isolation using immobilized concanavalin A magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Srajer Gajdosik, Martina; Josic, Djuro; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Isolation of highly purified plasma membranes is the key step in constructing the plasma membrane proteome. Traditional plasma membrane isolation method takes advantage of the differential density of organelles. While differential centrifugation methods are sufficient to enrich for plasma membranes, the procedure is lengthy and results in low recovery of the membrane fraction. Importantly, there is significant contamination of the plasma membranes with other organelles. The traditional agarose affinity matrix is suitable for isolating proteins but has limitation in separating organelles due to the density of agarose. Immobilization of affinity ligands to magnetic beads allows separation of affinity matrix from organelles through magnets and could be developed for the isolation of organelles. We have developed a simple method for isolating plasma membranes using lectin concanavalin A (ConA) magnetic beads. ConA is immobilized onto magnetic beads by binding biotinylated ConA to streptavidin magnetic beads. The ConA magnetic beads are used to bind glycosylated proteins present in the membranes. The bound membranes are solubilized from the magnetic beads with a detergent containing the competing sugar alpha methyl mannoside. In this study, we describe the procedure of isolating rat liver plasma membranes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation as described by Neville. We then further purify the membrane fraction by using ConA magnetic beads. After this purification step, main liver plasma membrane proteins, especially the highly glycosylated ones and proteins containing transmembrane domains could be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. While not described here, the magnetic bead method can also be used to isolate plasma membranes from cell lysates. This membrane purification method should expedite the cataloging of plasma membrane proteome.

  3. Eggshell Powder as an Adsorbent for Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaumik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new medium, eggshell powder has been developed for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. Fluoride adsorption was studied in a batch system where adsorption was found to be pH dependent with maximum removal efficiency at 6.0. The experimental data was more satisfactorily fitted with Langmuir isotherm model. The kinetics and the factor controlling adsorption process fully accepted by pseudo-second-order model were also discussed. Ea was found to be 45.98 kJmol-1 by using Arrhenius equation, indicating chemisorption nature of fluoride onto eggshell powder. Thermodynamic study showed spontaneous nature and feasibility of the adsorption process with negative enthalpy (∆H0 value also supported the exothermic nature. Batch experiments were performed to study the applicability of the adsorbent by using fluoride contaminated water collected from affected areas. These results indicate that eggshell powder can be used as an effective, low-cost adsorbent to remove fluoride from aqueous solution as well as groundwater.

  4. Feasibility of sulfate-calcined eggshells for removing pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes from landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Chen, Xu; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Wu, Jun; Schwab, Arthur P; Jiang, Xin

    2017-05-01

    High abundance of human pathogen and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill leachate has become an emerging threat against human health. Therefore, sulfate- and calcination-modified eggshells as green agricultural bioresource were applied to test the feasibility of removing pathogenic bacteria and ARGs from leachate. The highest removal of Escherichia coli (E. coil) and gentamycin resistant gene (gmrA) from artificial contaminated landfill leachate was achieved by the application of eggshell with combined treatment of sulfate and calcination. The 16S and gmrA gene copies of E. coil declined significantly from 1.78E8±8.7E6 and 4.12E8±5.9E6 copies mL -1 to 1.32E7±2.6E6 and 2.69E7±7.2E6 copies mL -1 , respectively, within 24h dynamic adsorption equilibrium process (ppathogenic bacteria and ARGs (tet, sul, erm, qnr, and ampC) indicated its great efficiency to purify landfill leachates. This study demonstrated that sulfate-calcined eggshells can be an environmentally-friendly and highly efficient bioadsorbent to the management of reducing dissemination risk of pathogen and ARGs in landfill leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01. A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01. The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05. These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry.

  6. Utilization of eggshell waste as low-cost solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, N. P.; Podjojono, B.; Fujiani, R.; Nuraini

    2017-05-01

    A solid CaO-based catalyst of waste eggshell was developed for biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The waste eggshell powder was calcined in air at 90° C for 4 h to convert calcium species in the eggshells into active CaO catalysts. The characterization of CaO catalyst was done by XRD and BET analysis. The CaO catalyst was then introduced for transesterification of used cooking oil (UCO) for testing of its catalytic activity. The experiment was conducted in batch type reactor that consists of three-neck glass equipped by reflux condenser and magnetic stirrer. Before tranesterification process, the UCO was treated by coconut coir powder in order to reduce the free fatty acid content. The result showed that the catalyst was potentially use for transesterification of used cooking oil into biodiesel with relatively high yield of 75.92% was achieved at reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio UCO to methanol and catalyst amount of 65° C, 7 h, 1:15 and 6%, respectively.

  7. Calcined Eggshell Waste for Mitigating Soil Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria/Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissemination and Accumulation in Bell Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Li, Xu; Schwab, Arthur P; Wan, Jinzhong; Liu, Manqiang; Tian, Da; Liu, Kuan; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Xin

    2016-07-13

    The combined accumulation of antibiotics, heavy metals, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)/antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in vegetables has become a new threat to human health. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of calcined eggshells modified by aluminum sulfate as novel agricultural wastes to impede mixed contaminants from transferring to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this work, calcined eggshell amendment mitigated mixed pollutant accumulation in bell pepper significantly, enhanced the dissipation of soil tetracycline, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, and chloramphenicol, decreased the water-soluble fractions of antibiotics, and declined the diversity of ARB/ARGs inside the vegetable. Moreover, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis detected that ARG levels in the bell pepper fruits significantly decreased to 10(-10) copies/16S copies, indicating limited risk of ARGs transferring along the food chain. Furthermore, the restoration of soil microbial biological function suggests that calcined eggshell is an environmentally friendly amendment to control the dissemination of soil ARB/ARGs in the soil-vegetable system.

  8. Catalytic wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater on ruthenium-based eggshell catalysts in a bubbling bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Sun, Y; Xu, A H; Lu, X Y; Du, H Z; Sun, C L; Li, C

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic wet air of coke-plant wastewater was studied in a bubbling bed reactor. Two types of supported Ru-based catalysts, eggshell and uniform catalysts, were employed. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater, supported Ru uniform catalysts showed high activity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia/ammonium compounds (NH3-N) removal at temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 4.8 MPa, and it has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of uniform catalyst depended strongly on the distribution of active sites of Ru on catalyst. Compared to the corresponding uniform catalysts with the same Ru loading (0.25 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%, respectively), the eggshell catalysts showed higher activities for CODcr removal and much higher activities for NH3-N degradation. The high activity of eggshell catalyst for treatment of coke-plant wastewater can be attributed to the higher density of active Ru sites in the shell layer than that of the corresponding uniform catalyst with the same Ru loading. It has been also evidenced that the active Ru sites in the internal core of uniform catalyst have very little or no contribution to CODcr and NH3-N removal in the total oxidation of coke-plant wastewater.

  9. Optical illusions in scanning electron micrographs: the case of the eggshell of Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Klaus W; Reid, Walton; Schrauf, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed that-as is common in this family of the Hemiptera-the eggs of the green stink bug Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginatum are roughly barrel-shaped and possess at their apical pole a row of slender extensions, the aero-micropylar processes. The outer surface of the eggshell carries hexagonally arranged pits. The analysis of cross-fractured eggshells showed that the pits have slender basal extensions with transverse diaphragms. When scanning electron micrographs of the egg surface of A. marginatum are viewed upside down, the perception flips and the pits appear as elevations to all observers addressed. Thus, we are dealing with an optical illusion, which is known as the 'shape-from-shading effect'. The perceived dents remain robust to changes in the angle of recording (zero to ca. 60 degrees tilt), the magnification (ca. x100 to x1400), and the number of pits included in the micrograph (one to several hundred). When through appropriate positioning of the specimen under the electron beam, contrast is significantly reduced and the distinct shadows at the slope of the pits are eliminated, the optical illusion does not appear. It is inferred that shades provide the decisive clue that determines whether bumps or dents will be perceived. Owing to the low resolution of their compound eyes, the shape-from-shading effect on the eggshell of the bug is in all likelihood not perceived by insects.

  10. Micro-CT scan reveals an unexpected high-volume and interconnected pore network in a Cretaceous Sanagasta dinosaur eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenleitner, E Martín; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Foley, Matthew; Fiorelli, Lucas E; Thompson, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    The Cretaceous Sanagasta neosauropod nesting site (La Rioja, Argentina) was the first confirmed instance of extinct dinosaurs using geothermal-generated heat to incubate their eggs. The nesting strategy and hydrothermal activities at this site led to the conclusion that the surprisingly 7 mm thick-shelled eggs were adapted to harsh hydrothermal microenvironments. We used micro-CT scans in this study to obtain the first three-dimensional microcharacterization of these eggshells. Micro-CT-based analyses provide a robust assessment of gas conductance in fossil dinosaur eggshells with complex pore canal systems, allowing calculation, for the first time, of the shell conductance through its thickness. This novel approach suggests that the shell conductance could have risen during incubation to seven times more than previously estimated as the eggshell erodes. In addition, micro-CT observations reveal that the constant widening and branching of pore canals form a complex funnel-like pore canal system. Furthermore, the high density of pore canals and the presence of a lateral canal network in the shell reduce the risks of pore obstruction during the extended incubation of these eggs in a relatively highly humid and muddy nesting environment. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Preparation of Bio-beads and Their Atrazine Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Hai-tao; ZHANG Lan-ying; LIU Na; ZHU Bo-lin

    2011-01-01

    Screened atrazine-mineralizing bacterium-Pseudomonas W4 was embedded inside an improved PVAH3BO3 embedment matrix to make bio-beads to degrade atrazine. The atrazine degradation characteristics were studied. The preparation procedure of bio-beads was as follows: (1) preparing a mixture of 100, 12.5, 10, 1.5 and 1 g/L PVA, bentonite(Ca), activated carbon powder, sodium alginate and centrifuged Pseudomonas W4 bacterium, respectively; (2) the mixture was dropped into a gently stirred cross linker solution(pH=6.7) and cured at 10 ℃ for 24 h.The optimal atrazine degradation conditions by bio-beads were as follows: pH=7, the auxiliary carbon source was glucose, and the concentration of glucose was greater than 325 mg/L. The bio-beads demonstrated stronger tolerance ability than the free microorganism to the increase of PCBs, hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. SEM images show the uniform distribution of the microorganism inside bio-beads and the porous cross-linked structure of bio-beads which provides excellent mass transfer capacity.

  12. Hydrodynamic Torques and Rotations of Superparamagnetic Bead Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christopher; Etheridge, J.; Wijesinghe, H. S.; Pierce, C. J.; Prikockis, M. V.; Sooryakumar, R.

    Chains of micro-magnetic particles are often rotated with external magnetic fields for many lab-on-a-chip technologies such as transporting beads or mixing fluids. These applications benefit from faster responses of the actuated particles. In a rotating magnetic field, the magnetization of superparamagnetic beads, created from embedded magnetic nano-particles within a polymer matrix, is largely characterized by induced dipoles mip along the direction of the field. In addition there is often a weak dipole mop that orients out-of-phase with the external rotating field. On a two-bead dimer, the simplest chain of beads, mop contributes a torque Γm in addition to the torque from mip. For dimers with beads unbound to each other, mop rotates individual beads which generate an additional hydrodynamic torque on the dimer. Whereas, mop directly torques bound dimers. Our results show that Γm significantly alters the average frequency-dependent dimer rotation rate for both bound and unbound monomers and, when mop exceeds a critical value, increases the maximum dimer rotation frequency. Models that include magnetic and hydrodynamics torques provide good agreement with the experimental findings over a range of field frequencies.

  13. Chemical synthesis of bone-like carbonate hydroxyapatite from hen eggshells and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo-Dávila, J. L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHAp was synthesized from domestic hen eggshells by using three alternative wet chemical methods at room temperature. In the first method, the powdered eggshells were reacted directly with H3PO4. In the other two methods, calcium acetate was obtained in a first step by dissolving the eggshells in acetic acid. Then, calcium acetate was reacted with Na3PO4•12H2O and (NH42HPO4 in the second and third methods, respectively. The synthesized CHAp was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Fine and poorly crystallized CHAp was obtained under all experimental conditions employed. Among all synthesized materials, the one produced by the first method showed the closest resemblance to bovine bone, which was related to similar carbonate contents in both materials. In general, acicular CHAp crystals with a size ranging from 10 to 100 nm were obtained, which had an aspect ratio of ∼1/4. The morphology of the synthesized CHAp crystals was consistent with their estimated carbonate content.

    Se sintetizó carbonato-hidroxiapatita (CHAp a partir de cascarón de huevo de gallina, usando tres métodos químicos alternativos vía húmeda a temperatura ambiente. En el primer método, el cascarón pulverizado fue hecho reaccionar directamente con H3PO4. En los otros dos métodos, el primer paso fue la obtención de acetato de calcio mediante la disolución del cascarón en ácido acético. Luego, el acetato de calcio fue hecho reaccionar con Na3PO4•12H2O y (NH42HPO4 en el segundo y tercer método, respectivamente. El CHAp sintetizado fue caracterizado por difracción de rayos X (DRX, espectroscopia infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (FT-IR, microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET. Bajo todas las condiciones experimentales empleadas se obtuvo CHAp

  14. Effects of agitation rate on aggregation during beads-to-beads subcultivation of microcarrier culture of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Iori; Sato, Keigo; Mera, Hisashi; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2017-06-01

    With the aim to utilize human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) grown in large scale for regenerative medicine, effects of agitation rate on aggregation during beads-to-beads subcultivation of microcarrier culture of hMSCs were studied. hMSCs could attach and grew on surface-type microcarriers of Cytodex 1, whereas almost no cell elongation and growth were observed on porous type microcarriers of Cytopores. The percentages of aggregated Cytodex 1 microcarriers at an agitation rate of 60 and 90 rpm were lower than that at 30 rpm, which was the lowest agitation rate necessary for the suspension of Cytodex 1 microcarriers, and the cells grew fastest at 60 rpm. hMSC could be subcultivated on Cytodex 1 by the beads-to-beads method at both 30 and 60 rpm without trypsinization. However, agitation at 60 rpm resulted in a markedly lower percentage of aggregated microcarriers not only before but also after subcultivation. The percentages of CD90- and CD166-positive cells among cells grown on Cytodex 1 at 60 rpm (91.5 and 87.6 %) were comparable to those of cells grown in the pre-culture on dishes. In conclusion, hMSCs could be subcultivated on Cytodex 1 by beads-to-beads method maintaining the expressions of the cell surface antigens CD90 and CD166, while adjusting agitation rate could decrease the microcarrier aggregation.

  15. Effect of production system and flock age on eggshell and egg internal quality measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Omar, Amal Saleh; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality was measured in eggs from different flocks that were reared together and then allocated to different production systems. Eggs were processed for measurements of eggshell and egg internal quality variables, scoring of ultrastructural mammillary layer features, completeness of cuticle cover, and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) quantification. There was a significant main effect (P egg weight, and egg internal quality and significant effects of flock age on most measurements. The mammillary layer ultrastructural variables showed no clear relationship with production system and flock age. However, there was a significant interaction between production system and flock age for mammillary cap, early and late fusions. Cuticle cover ([Formula: see text]), was significantly higher in barn eggs (19.20), followed by free range (17.57), and cage eggs (15.99). Completeness of cuticle cover was significantly higher in eggs from the 44 week old flock than for 64 week and 73 week old flocks. For eggshells with cuticle intact, there was a significant main effect of both production system and flock age, and significant interaction between the two, for shell reflectivity, L*a*b* values and amount of PP IX. For PP IX, when this difference was calculated for the cuticle alone, there were no statistically significant differences. In 1 g of shell with and without cuticle, there was more PP IX in cage eggs (9.49 × 10 -8 , 7.90 × 10 -8  mM) followed by free range (8.24 × 10 -8 , 6.90 × 10 -8  mM), and barn eggs (8.64 × 10 -8 , 7.28 × 10 -8  mM). Similar trends were recorded for the amount of PP IX in 1 g of cuticle, but the difference was not statistically significant. The amount of PP IX decreased significantly with increasing flock age. Comparing the cage and barn production systems at 68 week of flock age, there was no difference for the amount of PP IX in shell with or without cuticle, or in the cuticle alone. Eggs from the cage production system were darker in color

  16. Use of antibiotic beads to salvage infected breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Rami D; Ingargiola, Michael; Sanati-Mehrizy, Paymon; Torina, Philip J; Harmaty, Marco A

    2017-10-01

    When an implant becomes infected, implant salvage is often performed where the implant is removed, capsulectomy is performed, and a new implant is inserted. The patient is discharged with a PICC line and 6-8 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. This method has variable success and subjects the patient to long-term systemic antibiotics. In the 1960s, the use of antibiotic-impregnated beads for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis was described. These beads deliver antibiotic directly to the site of the infection, thereby eliminating the complications of systemic IV antibiotics. This study aimed to present a case series illustrating the use of STIMULAN calcium sulfate beads loaded with vancomycin and tobramycin to increase the rate of salvage of the infected implant and forgo IV antibiotics. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who were treated at Mount Sinai Hospital for implant infection with salvage and antibiotic beads. Twelve patients were identified, 10 of whom had breast cancer. Comorbidities included hypertension, smoking, and immunocompromised status. Infections were noted anywhere from 5 days to 8 years postoperatively. Salvage was successful in 9 out of the 12 infected implants using antibiotic bead therapy without home IV antibiotics. The use of antibiotic beads is promising for salvaging infected breast implants without IV antibiotics. Seventy-five percent of the implants were successfully salvaged. Of the three patients who had unsalvageable implants, one was infected with antibiotic-resistant Rhodococcus that was refractory to bead therapy and one was noncompliant with postoperative instructions. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two Contrasting Failure Modes of Enteric Coated Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Galen H; Dong, Xia; Lytle, Michelle; Kemp, Craig A J; Behme, Robert J; Hinds, Jeremy; Xiao, Zhicheng

    2018-04-09

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms and kinetics of coating failure for enteric coated beads exposed to high-humidity conditions at different storage temperatures. Enteric coated beads were placed on high-humidity conditions (75 to 98% relative humidity (RH)) in the temperature range of 5 to 40°C. These stability samples of beads were tested for acid dissolution and water activity and also analyzed with SEM, X-ray CT, and DMA. Exposure of enteric coated beads to high humidity led to increased gastric release of drug which eventually failed the dissolution specification. SEM showed visible cracks on the surface of beads exposed to 5°C/high humidity and fusion of enteric beads into agglomerates at 40°C/high humidity. In a non-destructive time elapse study, X-ray CT demonstrated swelling of microcrystalline cellulose cores, crack initiation, and propagation through the API layer within days under 5°C/98% RH storage conditions and ultimately fracture through the enteric coating. DMA data showed a marked reduction in T g of the enteric coating materials after exposure to humidity. At 5°C/high humidity, the hygroscopic microcrystalline cellulose core absorbed moisture leading to core swelling and consequent fracture through the brittle API and enteric layers. At 40°C (high humidity) which is above the T g of the enteric polymer, enteric coated beads coalesced into agglomerates due to melt flow of the enteric coating. We believe it is the first report on two distinct failure models of enteric coated dosage forms.

  18. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups each......-Q-R-E-T-R*G-L-F- at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin protein, typical of non-pathogenic AIVs. In addition, an avirulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from one pool of kidney tissues. Bacteriological examination gave no significant results. The most characteristic pathological findings were impaction...

  19. Confocal nanoscanning, bead picking (CONA): PickoScreen microscopes for automated and quantitative screening of one-bead one-compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Buehler, Christof; Uhl, Volker; Schmied, Mario; Müller, Jürgen; Kottig, Karsten; Auer, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Solid phase combinatorial chemistry provides fast and cost-effective access to large bead based libraries with compound numbers easily exceeding tens of thousands of compounds. Incubating one-bead one-compound library beads with fluorescently labeled target proteins and identifying and isolating the beads which contain a bound target protein, potentially represents one of the most powerful generic primary high throughput screening formats. On-bead screening (OBS) based on this detection principle can be carried out with limited automation. Often hit bead detection, i.e. recognizing beads with a fluorescently labeled protein bound to the compound on the bead, relies on eye-inspection under a wide-field microscope. Using low resolution detection techniques, the identification of hit beads and their ranking is limited by a low fluorescence signal intensity and varying levels of the library beads' autofluorescence. To exploit the full potential of an OBS process, reliable methods for both automated quantitative detection of hit beads and their subsequent isolation are needed. In a joint collaborative effort with Evotec Technologies (now Perkin-Elmer Cellular Technologies Germany GmbH), we have built two confocal bead scanner and picker platforms PS02 and a high-speed variant PS04 dedicated to automated high resolution OBS. The PS0X instruments combine fully automated confocal large area scanning of a bead monolayer at the bottom of standard MTP plates with semiautomated isolation of individual hit beads via hydraulic-driven picker capillaries. The quantification of fluorescence intensities with high spatial resolution in the equatorial plane of each bead allows for a reliable discrimination between entirely bright autofluorescent beads and real hit beads which exhibit an increased fluorescence signal at the outer few micrometers of the bead. The achieved screening speed of up to 200,000 bead assayed in less than 7 h and the picking time of approximately 1 bead

  20. Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Eggshell Powder (ESP as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mazizah Ezdiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to partially replace Ordinary Portland cement (OPC in concrete with palm oil fuel ash (POFA and eggshell powder (ESP. The mix proportions of POFA and ESP were varied at 10% of cement replacement and compared with OPC concrete as control specimen. The fineness of POFA is characterized by passing through 300 μm sieve and ESP by passing through 75 μm sieve. Compressive strength testing was conducted on concrete specimens to determine the optimum mix proportion of POFA and ESP. Generally the compressive strength of OPC concrete is higher compared to POFA-ESP concrete. Based on the results of POFA-ESP concrete overall, it shows that the optimum mix proportion of concrete is 6%POFA:4% ESP achieved compressive strength of 38.60 N/mm2 at 28 days. The compressive strength of OPC concrete for the same period was 42.37 N/mm2. Higher water demand in concrete is needed due to low fineness of POFA that contributing to low compressive strength of POFA-ESP concrete. However, the compressive strength and workability of the POFA-ESP concrete were within the ranges typically encountered in regular concrete mixtures indicating the viability of this replacement procedure for structural and non-structural applications.

  1. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (Pducks fed 0.38% calcium but not 1.8% calcium. Plasma estradiol concentration was decreased by both of the calcium-deficient diets (Pstudy suggest that dietary calcium deficiency negatively affects eggshell quality and microarchitecture, probably by suppressing shell biomineralization. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Methanolysis of Crude Jatropha Oil using Heterogeneous Catalyst from the Seashells and Eggshells as Green Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. R. REDDY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, heterogeneous calcium oxide catalysts gleaned from Polymedosa expansa and eggshell were investigated for the transesterification of crude jatropha oil with methanol, to access their prospective performance in biodiesel production as an alternative green energy resource. The best yield of biodiesel achieved was 96% in 1 h for Step 1 using 0.01:1 ratio of acid catalyst to oil and 0.6:1 ratio of alcohol to oil ratio, together with 2 h of Step 2 using 0.02:1 ratio with base catalyst CaO, derived from P. expansa, to oil ratio and 5:1 ratio of alcohol to oil.  The properties of jatropha biodiesel were analyzed and found to have calorific value of 35.43 MJ/kg, density value of 895 kg/m3 and flash point of 167. The biodiesel was blended with mineral diesel from B0 to B50 for a diesel engine performance test. B20 indicated comparable characteristics with pure mineral diesel, like lowest fuel consumption rate, specific fuel consumption rate, highest brake horsepower and mechanical efficiency.

  3. Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and Eggshell Powder (ESP) as Partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezdiani Mohamad, Mazizah; Mahmood, Ali A.; Min, Alicia Yik Yee; Nur Nadhira A., R.

    2018-03-01

    This study is an attempt to partially replace Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete with palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and eggshell powder (ESP). The mix proportions of POFA and ESP were varied at 10% of cement replacement and compared with OPC concrete as control specimen. The fineness of POFA is characterized by passing through 300 μm sieve and ESP by passing through 75 μm sieve. Compressive strength testing was conducted on concrete specimens to determine the optimum mix proportion of POFA and ESP. Generally the compressive strength of OPC concrete is higher compared to POFA-ESP concrete. Based on the results of POFA-ESP concrete overall, it shows that the optimum mix proportion of concrete is 6%POFA:4% ESP achieved compressive strength of 38.60 N/mm2 at 28 days. The compressive strength of OPC concrete for the same period was 42.37 N/mm2. Higher water demand in concrete is needed due to low fineness of POFA that contributing to low compressive strength of POFA-ESP concrete. However, the compressive strength and workability of the POFA-ESP concrete were within the ranges typically encountered in regular concrete mixtures indicating the viability of this replacement procedure for structural and non-structural applications.

  4. Influence of N-rich material in valorization of industrial eggshell by co-composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Industrial eggshell (ES) is an animal by-product (ABP) involving some risk if not properly managed. Composting is a possible treatment approved for its safe use. This study aims to assess the influence of using N-rich material (grass clippings (GC)) to improve co-composting of ES mixtures for reaching sanitizing temperatures imposed by the ABP regulation from the European Union. Two sets of mixtures (M1 and M2) were investigated, each containing industrial potato peel waste, GC and rice husks at 3:1.9:1 and 3:0:1 ratios by wet weight. In each set, ES composition ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w). Co-composting trials were performed in self-heating reactors for 25 days, followed by maturation in piles. Results showed that only M1 trials attained temperatures higher than 70°C for nine consecutive hours, but N-losses by stripping on average were four- to five-fold higher than M2. In the absence of N-rich material, biodegradability of mixtures was 'low' to 'moderate' and organic matter conversion was impaired. Physical, chemical and phytotoxic properties of finished composts were suitable for soil improvement, but M1 took 54 more days to achieve maturity. In conclusion, co-composting ES with N-rich materials is important to assure the fulfilment of sanitizing requirements, avoiding any additional thermal treatment.

  5. Purification and characterization of an eggshell membrane decomposing protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ME-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Minyi; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Shunsuke; Murakami, Shuichiro; Aoki, Kenji

    2009-04-01

    A bacterial strain, ME-4, isolated from farm soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, grew well on a medium containing eggshell membrane (ESM). P. aeruginosa strain ME-4 decomposed the ESM by producing an extracellular protease able to solubilize it. The protease was purified to homogeneity from culture supernatant by fractionation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4), as well as CM52 cellulose and DE52 cellulose column chromatography, with a final yield of 47%. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 33 kDa. The isolated enzyme was a metalloprotease and was strongly inhibited by EDTA, o-phenanthroline, and phosphoramidon. The enzyme inhibited by these reagents was reactivated in the presence of several metal ions. The enzyme acted on various proteins and showed higher activity with collagen than collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum. Results of assays with the FRETS combinatorial libraries revealed that the enzyme preferred Ser at the P1 position and Lys at the P2 position. It also preferred hydrophobic amino acid residues at the P1' and P2' positions. The enzyme showed a much higher solubilization activity with the ESM substrate than commercially obtained enzymes. The enzyme decomposed ESM to produce water-soluble peptides, Val-Leu-Pro-Pro and (X)-Val-Pro-Pro, and a free amino acid, tryptophan.

  6. High-performance biodegradable polylactide composites fabricated using a novel plasticizer and functionalized eggshell powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Junjun; Li, Yi; Bai, Yungang; Li, Zonglin; Cao, Zengwen; Yu, Yancun; Han, Changyu; Dong, Lisong

    2018-06-01

    A novel polyester poly(diethylene glycol succinate) (PDEGS) was synthesized and evaluated as a plasticizer for polylactide (PLA) in this study. Meanwhile, an effective sustainable filler, functionalized eggshell powder (FES) with a surface layer of calcium phenyphosphonate was also prepared. Then, PLA biocomposites were prepared from FES and PDEGS using a facile melt blending process. The addition of 15 wt% PDEGS as plasticizer showed good miscibility with PLA macromolecules and increased the chain mobility of PLA. The crystallization kinetics of PLA composites revealed that the highly effective nucleating FES significantly improved the crystallization ability of PLA at both of non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. In addition, the effective plasticizer and well-dispersed FES increased the elongation at break from 6% of pure PLA to over 200% for all of the plasticized PLA composites. These biodegradable PLA biocomposites, coupled with excellent crystallization ability and tunable mechanical properties, demonstrate their potential as alternatives to traditional commodity plastics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effect of soluble eggshell membrane protein hydrolysate on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soluble eggshell membrane protein (SEP has been proved to hold the antioxidant activity. The functional role of SEP on cardioprotection was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Rats and cardiomyocytes were pretreated with SP2, a hydrolysate attained from SEP, and then subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The measurement of myocardial infarct size, cell apoptosis assay, cell viability assay, and caspase activity assay were performed on rats and cardiomyocytes. Results: The results showed that the treatment of SP2 induced the resistance to I/R or H/R injury on rats and cardiomyocytes as indicated by decreased infarct size and decreased cellular apoptosis. The cardioprotective roles of SP2 were partly resulted from the downregulated expression and activity of caspase-3 in which the effect was similar to the caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, and could be rescued by caspase activator, PAC-1. Conclusions: This investigation has demonstrated that SP2 attenuated the damage of I/R and H/R on rats and cardiomyocytes by the caspase-dependent pathway. This cardioprotective effect of SP2 suggested a novel therapeutic agent of SEP for ischemic-related heart diseases.

  8. Assessing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in poultry hatcheries by using hatched eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, M-R; Hsien, C-H; Yeh, C-M; Chou, S-J; Chu, C; Su, Y-C; Yu, C-Y

    2007-08-01

    Salmonella enterica causes a number of significant poultry diseases and is also a major pathogen in humans. Most poultry infected by Salmonella become carriers; infection may also be fatal, depending on the particular serovar and the age of the bird at infection. Younger birds are more susceptible to infection by Salmonella, so it is critical that hatcheries monitor birds. We developed a method to use hatched eggshell membranes (HEM) to assess contamination by Salmonella in poultry hatching cabinets and to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella in a goose hatchery and rearing farm. Comparison of the Salmonella isolation rate in hatching cabinets using 3 sampling methods showed that the highest Salmonella contamination was detected in HEM, and that these results differed significantly from those obtained from fluff samples and cabinet swab samples (P chicken, and duck hatcheries. The lowest Salmonella-positive rate was found for the chicken hatchery, followed by the goose and the duck hatcheries (P hatcheries: A, B, C1, C2, D, and E. The distribution of these serogroups differed among the hatcheries. Salmonella serogroup C1 was the major serogroup found in geese, compared with serogroup B in chickens and ducks. However, Salmonella Typhimurium was dominant in 1 goose hatchery and also in geese from this hatchery that had been transferred to a farm. Antibiotic susceptibility analysis showed that Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from the farm geese with diarrhea showed significantly higher resistance to doxycycline, colistin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprin, and cephalothin than those isolated from the hatchery (P hatcheries and rearing farms.

  9. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  10. Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hee Chul; Jang, Bohyun; Song, Myeong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a widely used standard treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not suitable candidates for curative treatments. The rationale for TACE is that intra-arterial chemotherapy using lipiodol and chemotherapeutic agents, followed by selective vascular embolization, results in a strong cytotoxic effect as well as ischemia (conventional TACE). Recently, drug-eluting beads (DC Beads®) have been developed for transcatheter treatment of HCC to deliver higher doses of the chemotherapeutic agent and to prolong contact time with the tumor. DC Beads® can actively sequester doxorubicin hydrochloride from solution and release it in a controlled sustained fashion. Treatment with DC Beads® substantially reduced the amount of chemotherapeutic agent that reached the systemic circulation compared with conventional, lipiodol-based regimens, significantly reducing drug-related adverse events. In this article, we describe the treatment response, survival, and safety of TACE used with drug-eluting beads for the treatment of HCC and discuss future therapeutic possibilities. PMID:27833376

  11. Surface imprinted beads for the recognition of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Piletsky, Sergey; Turner, Anthony P F; Speghini, Adolfo; Bossi, Alessandra

    2007-04-15

    The synthesis of poly-aminophenylboronic acid (ABPA) imprinted beads for the recognition of the protein human serum albumin (HSA) is reported. In order to create homogeneous recognition sites, covalent immobilisation of the template HSA was exploited. The resulting imprinted beads were selective for HSA. The indirect imprinting factor (IF) calculated from supernatant was 1.6 and the direct IF, evaluated from the protein recovered from the beads, was 1.9. The binding capacity was 1.4 mg/g, which is comparable to commercially available affinity materials. The specificity of the HSA recognition was evaluated with competitive experiments, indicating a molar ratio 4.5/1 of competitor was necessary to displace half of the bound HSA. The recognition and binding of the imprinted beads was also tested with a complex sample, human serum and targeted removal of HSA without a loss of the other protein components was demonstrated. The easy preparation protocol of derivatised beads and a good protein recognition properties make the approach an attractive solution to analytical and bio-analytical problems in the field of biotechnology.

  12. Removal of Uranium from Aqueous Solution by Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of uranium (VI by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI, and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  13. Removal of uranium from aqueous solution by aliginate beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Wang, Jian Long [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Jiang, Yizhou [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xian (China)

    2017-04-15

    The adsorption of uranium (VI) by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI) adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI), and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI) by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI) onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  14. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluorescent detection of C-reactive protein using polyamide beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, Shreesha; Chen, Lu; Aitchison, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection causes Sepsis which is one of the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. This infection can be quantified from blood plasma using C - reactive protein (CRP). A quick diagnosis at the patient's location through Point-of- Care (POC) testing could give doctors the confidence to prescribe antibiotics. In this paper, the development and testing of a bead-based procedure for CRP quantification is described. The size of the beads enable them to be trapped in wells without the need for magnetic methods of immobilization. Large (1.5 mm diameter) Polyamide nylon beads were used as the substrate for capturing CRP from pure analyte samples. The beads captured CRP either directly through adsorption or indirectly by having specific capture antibodies on their surface. Both methods used fluorescent imaging techniques to quantify the protein. The amount of CRP needed to give a sufficient fluorescent signal through direct capture method was found suitable for identifying bacterial causes of infection. Similarly, viral infections could be quantified by the more sensitive indirect capture method. This bead-based assay can be potentially integrated as a disposable cartridge in a POC device due to its passive nature and the small quantities needed.

  16. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  17. Bead-based screening in chemical biology and drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; Qvortrup, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    libraries for early drug discovery. Among the various library forms, the one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) library, where each bead carries many copies of a single compound, holds the greatest potential for the rapid identification of novel hits against emerging drug targets. However, this potential has not yet...... been fully realized due to a number of technical obstacles. In this feature article, we review the progress that has been made towards bead-based library screening and applications to the discovery of bioactive compounds. We identify the key challenges of this approach and highlight key steps needed......High-throughput screening is an important component of the drug discovery process. The screening of libraries containing hundreds of thousands of compounds requires assays amanable to miniaturisation and automization. Combinatorial chemistry holds a unique promise to deliver structural diverse...

  18. The dispersion of fine chitosan particles by beads-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochima, Emma; Utami, Safira; Hamdani, Herman; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Praseptiangga, Danar; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to produce fine chitosan particles from a crab shell waste by beads-milling method by two different concentration of PEG as dispersing agent (150 and 300 wt. %). The characterization was performed to obtain the size and size distribution, the characteristics of functional groups and the degree of deacetylation. The results showed that the chitosan fine particles was obtained with a milling time 120 minutes with the best concentration of PEG 400 150 wt. %. The average particle size of the as-prepared suspension is 584 nm after addition of acetic acid solution (1%, v/v). Beads milling process did not change the glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine content on chitosan structure which is indicated by degree of deacetylation higher than 70%. It was concluded that beads milling process can be applied to prepare chitosan fineparticles by proper adjustment in the milling time, pH and dosage of dispersing agent.

  19. Development of multifunctional chitosan beads for fluoride removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Natrayasamy [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Sairam Sundaram, C. [Department of Science and Humanities, Karaikal Polytechnic College, Karaikal 609 609, Puducherry (India); Meenakshi, S., E-mail: drs_meena@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-08-15

    Chitosan beads (CB) which have negligible defluoridation capacity (DC) have been chemically modified by introducing multifunctional groups, viz., NH{sub 3}{sup +} and COOH groups by means of protonation and carboxylation in order to utilize both amine and hydroxyl groups for fluoride removal. The protonated cum carboxylated chitosan beads (PCCB) showed a maximum DC of 1800 mg F{sup -}/kg whereas raw chitosan beads displayed only 52 mg F{sup -}/kg. Sorption process was found to be independent of pH and slightly influenced in the presence of other common anions. The fluoride sorption on modified forms was reasonably explained by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The sorbents were characterised by FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The sorption process follows pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The suitability of PCCB has been tested with field sample collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Fe–Ni/ɣ-Al2O3 egg-shell catalyst for H2 generation by ammonia decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Hugo José Lopes; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Fe–Ni alloyed nanoparticles are a promising alternative to expensive ruthenium-based catalysts for a real-scale application of hydrogen generation by ammonia decomposition. In practical applications, millimeter-sized extrudates are used as catalyst supports, where the spatial distribution...... of the active phase should match with the type of reaction. In this work, a novel synthesis route was developed for the preparation of a Fe–Ni/ɣ-Al2O3 egg-shell catalyst. Egg-shell is a preferred profile considering the highly endothermic nature of ammonia decomposition reaction. The high viscosity of glycerol...... using focused ion bean (FIB) milling allowed to acquire high resolution images of the Ni and Fe nanoparticles on ɣ-Al2O3, which is particularly challenging due to the crystalline nature of this support. Distinct regions of the egg-shell catalyst were analyzed through scanning TEM (STEM) and TEM...

  1. EFFECT OF VITAMIN ''C'' SUPPLEMENTATION ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF OSTRICH EXPOSED TO EARLY HEAT STRESS OF TEMPERATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; FARGHALY, H.A.M.; ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty four ostrich (one week old), from the breeding flock in Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Egypt (April 2008), were used in this study. The effect of vitamin Cs upplementation on the physiological responses of ostrich exposed to high temperature at early age was investigated. All chicks were exposed to 24 hours light per day. The birds were fed starter ration ad libitum (22 % protein and 2680 K cal ME/kg). Birds were divided to equal three groups. The first group was fed the previous starter ration and exposed to normal ambient temperature (22 ± 1 0 C) (TN group) while the second group was fed the same starter diet and exposed to high environmental temperature (38 ± 1 0 C) (HS group). The third group was fed the previous starter diet by adding 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid/kg diet and exposed to high environmental temperature (38 ± 1 0 C) (VC group). Daily feed consumption and mortality percentage were determined. Blood hematological parameters such as total red blood cell counts (RBC), white blood cells counts (WBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), paced cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined. Also, some physiological blood parameters such as serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glob), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Ph), uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr) and triiodothyronine hormone (T 3 ) were measured. Also, A/G ratio was calculated. It was found that feed consumption was significantly decreased when bird was exposed to high ambient temperature while it was significantly elevated in VC group. Mortality percentage was significantly increased when birds were exposed to high environmental temperature while it was reduced with vitamin Cs upplemented. Both RBC and WBC counts and both of MCV, MCH and MCHC were significantly decreased due to heat stress condition while there were non-significant differences between TN and VC groups. Hb level was

  2. Changes In Some Physiological And Chemical Parameters Of Ostrich In Response To The Seasonal And Diurnal Temperature Variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.H.; Khalifa, H.H.; Elaroussi, M.A.; Elsayed, M.A.; Basuony, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on ostrich performance and changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters. Twelve immature ostrich birds (7 months old) were exposed to daily natural ambient temperatures during the summer and winter. The birds were fed a grower ration ad libitum (19 % protein and 2450 K cal ME/kg) and the daily feed consumption (g/ bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) were measured for a representative 7 days during each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were collected twice; one in the morning at 7:00 am and the other in the afternoon at 15.00 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cells count (RBC) and total white blood cells count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. In serum, levels of total protein (TP), albumin (A) and globulin (G), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and cortisol were estimated. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature was increased significantly during the summer season as compared with the winter season and was significantly elevated at the afternoon than at the morning. Blood picture showed that hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells count (RBC) and total white blood cells count (WBC) were significantly decreased in the summer than in winter at the two diurnal periods. Also, both mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were significantly increased in summer than winter

  3. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. The Surface Imprinted Polystyrene Beads Prepared via Emulsion Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiang CHENG; Guang Ling PEI; Ling Gang ZENG; Li Yong ZHANG; Chao LIU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the surface imprinted cross-linked polystyrene beads were prepared via suspension polymerization with styrene (St), divinylbezene (DVB), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA1788), the mixture of Span 85 and xylene or the mixture of Span 85 and paraffin as monomer, cross-linking agent, dispersion stabilizer and templates, respectively. The results indicate that there are dense cavities on the surface of beads, and the diameter and density of cavity are related with the composition and amount of emulsion template. The forming mechanism of cavity from thermodynamics and dynamics was proposed.

  5. Corrosion of ancient glass beads found in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K; Thongkam, Y; Intarasiri, S; Kamwanna, T; Dararutana, P

    2012-01-01

    Glass has been used as ornaments and decorations in Thailand for several hundred years. The archaeological resources suggested that the ancient glass beads excavated in southern Thailand were made more than 1300 years ago. Initial findings revealed that there were number of difference in shade between the glass beads of difference colors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) system attached with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were firstly used to study the surface corrosion of the samples. SEM micrographs showed more corroded and flaked microstructure. These were contributed to the interaction of both the ground water and its dissolved chemical compounds.

  6. Magnet polepiece design for uniform magnetic force on superparamagnetic beads

    OpenAIRE

    Fallesen, Todd; Hill, David B.; Steen, Matthew; Macosko, Jed C.; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George

    2010-01-01

    Here we report construction of a simple electromagnet with novel polepieces which apply a spatially uniform force to superparamagnetic beads in an optical microscope. The wedge-shaped gap was designed to keep ∂Bx∕∂y constant and B large enough to saturate the bead. We achieved fields of 300–600 mT and constant gradients of 67 T∕m over a sample space of 0.5×4 mm2 in the focal plane of the microscope and 0.05 mm along the microscope optic axis. Within this space the maximum force on a 2.8 μm di...

  7. Supplementation of different concentrations of Orvus Es Paste (OEP) to ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein extender improves post-thaw boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Jasiewicz, E; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare post-thaw quality of boar semen following freezing in an ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein (LPFo) extender supplemented with 0%, 0.25% and 0.50% Orvus Es Paste (OEP). Sperm assessments included total motility (TMOT), mitochondrial function (MF), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and acrosome integrity (normal apical ridge, NAR). Considerable variations among boars and OEP treatments had a significant effect (P semen samples frozen in the absence of OEP. By contrast, lactose-LPFo-glycerol extender supplemented with either 0.25% OEP or 0.50% OEP markedly enhanced post-thaw sperm characteristics. In all boars, there were no marked differences in post-thaw sperm TMOT between the freezing extenders supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% OEP. However, a decline in the percentage of post-thaw motile spermatozoa was more pronounced in the extender supplemented with 0.50% OEP following a 120-min incubation period. Furthermore, the proportions of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with MF, PMI and NAR acrosomes varied significantly among the boars in the OEP-supplemented extenders. The findings of this study indicate that different OEP concentrations, in the presence of ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins, could have varying effects on post-thaw sperm survival.

  8. Productivity, embryo and eggshell characteristics, and contaminants in bald eagles from the Great Lakes, USA, 1986 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, David A.; Elliott, Kyle; Bowerman, William; Shieldcastle, Mark C.; Postupalsky, Sergej; Kubiak, Timothy J.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Elliott, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in eggs of fish-eating birds from contaminated environments such as the Great Lakes of North America tend to be highly intercorrelated, making it difficult to elucidate mechanisms causing reproductive impairment, and to ascribe cause to specific chemicals. An information- theoretic approach was used on data from 197 salvaged bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs (159 clutches) that failed to hatch in Michigan and Ohio, USA (1986–2000). Contaminant levels declined over time while eggshell thickness increased, and by 2000 was at pre-1946 levels. The number of occupied territories and productivity increased during 1981 to 2004. For both the entire dataset and a subset of nests along the Great Lakes shoreline, polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, fresh wet wt) were generally included in the most parsimonious models (lowest-Akaike's information criterion [AICs]) describing productivity, with significant declines in productivity observed above 26 µg/g ΣPCBs (fresh wet wt). Of 73 eggs with a visible embryo, eight (11%) were abnormal, including three with skewed bills, but they were not associated with known teratogens, including ΣPCBs. Eggs with visible embryos had greater concentrations of all measured contaminants than eggs without visible embryos; the most parsimonious models describing the presence of visible embryos incorporated dieldrin equivalents and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). There were significant negative correlations between eggshell thickness and all contaminants, with ΣPCBs included in the most parsimonious models. There were, however, no relationships between productivity and eggshell thickness or Ratcliffe's index. The ΣPCBs and DDE were negatively associated with nest success of bald eagles in the Great Lakes watersheds, but the mechanism does not appear to be via shell quality effects, at least at current contaminant levels, while it is not clear what other mechanisms were involved.

  9. Development of glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles film and glucose oxidase-immobilized eggshell membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohari Noor Aini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate; [EMIM][Otf], ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs and eggshell membrane (ESM on a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE for determination of glucose. Glucose oxidase (GOx was covalently immobilized on eggshell membrane with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator to enhance the electron transfer capacity and to ensure stability of both the oxidized and reduced forms in the reaction of enzyme and substrate. The morphological characteristics of microstructures eggshell membranes, chitosan, GOx/ESM, GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM and GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effects of scan rate, time and pH on the response of glucose biosensors were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.5, 50 s, cyclic voltammetry showed different glucose concentrations on the range of 1 × 10−12 to 0.6 M, with a detection limit of 1 × 10−13 M. The GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM was found to be more sensitive as compared to GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT. This developed glucose biosensor detection approach has several advantages such as fast, simple and convenient method, sensitivity, low cost, eco-friendly, low concentrations and remarkable catalytic activities of current signals during glucose reaction.

  10. A comparative study on different burning method of sewage sludge ash in mortar brick with eggshell powder as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Doh Shu; Azed, Muhammad Aizat; Chin, Siew Choo

    2017-11-01

    Population growth that increase every year has led to the increasing amount of waste generated annually. The content of heavy metal Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) represent the biggest concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge waste which can be the source of pollution. Furthermore, the excessive disposal of eggshells waste to landfills may attract rats and worms due to the organic protein matrix that may pose health problem to the public. In the last decade, the demand on cement mortar brick has increased has resulted in higher cement production. However, cement plant is one of the major contributors of carbon dioxide emission. Hence, this research focuses on the production of environmental friendly cement with sewage sludge since there is occurrence of pozolonic material in Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA). From the initial finding, the major components of SSA are Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), Calcium oxide (CaO), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3), Iron (III) Oxide (Fe2O3), Sodium Oxide (Na2O), Potassium oxide (K2O), Magnesium Oxide (MgO) and Iron (II) Oxide (FeO). Sewage sludge needed to be incinerated to remove the heavy metal before it can be used as cement replacement in mortar brick production. The sewage sludge were treated using two methods namely incineration and microwave. Both types of sewage sludge were then added with eggshell powder as additive. Eggshell powder act as additive in this research due to its high content of calcium carbonate and has nearly same composition of limestone used in the production of cement. Different percentages of Eggshell Powder (ESP) (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) and 10% fixed of Microwaved Sewage Sludge Ash (MSSA) and Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash (ISSA) as optimum dosage partially replacing the cement used to test the brick mortar properties in term of compressive strength, flexural strength and also water absorption. Result showed that ISSA with 5% of ESP is the most optimum brick with highest compressive strength and flexural strength

  11. Eggshell membrane hydrolyzates activate NF-κB in vitro: possible implications for in vivo efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruff KJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kevin J Ruff,1 Paul L Durham,2 Austin O’Reilly,2 F Daniel Long1 1ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA; 2Center for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA Purpose: Eggshell membrane (ESM has been shown to contain naturally occurring bioactive components, and biological activities such as reducing proinflammatory cytokines, liver fibrosis, and joint pain in osteoarthritis sufferers have also been reported for ESM matrix as a whole. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB is a signaling protein found in the cytoplasm of nearly all human and animal cell types and is a primary regulator of immune function. The studies reported herein were designed to investigate the possible role that NF-κB activity might play in the reported biological activities of ESM. Methods: Three ESM hydrolyzates produced via fermentation, enzymatic, or chemical hydrolysis were evaluated in vitro in either human peripheral blood mononuclear cell or THP-1 (human leukemic monocyte cell cultures for NF-κB activity following 4-hour exposure. The hydrolyzates were compared with untreated control cells or cells incubated with lipopolysaccharide or ascorbic acid. The source of ESM activity was also evaluated. Results: NF-κB levels were increased above levels found in untreated cells at all three dilutions (1:100, 1:1,000, and 1:10,000 for the fermentation hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-FH (P=0.021, P=0.020, P=0.009, respectively in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The enzymatic hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-EH also produced statistically significant levels of activated NF-κB at the 1:100 and 1:1,000 dilutions (P=0.004, P=0.006, respectively but fell just shy of significance at the 1:10,000 dilution (P=0.073. Similarly, ESM-FH (P=0.021, P=0.002 and ESM-EH (P=0.007, P=0.007 activated NF-κB in THP-1 cells at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. The chemical hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-CH showed statistically

  12. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of nanopowdered eggshell-supplemented yogurt during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mijan, Mohammad; Choi, Kyung-Hoon; Kwak, Hae-Soo

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of adding nanopowdered eggshell (NPES) into yogurt to improve the functionality of yogurt and the effects of adding NPES on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of the products during storage. The pH and mean lactic acid bacteria counts of NPES-added (0.15-0.45%, wt/vol) yogurt ranged from 4.31 to 4.66 and from 6.56 × 10(8) to 8.56 × 10(8)cfu/mL, respectively, whereas these values ranged from 4.13 to 4.44 and 8.46 × 10(8) to 1.39 × 10(9), respectively, for the control samples during storage at 5 °C for 16d, which indicates a prolonged shelf-life with NPES-supplemented yogurt. Color analysis showed that the lightness (L*) and position between red and green (a*) values were not significantly influenced by the addition of NPES. However, the position between yellow and blue (b*) value significantly increased with the addition of the concentration (0.45%, wt/vol) of NPES at d 16 of storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that NPES-added yogurts showed a notably less sourness score and a higher astringency score than the control. An earthy flavor was higher in 0.45% NPES-supplemented yogurt compared with the control. Based on the results obtained from the current study, the concentration (0.15 to 0.30%, wt/vol) of NPES can be used to formulate NPES-supplemented yogurt without any significant adverse effects on the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Residual gentamicin-release from antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads after 5 years of implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neut, D; van de Belt, H; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    In infected joint arthroplasty, high local levels of antibiotics are achieved through temporary implantation of non-biodegradable gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads. Despite their antibiotic release, these beads act as a biomaterial surface to which bacteria preferentially adhere, grow

  14. Effect of H3PO4 Concentration and Particle Size of the Eggshell Used in Laying Hens Fed on Bone and Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of H3 PO4 concentrations and particle size of eggshell used in the feed of laying hens on bone and blood profiles. Ninety-six laying hens (Isa Brown strain age 25 weeks were kept in individual battery cage and divided into 8 groups randomly. Group 1 was fed using eggshell with out H3PO4 and particle size of <1 mm (feed 1 , group 2 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 3% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 2, group 3 were fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 4% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 3, group 4 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 5% and particle size of <1 mm (feed 4, group 5 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 and particle size of <3 mm (feed 5 , group of 6 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 3% and particle size of <3 mm (feed 6, group 7 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 4 % and particle size of <3 mm (feed 7 and a group of 8 was fed using eggshell that has been soaked in H3PO4 5% and particle size of <3 mm (feed 8. A Completely Randomized Design patterns factorial 4 x 2 x 3 was used in this research. Result of this research showed that had no interaction effect (P>0.05 between the H3PO4 concentration and particle size of eggshell on weight, volume, diameter of tibia bone and calcium and phosphorus content of the blood. The concentration of H3PO4 or particles size also had no effect (P>0.05 on all variables. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font

  15. Exploring Traditional Glass Bead Making Techniques in Jewellery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery in some prominent areas in Ghana is a means to exposing the area for metal and ceramic artists and other related fields of discipline such as aesthetics and criticism to complement their form of ... Keywords: livelihood, vitreous, glass bottles, furnace, threading ...

  16. Glass bead transformation method for gram-positive bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and reproducible transformation method was developed for Gram-positive bacteria. It was based on agitation of bacterial protoplasts with glass beads in the presence of DNA and polyethylene glycol. By using this method, introduction of pGK12 into protoplasts of several strains of Gram-positive bacteria was achieved.

  17. Collection Development: From Beads to Bangles (Jewelry Making)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Jewelry making began exploding as a hobby about ten years ago, largely because the flush economy gave individuals more leisure time and disposable income. Jewelry classes, bead stores, and special events have multiplied like craft shows at Christmas time. While the recent economic downturn has slowed the growth of the hobby, it is still as popular…

  18. Evaluation of double drop beads pavement edge lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of Double Drop Bead (DDB) edge lines used on ALDOT-maintained highways. It compares DDB to three other pavement marking types in terms of service lives, life-cycle costs, and both dry-night retroreflectivity and wet...

  19. Superparamagnetic beads in rotating magnetic fields: microfluidic experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Toonder, J.M.J.; Bokdam, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Mason number, ratio of viscous and magnetic force, on suspended superparamagnetic micro sized beads was investigated experimentally. Microfluidic experiments were performed in a set-up that generates a rotating homogeneous magnetic field. In the presence of a magnetic field, the

  20. Removal of organic dyes by magnetic alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Cabuil, Valérie; Bee, Agnès

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the development of a clean and safe process for water pollution remediation. We have synthesized a magnetic adsorbent in order to develop a solid-phase extraction process assisted by a magnetic field. To follow an 'ecoconception' approach, magnetic beads containing magnetic nanoparticles and activated carbon are prepared with a biopolymer extracted from algae, sodium alginate. The use of renewable bioresources of low cost and those disposable in large amount allows the development of a product with a low impact on the environment. The adsorption properties of activated carbon and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles are combined to produce an interesting magnetic composite. Synthesis and characterization of the magnetic beads have been reported. Their adsorption capacity was investigated by measuring the removal of two dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) of different charges from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the beads has been compared with that of non-encapsulated activated carbon. The effects of initial dye concentration, pH and calcium content of the beads have been studied. Adsorption kinetics experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation.

  1. StoryBeads: Preserving indigenous knowledge through tangible interaction design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reitsma, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available in technology adoption. The study resulted in a recording device that fits the target group’s oral tradition and is based on a concept in which oral stories are recorded and associated with tangible beads that can be incorporated into traditional beadwork...

  2. Continuous removal and recovery of lead by alginate beads, free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris cells in repeated lead adsorption/desorption cycles. Alginate beads and immobilized with algal cells were more effective and suitable than free cells. Consistently high lead removal (>90%) and recovery (about 100%) were achieved. Lead adsorption was mainly ...

  3. 485 assessment of the problems of manual automobile tyre bead

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. ... engine will not be transformed into the motion of the vehicle. It provides the only point of contact between ..... Popular Mechanic 162 (6): 62. http://books.google.

  4. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, S.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Gouldstone, C.A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T.J.; Clark, C.H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size ( 60 Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R 2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the dosimetric properties of a low cost commercially produced glass seed beads. • Glass beads are available in small size of 1–3 mm, suitable for dosimetry of small radiation fields. • The results demonstrate a mean reproducibility of 0.23% (2 SD), batch homogeneity of within 5%. • Dose response was linear over wide dose range tested for 1 cGy to kGy. • Improved fading effect of 10

  5. 49 CFR 173.221 - Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.221 Polymeric beads, expandable and Plastic molding compound. (a) Non-bulk shipments of Polymeric beads (or granules), expandable, evolving flammable vapor and Plastic...

  6. Ionically crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose beads for the delivery of protein therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Gu, Bon Kang; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared Fe 3+ crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads. ► Different surface and inner morphology of AC beads were observed on volume of CMC. ► AC beads showed minimum swelling degree in acidic condition. ► Protein release from AC beads was to control in gastrointestinal condition. - Abstract: We developed Fe 3+ -crosslinked alginate–carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads in various volume ratios by dropping an AC solution into a ferric chloride solution to form protein therapeutic carrier beads. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the roughness and pore size of the crosslinked beads increased with the volume ratio of the carboxymethyl cellulose. Fourier transform-infrared analysis revealed the formation of a three-dimensional bonding structure between the anionic polymeric chains of AC and the Fe 3+ ions. The degree of swelling and the release profile of albumin from the beads were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions (pH 1.2, 4.5, and 7.4). The Fe 3+ -crosslinked AC beads displayed different degrees of swelling and albumin release for the various AC volume ratios and under various pH conditions. An in vitro release test was used to monitor the controlled release of albumin from the AC beads under simulated gastrointestinal conditions over 24 h. The Fe 3+ -crosslinked AC beads protected and controlled the release of protein, demonstrating that such beads present a promising protein therapeutic carrier for the oral delivery.

  7. Flow Cytometry-Based Bead-Binding Assay for Measuring Receptor Ligand Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Hertoghs, Nina; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a fluorescent bead-binding assay, which is an efficient and feasible method to measure interaction between ligands and receptors on cells. In principle, any ligand can be coated on fluorescent beads either directly or via antibodies. Binding between ligand-coated beads

  8. Comparison between simulation and experimentally observed interactions between two magnetic beads in a fluidic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduwole, Olayinka, E-mail: olayinka.oduwole@eng.ox.ac.uk; Grob, David Tim, E-mail: tim.grob@eng.ox.ac.uk; Sheard, Steve, E-mail: steve.sheard@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2016-06-01

    Continuous flow separation of magnetic particles within a microfluidic device could lead to improved performance of magnetic bead-based assays but the undesirable formation of bead clusters reduces its efficiency; this efficiency refers to the ability to separate bound magnetic beads from a mixture of particles. Such agglomerates are formed due to magnetic binding forces while hydrodynamic interactions strongly influence the particles' movement. This paper presents a model for interactions between a pair of equal sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a comparison between simulated trajectories and the beads' movement captured on video; the beads were suspended in a stationary fluid placed within a uniform magnetic field. In conclusion, the model is a good approximation for beads interacting with their nearest neighbours and is able to predict the trajectory pattern of these particles in a magnetic bead-based assay. Predicting the magnetically induced interaction of nearby beads will help in determining the density of beads in an assay and in avoiding agglomeration over a fixed time duration. - Highlights: • We modelled the interactions between a pair of super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. • We tracked the movement of the bead pair and captured it on video. • We compared the numerical results with the video data and achieved a good agreement. • We predicted the agglomeration time as a function of the separation distance.

  9. Influence of Immobilized Biomolecules on Magnetic Bead Plug Formation and Retention in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henken, Rachel L.; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Gilman, S. Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes in the formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs in a capillary during electrophoresis were studied, and it was demonstrated that these effects were due to the type of biological molecule immobilized on the surface of these beads. Three biological molecules, an antibody, an oligonucleotide and alkaline phosphatase, were attached to otherwise identical streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-avidin binding in order to isolate differences in bead immobilization in a magnetic field resulting from the type of biological molecule immobilized on the bead surface. Alkaline phosphatase also was attached to the magnetic beads using epoxy groups on the bead surfaces (instead of avidin-biotin binding) to study the impact of immobilization chemistry. The formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs were studied quantitatively using light scattering detection of magnetic particles eluting from the bead plugs and qualitatively using microscopy. Both the type of biomolecule immobilized on the magnetic bead surface and the chemistry used to link the biomolecule to the magnetic bead impacted the formation and retention of the bead plugs. PMID:22437880

  10. Magnetization of large polystyrene peptide beads for capturing and expanding cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, Jan; Lau, D.H.; Song Aimin; Wang Xiaobing; Liu Ruiwu; Lam, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    A method is described for preparation of large magnetic polystyrene beads coupled with peptide ligands for surface receptors of lung cancer cells. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using these magnetic peptide beads for capturing and enriching lung cancer cells spiked into blood. These magnetic peptide beads potentially can be used to efficiently isolate cancer cells from body fluids

  11. DTDGA impregnated XAD-16 beads for separation and recovery of palladium from acidic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Krishan Kant; Kanagare, Anant B.; Bairwa, K.K.; Manmohan Kumar; Bajaj, Parma N.; Ruhela, Ritesh; Singh, Ajoy K.; Hubli, Rajendra C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study DTDGA extractant impregnated XAD16 polymeric beads (DTDGA- XAD16) were synthesized by wet chemical method and the beads were characterized by various techniques viz. FT-IR, Optical microscopy, SEM and TGA. The DTDGA-XAD 16 beads were evaluated for separation and recovery of palladium from high level waste solutions (HLW)

  12. DECO FRECASE (drywall eco-friendly from eggshell and cane bagasse) as an innovation of eco-friendly interior construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imron, M. A.; Ahkam, D. N. I.; Hidayat, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The number of factories and home industries, both upper and lower middle class certainly adds waste generated, resulting in environmental pollution. The development of buildings is one of the largest contributors to global warming. For that, it takes technological innovations that lead to the criteria of green building. The application of green material is important aspects of environmentally friendly development, the selection of materials on the green material criteria of both roles should be applied continuously in order to realize the environmental sustainability of the material. Utilization Waste eggshell and bagasse which is a community waste, has the potential to become innovative environmentally friendly building materials. The eggshell is composed of 94% calcium carbonate, 1% magnesium carbonate, 1% calcium phosphate, and 4% organic material, especially protein, while the bagasse has a high content of silica (SiO2). In this study, the compounds are used as raw material for making alternative drywall in the form of DECO FRECASE. DECO FRECASE is an innovation of environmentally friendly building materials as an interior wall construction. Through DECO FRECASE, it is expected that building material innovation in Indonesia can be improved and of course environmental problems can be minimized by utilizing it as raw material for building construction.

  13. Histological Characteristics of Leg Muscles of 56-Day Old Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the histological characteristics of leg muscles of pheasants hatched from eggs of a different colour. From muscle samples (M. biceps femoris of 56-day old pheasants hatched from eggs of different colour (dark brown, light brown, brown/green, blue/green histological preparations were made. Following parameters were examined: diameter of muscle cells, volume density of connective tissue in muscles, nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of muscle cells. Results showed that diameter of muscle cells was smaller in pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs compared to all other examinated groups. There was no differences in volume density of connective tissue in muscles between groups. Nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of muscle cells was higher in pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs compared to all other examinated groups. From obtained results it can be concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had weaker muscle development than pheasants hatched from eggs of other eggshell colour. Cause of this could be related to structural differences of eggshells of various colour. This leads to weaker development of embryos and chicks hatched from blue/green eggs which reflects on differences in development of leg muscles.

  14. Relevance of the Physicochemical Properties of Calcined Quail Eggshell (CaO as a Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marques Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CaO solid derived from natural quail eggshell was calcined and employed as catalyst to produce biodiesel via transesterification of sunflower oil. The natural quail eggshell was calcined at 900°C for 3 h, in order to modify the calcium carbonate present in its structure in CaO, the activity phase of the catalyst. Both precursor and catalyst were characterized using Hammett indicators method, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196°C, and distribution particle size. The maximum biodiesel production was of 99.00 ± 0.02 wt.% obtained in the following transesterification reaction conditions: XMR (sunflower oil/methanol molar ratio of 1 : 10.5 mol : mol, XCAT (catalyst loading of 2 wt.%, XTIME (reaction time of 2 h, stirring rate of 1000 rpm, and temperature of 60°C.

  15. Process and device for fabrication of ice beads and application to abrasive blasting with ice beads for surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnier, M.; Manificat, A.; Perroud, P.

    1989-01-01

    A device is described for cleaning and decontamination by abrasive blasting with ice beads. It comprises a water injector, with many holes, at the top of a column feeded with cold gas where solidification of water droplets begins, solidification is completed in a cooling liquids, ice is extracted by a screw and pushed to the projection nozzle with cold gas [fr

  16. Why are birds' eggs colourful? Eggshell pigments co-vary with life-history and nesting ecology among British breeding non-passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassey, P.; Thomas, G.H.; Portugal, S. J.; Maurer, G.; Hauber, M. E.; Grim, T.; Lovell, P.G.; Mikšík, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 657-672 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biliverdin * protoporphyrin * eggshell pigment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.413, year: 2012

  17. Immobilization of Pb, Cd, and Zn in a contaminated soil using eggshell and banana stem amendments: metal leachability and a sequential extraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mehrnaz; Mohamad, Sharifah; Yusoff, Ismail; Shahul Hamid, Fauziah

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-metal-contaminated soil is one of the major environmental pollution issues all over the world. In this study, two low-cost amendments, inorganic eggshell and organic banana stem, were applied to slightly alkaline soil for the purpose of in situ immobilization of Pb, Cd, and Zn. The artificially metal-contaminated soil was treated with 5% eggshell or 10% banana stem. To simulate the rainfall conditions, a metal leaching experiment for a period of 12 weeks was designed, and the total concentrations of the metals in the leachates were determined every 2 weeks. The results from the metal leaching analysis revealed that eggshell amendment generally reduced the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn in the leachates, whereas banana stem amendment was effective only on the reduction of Cd concentration in the leachates. A sequential extraction analysis was carried out at the end of the experiment to find out the speciation of the heavy metals in the amended soils. Eggshell amendment notably decreased mobility of Pb, Cd, and Zn in the soil by transforming their readily available forms to less accessible fractions. Banana stem amendment also reduced exchangeable form of Cd and increased its residual form in the soil.

  18. Microbiological profiles, pH, and titratable acidity of chorizo and salchichón (two Spanish dry fermented sausages) manufactured with ostrich, deer, or pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capita, Rosa; Llorente-Marigómez, Sandra; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2006-05-01

    Microbial counts, pH, and titratable acidity were determined in 102 Spanish dry fermented sausages (chorizo and salchichón) made with ostrich, deer, or pork meat. Average microbial counts (log CFU per gram) varied from 5.46 +/- 0.24 to 8.25 +/- 0.80 (total viable counts), from 4.79 +/- 0.36 to 7.99 +/- 0.20 (psychrotrophs), from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 0.99 +/- 1.10 (undetectable values were assumed to be zero) (Enterobacteriaceae), from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 4.27 +/- 1.47 (enterococci), from 5.15 +/- 1.15 to 8.46 +/- 0.49 (lactic acid bacteria), from 3.08 +/- 0.44 to 6.59 +/- 1.76 (Micrococcaceae), from 2.27 +/- 1.53 to 5.11 +/- 1.81 (molds and yeasts), from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 2.25 +/- 0.81 (pseudomonads), and from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 2.78 +/- 0.46 (Brochothrix thermosphacta). Average pH and titratable acidity varied from 5.07 +/- 0.25 to 5.63 +/- 0.51 (pH units) and from 0.30 +/- 0.01 to 0.86 +/- 0.19 (% lactic acid). Both type of sausage (P < 0.05) and species of meat (P < 0.001) influenced microbial counts. Salchich6n samples showed lower average values than chorizo samples for most microbial groups (significant for Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta) and titratable acidity. Sausages made from pork showed the highest microbial loads for total viable counts, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. Higher counts were observed only for pseudomonads in ostrich sausages. B. thermosphacta levels were similar for all species of meat. The highest average pH value was observed in sausages made from ostrich meat, and the lowest titratable acidity level was found in pork sausages.

  19. Strategies for enumeration of circulating microvesicles on a conventional flow cytometer: Counting beads and scatter parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J; Enjeti, Anoop K; Baqar, Sara; Ekinci, Elif I; Liu, Dorothy; Thorne, Rick F; Lincz, Lisa F

    2018-01-01

    Enumeration of circulating microvesicles (MVs) by conventional flow cytometry is accomplished by the addition of a known amount of counting beads and calculated from the formula: MV/μl = (MV count/bead count) × final bead concentration. We sought to optimize each variable in the equation by determining the best parameters for detecting 'MV count' and examining the effects of different bead preparations and concentrations on the final calculation. Three commercially available bead preparations (TruCount, Flow-Count and CountBright) were tested, and MV detection on a BD FACSCanto was optimized for gating by either forward scatter (FSC) or side scatter (SSC); the results were compared by calculating different subsets of MV on a series of 74 typical patient plasma samples. The relationship between the number of beads added to each test and the number of beads counted by flow cytometry remained linear over a wide range of bead concentrations ( R 2 ≥ 0.997). However, TruCount beads produced the most consistent (concentration variation = 3.8%) calculated numbers of plasma CD41 + /Annexin V + MV, which were significantly higher from that calculated using either Flow-Count or CountBright ( p beads by FSC and 0.16 μm beads by SSC, but there were significantly more background events using SSC compared with FSC (3113 vs. 470; p = 0.008). In general, sample analysis by SSC resulted in significantly higher numbers of MV ( p beads provided linear results at concentrations ranging from 6 beads/μl to 100 beads/μl, but TruCount was the most consistent. Using SSC to gate MV events produced high background which negatively affected counting bead enumeration and overall MV calculations. Strategies to reduce SSC background should be employed in order to reliably use this technique.

  20. Análise físico-química e sensorial de hambúrguer elaborado com carne de avestruz Physicochemical and sensorial analyses of ostrich hamburger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Prokopp Hautrive

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar um hambúrguer com carne de avestruz, para possibilitar o aproveitamento total da carne de avestruz, utilizando cortes considerados menos nobres como recortes resultantes da desossa. Avaliar sua aceitação entre potenciais consumidores, como apreciadores de carnes e hambúrgueres, bem como sugerir a industrialização e comercialização pelas indústrias como um novo produto de conveniência. Foram elaboradas três formulações de hambúrgueres com diferentes percentuais de carne de avestruz e bovina. As amostras foram analisadas por 50 provadores não treinados, escolhidos em função de gostarem e serem consumidores de hambúrgueres. O hambúrguer de formulação 2, composto por carne bovina (50% e carne de avestruz (50% obteve maior aceitação em relação aos demais. Os teores de lipídios e proteínas das amostras de hambúrgueres encontram-se dentre os valores exigidos pela legislação. Sendo assim, os hambúrgueres formulados com carne de avestruz foram bem aceitos pelos julgadores. O hambúrguer misto, o qual obteve maior aceitação, seria uma alternativa de um produto para a industrialização e comercialização, pois agregado com a carne bovina o custo dos hambúrgueres de avestruz são mais acessíveis.The objective of this study was to prepare a hamburger with ostrich meat, making use of the ostrich meat cuts that are considered less noble such as those resulting form boning. This study also aimed at evaluating its acceptance among potential clients such meat and hamburger consumers as well as suggesting its industrialization as a new product. Three types of hamburgers were prepared with different percentage of ostrich and bovine meat. The samples were tested by 50 tasters without training, but who were hamburger consumers. The hamburger of formulation 2, composed by bovine meat (50% and ostrich meat (50%, obtained better acceptance than the others. The contents of lipids and proteins of

  1. Chicken eggshells (Gallus gallus domesticus) as carbonate calcium source for biomaterials production; Casca de ovo de galinha caipira (gallus gallus domesticus), como fonte de carbonato de calcio para producao de biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, E.A. de O.; Bastos, J.S.B.; Silva, R.C. de S.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Macedo, M. O.C.; Bradim, A.S., E-mail: angelcassiasasilva@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (FIPI), PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The eggshells present high levels of calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate obtained from eggshells has been used in the production of biomaterials with applications in bone regeneration, since it is biocompatible. In this work, calcium carbonate was obtained from eggshells to prepare a composite biomaterial. The presence of calcium carbonate bands was observed through spectrometry in the infrared region. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of calcium carbonate particles with different sizes and shapes. Carbonate predominance in the form of calcite was also observed through the X-ray diffraction.

  2. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate usingcalcined duck eggshell as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiulian; Duan, Xiuli; You, Qinghong; Dai, Chunhua; Tan, Zhongbiao; Zhu, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcined DES was used as catalyst for biodiesel production from SODD. • The obtained CaO was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and the optimal calcination temperature was 900 °C. • The biodiesel yield was 94.6% at the optimal transesterification conditions. • The biodiesel yield was above 80% after five times usage. - Abstract: Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) using calcined duck eggshell (DES) as catalyst was studied. An inexpensive and environment-friendly catalyst was prepared from waste DES which is a source of calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate could be changed to calcium oxide (CaO) under high temperatures. The obtained CaO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectra (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRF was used to determine the elemental composition of the catalyst. BET analysis was performed to determine specific surface area, pore volume and particle size of the catalysts. Results showed that at 800 °C and 900 °C the calcium carbonate in DES was changed to CaO. The pre-esterification of SODD was conducted under the following conditions: H_2SO_4 concentration (v/w, based on oil weight) 1.5%, methanol to oil molar ratio 12:1, reaction time 120 min and reaction temperature 60 °C. Thephytosterols were removed by cooling down step by stepand temperature steps were 15 °C, 5 °C, −5 °C. The process of biodiesel production from pre-esterified SODD using the obtained CaO as catalyst was studied and the optimal conditions were: calcination temperature of 900 °C, catalyst amount of 10 wt.%, methanol to oil ratio of 10:1, reaction temperature of 60 °C and reaction time of 80 min and the biodiesel yield was 94.6% at these conditions. The reusability of the DES-derived catalyst was tested and the results showed that the biodiesel yield was above 80% after five times usage and was lower than 60% after 8 times usage.

  3. A novel disulfide-rich protein motif from avian eggshell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi K Kodali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the shell of a chicken egg are two opposed proteinaceous disulfide-rich membranes. They are fabricated in the avian oviduct using fibers formed from proteins that are extensively coupled by irreversible lysine-derived crosslinks. The intractability of these eggshell membranes (ESM has slowed their characterization and their protein composition remains uncertain. In this work, reductive alkylation of ESM followed by proteolytic digestion led to the identification of a cysteine rich ESM protein (abbreviated CREMP that was similar to spore coat protein SP75 from cellular slime molds. Analysis of the cysteine repeats in partial sequences of CREMP reveals runs of remarkably repetitive patterns. Module a contains a C-X(4-C-X(5-C-X(8-C-X(6 pattern (where X represents intervening non-cysteine residues. These inter-cysteine amino acid residues are also strikingly conserved. The evolutionarily-related module b has the same cysteine spacing as a, but has 11 amino acid residues at its C-terminus. Different stretches of CREMP sequences in chicken genomic DNA fragments show diverse repeat patterns: e.g. all a modules; an alternation of a-b modules; or an a-b-b arrangement. Comparable CREMP proteins are found in contigs of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata and in the oviparous green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis. In all these cases the long runs of highly conserved modular repeats have evidently led to difficulties in the assembly of full length DNA sequences. Hence the number, and the amino acid lengths, of CREMP proteins are currently unknown. A 118 amino acid fragment (representing an a-b-a-b pattern from a chicken oviduct EST library expressed in Escherichia coli is a well folded, highly anisotropic, protein with a large chemical shift dispersion in 2D solution NMR spectra. Structure is completely lost on reduction of the 8 disulfide bonds of this protein fragment. Finally, solid state NMR spectra suggest a surprising degree of order in intact

  4. Comparative study of hydroxyapatite from eggshells and synthetic hydroxyapatite for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Woon; Kim, Seong-Gon; Balázsi, Csaba; Chae, Weon-Sik; Lee, Hee-Ok

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of synthetic hydroxyapatite (sHA) and hydroxyapatite from eggshells (eHA) by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and to compare the regenerative ability of the bone using sHA and eHA in a rabbit calvarial defect model. FT-IR and XRD were used to compare the physical properties of sHA and eHA. sHA was purchased from Sigma, and eHA was kindly donated from the Hungarian academy of science. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were used for the animal study. After the formation of a bilateral parietal bony defect (diameter 8.0 mm), either sHA or eHA was grafted into the defect. The defect in the control was left unfilled. Bone regeneration was evaluated by histomorphometry at 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. The peak broadening of the XRD experiments were in agreement with scanning electron microscope observation; the sHA had a smaller granule size than the eHA. The eHA had impurities phases of CaO (International Center for Diffraction Data (ICDD) 075-0264) and Ca(OH)(2) (ICDD 072-0156). Total new bone was 17.11 ± 10.24% in the control group, 28.81 ± 12.63% in sHA group, and 25.68 ± 10.89% in eHA group at 4 weeks after the operation. The difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Total new bone at 8 weeks after the operation was 27.50 ± 10.89% in the control group, 38.62 ± 17.42% in sHA group, and 41.99 ± 8.44% in the eHA group. When comparing the sHA group to the control group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). However, the eHA group was significantly different from the control group (P = .038). When comparing the eHA group to the sHA group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Both types of HA showed higher bone formation than the unfilled control. However, eHA had significantly higher bone formation than the unfilled control at 8 weeks after operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Induced movement of the magnetic beads and DNA-based dumbbell in a micro fluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, B.; Ghai, R.; Dimitrov, K.

    2007-12-01

    We have explored controlled movement of magnetic beads and a dumbbell structure composed of DNA, a magnetic and a non-magnetic bead in a micro fluidic channel. Movement of the beads and dumbbells is simulated assuming that a net force is described as a superposition between the magnetic and hydrodynamic drag forces. Trajectories of beads and dumbbells are observed with optical light microscopy. The experimentally measured data show a good agreement with the simulations. This dynamical approach offers the prospect to stretch the DNA within the dumbbell and investigate its conformational changes. Further on, we demonstrate that short sonication can reduce multiple attachments of DNA to the beads.

  6. Stability of alginate-titanium dioxide based photocatalyst beads for water treatment application under UV irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    WENG HOONG LAM

    2017-01-01

    Immobilizing TiO2 photocatalyst in alginate beads has been considered to be a green approach for the separation and recycling of the photocatalyst in UV water treatment. However, the feasibility of using alginate beads in industry is largely dependent on their photo-stability during operation. This study aimed to provide a better understanding on the degradation of alginate/TiO2 beads under UV irradiation and to improve beads stability. The beads stability can be improved by increasing the al...

  7. Compositional characterization of sintered (U,Th)O2 pellets by EDXRF using fused bead specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjay Kumar, S.; Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Fused bead specimens were used for analyzing sintered (U,Th)O 2 pellets by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The bead specimens of calibration mixtures U 3 O 8 and ThO 2 were made by fusing them in Lithium Tetraborate/Metaborate fusion mixtures using a fusion bead machine. The EDXRF spectra of these beads were used for making calibration plot for U% determination in (U+Th) amounts. Using these calibration plots and EDXRF spectra of bead of sintered (U,Th)O 2 pellets, U% in these pellets was successfully determined. (author)

  8. Intra-clutch and inter-colony variability in element concentrations in eggshells of the black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus, in northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Wiącek, Dariusz; Jakubas, Dariusz

    2017-04-01

    Eggshells are good bioindicators of environmental contamination, and therefore, the concentrations of 17 trace elements in 87 eggshells of black-headed gulls, Chroicocephalus ridibundus, were determined in five breeding colonies in an area dominated by farmland in northern Poland. The intra-clutch variability in the eggshell concentrations of heavy metals and other elements was also investigated, and the concentrations of the elements showed the following pattern: Ca > Mg > Sr > Fe > Zn > Al > Cr > Se > Mn > Cu > Pb > As > Ni > Mo = V > Sc > Cd. The concentrations of Fe, Al, and Mn decreased with the order in which the eggs were laid, but Sr concentrations increased. In contrast, the concentration of Cu significantly increased with the laying date. The concentrations of all elements significantly differed among the studied colonies; the highest concentration of eight elements was found in the eggshells from the Kusowo colony, which may have resulted from the intensive use of fertilizers, manure, and slurry in the surrounding agricultural region. The concentrations of Mg, Sr, and Zn in the eggshells from Skoki Duże were higher than those of the other studied colonies, which may have occurred because the gulls were nesting in a functioning gravel pit; soil and the parent rock are natural reservoirs of these elements. The observed element levels indicate that the environment where the black-headed gull eggs were formed, i.e., primarily near the breeding colonies, remains in a relatively unpolluted state, which was reflected by the low levels of Cd, Ni, and Pb and the lack of measurable levels of Hg.

  9. A planar conducting microstructure to guide and confine magnetic beads to a sensing zone

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-08-01

    A novel planar conducting microstructure is proposed to transport and confine magnetic micro/nano beads to a sensing zone. Manipulation and concentration of magnetic beads are achieved by employing square-shaped conducting micro-loops, with a few hundred nano-meters in thickness, arranged in a unique fashion. These microstructures are designed to produce high magnetic field gradients which are directly proportional to the force applied to manipulate the magnetic beads. Furthermore, the size of the microstructures allows greater maneuverability and control of magnetic beads than what could be achieved by permanent magnets. The aim of the microstructures is to guide magnetic beads from a large area and confine them to a smaller area where for example quantification would take place. Experiments were performed with different concentrations of 2 μm diameter magnetic beads. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could be successfully guided and confined to the sensing zone. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement of removal characteristics for uranium by immobilization of diphosil powder into alginate bead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. J.; Kang, I. S.; Lee, Y. H.; Son, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical wastes containing small amounts of uranium can not be disposed of them as industrial wastes. Especially for the removal of uranium, In this study, the method of immobilizing Diphosil powder within alginate beads is adopted to make a bead from powdered resin. Sodium alginate bead itself showed a capability to uptake uranium to above 60%, but the value was decreased to below 30% after equilibrium. The rate of uranium adsorption increased with increasing content of Diphosil in sodium alginate bead. Diphosil resin itself showed very fast uptake of uranium from early stages, and then the rates were leveled off. Diphosil bead showed a improved capability to uptake uranium considering Diphosil content in the bead, and a considerable potential for further applications of a continuous process by using a bead form of Diphosil

  11. Separation of yttrium using carbon nanotube doped polymeric beads impregnated with D2EHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Singh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid impregnated polyethersulfone based composite beads in combination with additives such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has been prepared by non-solvent phase inversion method. The synthesized beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and infra-red spectroscopy. Effect of additives on bead morphology, solvent impregnation capacity, extractability and stability has been examined to compare their suitability for yttrium recovery from acidic medium. Microstructural investigation as well as experimental findings confirmed the role of additives in modifying the pore structures in beads, responsible for varied degree of yttrium extraction. Further the role of metal ion concentration in aqueous phase on its recovery by polymeric beads was also evaluated. Among the tested beads PES/D2EHPA/MWCNT/PVA beads were found to be superior for Y(Ill) extraction. (author)

  12. Bead Capture and Release on a Magnetic Sensor in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Freitas, S.C.

    Planar Hall effect magnetic sensors for detection of biological agents using surface treated magnetic beads are integrated with a fluid injection system. The response of the sensors is used to evaluate bead capture rates for different bead concentrations c and fluid flow rates Q, and to monitor...... subsequent removal of the beads. It is found that the capture rate scales directly with c and that it depends linearly on Q. At low Q the capture rate is only partially due to gravitational sedimentation of beads. At higher Q an additional term proportional to Q becomes important, which is attributed...... to capture of beads by the magnetic fields near the sensor. It is shown that beads can be washed off the sensor surface....

  13. On the occurrence of ‘bead lightning’ phenomena in long laboratory sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayanganie, S.P.A., E-mail: amilavayanganie@gmail.com [Atmospheric Physics and Lightning Research Group, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka); Cooray, V.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Hettiarachchi, Pasan; Diaz, Oscar [Lightning Research Group, The Ångström Laboratory Division of Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Fernando, M. [Atmospheric Physics and Lightning Research Group, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka)

    2016-02-22

    The formation of bead lightning, where the lightning channel appears to break up into luminous fragments, is still an object of speculation. Here we report similar observations in laboratory discharges. Analysis of time resolved photographs shows that the discharge channel exhibits a ‘bead pattern’ in the decaying stage of the discharge and the occurrence of loops in the channel sections where the bead pattern is observed. This result presents the first evidence that the rapid cooling of non-uniform channel sections could lead to the formation of beads. It is suggested that periodically occurring non-uniform channel sections could explain the bead pattern of lightning discharges. - Highlights: • For the first time, the occurrence of bead patterns in the channel of laboratory sparks was reported. • Depending on the geometry some regions of the channel decays faster than the other sections. • A possible mechanism for the occurrence of beads in decaying states of lightning flashes is proposed.

  14. Applying an intelligent model and sensitivity analysis to inspect mass transfer kinetics, shrinkage and crust color changes of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad Reza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use image analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) to predict mass transfer kinetics as well as color changes and shrinkage of deep-fat fried ostrich meat cubes. Two generalized feedforward networks were separately developed by using the operation conditions as inputs. Results based on the highest numerical quantities of the correlation coefficients between the experimental versus predicted values, showed proper fitting. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that among the input variables, frying temperature was the most sensitive to moisture content (MC) and fat content (FC) compared to other variables. Sensitivity analysis results of selected ANNs showed that MC and FC were the most sensitive to frying temperature compared to other input variables. Similarly, for the second ANN architecture, microwave power density was the most impressive variable having the maximum influence on both shrinkage percentage and color changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the chemical variability of Middelburg glass beads and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karklins, K.; Kottman, J.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Sempowski, M.L.; Nohe, A.W.; Moreau, J.-F.; Aufreiter, S.; Kenyon, I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-three glass samples from a late 16th-early 17th century, glass beadmaking house in Middelburg, the Netherlands, were selected for maximum colouring variability, including plain and multi-coloured varieties. The glass chemistries were quite diverse, within each colour grouping. For each single colour of glass, anticipated colouring elements (copper for turquoise blue, cobalt for dark blue, manganese for rose, and tin for white) were used, with the exception of two beads that were opacified wih antimony rather than with tin. Multi-coloured glass glasses (chevron beads) produced chemistries that match the mixing of the different coloured glasses. In some cases, low relative amounts of some inter-mixed glasses were not detectable against the composition of the major glass component. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Frictionless Demonstration Using Fine Plastic Beads For Teaching Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    New equipment for demonstrating laws of mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine sphere plastic beads (0.3 mm in diameter). Fine plastic beads function as ball bearings to reduce the friction between the object and the plate surface. By this method, a quantitative measurement of energy conservation law has successfully been carried out with a small error of less 3%. The strong advantage of this frictionless method is that we can always use the same objects like Petri dishes for demonstrating many kinds of mechanics laws, such as the first, second, and the third laws of motion, momentum conservation law, and energy conservation law. This demonstration method surely has a beneficial effect for students, who can then understand mechanics laws systematically with a unified concept and no confusion.

  17. Methodological Study of Cell Separation with Domestic Immunomagnetic Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To establish the method of cell separation with domestic immuomagnetic beads, three methods were investigated. Direct method, SPA method and Biotin-Avidin method were applied to separate cell strain Hut-78 and CD4 positive cells. Separation rate of strain Hut-78 was more than 90 % in direct method. Detachment rate with papain was over 95 %. Cell activity was well retained. SPA method and Biotin-Avidin methods were also effective, but the direct method was superior to the other two techniques. Before separated by the direct method, CD4 positive cells constituted 46.4 %±6.4 % of mononuclear cells (MNC), but in eliminated suspension there was only 6.2 %±2.3 % CD4 positive cells left. In the separated part, 80.6 %±7.2 % of the cells combined with the beads. It is concluded that the direct method in separating cells had high sensitivity and specificity.

  18. Bead perturbation measurement for the KEK linac cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Shoji; Swenson, D.A.

    1975-03-01

    The axial electric field in the KEK linac cavity is measured by a bead perturbation method. The beat signal of around 1 kHz is generated with the rf signals from the cavity in self-excitation and from a signal generator whose output frequency is fixed. The period of the beat signal is measured by a counter in order to detect the small change in the resonant frequency of the cavity due to a bead perturbation. The counting data are transferred to a mini-computer after each period of the beat signal. The average fields of each gap are calculated in the computer and they are displayed on a storage oscilloscope. It takes about 50 seconds to complete the whole process of the measurement. The measuring system and the results obtained are described in this paper. (auth.)

  19. Plasticity of an Amorphous Assembly of Elastic Gel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosshans, D.; Knaebel, A.; Lequeux, F.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the rheological properties of an assembly of swollen gel beads in a lack of solvent. The system is an amorphous assembly of packed soft spheres in a given volume. We have studied the plastic behavior of the system, and interpreted it in terms of bead rearrangements within the assembly. Nous avons étudié les propriétés rhéologiques d'un assemblage de billes de gel gonflées en défaut de solvant. Le système est donc une assemblée amorphe de sphères molles écrasées à volume total constant. Nous avons étudié divers aspects du comportement plastique et nous l'avons interprété en termes de réorganisations de billes dans l'assemblage.

  20. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Beads-Synthesis, Evaluation and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Tongchang

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are artificial receptors designed for the selective recognition of template molecules. These polymers have been applied in analytical separations, as chemical sensors and in drug delivery system due to their low cost and high stability. In recent years MIP beads, especially those with good selectivity in aqueous solution, have become attractive as they can be potentially used as selective adsorbents for the solid phase extraction (SPE) and chromatographic...