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Sample records for oslo european civil

  1. Governance and European Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutay, Acar

    This book provides a critical analysis of the European Union’s approach to ‘governance’, focusing on the way in which civil society is incorporated within the EU decision-making process and arguing that it is not conducive to the democratisation of EU governance.\

  2. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common

  3. EUROPEAN CIVIL CODE BETWEEN DESIDERATUM AND REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Bogdan Ciucă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of priority and direct application of European rules in relation to the provisions that we find in the national legislation, once assumed at European level, it has generated debates and concerns about the usefulness of a single legal act in private law matters. The idea of European Civil Code, appeared somewhere in the early 80s, is becoming more current and triggers a justified and sustained interest. Considering that the civil legislation of Community Member is a legislation dominated by tradition and peculiarities of culture, religion and temper, the issue of a European Civil Code forms as a project generating discussions, restraints and even rejec tions of the Member States in relation to this proposal. The current system of European legislative acts that apply immediately and priority in EU member states remains only a temporary solution and which generates difficulties in interpretation and affects the utility of the enactment. Clarifications on the pros and cons to promote a European Civil Codex will be analyzed primarily in terms of law and, last but not least in terms of political perspective, taking into account the Community objectives undertaken by accession treaties and the need for a legislative norm, especially European, to be predictable, transparent, useful and accessible. This paper intends to submit to debate both current doctrinal arguments, the blocking of such an approach, based on the principle of autonomy and the peculiarities of the legal system of each Member State, but also considering the practical arguments and of simplification of rules met in a European Civil Code assumed and applicable in the European space.

  4. Fish from Head to Tail: The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gareth; Müller, Ferenc; Ledin, Johan; Patton, E Elizabeth; Gjøen, Tor; Lobert, Viola Hélène; Winther-Larsen, Hanne Cecilie; Mullins, Mary; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Press, Charles McLean; Aleström, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting took place recently in Oslo (June 28-July 2, 2015). A total of 650 participants came to hear the latest research news focused on the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and to its distant evolutionary relative medaka, Oryzias latipes. The packed program included keynote and plenary talks, short oral presentations and poster sessions, workshops, and strategic discussions. The meeting was a great success and revealed dramatically how important the zebrafish in particular has become as a model system for topics, such as developmental biology, functional genomics, biomedicine, toxicology, and drug development. A new emphasis was given to its potential as a model for aquaculture, a topic of great economic interest to the host country Norway and for the future global food supply in general. Zebrafish husbandry as well as its use in teaching were also covered in separate workshops. As has become a tradition in these meetings, there was a well-attended Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and ZFIN workshop focused on Zebrafish Genome Resources on the first day. The full EZM 2015 program with abstracts can be read and downloaded from the EZM 2015 Web site zebrafish2015.org .

  5. European standards of the civil service integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-09-01

    It was offered for further implementation of the European standards of integrity to develop a new Code of integrity for civil servants and take measures, which contain Anti-Corruption Strategy: adopt a law on the protection of persons who honestly reported regarding corruption offenses (denunciators, in particular a law concerning conducting the inspection of public servants on integrity.

  6. Civil Society Organizations’ Contribution To Democratic Governance In European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș – Cătălin Apostu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to focus/put emphasis on what are Civil Society Organizations are and gives an outline of categories of such Organizations in Europe, it briefly looks at Governance and Democratic Governance concepts. It will then after focus on the major roles of Civil Society Organizations in European democratic Governance drawing other examples also from other countries where possible and try to bring out scholarly arguments on the negative impacts of civil society organizations. The paper ends with conclusions and analysis of SC participation through EU’s multilevel governance. Much of my discussion and commentaries shall be depicted and based on information and ideas put forward by the following scholars; Paul Magnette 2003, European Governance and Civic participation, Dawid Friedrich 2007/08, Actual and Potential Contribution of Civil Society Organizations to Democratic Governance in Europe, EU Governance White Paper 2001, Rollin F. Tusalem 2007, the role of Civil Society in the Third and Fourth-Wave Democracies and other scholars not limited to the above.

  7. Oslo Epigenetics Symposium 2012. Oslo, Norway, 8-9 November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, Philippe; Eskeland, Ragnhild

    2013-02-01

    The Oslo Epigenetics Symposium 2012 held in Oslo, Norway, brought together ten speakers from several European countries and the USA for an evening public lecture and a full day of presentations on emerging topics in the field of epigenetics, gene regulation and organization of the cell nucleus.

  8. HOW FAR HAVE WE REACHED IN EUROPEAN COOPERATION IN CIVIL MATTERS? A VIEW ON EUROPEAN ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae-Horia TIT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU judicial cooperation in civil matters system was developed following the needs of member states to achieve a common goal, which is to create a space of mutual recognition of judgements and distribute the juridical effects of the order created under one jurisdiction thru out the entire European space. One of the main pillars of this system is the creation of European Enforcement Orders, judgements or other titles enforceable in a member state without prior recognition of declaration of enforceability. This system has been developed other the years, starting with the European Enforcement Order for uncontested claims, continuing with the European Order for Payment procedure and European Small Claims procedure, and reaching its peak in Regulation (EU 1215/2012. By virtue of this Regulation, entered into force in January 2015, a judgment given in a Member State which is enforceable in that Member State shall be enforceable in the other Member States without any declaration of enforceability being required (art. 39. The article analyses the evolution of EU regulation regarding the enforceability of foreign judgements and the system created under Regulation (EU 1215/2012, given its importance for the judicial cooperation in civil matters and its impact on the legislation of member stated. Also, a brief analysis of the provisions of the new Romanian civil procedure Code is made, given its amendments by Law no. 138/2014.

  9. Art and Civil Action : Cultural Organizations in the European Civil Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, Pascal; Lijster, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the place of new cultural organizationsin the civil domain is analysed. The authors describe a theoretical model that they call the ‘civil chain’, describing the different phases in which civil organizations develop themselves. The civil chain delivers analytic insights into the

  10. Humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lyndyuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available European integration of Ukraine requires new philosophy of governance modernization and organization, an effective functioning of the civil service system. The urgency of the implementation of humanization approach is a priority for modernization of the national civil service system. The problem of humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine has been studied in the article. The essence of concepts of «humanism» and «humanization of the civil service» has been considered. Humanism is understood as reflected anthropocentrism, with the human being the object with the highest value. The term «humanization of the civil service» means a deliberate reorientation of the civil service and its objects to recognize a human as an absolute value, «a measure of all things» and to meet the vital needs of society, creating conditions for its full self-realization and ensuring sustainable human development. The civil service must guarantee the security and stability of life and protect rights, freedoms and interests of each individual. Humanization of civil service is also determined as strengthening the rights and freedoms of civil servants, special protection of their dignity and the formation of new humanistic principles of civil service. The features of humanization of the national civil service have been analyzed. It has been found that the human is considered to be the highest value and the content and direction of civil servants activity is determined by ensuring his rights and freedoms. The necessity of changing the priorities of civil service modernization on the basis of humanization, orientation on meeting the needs of human and citizen, as well as creating conditions for closer implementation of national civil service standards to those used in the European Union has been proved. Changes in the philosophy of the civil service of Ukraine should be directed to «serving people», functioning of

  11. Kohtumine Oslos / Andres Herkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Herkel, Andres, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Autor kommenteerib Oslos toimunud Tšetšeenia eksiilvalitsuse juhi Ahmed Zakajevi ning praeguse Tšetšeenia valitseja Ramzan Kadõrovi esindaja ja parlamendijuhi Duhhvahha Abdurahmanovi kohtumist. Versioonid tulevikuks

  12. The Civil Society Tradition in the Evolution of European Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    The soft revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe, which were initiated at the end of the 1980s, led to a renewed growth in interest concerning civil society in Europe in general. This was so, even though such an interest had already existed since the late sixties and early seventies...... to enhancing the role of the citizenship....

  13. Associating at the European Level: Civil Society Networks in Brussels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsen, T.; Sittermann, B.; Freise, M.; Hallmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the position of the third sector at the European level, where it has slowly been building a presence. Although great advances have been made, especially from the 1990s onwards, and the sector’s European networks are much stronger than before, it remains institutionally weak and

  14. The European Engineer: A British Civil Engineering Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, George

    1988-01-01

    Confronts the problems of defining the European Engineer in terms of educational and practical training. Analyzes the supply and demand requirements of engineering management and practice. Compares these analyses with conditions in the United States. Gives details of the educational process in a number of European countries. (CW)

  15. Project work Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Hvastija, Darka; Kos, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the project for 15-year-old students with the title Ancient Greece and Rome and the sub-title Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization? is introduced. It shows how to connect mathematics with art, history, physics, geography and philosophy by studying ancient Greek scientists and their achievements. Collaborative teaching is introduced. The major aim of the project was to show mathematics as a part of human civilization and to follow...

  16. IFLA - Oslo 2005

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgetová, Jarmila

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2005), s. 6-7 ISSN 1210-0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70830501 Keywords : International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) * IFLA World Library and Information Congress - Oslo Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies

  17. The Influence and Enlightenment of Confucian Cultural Education on Modern European Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianfu

    2009-01-01

    Confucianism, not only is the core of Chinese cultural educational thoughts but its influence has been identified in the West by the European scholars. And with the impact of Confucianism civilization, the theological authority in the Dark Ages wavered. The human-based ideas of Confucianism that people are the foundation of the country, the…

  18. Civil society contributions to a sustainable health workforce in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, Linda; van de Pas, Remco; Marschang, Sascha

    Background: Following the adoption of the World Health Organization’s Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel (WHO Code), eight civil society organizations implemented the European Union (EU) funded project “Health Workers for All and All for Health Workers”

  19. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S CIVIL SOCIETY DISCOURSE AND SOCIAL PLATFORM OF EUROPEAN NGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUTAY, RIZA ACAR

    2011-01-01

    European NGO network, the Social Platform of European NGOs. The common understanding conceives of these organizations as conducive to democratization of EU governance within the scope of participatory democracy. However, I endeavour to argue that the Commission has had an aim to make use of the civil...... society discourse for its institutional interests, while intentionally and unintentionally shaping (and reshaping) civic action in Europe. Participatory democracy project, which is promoted by the Commission, can be seen as a deliberate venture of shaping civic action and state-society relationships......, which has been particularly created by the Commission to disperse the participatory democracy and good governance discourse in Europe....

  20. Green Regions? Comparing Civil Society Activism in NAFTA and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Zito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the role of environmental civil society in two regional organizations, the European Union and nafta. It uses the Transnational Advocacy Network approach to assess how non-governmental organizations make use of opportunities to influence policy, and the effects of civil society engagement. Despite wide differences between the two organizations, there are important commonalities: both provide resources and important access points for NGOS, both have limits and frustrations, and both encourage coalition-building among NGOS. 

  1. The idea of civil control in the European political and legal thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T D Sokolova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of defining the role and functions of civil control from the political and legal thought perspective and in the context of the possible ways of civil society and state authorities interaction. The demand for external evaluation as a prerequisite for the development of political system and the demand for establishing an effective feedback mechanism within it together with the lack of a unified approach to the interpretation of civil control in the political science and legal doctrines determined the relevance of the study of the established traditions in the interpretation of civil control in social sciences and humanities. Whereas social and power relations always develop within a specific legislative framework, whose maturity and consistency largely determine the state of civil society, it is not possible to evaluate control functions of the public sector otherwise than through the study of the legal framework of the state. Thus, the article describes the evolution of the views on possible formats of social and power relations in the context of transformations of the European social thought and political and legal approaches to the perception of power institutions, building a dialogue between social and political organizations, defining the forms of civic participation in political decision-making and interpretation of civil control.

  2. Cyclotron to Oslo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstad, J.

    1978-01-01

    The new cyclotron was delivered to Oslo University on September 21st 1978, and was mannfactured by A/B Scandtronix of Uppsala, Sweden. The contract price was 6,8 million Norwegian kroner and installation will cost a further 4 million. The main specifications are given. The energy will be 36 MeV for protons and alpha particles, 18 MeV deuterons and 48 MeV for helium 3. The principle of a cyclotron is briefly described. While the primary purpose of the machine is nuclear research it is also planned to produce short-lived radioisotopes, primarily iodine 123. (JIW)

  3. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry.

  4. Uus ooperimaja Oslos / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2008-01-01

    Oslo uue ooperimaja (arhitektuurifirma Snohetta) ehitust alustati 2003. a., 505 miljonit eurot maksma minev hoone kesklinnas Björviki skvääri kaldal avatakse teatri personalile aprillis, avaetendus jääb aasta lõppu. Suures saalis on 1359 kohta, kammersaalis 400

  5. Four Days...Oslo 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education and Culture, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes the four main themes dealt with at the Oslo Conference in 1976: the challenge to cultural policy in a changing society, cultural policy as an instrument for improving the quality of life, support and encouragement of artistic creation and cultural cooperation. Also considers four secondary themes: culture and the child, migrant workers,…

  6. Finding Political Opportunities: Civil Society, Industrial Power, and the Governance of Nanotechnology in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamprou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union encourages and institutionalizes participation by environmental, consumer, and labor organizations in the governance of nanotechnology. Interviews with leaders of the civil society organizations (CSOs show that they identified multiple problems with nanotechnology policy but had only limited success in gaining the changes that they sought. CSO leaders explain their lack of success as due to the overwhelming power of industry and the support of the European Commission for new industrial development, including nanotechnology. We analyze the perspectives of CSO leaders about their difficulties to develop the theory of the political opportunity structure in the situation of a highly scientized policy field with strong industrial monitoring. We suggest the need to extend the theory to pay more attention to the strategies that reformers can use to maneuver in and to open a relatively closed political opportunity structure. We argue that formal stakeholder engagement is not very effective and suggest instead the importance of the following: building coalitions with government actors, threatening or mobilizing grassroots mobilization, making the issue salient to the public, and pursuing the full range of institutional repertoires.

  7. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  8. On the Issue of the Unification of Norms on Jurisdiction in the Field of Civil Proceedings Within the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Maystrovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines some issues of norms on jurisdiction unification in the field of civil proceedings within the European Union. Author emphasizes that as a result of the adoption of the new Regulation No. 1215/2012 "Brussels Ibis", which came into force in 2012, rules on jurisdiction in the field of civil proceedings have undergone a number of changes. Article deals with the draft of the proposed amendments and their practical implementation. Amendments, their significance, efficiency and correlation with the projected initially are analyzed.

  9. European experiences as guidelines for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The period of post-socialist transition in Serbia brings more complex actors environment compared to socialistic period, while institutional arrangements are not enough developed to actively involve different groups of actors in spatial policy formulation process. In order to gather certain knowledge as guidelines for redefining institutional practices in Serbia, institutional framework of Serbia was compared in this paper with institutional framework of three developed European countries, especially in relation to the roles of public, private and civil sector in spatial policy formulation process. The European countries selected for the analysis are United Kingdom, Netherlands and Germany because of diverse national administrative traditions, so different institutional arrangements could be researched. By comparing institutional framework in Serbia with the ones in developed European countries following questions are researched: which actors are missing in Serbia, what are the ways institutional arrangements for different groups inclusion into spatial policy formulation process are formed, what are the differences between the roles of certain groups of actors in decision-making process. Current roles of actors in spatial policy formulation process in Serbia are reviewed and possible directions for public, private and civil sector role redefinition in Serbia are discussed in accordance with experiences of developed European countries.

  10. High-speed train Oslo-Berlin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann

    Indlæggets baggrund og formål I det såkaldte COINCO-projekt, et INTERREG-projekt støttet af regioner og byer mellem Oslo og Berlin, er der udviklet en strategi for et tættere samarbejde i korridoren (Jespersen et al. 2007). Udbygning af infrastrukturen for passagerer og gods er en væsentlig del h...... Oslo - Göteborg". Sluttrapport. Jespersen, P. H., Jensen, A., Stroschein, C., & Lundgren, A. 2007, COINCO - Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - Strategy 2025. Landex, A. 2006, Railway Capacity Oslo-Berlin, Center for Trafik og Transport, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby.  ...

  11. Radon levels in Oslo schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovlev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon measurements using passive CR-39 detectors have been conducted in all schools in Oslo municipality during winter 2003/2004. Results are presented and discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative factors, some of which are specific for schools as workplaces. Analysis is conducted with respect to factors relating to building construction type, ventilation principle, age of building, building size etc. The influence of ventilation type on radon levels is studied, and problems of investigations based purely on conventional passive radon detectors are noted. Over-estimation of radon concentration by passive detectors and day-night variations of indoor radon levels in buildings with mechanical ventilation systems are discussed. Several guiding principles for planning similar investigations based on above discussions are outlined. (author)

  12. Mälestustahvel Oslo valitsusele / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2016-01-01

    Otsustati tähistada Oslos asuv hoone, kus 1953. aastal nimetati ametiise Eesti Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis. Sõjajärgsetel aastatel organiseerusid eestlased Rootsis. Kuna Rootsis oli pagulaste poliitiline tegevus keelatud, siis toimus eksiilvalitsuse ametisse määramine Oslos. Kui 20. augustil 1991 taastati iseseisev Eesti riik, siis tunnustas seda ka Eesti Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis. Vabariigi valitsus eksiilis lõpetas oma tegevuse 7. oktoobril 1992. aastal. 2. oktoobril 2015 toimunud mälestustahvli avamisest

  13. GENERAL INFORMATION MEETING on the European Co-operative Association of International Civil Servants (AMFIE)

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Wednesday 29 September 2010 at 11h (160/1-009) Mr. Dimitri ARGYROPOULOS, Chairman of AMFIE's*) Board of Directors and Mrs. Janine RIVALS, Member of AMFIE's Board of Directors, will make a general presentation on AMFIE's personal financial services and how they may benefit international civil servants. They will also focus on the particular financial challenges faced by expatriate civil servants and on the solutions AMFIE can offer. The presentation will be followed by a question and answer session. Private consultations - 9:00 to 11:00 and 14:00 to 17:30 (5/1-030) Participants who wish to meet AMFIE's representatives for one-to-one private consultations are invited to contact directly Mrs. Janine Rivals (+33/1 45 35 70 79, GSM +33/6 63 58 36 62 or jr@amfie.org) or AMFIE's Secretariat in Luxembourg (+352/42 36 61-1 or amfie@amfie.org). A dedicated form will also be available for this purpose in the meeting room during the presentation. *)\tAMFIE is a cooperative society open exclusively to international ...

  14. General Information Meeting on the European Co-operative Association of International Civil Servants (AMFIE)

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Monday 28 November 2011 at 12h (61/1-009 – Pas Perdus, room C) Mrs. Janine RIVALS, Vice-Chairwoman of AMFIE's* Board of Directors and Mrs. Hélène ECKERT, coordinator for all international organisations in Switzerland, will make a general presentation on AMFIE's personal financial services and how they may benefit international civil servants. They will also focus on the particular financial challenges faced by expatriate civil servants and on the solutions AMFIE can offer. The presentation will be followed by a question and answer session. Private consultations – from 11:00 to 12:00 and from 14:00 to 17:30 (61/1-009 and 61/0-006) Participants who wish to meet AMFIE's representatives for one-to-one private consultations are invited to contact directly Mrs. Janine Rivals (+33/1 45 35 70 79, GSM +33/6 63 58 36 62 or jr@amfie.org) or AMFIE's Secretariat in Luxembourg (+352/42 36 61-1 or amfie@amfie.org). It will be possible to make an ...

  15. Public and Private Institutions: Educating Civil Society about European Security Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bardají

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available As an specialist in strategic studies and political adviser, the author developes three basic ideas in his speech: 1 the objective necessity of strategic thinking to increase defense awareness, with the goal of ameliorating the relations between civil society and the Armed Forces, and to create a strategic culture to help to make more permeable the Administration decision-making process; 2 public and private institutions have to understand each other, despite the fact that tradition and time pressures do negatively weigh on Administration decision-making; 3 both parts –Administration and specialists in security– have to make the effort of becoming more flexible, on the one hand, and more capable of producing relevant studies in political terms, on the other.

  16. DAISY - the Oslo Cyclotron data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsoey, T.

    1991-08-01

    The new CACTUS multidetector system for the Oslo Cyclotron consists of 8 particle telescopes, 28 NAI detectors and 2 Ge detectors. Each detector gives rise to one energy parameter and one time parameter. Thus, a total of 80 parameters are present. The counting rate is 100 kByte/s for the highest beam intensities. A new data acquisition system, DAISY, satisfying these demands has been designed. The present report is intended as a complete technical manual for the new system. 24 refs

  17. [Untreated syphilis - from Oslo to Tuskegee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Anniken; Lie, Anne Kveim

    2016-12-01

    In the period from 1891 - 1910, around 2000 patients with syphilis were admitted to the Department of Dermatology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet. The head of the department, Cæsar Boeck (1845 - 1917), believed in allowing the disease to take its natural course and withheld treatment. He made detailed notes of the diagnosis and the clinical course of the disease for all his patients. Boeck's material is unique, and forms the basis for our current knowledge about the prognosis and course of syphilis infections. In 1928, the patients were scrutinised by Boeck's successor in the Department of Dermatology, Edvin Bruusgaard (1869 - 1934), and later by Trygve Gjestland (1911 - 1993). Gjestland's doctoral thesis from 1955 has remained as «The Oslo study of untreated syphilis.» This article presents a medical historical background for the study. Bruusgaard's and Gjestland's research was important for the Tuskegee Study in the USA, and the Oslo study gave implicit support to this research project, which posterity has emphatically condemned as ethically unacceptable.

  18. The epidemiology of shoulder dislocations in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liavaag, S; Svenningsen, S; Reikerås, O; Enger, M; Fjalestad, T; Pripp, A H; Brox, J I

    2011-12-01

    There are few previous studies on the incidence of shoulder dislocation in the general population. The aim of the study was to report the incidence of acute shoulder dislocations in the capital of Norway (Oslo) in 2009. Patients of all ages living in Oslo, sustaining a dislocation of the glenohumeral joint, were identified using electronic diagnosis registers, patient protocols, radiological registers of the hospitals, and the Norwegian Patient Register (NPR). The overall incidence rate was 56.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 50.2-62.4] per 100,000 person-years, with rates of 82.2 (95% CI 71.7-92.8) and 30.9 (95% CI 24.5-37.3) in men and women, respectively. The incidence of primary dislocations was 26.2 (95% CI 22.1-30.4). The overall incidence of shoulder dislocations in Oslo was higher than previously reported incidences. The incidence of primary dislocations was also higher than that in previously reported studies for the general population but it was close to the incidence reported in Malmø, Sweden. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Mulighetsstudie for urbant jordbruk ved Gaustadjordet i Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Espeli, Marthe Bævre

    2017-01-01

    Thesis exploring possibilities for urban agriculture activities at Gaustadjordet, Oslo Gaustadjordet is located in Oslo Kommune, which holds 658 390 inhabitants. (https://www.oslo.kommune.no/politikk-og-administrasjon/statistikk/ befolkning/folkemengde-og-endringer/, 01.01.16) The area is located south of preserved forest areas surrounding the city, and the recreational area of of Sognsvann, northwest of Majorstua, between Blindern and Vinderen metro stations. The area has traditionally be...

  20. Seaside recreation in Oslo : bringing Bispevika closer to the city

    OpenAIRE

    Kloster-Jensen, Erlend Andre Borka

    2017-01-01

    Oslo is a growing city. Instead of letting the city expand beyond its borders, the municipality wants to use sites by the Oslo fjord for urban growth. The planning agency of Oslo is currently working on redefining the seaside, with the intent of making it more accessible to the public. One of the agency’s efforts in providing seaside recreation for Oslo’s citizens is called Havnepromenaden, which is to become a 9-kilometer long promenade along the Oslo fjord. This thesis treats the topi...

  1. [Jörg Hackmann (Hrsg.). Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context] / Rüdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ritter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2012

  2. How does single party dominance influence civil society organisations' engagement strategies? Exploratory analysis of participative mainstreaming in a 'regional' European polity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A raft of United Nations Treaties, European Union Directives and domestic laws oblige governments in 180 + countries to apply the Participative Democratic Model of mainstreaming equalities to public administration by involving those targeted by equality initiatives at all stages in their design and delivery. Notwithstanding Participative Democratic Model's deeply political nature, extant work has overlooked how governing party turnover influences civil society organisations' (CSOs) strategies. Here, this lacuna is addressed using a negative 'extreme case study' research design involving qualitative accounts from civil society organisations in Wales, a 'regional' European polity characterised by one-party dominance. The findings reveal how the absence of turnover distorts the Participative Democratic Model in relation to diverse factors including: strategic bridging, extraparliamentary politics, cognitive locks and party institutionalisation. Inter alia, the wider contribution of this analysis lies in showing the importance of turnover to effective engagement, the 'pathologies' associated with one-party dominance and the need for adaptive civil society strategies tailored to prevailing electoral politics and governing party turnover in liberal democracies.

  3. One-stage (Warsaw) and two-stage (Oslo) repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate: Craniofacial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Piotr Stanislaw; Wegrodzka, Ewa; Semb, Gunvor; Hortis-Dzierzbicka, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare facial development in subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) treated with two different surgical protocols. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 61 patients (42 boys, 19 girls; mean age, 10.9 years; SD, 1) treated consecutively in Warsaw with one-stage repair and 61 age-matched and sex-matched patients treated in Oslo with two-stage surgery were selected to evaluate craniofacial morphology. On each radiograph 13 angular and two ratio variables were measured in order to describe hard and soft tissues of the facial region. The analysis showed that differences between the groups were limited to hard tissues – the maxillary prominence in subjects from the Warsaw group was decreased by almost 4° in comparison with the Oslo group (sella-nasion-A-point (SNA) = 75.3° and 79.1°, respectively) and maxillo-mandibular morphology was less favorable in the Warsaw group than the Oslo group (ANB angle = 0.8° and 2.8°, respectively). The soft tissue contour was comparable in both groups. In conclusion, inter-group differences suggest a more favorable outcome in the Oslo group. However, the distinctiveness of facial morphology in background populations (ie, in Poles and Norwegians) could have contributed to the observed results. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Valve Janov ja Margus Meinart Oslos / Enn Lillemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemets, Enn

    1999-01-01

    Tartu kunstnike Valve Janovi ja Margus Meinarti ühisnäitus 12. V-18. VI Oslo galeriis Rusticana. Eksponeeritud V. Janovi 19 õlimaali, kollaazhi ja monotüüpiat aastaist 1958-1994, M. Meinarti 24 õlimaali.

  5. The beam handling system of the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messelt, S.

    1985-11-01

    The beam optic system of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. A computer program for the calculation of optimal settings of quadropoles is presented. The reliability of the computer program is confirmed by experimental data

  6. Epidemiology of distal forearm fractures in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthus, C M; Frihagen, F; Meyer, H E; Nordsletten, L; Melhuus, K; Falch, J A

    2008-06-01

    The population of Oslo has the highest incidence of hip fracture reported. The present study shows that the overall incidence of distal forearm fractures in Oslo is higher than in other countries and has not changed significantly when comparing the incidence of 1998/99 with 1979. The population of Oslo has the highest incidence of hip fracture reported. The present study reports the incidence of distal forearm fracture in Oslo and the fracture rates of immigrants. Patients aged > or = 20 years resident in Oslo sustaining a distal forearm fracture in a one-year period in 1998/99 were identified using electronic diagnosis registers, patient protocols, and/or X-ray registers of the clinics in Oslo. Medical records were obtained and the diagnosis verified. The age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and compared with those for 1979. Data on immigrant category and country of origin of the patients were obtained. The age-adjusted fracture rates per 10,000 for the age group > or = 50 years were 109.8 and 25.4 in 1998/99 compared with 108.3 and 23.5 in 1979 for women and men, respectively (n.s.). The relative risk of fracture in Asians was 0.72 (95% CI 0.53-1.00) compared with ethnic Norwegians. The overall incidence of distal forearm fractures in Oslo is higher than in other countries and has not changed significantly when comparing the incidence of 1998/99 with 1979. Furthermore, the present data suggest that Asian immigrants in Oslo have a slightly lower fracture risk than ethnic Norwegians.

  7. Meetodist tulenev olukord. Bjaervika projekt, Oslo = Technique Driven Condition. Bjaervika project, Oslo / Danilo Dangubic, Gudjon Erlendsson, Jeffrey Turko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dangubic, Danilo

    2000-01-01

    Oslo kesklinna sadamaala tavakohase üldplaneeringu asemel pakuvad Londoni arhitektuuribüroo Urban Office arhitektid Danilo Dangubic, Gudjon Erlendsson ja Jeffrey Turko alternatiivprojekti, mis keskendub linnakeskonnale ja meetodile selle uurimiseks. 9 ill

  8. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    The European Union's Basic Safety Standards Directive (96/29/Euratom) lays down safety standards for the protection of workers and the general public against the effects of ionising radiations. Article 42 of the Directive deals with the protection of aircrew. It states that for crew of jet aircraft who are likely to be subject to exposure to more than 1 mSv y-1 appropriate measures must be taken, in particular: to assess the exposure of the crew concerned, to take into account the assessed exposure when organising working schedules with a view to reducing the doses of highly exposed aircrew, to inform concerned workers of the health risks involved in their work, to apply Article 10 to female aircrew. (The unborn child shall be treated like a member of the public.) This Directive must be transformed into national law of the 15 member states of the European Union by 13 May 2000. The European Commission and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland sponsored this International Conference. The objective of this conference was to assist both the airline industry and the national regulatory organisations in identifying the means available to comply with the requirements of the Directive. Over 200 delegates attended the conference from more than 25 countries. The welcoming addresses were made by Mary Upton (Director of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland), Joe Jacob (Minister for State responsible for Nuclear Safety) and James Currie (Director-General for the Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection). Mr Currie stated that there was a need for political decisions to be based on good science, and that technological trends will lead to higher and longer flights, and therefore higher radiation doses. The first day concentrated on the scientific basis of measurement, calculation and monitoring of cosmic radiation. The first speaker, Dr Heinrich from the University of Siegen, Germany, talked about the physics of cosmic radiation fields. He pointed

  9. Muusikamaailm : Festival "Ultima" Oslos. Kaks juubilari šveitsist. Honeckil juba kaks orkestrit / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    Nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Ultima" Oslos. šveitsi muusikategelased Tibor Varga ja Rudolf Kelterborn tähistasid juubelit. Noorel austria dirigendi Manfred Honeck'i juhatada on kaks orkestrit- Rootsi Raadio Sümfooniaorkester ja Oslo Filharmoonia Orkester

  10. Evaluation of Centre for Women's Studies and Gender Research (SKK), University of Oslo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvbakken, Kari Tove; Katrine, Fangen; Lotte, Hedeager

    2007-01-01

    Evaluering af det tværfaglige forskningscenter "Senter for Kvinde og Kjønnsforskning" ved Oslo Universitet.......Evaluering af det tværfaglige forskningscenter "Senter for Kvinde og Kjønnsforskning" ved Oslo Universitet....

  11. Rebels without a Cause? Civil disobedience, Conscientious Objection and the Art of Argumentation in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Nieminen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil disobedience is often seen as a political statement whilst conscientious objection is understood as a private matter. This article discusses real-life acts of disobedience in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The emphasis is on the argumentative strategies by which the potential for profound social change can be neutralised in legal argumentation. The cases discussed here concentrate on Turkey and represent acts of conscientious objection and civil disobedience. The main finding is that in legal argumentation there are two strategies for neutralising the potential for change: first, labelling the disobedient act as a private matter in order to deprive it of its political message, or second, labelling the act as violent, undemocratic behaviour so that it can be disregarded. The article shows that the law is unable, and perhaps unwilling, to fully acknowledge the political claims of disobedience. A menudo se percibe la desobediencia civil como una declaración política, mientras que la objeción de conciencia se entiende como un asunto privado. Este artículo analiza actos de desobediencia de la vida real a través de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos. Se enfatizan las estrategias argumentativas por las que se puede neutralizar el potencial de cambio social profundo a través de la argumentación jurídica. Los casos analizados aquí se centran en Turquía y representan actos de objeción de conciencia y desobediencia civil. La conclusión principal es que en la argumentación jurídica existen dos estrategias para neutralizar el potencial de cambio: en primer lugar, etiquetar el acto de desobediencia como un asunto privado, para privarlo de su mensaje político, en segundo lugar, etiquetar el acto como un comportamiento violento y no democrático, para que pueda ser ignorado. El artículo demuestra que el derecho es incapaz de, y tal vez reticente a, reconocer totalmente las reivindicaciones pol

  12. Features of calculation of reasonable time of the trial in civil cases in the context of the practice of the European court of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Цувіна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR guarantees right to a fair trial within a reasonable time for everyone (par. 1 art. 6 ECHR. Reasonable time of the trial is an element of the right to a fair trial. One of the main directions for development of civil procedure in Ukraine is the implementation of international standards of fair trial, in particular standards of reasonable time of the trial. Recent research and publications analyses. Foreign and Ukrainian scientists such as Komarov V. V., Neshataeva T. M., Sakara N. U. and others in their works paid attention to different aspects of problems connected with the right to a fair trial within a reasonable time, but a comprehensive study devoted to a features of calculation of reasonable time of the trial taking into account the practice of the ECHR on this issue wasn’t conducted. Paper objective. Main objective of the article is to study decisions of the ECHR concerning the interpretation of Par. 1, Art. 6 ECHR and analyze features of calculation of reasonable time of the trial to make recommendations on implementation of such national level. Paper main body. As a rule, according to a practice of ECHR reasonable time of civil proceedings begins on the date on which the case is referred to a judicial authority. Thus ECHR can take as the starting point the date of a preliminary application to an administrative authority, especially when this is a prerequisite for commencement of proceedings. The end of reasonable time of the trial connected with the moment when the court decision become final or its execution. Conclusions of the research. Calculation of reasonable time of the trial in civil cases in circumstances when an application to the court was preceded by a seeking for protection from the authorities and public servants of executive power has features. In such situations a calculation of reasonable time of the trial doesn’t begin from the moment of seeking for

  13. The geology and geophysics of the Oslo rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The regional geology and geophysical characteristics of the Oslo graben are reviewed. The graben is part of a Permian age failed continental rift. Alkali olivine, tholefitic, and monzonitic intrusives as well as basaltic lavas outline the extent of the graben. Geophysical evidence indicates that rifting activity covered a much greater area in Skagerrak Sea as well as the Paleozoic time, possibly including the northern Skagerrak Sea as well as the Oslo graben itself. Much of the surficial geologic characteristics in the southern part of the rift have since been eroded or covered by sedimentation. Geophysical data reveal a gravity maximum along the strike of the Oslo graben, local emplacements of magnetic material throughout the Skagerrak and the graben, and a slight mantle upward beneath the rift zone. Petrologic and geophysical maps which depict regional structure are included in the text. An extensive bibliography of pertinent literature published in English between 1960 and 1980 is also provided.

  14. The Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgements in Civil Cases in the Context of Practice of European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Андріївна Цувіна

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses recognition and enforcement of foreign judgements in civil cases in the context of the practice of European Court of Human Rights. The conclusion is made, that European Court of Human Rights analyzes institute of recognition and enforcement of foreign judgements through such procedural rights as right to a fair trial (art. 6 ECHR and right to an effective remedy (art. 13 ECHR as long as such substantive conventional rights as right to protection pf property (art. 1 of the First Protocol to ECHR and right to respect for private and family life (art. 8 ECHR. It is considered that the main article through which this institute should be analyzed is art. 6 ECHR containing procedural guaranties of fair trial. According to the art. 13 ECHR the effective remedies of protection of the right to a fair trial in reasonable time should be provided at national level. Moreover reforms of this sphere of judicial practice should be done in accordance with art. 8 ECHR and art. 1 of the First Protocol to ECHR which provide specific substantive rights. All of the above mentioned aspects are analyzed in detail.

  15. The effects of a driving mechanism on Oslo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Gui-Jun; Pan, Yong-Cai

    2010-01-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic Oslo models (IOM and AOM) under a bulk driving mechanism have been investigated. We apply the moment analysis to evaluate critical exponents and the finite size scaling method to consistently test the obtained results. We find that both types of Oslo model have different critical behaviour. However, the critical exponents are the same for deterministic and random IOMs, and are independent of the strength of the anisotropy for the AOM. In contrast to a boundary driving mechanism, we find that the critical exponents depend crucially on the driving mechanism for the IOM, and are independent of the driving mechanism for the AOM.

  16. Sampling rare fluctuations of height in the Oslo ricepile model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Punyabrata; Dhar, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new Monte Carlo algorithm for studying large deviations of the height of the pile from its mean value in the Oslo ricepile model. We have used it to generate events which have probabilities of order 10 -1000 . These simulations check our qualitative argument (Pradhan P and Dhar D 2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 021303) that in the steady state of the Oslo ricepile model the probability of large negative height fluctuations Δh = -αL about the mean varies as exp(-κα 4 L 3 ) as L → ∞ with α held fixed and κ > 0

  17. Monitoring urban air quality using a high-density network of low-cost sensor nodes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R.; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to citizens. Air pollution is associated with a range of diseases, symptoms and conditions that impair health and quality of life. In Oslo, traffic, especially exhaust from heavy-duty and private diesel vehicles and dust resuspension from studded tyres, together with wood burning in winter, are the main sources of pollution. Norway, as part of the European Economic Area, is obliged to comply with the European air quality regulations and ensure clean air. Despite this, Oslo has exceeded both the NO2 and PM10 thresholds for health protection defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The air quality in the Oslo area is continuously monitored in 12 compliance monitoring stations. These stations provide reliable and accurate data but their density is too low to provide a detailed spatial distribution of air quality. The emergence of low-cost nodes enables observations at high spatial resolution, providing the opportunity to enhance existing monitoring systems. However, the data generated by these nodes is significantly less accurate and precise than the data provided by reference equipment. We have conducted an evaluation of low-cost nodes to monitor NO2 and PM10, comparing the data collected with low-cost nodes against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analysers. During January and March 2016, a network of 24 nodes was deployed in Oslo. During January, high NO2 levels were observed for several days in a row coinciding with the formation of a thermal inversion. During March, we observed an episode with high PM10 levels due to road dust resuspension. Our results show that there is a major technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Despite this, low-cost sensor nodes are able to reproduce the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed

  18. Medical emergencies on large passenger ships without doctors: the Oslo-Kiel-Oslo ferry experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thor-Erik; Tveten, Agnar; Dahl, Eilif

    2017-01-01

    The Oslo-Kiel-Oslo route is currently the only direct ferry crossing between Norway and Germany, covered by 2 cruise-and-cars ferries carrying about 2,600 passengers each and sailing every day (20 h at sea, 4 h in port). Unlike most ocean going cruise vessels, they are not required to carry a physician but an on-board paramedic handles medical emergencies. The aim of the study was to provide data on medical emergencies leading to helicopter evacuations (helivacs) or other urgent transfers to facilities ashore from the two ferries during a 3-year period. Data about the ferries, passengers, crew, helivacs and other medical transfers were collected from official company statistics and the paramedics' transfer reports. A total of 169 persons, including 14 (8.3%) crewmembers, were transferred from the ferries to land-based facilities by ambulance while alongside (n = 80; 47.3%) or evacuated by helicopter (n = 85; 50.3%) and rescue boat (n = 4; 2.4%) during the 3-year period. Transfer destinations were Denmark (n = 53), Germany (n = 49), Norway (n = 48) and Sweden (n = 19). The passenger helivac rate was 2.4 per 100,000 passenger-days. One person was airlifted from a ferry every 2 weeks. Among helivacs, 40% were heart-related, and more cardiac cases were airlifted than transferred by ambulance in port. All helivac requests were made after discussion between the ferry's paramedic and telemedical doctors ashore and agreement that the medical challenge exceeded the ferry's capability. This close cooperation kept the threshold for arranging helivacs from the ferries low, enabling short transport times to land-based facilities for critically ill patients. Further studies, including feedback from the receiving hospitals, are needed to determine measures that can reduce possible helicopter overutilisation without compromising patient safety and outcome.

  19. Health literacy: the missing link in improving the health of Somali immigrant women in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Torheim, Liv Elin; Kumar, Bernadette

    2016-11-03

    Existing studies report a positive association between inadequate health literacy and immigrant's adverse health outcomes. Despite substantial research on this topic among immigrants, little is known about the level of health literacy among Somali women in Europe, and particularly in Norway. A cross sectional study using respondent driven sampling was conducted in Oslo, Norway. A sample of 302 Somali women, 25 years and older, was interviewed using the short version of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire. Data was analysed using logistic regression. Findings revealed that 71 % of Somali women in Oslo lack the ability to obtain, understand and act upon health information and services, and to make appropriate health decisions. Being unemployed (OR 3.66, CI 1.08-12.3) and socially less integrated (OR 8.17, CI 1.21-54.8) were independent predictors of an inadequate health literacy among Somali women. Enhanced health literacy will most likely increase the chance to better health outcomes for immigrants, thereby moving towards health equity in the Norwegian society. Therefore, policies and programs are required to focus and improve health literacy of immigrant communities.

  20. Health literacy: the missing link in improving the health of Somali immigrant women in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi A. Gele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing studies report a positive association between inadequate health literacy and immigrant’s adverse health outcomes. Despite substantial research on this topic among immigrants, little is known about the level of health literacy among Somali women in Europe, and particularly in Norway. Methods A cross sectional study using respondent driven sampling was conducted in Oslo, Norway. A sample of 302 Somali women, 25 years and older, was interviewed using the short version of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire. Data was analysed using logistic regression. Results Findings revealed that 71 % of Somali women in Oslo lack the ability to obtain, understand and act upon health information and services, and to make appropriate health decisions. Being unemployed (OR 3.66, CI 1.08–12.3 and socially less integrated (OR 8.17, CI 1.21–54.8 were independent predictors of an inadequate health literacy among Somali women. Conclusions Enhanced health literacy will most likely increase the chance to better health outcomes for immigrants, thereby moving towards health equity in the Norwegian society. Therefore, policies and programs are required to focus and improve health literacy of immigrant communities.

  1. European Wars, Civil Conflicts, and National Projects. The Neapolitan Restorations (1799-1866 Revisited | Guerras europeas, conflictos civiles, proyectos nacionales. Una interpretación de las restauraciones napolitanas (1799-1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining counter-revolution through its greater achievements, that is, the four winning restorations, and also their disastrous fall, that is, the defeated restoration, may contribute to enrich traditional perspectives on the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies’ resistance and the crisis. European conflicts, civil wars, state constructions and modern national identity shaping are phenomena which intertwine the complicated history of the Neapolitan Kingdom. It is from the perspective of the dynastic (1799 and 1815 and absolutist restorations (1821, that we may insert in a general interpretative scheme the controversy between internal conflict and international crisis, their relationship with the shaping of ideas and nationalist affiliation and, finally, their comparison with the counter-revolution in the Bourbon world. The paradigm represented by this conflict allows for a contrast with the wider French and Spanish-American Bourbon world. We may thus consider both the success of Neapolitan legitimism and its collapse in 1860, as well as the reasons for its recent recovery in the Italian collective awareness. | La elección de examinar la contrarrevolución a través de sus mayores éxitos, las cuatro restauraciones victoriosas, y su derrota, la restauración fallida, puede enriquecer las perspectivas tradicionales sobre la resistencia y la crisis del Reino de las dos Sicilias. Los conflictos europeos, las guerras civiles, las construcciones estatales y la creación de identidades nacionales modernas son fenómenos que se entrecruzan con la complicada historia del reino napolitano. A través de la perspectiva de las restauraciones, bien dinásticas (1799 y 1815, o bien absolutistas (1821 y 1849, podemos insertar en un esquema interpretativo general la dialéctica entre conflicto interno y crisis internacionales, la interrelación con la formación de las ideas y adscripciones nacionalistas y la comparación con la contrarrevolución en el mundo borb

  2. European laws on compulsory commitment to care of persons suffering from substance use disorders or misuse problems- a comparative review from a human and civil rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Magnus; Nordlöf, Kerstin; Gerdner, Arne

    2015-08-28

    Laws on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) in mental health, social and criminal legislation for adult persons with alcohol and/or drug dependence or misuse problems are constructed to address different scenarios related to substance use disorders. This study examines how such CCC laws in European states vary in terms of legal rights, formal orders of decision and criteria for involuntary admission, and assesses whether three legal frameworks (criminal, mental and social law) equally well ensure human and civil rights. Thirty-nine laws, from 38 countries, were analysed. Respondents replied in web-based questionnaires concerning a) legal rights afforded the persons with substance use problems during commitment proceedings, b) sources of formal application, c) instances for decision on admission, and d) whether or not 36 different criteria could function as grounds for decisions on CCC according to the law in question. Analysis of a-c were conducted in bivariate cross-tabulations. The 36 criteria for admission were sorted in criteria groups based on principal component analysis (PCA). To investigate whether legal rights, decision-making authorities or legal criteria may discriminate between types of law on CCC, discriminant analyses (DA) were conducted. There are few differences between the three types of law on CCC concerning legal rights afforded the individual. However, proper safeguards of the rights against unlawful detention seem still to be lacking in some CCC laws, regardless type of law. Courts are the decision-making body in 80 % of the laws, but this varies clearly between law types. Criteria for CCC also differ between types of law, i.e. concerning who should be treated: dependent offenders, persons with substance use problems with acting out or aggressive behaviors, or other vulnerable persons with alcohol or drug problems. The study raises questions concerning whether various European CCC laws in relation to substance use disorder or misuse problems

  3. Harmonization of domestic legislation in the field of civil law with the European Union law: Securing of claims by means of fiduciary agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan

    2012-01-01

    legislation in the field of Civil Law with the European Union law, to regulate the institute of fiduciary agreements under the special law, integrate it into the Law on Obligations or make it a part of the future Civil Code of the Republic of Serbia.

  4. Crustal structure and composition of the Oslo Graben, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans

    2011-01-01

    across the southern Scandinavian Peninsula, with a focus on the Oslo Graben. Plutonic rocks are now exposed at the surface in the graben due to post rifting erosion and the corresponding low (5.5 km/s) P-wave velocities extend to depths of ~3 km. The Pwave velocity and Poisson's ratio between depths of 6...

  5. The Laboratory for School Science at the University of Oslo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Svein

    1976-01-01

    Describes the purposes of the Center for Science Education at the University of Oslo as follows: to give help and advice to acting teachers; to make the staff at the university more aware of the needs and problems of the schools. Outlines the activities involved in fulfilling these purposes. (GS)

  6. Learning medical history in Oslo: training for medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, O

    1999-03-01

    The teaching in medical history at the University of Oslo, Norway, is given as an integrated part of the student training for practical work in health care and community health. I summarize here the underlying argumentation and the teaching experiences, concluding that this is felt as an effective way to convey relevant medical historical knowledge and skills to the future doctors.

  7. Analysis of possible systematic errors in the Oslo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Buerger, A.; Goergen, A.; Nyhus, H. T.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Toft, H. K.; Tveten, G. M.; Wikan, K.; Krticka, M.; Betak, E.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have reviewed the Oslo method, which enables the simultaneous extraction of the level density and γ-ray transmission coefficient from a set of particle-γ coincidence data. Possible errors and uncertainties have been investigated. Typical data sets from various mass regions as well as simulated data have been tested against the assumptions behind the data analysis.

  8. Det skriftlige udtryk i bachelorprojekter ved Fysioterapeutuddannelserne i København og Oslo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Bente; Andersen, Bente; Sjöberg, Nils Erik

    2008-01-01

    . At both institutions the project is compulsory. The purpose was to learn more about Bachelor projects by comparing and contrasting Bachelor theses from the institutions, looking into structure, content and methods. Relevance: This study is in line with the European Higher Education Area (EHEA......): Transparency, coherence and tuning. The Bologna Declaration introduced the ECTS system, common grading system and common degree-system. Tuning of educational frames, content, and evaluation of Bachelor projects is important to clarify the level of the Bachelor project. Description: All abstracts from 2007 (86...... from Oslo and 51 from Oresund) and 7 bachelor theses from each institution of the 2 highest grades and of the 2 lowest grades of passed were included , as well as documents describing content and criteria. Each Education evaluated the theses using their own grading criteria. Written evaluations were...

  9. Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.

  10. [Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann] / Sir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamul, Sirje, 1951-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 20; Veröffentlichungen der Aue-Stiftung, 26). Hrsg. von Jörg Hackmann. Böhlau Verlag. Köln u.a. 2012

  11. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  12. Application of the Oslo method to high resolution gamma spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.

    2015-10-01

    Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is a widely used tool for calculation of the reaction cross section, in particular for astrophysical processes. The HF model requires as an input an optical potential, gamma-strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) to properly model the statistical properties of the nucleus. The Oslo method is a well established technique to extract GSFs and LDs from experimental data, typically used for gamma-spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. Here, the first application of the Oslo method to high-resolution data obtained using the Ge detectors of the STARLITER setup at TAMU is discussed. The GSFs and LDs extracted from (p,d) and (p,t) reactions on 152154 ,Sm targets will be presented.

  13. Understanding Transportation Choice of Families with Small Children in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Scott Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study took place in the Oslo area and focused on the transportation mode choices of parents with children in day care. Understanding why parents choose a certain mode of transport was the main objective of this research. Answers to the question of why were looked at in the context of theories stemming from urban planning, sociology, psychology amongst others. The findings show that while geographical distances did have the largest impact on how people travelled around work h...

  14. [Infection control and hand hygiene in nursing homes in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Ingrid; Thorstad, Margrete; Andersen, Bjørg Marit

    2008-06-26

    Nosocomial infections and transmission can be substantially reduced by good infection control. The laws and regulations for infection control in heath care institutions emphasize establishment of infection control programs and improved hand hygiene. Our study reviews some factors that are important for practicing adequate hand hygiene (knowledge about infection control and hand-washing facilities). Health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes in Oslo participated in this study in 2006-2007. A questionnaire was made and SPSS was used to analyse the data . 70.7% of 324 HCW (in 42 nursing homes) answered the questionnaires. Nearly all of the respondents (95.6%) knew about the written procedures for hygiene and infection control; 88.5% knew that an infection control program was in place and about 50% had received information through internal education. Three of four had read the National guidelines for hand hygiene, 77.5% thought that hand disinfection was more effective than hand washing, and 97% reported hand hygiene after contact with a patient having an infection. Dispensers for hand disinfection were situated at central work places. At the same time, 17.9% informed that they worked in more than one place at the same time. This study confirms that most nursing homes in Oslo have an infection control program and training that improves the knowledge and awareness of hand hygiene among HCWs. However, the fact that nursing homes in Oslo have the resources, knowledge and education, is not the same as compliance.

  15. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics. Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1998[Oslo Univ., Oslo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron laboratory, including the Oslo Cyclotron, has been in operation since 1980. The main auxiliary equipment consists of the multi-detector system CACTUS. During the last years, new, high efficiency Ge(HP) detectors were purchased and integrated in the CACTUS detector array. In connection with that, the electronical setup was revised and altered. Several drawbacks of the old setup could be pointed out and eliminated. A test of the performance of all detector array elements was made with high accuracy. The total beamtime used for experiments in 1998 was 1051 hours. 52 days were used by the Nuclear Physics section, 70 days by the University of Oslo Nuclear Chemistry section and the Norwegian Cancer Hospital used the cyclotron for 12 days. 42 days were spent on maintenance. In experimental nuclear physics, the section members are engaged within three main fields of research: Nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  16. European Religious Education and European Civil Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2012-01-01

    This paper challenges a foundational conjecture of the Religion in Education Dialogue or Conflict (REDCo) project, that increased interest in religion in public and political life as manifested particularly in education is evidence of counter-secularisation. The paper argues that rather than representing counter-secularisation, such developments…

  17. Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors between Sri Lankans living in Kandy and Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Nugegoda, Danasela B; Meyer, Haakon E

    2010-10-29

    South Asians living in western countries are known to have unfavourable cardiovascular risk profiles. Studies indicate migrants are worse off when compared to those living in country of origin. The purpose of this study was to compare selected cardiovascular risk factors between migrant Sri Lankans living in Oslo, Norway and Urban dwellers from Kandy, Sri Lanka. Data on non fasting serum lipids, blood pressure, anthropometrics and socio demographics of Sri Lankan Tamils from two almost similar population based cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway between 2000 and 2002 (1145 participants) and Kandy, Sri Lanka in 2005 (233 participants) were compared. Combined data were analyzed using linear regression analyses. Men and women in Oslo had higher HDL cholesterol. Men and women from Kandy had higher Total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Mean waist circumference and body mass index was higher in Oslo. Smoking among men was low (19.2% Oslo, 13.1% Kandy, P = 0.16). None of the women smoked. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in Kandy than in Oslo. Our comparison showed unexpected differences in risk factors between Sri Lankan migrants living in Oslo and those living in Kandy Sri Lanka. Sri Lankans in Oslo had favorable lipid profiles and blood pressure levels despite being more obese.

  18. What we know about Oslo meteorite from cosmogenic isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Kubalczak, T.; Zaręba, P.; Burski, M.; Bilet, M.; Miśta, E.; Tymińska, K.; Kołakowska, E.; Burakowska, A.; Żołądek, P.; Olech, A.; Wiśniewski, M.; Listkowska, A.; Saganowski, P.

    2015-10-01

    The fragments of an asteroid that had crashed over Norway were found in a few locations in Oslo at the beginning of March 2012. Later on some pieces of meteorite from the most South area were collected by the Meteoritical Section members of Comet and Meteor Workshop (PKiM) with the help of local meteoritical authorities. One meteorite fragment of 32g was used to measure cosmogenic radionuclides using non-destructive high-resolution gamma spectrometry technique. Five radioisotopes such as Al-26, Na-22, Mn-54, Co-57 and Co-60 were detected

  19. [Living conditions and pattern of acute poisonings in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvik, Hallgeir Mæsel; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Bjørnaas, Mari Asphjell; Hovda, Knut Erik; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2011-08-09

    Hospitalized patients with acute poisoning come from all classes of society. The relationship between living conditions and pattern of poisoning is, however, unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the connection between living conditions in Oslo and the pattern of acute poisonings, measured by incidence, main toxic agents and intention. A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all patients ≥ 18 years of age with a registered address in Oslo admitted to an Oslo hospital with acute poisoning from 1 April 2003 through 31 March 2004. The 15 city districts were grouped into three, according to the official living conditions index in Oslo: city district group 1 (best living conditions), city district group 2 (average living conditions) and city district group 3 (most difficult living conditions). Of a total of 947 patients admitted with acute poisoning as their main diagnosis in the study period, 691 were included in the study, 660 of whom had self-inflicted poisoning. In city district group 3, the annual incidence of acute poisonings was 2.14 per 1000 inhabitants, significantly higher than city district group 2, with 1.50 (p < 0.001), and city district group 1, with 1.36 (p < 0.001). Measured as intention assessed by the treating physician, suicidal and drug related poisonings and those induced by a "cry for help" were more common in city district group 3 (0.74, 0.59 and 0.74 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively) than in city district group 2 (0.62, 0.40 and 0.41, respectively) and city district group 1 (0.52, 0.32 and 0.45, respectively). The main toxic agents were predominantly benzodiazepines (20 %), ethanol (18 %) and paracetamol (12 %). There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of main toxic agents between the city district groups. The findings show a social gradient, with the highest incidence of poisonings in the city district group with the most difficult living conditions.

  20. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  1. Production of *sp67*Ga at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Holtebekk, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method for production of *sp67*Ga at the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The method is based on the nuclear reaction *sp68*Zn (p,2n)*sp67*Ga. The target is natural zinc metal of thickness 1.3 mm fixed by a thin alloy layer to a copper disc for efficient cooling during irradiation. By applying a beam of 29 MeV protons, a maximum production yield of approx. 1.8 mCi/*my*Ah was obtained. By demanding a contamination level of *sp66*Ga <=1%, the ''useful'' yield after a decaytime of 88 h is approx. 0.8 mCi/*my*Ah. Gallium has been separated carrierfree from the zinc matrix by cation exchange from 7.5M hydrocloric acid solutions and prepared as citrate complex at pH 5.5. After sterile filtering, autoclavation, pyrogene testing and analysis for iron and zinc, the *sp67*Ga-radiopharmaceutical has been applied in human investigations at the Ullevaal hospital in Oslo. (Auth.)

  2. Overweight and obesity among African immigrants in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Mbalilaki, Aneth J

    2013-03-26

    Norway is experiencing an increase in overweight/obese adults, with immigrants from developing countries carrying a heavy burden. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Somali immigrants in Oslo. A cross-sectional study involving 208 respondents aged 25 and over was conducted among Somali immigrants in Oslo, using a structured questionnaire. Prevalence of overweight/obesity varied by gender, with women having a significantly higher prevalence (66%) than men (28%). The mean BMI for females and males were 27.4 and 23.6, respectively. Similarly, 53% of women and 28% of men were abdominally obese. In a logistic regression analysis, both generalized and abdominal obesity were significantly associated with increasing duration of residence in Norway, and with being less physically active. Public health policymakers should facilitate an environment that enables Somali immigrants, particularly women, to lead healthy lifestyles. In this time of epidemiological transition, health education in the areas of physical exercise and healthy eating should be a major focus for working with new immigrants.

  3. The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Leffler, Daniel A; Bai, Julio; Biagi, Federico; Fasano, Alessio; Green, Peter HR; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Kelly, Ciaran; Leonard, Jonathan N; Lundin, Knut E; Murray, Joseph A; Sanders, David S; Walker, Marjorie M; Zingone, Fabiana; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature suggests a lack of consensus on the use of terms related to coeliac disease (CD) and gluten. Methods A multi-disciplinary task force of 16 physicians from 7 countries used the electronic database PubMed to review the literature with regards to CD-related terms up to January 2011. Teams of physicians then suggested a definition for each term, followed by feedback of these definitions through a web survey on definitions, discussions during a meeting in Oslo, and phone conferences. We evaluated the following terms (in alphabetical order): Coeliac disease and the following descriptors of CD: asymptomatic, atypical, classical, latent, non-classical, overt, paediatric classical, potential, refractory, silent, subclinical, symptomatic, typical, CD serology, CD autoimmunity, genetically at risk of CD, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten, gluten ataxia, gluten intolerance, gluten sensitivity, and gliadin-specific antibodies. Results CD was defined as “a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals”. Classical CD was defined as “CD presenting with signs and symptoms of malabsorption. Diarrhoea, steatorrhoea, weight loss or growth failure is required.” We suggest that “gluten-related disorders” is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten and that the term gluten intolerance is not to be used. Other definitions are presented in the paper. Conclusion This paper presents the Oslo definitions for CD-related terms. PMID:22345659

  4. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  5. En ganske god plan. Om pådrivere og bremser i byutvikling i Oslo og Bergen 1827-1875

    OpenAIRE

    Brække, Christoffer Cato Falsen

    2016-01-01

    Bergen var Norges største by helt frem til den ble forbigått av Oslo på 1830- og 1840-tallet. Etter at Oslo ble erklært hovedstad, opplevde Oslo en større befolkningsvekst enn de fleste byer i Europa, mens Bergen ble i samme tidsperiode kalt "stillstandsbyen, grunnet den relativt lave veksten. Oslo fikk sin første bygningslov i 1827, mens Bergen fikk sin basert på Oslos i 1830. Lovene skulle ha som funksjon å regulere byggingen i byene med spesielt fokus på å hindre...

  6. Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Twitter Newsletters Documents OAS Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable Development T Telecommunications Terrorism Tourism Trade Treaties and Agreements W Women Y Youth Strategic Partners Permanent Observers Civil Society

  7. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  8. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornaas, Mari A; Teige, Brita; Hovda, Knut E; Ekeberg, Oivind; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Jacobsen, Dag

    2010-06-06

    Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged > or =16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants) were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic), and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged > or =16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years). In 92 cases (89%), death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases), followed by ethanol (9%), tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) (4%), benzodiazepines (4%), and zopiclone (4%). Seventy-one (69%) were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31%) as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04). Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91), 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33), and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27), respectively. Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental deaths. Although case fatality rates were

  9. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  10. Oslo model, hyperuniformity, and the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, Peter; Dhar, Deepak; Mohanty, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of the one-dimensional Oslo rice pile model in which the critical height at each site is randomly reset after each toppling. We use the fact that the stationary state of this sand-pile model is hyperuniform to reach system of sizes >107 . Most previous simulations were seriously flawed by important finite-size corrections. We find that all critical exponents have values consistent with simple rationals: ν =4/3 for the correlation length exponent, D =9/4 for the fractal dimension of avalanche clusters, and z =10/7 for the dynamical exponent. In addition, we relate the hyperuniformity exponent to the correlation length exponent ν . Finally, we discuss the relationship with the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model, where we find in particular that the local roughness exponent is αloc=1 .

  11. Civil-Military Engagement: An Empirical Account of Humanitarian Perceptions of Civil-Military Coordination During the Response to Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollettino, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to identify how humanitarian actors in natural disasters coordinate (or communicate) with the military to identify the needs of disaster-affected populations, identify how coordination should be undertaken for the delivery of relief goods, perceive the effectiveness of such coordination, perceive the role that training played in preparation for coordinating with the military and the effectiveness of this training, and view the overall civil-military engagement and its implications for the independence of the humanitarian sector. A survey instrument focused on participant perceptions of the civil-military engagement in response to Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines was sent to country directors and agency leads who played a role in the response. Although the data supported anecdotal accounts that the coordination between civilian and military actors during the disaster relief efforts in Typhoon Haiyan worked well, they also revealed that fewer than half of the respondents were familiar with the Guidelines on the Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defence Assets in Disaster Relief (the "Oslo Guidelines") and only 12% of respondents thought that the Oslo Guidelines were used to develop organizational policy on humanitarian aid agency engagement with military actors. Humanitarians felt that international militaries and the Philippines Armed Forces played an important role in ensuring that aid reached people in need, particularly in the early days of the response. However, less than half of the respondents were familiar with the Oslo Guidelines.

  12. The statistical properties of 111,112,113Sn studied with the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveten, G. M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Campo, L. C.; Eriksen, T. K.; Giacoppo, F.; Guttormsen, M.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Maharromova, S.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.

    2015-05-01

    The γ-ray strength function and level density of 111, 112, 113Sn are being studied at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory (OCL) up to the neutron binding energy by applying the Oslo method to particle-γ coincidence data. The preliminary results for the γ-ray strength function are discussed in the context of the results for the more neutron-rich Sn-isotopes previously studied at OCL.

  13. The statistical properties of 111,112,113Sn studied with the Oslo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tveten G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray strength function and level density of 111, 112, 113Sn are being studied at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory (OCL up to the neutron binding energy by applying the Oslo method to particle-γ coincidence data. The preliminary results for the γ-ray strength function are discussed in the context of the results for the more neutron-rich Sn-isotopes previously studied at OCL.

  14. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  15. Book Review: Europe Renaissance. Essaying European Civil Society – Europa-Renaissance. Die europäische Bürgergesellschaft auf dem Prüfstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Müller-Pelzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The texts of the present volume represent the result of a conference held at Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts in 2014. With their contributions, researchers and students from different fields of investigation from several European countries invite the reader to focus on the perspective of European citizens to which less attention has been paid, compared to the institutional crisis of European Union. In contrast to its increased political and economic power, the EU has not succeeded in incorporating an authority able to communicate to its citizens the feeling of belonging together and to struggle for a common goal. In this sense the title “Europe Renaissance” is meant to push the search for a “good life” back to centre stage. From 2014 to 2016, the situation of the European Union has so clearly deteriorated that a well-known German expert in constitutional and public law Dieter Grimm comes to the result of an alarming democratic failure (Dieter Grimm, 2016, Europa ja – aber welches? Zur Verfassung der europäischen Demokratie, München: C.H. Beck. The political scientist Ulrike Guérot supports this analysis with a fresh manifesto (Ulrike Guérot, 2016, Warum Europa eine Republik warden muss! Eine politische Utopie, Bonn: Dietz.

  16. Operabygningen i Oslo: et økologisk paradoks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Haugdal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the Oslo Opera House building designed by Snøhetta (inaugurated 2008 as one of three monumental buildings in EU's Eco Culture Program and a so called demonstration building for ecological solutions in architecture. The most visible result in the Opera building is a large-scale glass wall with integrated solar cell panels, producing electricity as well as providing sun shading. The real ecological values, however, are hardly to be measured in money or watt, nor in reduced emissions or climatic change. This solar wall is first and foremost putting a strong ecological intention on display. With its giant ecological footprint Snøhetta's building can never be defended with­in a rational, environmental discourse. It is a contradictory example of sustainable architecture measured up against crucial factors like situatedness, construction and materials, energy consumption and costs. But this spectacular monumental construction which presents a new urban space in a former industrial part of the city, needs to be studied in accordance with deep ecology theories like Félix Guattari's Les trois écologies (1989. Guattari's extended definition of ecology, including sociocultural conditions and human mentality, gives an opportunity to discuss ecology not first and foremost as a rational and ethical challenge in architecture but as an aesthetical.

  17. Tenthaus Oslo – en inkluderende organisatorisk modell for framtidas kulturskoleelev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry O. Ulrichsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute more knowledge about how arts educational practice in the school context can be understood and developed. The cooperation between Tentahaus Oslo (TO, an initiative driven by artists, and the basic education section for minority students at an upper secondary school is brought forward as an alternative to more traditional forms of encounters with art and art communication in basic education and in the voluntary music and performing arts school. The article points out how the didactic thinking meets structural challenges and opens up spaces where participatory artistic processes and pedagogical processes are integrated. Didactic components like time, space and exchange, an extended time perspective, the placement of an atelier in school, a public exhibition space attached to the atelier, as well as exchange between teachers and the artist, appear as constitutive elements in the systematic cooperation between the fields. In a cross curricular perpsective on learning the article suggests that experiences from the cooperation might have transfer value to a more general school context and to the organization of the music and performing arts school and its teaching practice. The article also directs the attention to didactic arrangements that might increase the amount of students with a heterogenous cultural background in the music and performing arts school. In a larger perspective the importance of encounters with art in an educational context might enhance democratic thinking. The methodological approach is aletic hermeneutics, where empirical material is generated through narrative and critical dialogue.

  18. Attitudes toward female circumcision among Somali immigrants in Oslo: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele AA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele1,2, Bernadette Kumar3, Karin Harsløf Hjelde3, Johanne Sundby21The Department of Social Science, Oslo University College, 2Section for International Health, Department of General Practice and Community Medicine, University of Oslo, 3Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Due to its negative impact on public health, female circumcision (FC has gained increased attention from international communities and the Norwegian public in recent decades. In 1995, the Norwegian government outlawed the practice and simultaneously developed a package of measures aimed at preventing and ultimately eradicating FC in Norway. Like many other Western countries, immigrants of Somali descent constitute the largest immigrant group in Norway from countries with FC traditions. Although this immigrant group is often perceived as a cultural society that supports FC generally as a practice, there appears to be a lack of studies that explore the impact of acculturation and the Western social context on Somali immigrants’ attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Oslo, Norway to the practice of FC. Findings from this qualitative study indicate that Somalis in Oslo have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was proven by the presence in Oslo of a large number of Somali parents who left their daughters uncut as well as Somali girls, boys, men, and women who attribute being uncircumcised a high status. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of abandonment of FC among immigrants in the Western countries. The study highlights the success that has been achieved in improving attitudes toward the practice of the Somali community in Oslo, Norway, as well as emerging challenges that need to be addressed further.Keywords: female circumcision, attitude, behavior, immigrants, Somalis

  19. Modelling and measurements of urban aerosol processes on the neighborhood scale in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, M.; Kukkonen, J.; Keuken, M. P.; Lützenkirchen, S.; Pirjola, L.; Hussein, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of one hour, i.e. on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using an aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of n-alkanes, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. It was not necessary to model the nucleation of gas-phase vapors, as the computations were started with roadside conditions. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The effect of condensation and evaporation of organic vapors emitted by vehicles on particle numbers and on particle size distributions was examined. Under inefficient dispersion conditions, condensational growth contributed significantly to the evolution of PN from roadside to the neighborhood scale. The simplified parameterization of aerosol processes can predict particle number concentrations between roadside and the urban background with an inaccuracy of ∼ 10 %, compared to the fully size-resolved MAFOR model.

  20. Change in the use of hormone replacement therapy and the incidence of fracture in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H E; Lofthus, C M; Søgaard, A J; Falch, J A

    2009-05-01

    Fracture incidence in Oslo decreased from the 1970s to the 1990s in younger postmenopausal women, but not in older women or in men. Concurrently, hormone replacement therapy increased considerably. Using data from the Oslo Health Study, we estimated that roughly half the decline might be attributed hormone replacement therapy. Between the late 1970s and the late 1990s, the incidence of hip fracture and distal forearm fracture decreased in younger postmenopausal women in Oslo, but not in elderly women or in men. The purpose of this report is to evaluate whether the decreased incidence was coherent with trends in use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Data on estrogens were collected from official drug statistics, data on fractures from published studies and data on bone mineral density (BMD) from the Oslo Health Study. The sale of all estrogens increased 22 times from 1979 to 1999, and the sub-category estradiol combined with progestin increased 35 times. In the corresponding period the incidence of distal forearm fracture in women aged 50-64 years decreased by 33% and hip fracture by 39%. Based on differences in BMD between users and non-users of HRT, we estimated that up to half of this decline might be due to HRT. The reduction in fracture incidence in postmenopausal women in Oslo occurred in a period with a substantial increase in the use of HRT. Future surveillance will reveal whether the last years' decline in use of HRT will be translated into increasing fracture rates.

  1. The reversal of the burden of proof in the Principles of European Tort Law
    A comparison with Dutch tort law and civil procedure rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Giesen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is not one of its main features, the Principles of European Tort Law (PETL have devoted some attention to the rules regarding the burden of proof in tort cases, especially to the possibility of a reversal of that burden. Since such a reversal of the burden of proof will be highly relevant for the substantive outcome of a tort case, one needs to be able to justify such a reversal on normative grounds. However, that justification is not always advanced clearly enough in the PETL. At the same time the PETL focus largely on the possible exceptions to the general rule on the burden of proof. As a result, the underlying general rule as such has not been codified. This paper analyses the burden of proof rules in the PETL not only from a more technical point of view, but also from the perspective of the possible influence they might have on the substantive outcome of tort cases. To highlight their content, importance and possible inspirational force for a future ‘European tort law’, these Principles are contrasted with their counterparts under Dutch tort law. The aim is to answer the question whether the choices made in the PETL are justifiable and whether the Dutch tort system can – or maybe even should – seek inspiration from these Principles.

  2. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria at Oslo University Hospital 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen-Meyer, Lise Sofie H; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Golebiowska, Elzbieta; Kjeldsen-Kragh, Jens; Akkök, Çiğdem Akalın

    2015-06-16

    Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare haematological disease characterised by chronic haemolysis, pancytopenia and venous thrombosis. The condition is attributable to a lack of control of complement attack on erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes, and can be diagnosed by means of flow cytometry. In this quality assurance study, we have reviewed information from the medical records of all patients tested for PNH using flow cytometry at our laboratory over a ten-year period. In the period 2000-2010 a total of 28 patients were tested for PNH using flow cytometry at the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Oslo University Hospital. We have reviewed the results of these examinations retrospectively together with information from medical records and transfusion data for the patients concerned. Flow cytometry identified 22 patients with PNH: four with classic disease and 18 with PNH secondary to another bone marrow disease. Five patients had atypical thrombosis. Seventeen patients received antithymocyte globulin or drug treatment; of these, six recovered from their bone marrow disease, while six died and five had a need for long-term transfusion. Five patients with life-threatening bone marrow disease underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, three of whom died. Six of 22 patients received eculizumab; the need for transfusion has been reduced or eliminated in three patients treated with eculizumab over a longer period. Flow cytometry identified PNH in a majority of patients from whom we obtained samples. Most patients had a PNH clone secondary to bone marrow failure. Atypical thrombosis should be borne in mind as an indication for the test. Treatment with eculizumab is relevant for selected patients with PNH.

  3. Global Health Governance and Global Power: A Critical Commentary on the Lancet-University of Oslo Commission Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephen; Benatar, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    The Lancet-University of Oslo Commission Report on Global Governance for Health provides an insightful analysis of the global health inequalities that result from transnational activities consequent on what the authors call contemporary "global social norms." Our critique is that the analysis and suggested reforms to prevailing institutions and practices are confined within the perspective of the dominant-although unsustainable and inequitable-market-oriented, neoliberal development model of global capitalism. Consequently, the report both elides critical discussion of many key forms of material and political power under conditions of neoliberal development and governance that shape the nature and priorities of the global governance for health, and fails to point to the extent of changes required to sustainably improve global health. We propose that an alternative concept of progress-one grounded in history, political economy, and ecologically responsible health ethics-is sorely needed to better address challenges of global health governance in the new millennium. This might be premised on global solidarity and the "development of sustainability." We argue that the prevailing market civilization model that lies at the heart of global capitalism is being, and will further need to be, contested to avoid contradictions and dislocations associated with the commodification and privatization of health. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjorn J.; Lepland, Aave; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Alve, Elisabeth; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rindby, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached maximum ca. 1955-1960, and Cu has the highest concentration in sediment interval corresponding to ca. 1970. Geochemical profiles and maxima of Cu, Cd and Hg concentrations can be used as chronostratigraphic markers for sediment cores from the Oslo harbor. Acoustic backscatter and sediment core data indicate that propeller wash affects the seabed in the Oslo harbor. The propeller-induced turbulence causes erosion, and in places exposes and remobilizes contaminated sediments that accumulated in the harbor during previous decades. Such re-exposure of contaminated sediments could be detrimental to local ecosystems and offset remediation efforts, warranting further impact studies and potential mitigation strategies to prevent redistribution.

  5. Inflammatory Response After Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases Data From the Oslo-CoMet Trial: Erratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In the article ''Inflammatory Response After Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases Data From the Oslo-CoMet Trial'', which appeared in Volume 94, Issue 42 of Medicine, the University of Oslo was not credited as the affiliation for several authors. The article has since been corrected online.

  6. Hip fracture incidence is decreasing in the high incidence area of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støen, R O; Nordsletten, L; Meyer, H E; Frihagen, J F; Falch, J A; Lofthus, C M

    2012-10-01

    This study reports a significant decrease in age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fracture for women in Oslo, Norway, even compared with data from 1978/1979. Use of bisphosphonate may explain up to one third of the decline in the incidence. The aims of the present study were to report the current incidence of hip fractures in Oslo and to estimate the influence of bisphosphonates on the current incidence. Using the electronic diagnosis registers and lists from the operating theaters of the hospitals of Oslo, all patients with ICD-10 codes S72.0 and S72.1 (hip fracture) in 2007 were identified. Medical records of all identified patients were reviewed to verify the diagnosis. Age- and gender-specific annual incidence rates were calculated using the population of Oslo on January 1, 2007 as the population at risk. Data on the use of bisphosphonates were obtained from official registers. A total number of 1,005 hip fractures, 712 (71%) in women, were included. The age-adjusted fracture rates per 10,000 for the age group >50 years were 82.0 for women and 39.1 for men in 2007, compared with 110.8 and 41.4 in 1996/1997, 116.5 and 42.9 in 1988/1989, and 97.5 and 34.5 in 1978/1979, respectively. It was estimated that the use of bisphosphonates may explain up to 13% of the decline in incidence in women aged 60-69 years and up to 34% in women aged 70-79 years. The incidence of hip fractures in women in Oslo has decreased significantly during the last decade and is now at a lower level than in 1978/1979. This reduction was not evident in men. The incidence of hip fractures in Oslo is, however, still the highest in the world.

  7. The Oslo Health Study: Is bone mineral density higher in affluent areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Kari; Søgaard, Anne J; Falch, Jan A; Meyer, Haakon E

    2007-11-23

    Based on previously reported differences in fracture incidence in the socioeconomic less affluent Oslo East compared to the more privileged West, our aim was to study bone mineral density (BMD) in the same socioeconomic areas in Oslo. We also wanted to study whether possible associations were explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. Distal forearm BMD was measured in random samples of the participants in The Oslo Health Study by single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA). 578 men and 702 women born in Norway in the age-groups 40/45, 60 and 75 years were included in the analyses. Socioeconomic regions, based on a social index dividing Oslo in two regions - East and West, were used. Age-adjusted mean BMD in women living in the less affluent Eastern region was 0.405 g/cm2 and significantly lower than in West where BMD was 0.419 g/cm2. Similarly, the odds ratio of low BMD (Z-score Oslo East compared to West. The same tendency, although not statistically significant, was also present in men. Multivariate analysis adjusted for education, marital status, body mass index, physical inactivity, use of alcohol and smoking, and in women also use of post-menopausal hormone therapy and early onset of menopause, did hardly change the association. Additional adjustments for employment status, disability pension and physical activity at work for those below the age of retirement, gave similar results. We found differences in BMD in women between different socioeconomic regions in Oslo that correspond to previously found differences in fracture rates. The association in men was not statistically significant. The differences were not explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors.

  8. Non-western immigrants' satisfaction with the general practitioners' services in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Else; Nafstad, Per; Rosvold, Elin O

    2008-02-27

    Over the last few years the number of immigrants from the non-western parts of the world living in Oslo, has increased considerably. We need to know if these immigrants are satisfied with the health services they are offered. The aim of this study was to assess whether the immigrants' level of satisfaction with visits to general practitioners was comparable with that for ethnic Norwegians. Two population-based surveys, the Oslo Health Study and the Oslo Immigrant Health Study, were performed on selected groups of Oslo citizens in 2000 and 2002. The response rates were 46% and 33%, respectively. In all, 11936 Norwegians and 1102 non-western immigrants from the Oslo Health Study, and 1774 people from the Oslo Immigrant Health Study, were included in this analysis. Non-western immigrants' and ethnic Norwegians' level of satisfaction with visits to general practitioners were analysed with respect to age, gender, health, working status, and use of translators. Bivariate (Chi square) and multivariate analyses (logistic regression) were performed. Most participants were either moderately or very satisfied with their last visit to a general practitioner. Non-western immigrants were less satisfied than Norwegians. Dissatisfaction among the immigrants was associated with young age, a feeling of not having good health, and coming from Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, or Vietnam as compared to Sri Lanka. The attendance rates in the surveys were rather low and lowest among the non-western immigrants. Although the degree of satisfaction with the primary health care was relatively high among the participants in these surveys, the non-western immigrants in this study were less satisfied than ethnic Norwegians with their last visit to a general practitioner. The rather low response rates opens for the possibility that the degree of satisfaction may not be representative for all immigrants.

  9. The Oslo Health Study: Is bone mineral density higher in affluent areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard Anne J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on previously reported differences in fracture incidence in the socioeconomic less affluent Oslo East compared to the more privileged West, our aim was to study bone mineral density (BMD in the same socioeconomic areas in Oslo. We also wanted to study whether possible associations were explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. Methods Distal forearm BMD was measured in random samples of the participants in The Oslo Health Study by single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA. 578 men and 702 women born in Norway in the age-groups 40/45, 60 and 75 years were included in the analyses. Socioeconomic regions, based on a social index dividing Oslo in two regions – East and West, were used. Results Age-adjusted mean BMD in women living in the less affluent Eastern region was 0.405 g/cm2 and significantly lower than in West where BMD was 0.419 g/cm2. Similarly, the odds ratio of low BMD (Z-score ≤ -1 was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.22–2.87 in women in Oslo East compared to West. The same tendency, although not statistically significant, was also present in men. Multivariate analysis adjusted for education, marital status, body mass index, physical inactivity, use of alcohol and smoking, and in women also use of post-menopausal hormone therapy and early onset of menopause, did hardly change the association. Additional adjustments for employment status, disability pension and physical activity at work for those below the age of retirement, gave similar results. Conclusion We found differences in BMD in women between different socioeconomic regions in Oslo that correspond to previously found differences in fracture rates. The association in men was not statistically significant. The differences were not explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors.

  10. Differences in selected lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E

    2015-03-01

    Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. © 2013 APJPH.

  11. Diversity and Educational Challenges in Oslo and Los Angeles - A Metropolitan Perspective nr 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of education of linguistic minorities in Oslo, Norway and Los Angeles, USA. Although there are significant historical and socio economical differences between Los Angeles and Oslo, many of the educational challenges facing the educational policy makers and the linguistic minority students are quite similar.

  12. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut E; Bjornaas, Mari A; Nore, Anne K; Figueiredo, Jose CP; Ekeberg, Oivind; Jacobsen, Dag

    2008-01-01

    Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40%) were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84%) were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%), were frequently comatose (35%), had respiratory depression (37%), and many received naloxone (49%). The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%), fewer were comatose (10%), and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%). Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%), 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often caused by drug and

  13. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  14. Inequality and rising levels of socio-economic segregation: lessons from a pan-European comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcińczak, S.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West project investigates changing levels of socio-economic segregation in 13 major European cities: Amsterdam, Budapest, Vienna, Stockholm, Oslo, London, Vilnius, Tallinn, Prague, Madrid, Milan, Athens and Riga. The two main

  15. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  16. The paradox of civilizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilliam, Laura

    As in most other European Countries, immigrants from “non-Western” countries are increasingly perceived as a threat to integration, equality and harmony in Danish society. Especially the immigrant boys are depicted as aggressive, troublesome and in lack of social competencies. This makes this group...... minority youngsters, which are seen as a threat to the stability and harmony of Danish society. Based on ethnographic material from 11 months of fieldwork among ethnic minority pupils in two schools in Copenhagen, this paper will look into the schools’ effort to civilize youth of outsider status. Through....... For their part, the boys - in search of alternative strength and recognition - invert the image of good behavior presented to them by the school, and come to identify strongly with aggression, rude language and tough masculinity. Drawing on Elias’ discussions of dominant group’s efforts to both integrate...

  17. E6 as biogas highway from Gothenburg to Oslo. Final report; E6 som biogassvei fra Goeteborg til Oslo. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Morken, John; Lileng, Knut

    2009-07-01

    The main goal of the project has been to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road transport in the transition from fossil fuels to biogas. Biogas Fredrikstad AS has been the project owner, with FREVAR KF and Borgbuss AS as partners on the user side. Oestfold Research has been project manager with the University of Life Sciences (UMB) as part responsible for R&D efforts. Biogas Fredrikstad AS established in 2001 the first manufacturing plant and filling station for biogas as fuel. The project was supported by the Road Directorate through the support system for environmental friendly transport. The biogas produced from sewage sludge and biogas substrate (based on food waste). Based on the desire to establish a more accessible filling station in Fredrikstad, and to increase knowledge and competence in general about biogas as bio propellant, the project 'E6 as biogas highway from Gothenburg to Oslo' was granted as a RENERGI and SkatteFUNN project. The project started 1.1.2006 and ended 31.12.2008. The project has achieved useful synergies with relevant other projects that have taken place in parallel. Based on an overall assessment of costs, availability, opportunities for land area, etc, new filling station for biogas in Fredrikstad are planned and designed at the rotary intersection at the eastern bridgehead of Fredrikstad bridge. All permits in connection with the establishment of new filling station is available. In anticipation of the top financing, the start of the construction phase has been somewhat offset in time. It is applied for funds to support the establishment of the filling station from the newly created TransNova. The project has assessed and documented several conditions regarding use of biogas as a fuel, including: Environmental issues with the use of biogas as fuel; Potential and status of biogas production in Norway; Production of biogas in Fredrikstad and input to the optimization of the process of FREVAR KF; Driving

  18. Posttraumatic responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror among Norwegian high school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Jakobsen, Reidar; Olff, Miranda; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-01-01

    The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society

  19. Integrating Assessment for Learning in the Teacher Education Programme at the University of Oslo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Lisbeth M.; Blikstad-Balas, Marte; Engelien, Kirsti Lyngvaer

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the integration of assessment for learning principles in the newly revised five-year Master of Education programme at the University of Oslo, Norway, across didactic subjects, pedagogy and school practice. The analysis draws on lecture notes, student videos and student exam papers among 143 student teachers,…

  20. Oslo börsi edu jätkub uuel aastal / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2006-01-01

    2006. aastal on Põhjamaade edukaim Oslo börs, mille kasv on olnud 30%, edukust prognoositakse ka 2007. aastaks. Vt. samas: Dagens Industri valis 2007. aasta parimaks Põhjamaade börsiks Norra; Põhjamaad jätkavad ka uuel aastal tugevalt

  1. What's New in the Children's Corner in OF (Oslo Fengsel [Prison])?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensli, Anne Berte

    This paper examines two themes pertaining to children of incarcerated parents in Norway. The first is the visiting room of a Norwegian prison. The paper briefly describes conditions in and provides photographs of the children's corner of the visiting room at Norway's Oslo Fengsel Prison. The corner was established in 1998 with toys and fresh paint…

  2. Dyslexia: Group Screening among 15-16-Year-Olds in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K.; Tonnessen, F. E.; Tambs, K.; Thoresen, M.; Bjertness, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 15-16 year olds from Oslo, Norway, we investigated the occurrence of self-reported dyslexia and reading/writing difficulties (RWD), and we measured dyslexic symptoms using the "Duvan" dyslexia screening test. The prevalence of self-reported dyslexia was 8.2%, while 10.4% reported severe or moderate RWD. The group of self-reported…

  3. Attitudes toward female circumcision among Somali immigrants in Oslo: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Kumar, Bernadette; Hjelde, Karin Harsløf; Sundby, Johanne

    2012-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on public health, female circumcision (FC) has gained increased attention from international communities and the Norwegian public in recent decades. In 1995, the Norwegian government outlawed the practice and simultaneously developed a package of measures aimed at preventing and ultimately eradicating FC in Norway. Like many other Western countries, immigrants of Somali descent constitute the largest immigrant group in Norway from countries with FC traditions. Although this immigrant group is often perceived as a cultural society that supports FC generally as a practice, there appears to be a lack of studies that explore the impact of acculturation and the Western social context on Somali immigrants' attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Oslo, Norway to the practice of FC. Findings from this qualitative study indicate that Somalis in Oslo have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was proven by the presence in Oslo of a large number of Somali parents who left their daughters uncut as well as Somali girls, boys, men, and women who attribute being uncircumcised a high status. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of abandonment of FC among immigrants in the Western countries. The study highlights the success that has been achieved in improving attitudes toward the practice of the Somali community in Oslo, Norway, as well as emerging challenges that need to be addressed further.

  4. [Use of lithium in the Norwegian counties Oslo and Sogn og Fjordane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G

    2009-04-30

    The Norwegian prescription database (NorPD) provides an opportunity to examine lithium consumption at an individual level. This article presents an assessment of lithium use (based on data from NorPD) in light of two population-based studies on prevalence of psychiatric illness in the counties Oslo and Sogn og Fjordane. All persons between 18 and 65 years who received at least one prescription for lithium between July 2005 and June 2006 were identified in NorPD. County and gender specific prevalence rates, incidence rates, and average dose were calculated. Some pharmacoepidemiological parameters were derived. The incidence of lithium users was 1.5 per 1000 inhabitants in Oslo and 5.5 in Sogn og Fjordane in the period assessed. The incidence was highest for men in Sogn og Fjordane. More lithium was prescribed to each patient in Oslo than in Sogn og Fjordane, and more was prescribed for men than women. Patients with bipolar disease are apparently much more likely to be treated with lithium in Sogn og Fjordane than in Oslo. Previous estimates of the prevalence of bipolar disorder in Sogn og Fjordane are probably too low. In addition, there might be a broader indication for the use of lithium in this county.

  5. Training Programmes for Heads of Academic Departments at the University of Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lis

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the University of Oslo's training programs for department heads describes their design, content, frequency, and methods. These administrators' roles are examined and the importance of higher level support of the programs is stressed. Reluctance to participate and special problems in applying content of the programs are discussed.…

  6. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lepland, Aave

    2010-01-01

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached...

  7. Air pollution and respiratory health of children: the PEACE study in Oslo, Norway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Skjonsberg, O.H.; Leegaard, J.; Hagen, L.O.; Giaever, P.; Moseng, J.; Roemer, W.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe (PEACE) investigation, a 10 week panel study was conducted in Oslo, Norway, from December 1, 1993 to February 14, 1994. Of the 180 children recruited, 125 satisfactorily filled out a daily diary for the entire period, in addition to

  8. [Cases of MRSA in nursing homes in Oslo 2005-11].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Tore Wælgaard; Jørgensen, Silje Bakken; Garder, Kirsten Marie; Kollerud, Ruby del Risco; Kvalvaag, Gunnar; Blomfeldt, Anita

    2013-09-17

    The number of infections caused by MRSA has increased substantially in Norway in the past decade. It is an objective to prevent MRSA from becoming established in nursing homes and hospitals. The purpose of the article is to describe the features of the development of MRSA cases found in nursing homes in Oslo. We carried out a retrospective study of registered cases of MRSA (both sufferers and carriers) in Oslo in 2005-11. Data were obtained from the City of Oslo municipal health services' MRSA database and from genotyping carried out at Akershus University Hospital. The annual number of cases of MRSA found in Oslo increased during the period 2005-11 from 92 in 2005 to 268 in 2011, a total of 1198 cases. Of these, 224 cases (19%) were registered in nursing homes, distributed among 22 institutions, 158 residents and 66 staff, with an average of 32 cases annually (14-58 spread). Twenty-eight of 50 nursing homes had no cases of MRSA, while 159 of the cases were related to outbreaks of MRSA. Three of 20 outbreaks affected residents only. The nursing home isolates consisted of 40 different spa types, of which 160 (71%) of the isolates were clustered in three clonal complexes. The most common spa type t304 was found in 116 (52%) of the cases. Cases of MRSA in Oslo in total increased sharply from 2005 to 2011, while the number of cases in nursing homes was stable. It is, however, uncertain whether this reflects the actual incidence.

  9. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  10. Modeling and measurements of urban aerosol processes on the neighborhood scale in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Keuken, Menno P.; Lützenkirchen, Susanne; Pirjola, Liisa; Hussein, Tareq

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of 1 h, i.e., on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using the aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of two organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. By choosing concentrations and particle size distributions at roadside as starting point of the computations, nucleation of gas-phase vapors from the exhaust has been regarded as post tail-pipe emission, avoiding the need to include nucleation in the process analysis. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The error of the contribution from dry deposition to PN losses due to the uncertainty of measured deposition velocities ranges from -76 to +64 %. The removal of nanoparticles by coagulation enhanced considerably when considering the fractal nature of soot aggregates and the combined effect of van der Waals and viscous interactions. The effect of condensation and

  11. Modeling and measurements of urban aerosol processes on the neighborhood scale in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of 1 h, i.e., on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using the aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i the coagulation of particles, (ii the condensation and evaporation of two organic vapors, and (iii dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. By choosing concentrations and particle size distributions at roadside as starting point of the computations, nucleation of gas-phase vapors from the exhaust has been regarded as post tail-pipe emission, avoiding the need to include nucleation in the process analysis. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The error of the contribution from dry deposition to PN losses due to the uncertainty of measured deposition velocities ranges from −76 to +64 %. The removal of nanoparticles by coagulation enhanced considerably when considering the fractal nature of soot aggregates and the combined effect of van der Waals and viscous interactions. The effect of

  12. Rifting in heterogeneous lithosphere inferences from numerical modeling of the northern North Sea and the Oslo Graben.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascal Candas, C.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Permian rifting and magmatism are widely documented across NW Europe. The different Permian basins often display contrasting structural styles and evolved in lithospheric domains with contrasting past evolution and contrasting thermotectonic ages. In particular, the Oslo Graben and the northern

  13. Stasis and Bellum Civile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Carsten Hjort

    2017-01-01

    David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach...... to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the concepts of stasis and bellum civile, and, finally, the question of what makes a civil war a civil war....... Whatever concepts were used, the Romans were not the first to experience internal war as a civil war—that is, a war between the citizens of a polity....

  14. Hva påvirker krangling og slåssing i drikkesituasjoner? En sammenlignende studie av Oslos generelle befolkning og kafégjester i Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Træen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  sAMMENDRAGFormålet med denne studien er, med utgangspunkt i to ulike materialer, å beskrive negative konsekvenser av egetalkoholbruk. Hva predikerer at urbane mennesker angrer på noe de har sagt eller gjort, kommer opp i krangel ellerhavner i slåsskamp under alkoholpåvirkning, og er det forskjeller i så henseende mellom de som er mye og liteeksponert for andre mennesker når de drikker? I det såkalte kafégjestmaterialet ble data innhentet ved hjelp avspørreskjemaer besvart av 1053 gjester på 41 offentlige skjenkesteder i Oslo. I tillegg er det benyttet data fra etrepresentativt utvalg av 297 personer i Oslo (Osloutvalget. Resultatene viste at andelen som rapporterte negativeerfaringer i samband med eget alkoholbruk var høyere i kafégjestmaterialet enn i Osloutvalget. I beggematerialene rapporterte yngre respondenter oftere enn eldre at de hadde angret på noe de hadde sagt eller gjort,kranglet med noen og kommet opp i slagsmål. Å angre på noe sagt eller gjort hadde ingen sammenheng medantallet timer tilbrakt ukentlig på kaféer i materialene. Blant kafégjestene, men ikke blant Oslofolk generelt, haddeantall timer tilbrakt ukentlig på kaféer sammenheng med å ha kranglet og å ha slåss med noen i en drikkesituasjon.Å havne i slåsskamp eller håndgripeligheter hadde sammenheng med antallet timer tilbrakt ukentlig på kaféer ibegge materialene. Korrelasjonen mellom antall dager med hardere drikkeepisoder på kafé, og antall timerukentlig på kafé, var sterk både i Osloutvalget og i kafégjestmaterialet. Det er sannsynlig at det er harderedrikking på utesteder som er avgjørende for å krangle eller slåss med noen i beruset tilstand, og ikke det åtilbringe tid på utesteder per se. Dette tyder på at større offentlig innsats for å kontrollere at de bestemmelsenesom gjelder for offentlig skjenking av alkohol overholdes, kan redusere voldsnivået på skjenkestedene.Træen B. What influences quarrelling and fighting in

  15. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  16. Planning for a sustainable Oslo: the challenge of turning urban theory into practice

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Bengt; Skrede, Joar

    2016-01-01

    Many cities today face challenges related to urban growth. This is also the case in Oslo, currently one of the fastest growing capitals in Europe. In order to prepare for the population growth, a new municipal master plan has been prepared. In this, sustainable development is a prominent concept, and the urban district is going to be densified as part of the strategy. This paper examines some obstacles of turning planning theory into practice. There is a lack of coherence between municipal...

  17. Comparison of solid waste management between Oslo (Norway) and Lahore (Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Hafeez, Muhammad Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    The research is devised on two themes as; describe and compare solid waste management practices in Lahore (Pakistan) and Oslo (Norway). Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an important technique in the present times which works on the philosophy of Reuse, Reduce and Recycle and helps in containment of various environmental problems. In the developing countries waste contamination has become an important problem. My prime motive to select Lahore was due to the nature of environmenta...

  18. Soft structures of γ-ray strength functions studied with the Oslo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinov A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental γ-ray strength functions up to Eγ ∼ Sn measured at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory for several Sc, V, Mo, and Sn isotopes. For the lighter nuclei, an unexpected enhancement of the strength function at low γ-ray energies has been revealed. This enhancement could potentially have an impact on neutron-capture cross sections for unstable, neutron-rich nuclei. For the Sn isotopes, we observe increased strength around the neutron separation energy Sn.

  19. Capitalizing on emergence: The 'new' civil security market in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the European Union has supported the development of a new civil security market, capable of providing security technology for new and global security challenges. This article analyses the emerging growth market for civil security in relation to contemporary notions of potential

  20. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  1. Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognerud, Marit Aase; Krueger, Oystein; Gjertsen, Finn; Thelle, Dag Steinar

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

  2. Is an increase of MRSA in Oslo, Norway, associated with changed infection control policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Bjørg Marit; Rasch, Mette; Syversen, Gaute

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence of MRSA in Oslo, Norway, before and after introduction of a new National MRSA Control Guideline. From 1993 to 2006, we prospectively collected clinical and microbiological data on all MRSA cases in Oslo, Norway. Two MRSA guidelines; a strict Ullevål Standard MRSA Guideline and a less strict National MRSA Control Guideline were compared. During 1993-2006, 358 MRSA cases were registered in Oslo; 43.9% detected in Ullevål University Hospital, 21.2% in nursing homes, and 18.7% in primary healthcare. One out of three (30.4%) were import-associated, and one out of ten (11.2%) were healthcare personnel. From 2004 on, a new National MRSA Control Guideline was introduced in primary healthcare, served by the community infection control. From 2004 on, there was a 4-6-fold increase of MRSA in primary healthcare (p = 0.038) and nursing homes (p = 0.005). Increase of MRSA cases at Ullevål (p Norway may be associated with the 4-6-fold increase of MRSA cases in the community after 2003.

  3. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  4. Perceived Satisfaction with Public Transport Service in Nine European Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fellesson, Markus; Friman, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides a transnational comparison of the perceived service satisfaction with public transport in eight European countries. Data was collected from 9,542 respondents in Stockholm, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Geneva, Helsinki, Vienna, Berlin, Manchester, and Oslo. The respondents rated their agreement with 17 attribute-related statements regarding local public transport services. Using factor analysis, this study identifies the four satisfaction dimensions of system, comfort, sta...

  5. A new age model for the Late Ordovician bentonites in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk Ballo, Eirik; Eivind Augland, Lars; Hammer, Øyvind; Svensen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    During the Late Ordovician, explosive volcanic eruptions led to the deposition of worldwide bentonites. Some of the largest of these eruptions took place in the Sandbian and produced the Milbrig and Deicke K-bentonites of North America and the Kinnekulle K-bentonite of Scandinavia. We have studied the classic locality of Hagemann and Spjeldnæs (1955) - one of the most complete sections of Ordovician bentonites in Europe. The bentonites are present in the Arnestad Formation comprising dark shale with carbonate nodule beds grading into an increasingly more carbonate rich environment. Through a 50-meter interval we have identified 33 bentonites of which 10 have not previously been reported from this locality. The bentonites have an average thickness of 4.9 cm with a few exceptions such as the Kinnekulle K-bentonite (35 cm) and the Grimstorp B (13 cm). We have measured magnetic susceptibility of two 2-3 meter intervals with a sampling distance of 5 cm, using a handheld magnetic susceptibility meter in the field. These data show significant periodicity peaks that correlate well with Milankovitch cycles and are suggested to represent astronomically forced changes in sediment supply. This study further presents high-precision U-Pb zircon ages of five bentonites from the section, including the Kinnekulle K-bentonite and Grimstorp B. These two beds were previously dated by Svensen et al. (2015) from a locality south of Oslo. Our new data improves the precision of the ages of these two key beds, and constrain the duration of the entire interval and thus the onset and termination of the late Ordovician volcanic system that deposited these tephras. We conclude that the Oslo section provides a high-resolution age model to understand one of the most intense volcanic periods of the Paleozoic by combining radiometric and cyclostratigraphic data. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hagemann, F. and Spjeldnæs, N. (1955). "The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo region, Norway. 6. Notes on bentonites (K

  6. Long-term survival in the randomized trial of drug treatment in mild to moderate hypertension of the Oslo study 1972-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ingar; Kjeldsen, Sverre E

    2015-03-01

    In the Oslo cardiovascular study of 1972-3 a 5-year randomized trial in mild to moderate hypertension was performed. Several changes in treatment practices have been recommended since that time. We followed the mortality patterns up to 40 years. Invited to the Oslo study screening were 25,915 middle-aged men and 16,203 (63%) participated. Reexaminations were done to select suitable participants into the trial. Men had blood pressure 150-179/95-109 mm Hg and the active group (n=406) was treated with thiazides, alpha-methyldopa and propranolol versus untreated controls (n=379). Cox regression analysis was used for statistical analyses. There was no trend towards reduction in total mortality by treatment. A nominally significant increase in risk of death at first myocardial infarction was observed in the trial treatment group across the follow-up period, HR=1.51 (1.01-2.25); (P=0.042). The excess risk developed rapidly during the first 15 years, but the gap between the groups diminished to a large extent during the next 15 years, but the curves stayed at a certain distance for the last 10 years. Cerebrovascular death tended to be non-significantly reduced, HR=0.85 (0.52-1.41). Drug treatment of mild hypertensive men initiated in the 1970s did not reduce mortality at first MI or total mortality. However, during the period (late 1980s and whole 1990s), when large changes in hypertension treatment practices occurred into regimes with more use of combination therapies including metabolically neutral drugs at lower doses, beneficial effects on MI mortality could be observed. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana JITARU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (EaP launched in 2009 as the Eastern dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy introduced the civil society as a new strategic actor in the EU's relations with Eastern Partnership countries. The civil society‟s role is to participate in policy making, to suggest new initiatives and to promote shared values of partnership, such as: democracy, promoting better governance, state law, sustainable development, respect for human rights and for the fundamental freedoms. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, we analyse the role of the civil society in the EaP and we ask whether the increasing role of the civil society in the EaP will lead to the success of this project. In the second part, we analyse the perceptions and the attitudes of civil society towards European integration.

  8. Electronic communication in civil litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into common European and national rules regulating electronic communication in legal matters. Such form of communication in legal matters expedites the procedure. It is also pointed out that electronic communication between the court and the parties to the proceedings, as well as third parties, is conducted through registries, regulated by special regulations, for filing written submissions of the parties and decisions of the court. Legislation regulating electronic communication is intended for litigation in commercial matters. European and national rules do not exclude the possibility of electronic communication in non-commercial litigation provided there is an express consent of the parties to such communication. Although steps towards digitalization have been taken in the Republic of Serbia, legislation regulating electronic service of documents, communication in civil litigation, is still missing. The Civil Procedure Law does not have a separate section regulating the electronic communication in legal matters. However, it cannot be said that the CPC does not set basic principles regulating this form of communication in legal matters.

  9. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  10. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  11. Association between urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilla, Ihlebæk; Geir, Aamodt; Renata, Aradi; Bjørgulf, Claussen; Halvorsen, Thorén Kine

    2017-10-01

    The need for studies from more countries on the relationship between urban green space and health has been emphasized. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two types of measurement of urban green space and self-reported lifestyle-related disorders in Oslo, Norway. Self-reported measures on mental disorders, asthma, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain of 8638 participants in the Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) were linked to two types of green space variables: the vegetation cover greenness derived from satellite data, which shows the city's vegetation cover regardless of property boundaries, and the land use greenness derived from municipal plans showing information about publicly accessible vegetation-covered areas. Associations between greenness and health measures were analysed by logistic regression models controlling for possible individual and contextual confounders. Increasing vegetation cover greenness was associated with fewer self-reported mental disorders for both men and women after controlling for possible confounders. The proportion of women who reported high levels of musculoskeletal pain increased with increasing degrees of both of the greenness measurements, but no significant association was observed for men. No association was found for asthma and diabetes type 2 for either men or women. Although there was a positive association between vegetation cover greenness and self-reported mental disorders, the main findings showed mixed results. The lack of clear associations between urban green space and lifestyle-related health disorders in Oslo might have been influenced by a large proportion of the inhabitants having easy access to green areas.

  12. When female circumcision comes to the West: attitudes toward the practice among Somali Immigrants in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Johansen, Elise B; Sundby, Johanne

    2012-08-27

    Female circumcision (FC) has lifelong adverse social and health consequences for women, and its abolition will not only enhance the health of children and women, but also promote gender equality. Like many other Western countries, Norway hosts a large proportion of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, though primarily from Somalia, which is the country with the highest prevalence of FC in the world. A behavioral change by the practicing communities has the best chance to successfully and sustainably eliminate this practice. However, FC prevention programs require a behavioral surveillance that monitors the process of change, with this being the first quantitative study since the major migration of the Somali community to Norway began in 1991 to investigate whether or not Somali immigrants' attitudes toward the practice has improved in favor of its abandonment. A cross-sectional study using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was conducted in Oslo from April to June of 2011. A sample of 214 persons was interviewed, using structured questionnaires. The results show that 70% of Somalis in Oslo support the discontinuation of all forms of FC compared to 30% who support its continuation, with the latter group more likely to be people who lived in Norway ≤ 4 years. Of the 10 girls who came to Norway at the age of ≤ 7 years, only one was circumcised, though whether the circumcision occurred before or after the girl's arrival in Norway remains unclear. The perception that FC is required by religion was the sole factor to be significantly associated with an ongoing support of FC. The study reveals that Somalis in Oslo demonstrate a trend to abandon this practice over time. Nevertheless, the 30% of the people who still support its continuation, and who are primarily newly arrived immigrants, require a targeted intervention that is implemented in the early phase of the immigrants' arrival.

  13. When female circumcision comes to the West: Attitudes toward the practice among Somali Immigrants in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele Abdi A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female circumcision (FC has lifelong adverse social and health consequences for women, and its abolition will not only enhance the health of children and women, but also promote gender equality. Like many other Western countries, Norway hosts a large proportion of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, though primarily from Somalia, which is the country with the highest prevalence of FC in the world. A behavioral change by the practicing communities has the best chance to successfully and sustainably eliminate this practice. However, FC prevention programs require a behavioral surveillance that monitors the process of change, with this being the first quantitative study since the major migration of the Somali community to Norway began in 1991 to investigate whether or not Somali immigrants’ attitudes toward the practice has improved in favor of its abandonment. Methods A cross-sectional study using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS was conducted in Oslo from April to June of 2011. A sample of 214 persons was interviewed, using structured questionnaires. Results The results show that 70% of Somalis in Oslo support the discontinuation of all forms of FC compared to 30% who support its continuation, with the latter group more likely to be people who lived in Norway ≤ 4 years. Of the 10 girls who came to Norway at the age of ≤ 7 years, only one was circumcised, though whether the circumcision occurred before or after the girl’s arrival in Norway remains unclear. The perception that FC is required by religion was the sole factor to be significantly associated with an ongoing support of FC. Conclusion The study reveals that Somalis in Oslo demonstrate a trend to abandon this practice over time. Nevertheless, the 30% of the people who still support its continuation, and who are primarily newly arrived immigrants, require a targeted intervention that is implemented in the early phase of the immigrants’ arrival.

  14. Oslo traffic study - part 2: quantifying effects of traffic measures using individual exposure modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Bartonova, A.; Klaeboe, R.; Kolbenstvedt, M.

    2000-01-01

    In quantifying the benefits of air pollution reduction measures, it is desirable to compare the size of the benefits with the effects of other individual confounding factors such as smoking or passive smoking. The effect of pollution is rarely very large and in order to quantify it, exposure estimating procedures must be as accurate as possible. Dispersion models, run for hourly time intervals and controlled by measurements, are therefore used to provide estimates for specific receptor points. Results of three consecutive cross-sectional investigations in an area of Oslo characterized by heavy traffic are presented. The study was designed to provide repeated information on the effects of traffic diversion measures on the self-reporting of symptoms of reduced health of 1100 adults living in Oslo. The principal source of air pollution in Oslo is vehicular traffic. The primary pollutants of interest are nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and respirable particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ). The mean hourly concentration of exposure was estimated at each participant's home by means of a time-dependent finite dispersion model combined with subgrid models to describe the source contribution to the grid concentrations. The study controlled the confounding factors. Using the symptom fatigue, the study illustrates that by controlling the changes in population composition, estimated exposure-effect relationships for health symptoms allow the effect of the studied traffic measures on the population to be evaluated. Since the method is based on individual estimates of exposure to different pollutants, it allows standardizing the exposure to compare effects of different pollutants. The study offers a methodology that is useful in evaluating the benefits of measures by both being able to quantify and compare the effects of different compounds and effects on different population sub-groups. (author)

  15. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  16. Materials and methods appendix for valuation of ecosystem services of green infrastructure in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, David Nicholas; Vågnes Traaholt, Nora; Blumentrath, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The material in this report constitutes a Methods and Materials appendix for two reports dis-seminating the results to a wider audience in English and Norwegian. We recommend that readers start with one of the cited reports below, using the appendix as a companion report to look up specifics: Barton, D.N. , N. Vågnes Traaholt, S. Blumentrath (2015) Naturen i Oslo verdt milliarder. Verd-setting av urbane økosystem-tjenester fra grønn infrastruktur. NINA Report 1113. Barton, D.N., E. Stan...

  17. Underestimated impact of novel psychoactive substances: laboratory confirmation of recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Persett, Per Sverre; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Karinen, Ritva; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2017-08-01

    Recreational drug toxicity is frequent. Availability of new psychoactive substances is steadily increasing. However, data with verified analyses from clinical settings are limited. To evaluate the impact of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) on recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway, we analysed samples from a selection of patients. All the patients presenting with recreational drug toxicity at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) and at the Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were registered from April through September 2014. Oral fluid samples were collected at the OAEOC. Blood samples were collected at the OUH. The samples were screened using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Nine hundred and sixty-four cases were included, 841 (87.2%) at the OAEOC and 123 (12.8%) at the OUH. A total of 55 oral fluid samples (OAEOC) and 103 blood samples (OUH) could be analysed. NPS were not clinically suspected in any of the screened cases. At the outpatient clinic, the most commonly found substances were clonazepam in 42/55 (76.4%) cases, amfetamines in 40/55 (72.7%) and heroin in 39/55 (70.9%). In seven (12.7%) cases NPS were detected: 4-methylamfetamine in three cases, dimethyltryptamine in two, methylone in one, and N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine in one. Among the hospital patients, the most commonly found substances were clonazepam in 51/103 (49.5%) cases, amfetamines in 48/103 (46.6%), heroin in 31/103 (30.1%), and diazepam in 30/103 (29.1%). In five (4.9%) cases NPS were detected: JWH-210 in two cases, AM-2201 in two, and 5-EAPB in one. NPS were clinically not suspected, though found in eight percent of cases. Still, the vast majority of patients treated for recreational drug toxicity in Oslo have taken classical drugs. Management of these patients should be based on their clinical condition. However, it is highly important to be alert to atypical presentations possibly resulting from

  18. Sob o signo do Acordos de Oslo: perspectivas diversas sobre o conflito israelo-palestino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Chor MAIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo está dividido em duas partes: 1ª discorre sobre a relevância dos Acordos de Oslo para o processo de paz entre israelenses e palestinos nos anos 1990; 2ª aborda brevemente um conjunto de estudos históricos, sociológicos e políticos que versam sobre as relações entre Israel e Palestina em diferentes níveis, incluindo-se o papel da diplomacia brasileira neste domínio.

  19. Survey of the technical-scientific research field in the Oslo district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    Organisations and institutes in the Oslo district which carry out research in the technical-scientific field are listed, with adress and telephone number. This includes a number of institutes whose activities are mainly or partly in the nuclear field. The list is subdivided into departments, with brief descriptions of their fields of activity, the scientific personnel with their special interests, and a detailed list of the special projects and activities of the departments. Special apparatus and equipment which the institutes have at their disposal are also mentioned with brief specifications. (JIW)

  20. Enantiomeric profiling of chiral illicit drugs in a pan-European study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrignanò, Erika; Yang, Zhugen; Bade, Richard

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context....... High loads of racemic methamphetamine were detected in Oslo (EF = 0.49 ± 0.02). This is in contrast to other European cities where S-(+)-methamphetamine was the predominant enantiomer. This indicates different methods of methamphetamine synthesis and/or trafficking routes in Oslo, compared...... with the other cities tested. An enrichment of MDMA with the R-(−)-enantiomer was observed in European wastewaters indicating MDMA consumption rather than disposal of unused drug. MDA's chiral signature indicated its enrichment with the S-(+)-enantiomer, which confirms its origin from MDMA metabolism in humans...

  1. Jeg overtrådte statens normer for normal opførelse, da jeg tog toget til Oslo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Du bliver ikke bare betragtet som dum, men også som en lidt mistænkelig type, hvis du vælger en dyr og langsom togtur frem for en billig, hurtig flybillet. Det skete for mig forleden på vej til Oslo......Du bliver ikke bare betragtet som dum, men også som en lidt mistænkelig type, hvis du vælger en dyr og langsom togtur frem for en billig, hurtig flybillet. Det skete for mig forleden på vej til Oslo...

  2. Children with low birth weight and low gestational age in Oslo, Norway: immigration is not the cause of increasing proportions.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltenberg, C; Magnus, P

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine the influence of children born to immigrant mothers on the total proportions of low birth weight and preterm deliveries in Oslo and to explain the increases in the proportions of children with low birth weight and low gestational age since 1980-1982. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study based on Norwegian Medical Birth Registry data and information on mothers' country of birth from the Central Bureau of Statistics. SETTING--Oslo, Norway 1968-91. POPULATION--A...

  3. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  4. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  5. Civil engineering work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousyn, Rene; Goubin, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    Although it does not require a specifically new technicality, the Civil Engineering site of a nuclear power plant is a complex work. Considering as an example the power plant currently in construction at Tricastin, the authors describe the main Civil Engineering work and task organization applied to carry it out [fr

  6. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  7. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera....... Finally, we argue that, in Asia, governments act as a structuration mechanism which challenges the current understanding of CSR.......This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  8. Outbreak of Salmonella Oslo Infections Linked to Persian Cucumbers - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottichio, Lyndsay; Medus, Carlota; Sorenson, Alida; Donovan, Danielle; Sharma, Reeti; Dowell, Natasha; Williams, Ian; Wellman, Allison; Jackson, Alikeh; Tolar, Beth; Griswold, Taylor; Basler, Colin

    2016-12-30

    In April 2016, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Oslo infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090).* This PFGE pattern was new in the database; no previous infections or outbreaks have been identified. CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments and laboratories, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations to identify the source of this outbreak. A total of 14 patients in eight states were identified, with illness onsets occurring during March 21-April 9, 2016. Whole genome sequencing, a highly discriminating subtyping method, was used to further characterize PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090 isolates. Epidemiologic evidence indicates Persian cucumbers as the source of Salmonella Oslo infections in this outbreak. This is the fourth identified multistate outbreak of salmonellosis associated with cucumbers since 2013. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism and factors that contribute to contamination of cucumbers during growth, harvesting, and processing to prevent future outbreaks.

  9. The Association between Residence Floor Level and Cardiovascular Disease: The Health and Environment in Oslo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Mads K; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increasingly more people live in tall buildings and on higher floor levels. Factors relating to floor level may protect against or cause cardiovascular disease (CVD). Only one previous study has investigated the association between floor level and CVD. Methods. We studied associations between floor of bedroom and self-reported history of stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE), and intermittent claudication (IC) among 12.525 inhabitants in Oslo, Norway. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models and adjusted for sociodemographic variables, socioeconomic status (SES), and health behaviors. Additionally, we investigated block apartment residents ( N = 5.374) separately. Results. Trend analyses showed that disease prevalence increased by floor level, for all three outcomes. When we investigated block apartment residents alone, the trends disappeared, but one association remained: higher odds of VTE history on 6th floor or higher, compared to basement and 1st floor (OR: 1.504; 95% CI: 1.007-2.247). Conclusion. Floor level is positively associated with CVD, in Oslo. The best-supported explanation may be residual confounding by building height and SES. Another explanation, about the impact of atmospheric electricity, is also presented. The results underline a need to better understand the associations between residence floor level and CVD and multistory housing and CVD.

  10. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Akthar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Method Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46% and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38% in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL was used as a measure of psychological distress. Results Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p Conclusion Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions and social support system of immigrant communities simultaneously.

  11. Organizing Capacities and Union Priorities in the Hotelsector in Oslo, Dublin, and Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Cecilie Bergene

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we draw international comparisons between industrial relations regimes in the hotel sector and compare relevant trade union experiences in the selected metropolitan areas of Oslo, Dublin, and Toronto. We ask how union strategies differ in these different hotel markets, and how strategic choices at a local level relate to industrial relations models, regulatory change, and corporate restructuring in the hotel market. The study is based on interviews with union representatives and key informants in Norway, Ireland, and Canada. The main argument we make is that the reorientation of union priorities and the willingness to engage in innovative strategies that has characterized hotel unionism in Toronto and Dublin is not detectable in the case of Oslo. This might be a result of the relatively strong position Norwegian trade unions have in national industrial relations, but can at the same time leave local hotel unions vulnerable as they are facing low unionization levels and corporate restructuring which they are unable to tackle effectively.

  12. Inequalities in health: a comparative study between ethnic Norwegians and Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claussen Bjorgulf

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to observe the inequality in health from the perspective of socio-economic factors in relation to ethnic Pakistanis and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, Norway. Method Data was collected by using an open and structured questionnaire, as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. Accordingly 13581 ethnic Norwegians (45% of the eligible participated as against 339 ethnic Pakistanis (38% of the eligible. Results The ethnic Pakistanis reported a higher prevalence of poor self-rated health 54.7% as opposed to 22.1% (p Conclusion There is a large diversity of self-rated health, prevalence of diabetes and distress among the ethnic Pakistanis and Norwegians. Socio-economic status may partly explain the observed inequalities in health. Uncontrolled variables like genetics, lifestyle factors and psychosocial factors related to migration such as social support, community participation, discrimination, and integration may have contributed to the observed phenomenon. This may underline the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in future studies.

  13. European Energy Law Seminar 2005. Report of NeVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterom, A.R.; Boumans, L.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of the lectures and presentations at the title seminar, which was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 30-31 May 2005. The seminar was organized by the Dutch Association for Energy Law (NeVER), the Scandinavian Institute for Maritime Law of the University of Oslo, and the Groningen University. The subjects presented concerned recent developments with regard to the internal (European) energy market, LNG, developments in the North Sea area, supply security and quality in a competitive market, reorganization of the European market for natural gas in the light of the liberalization process and privatization of the energy sector [nl

  14. EGNOS e l'aviazione civile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Bernardini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available EGNOS and the civil aviationThis article continues the series about Global Navigation Satellite Systems, and discusses in more depth the main use for EGNOS: providing augmentation signals for the European region. EGNOS complete availability, starting next February, will be a major milestone toward the full utilization of the system to improve flight procedures (mainly in the approach phase, optimizing traffic flows and increasing air transport safety.

  15. It’s Nakba, Not a Party: Re-Stating the (Continued) Legacy of the Oslo Accords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    2015-01-01

    Two decades later, how should we conceptualize the relevance of the Oslo Accords today? This article reconstitutes our understanding of the Accords through three parameters and purports that the legacy of the Interim Agreement is one that oscillates between what it has failed to achieve with regard...

  16. Structure studies by electron microscopy and electron diffraction at Physics Department, University of Oslo, 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoennes, J.K.; Olsen, A.

    1985-08-01

    The paper describes the reasearch activities and plans at the electron microscopy laboratorium, Physics Departmen, University of Oslo. Since the first electron microscope was installed in 1968, the research has covered inorganic structures, physical metallurgy, as well as theory of electron scattering and the development of methods in this field. The current plans involve efforts in the development of crystallographic and spectroscopic methods

  17. Attitudes toward suicidal behaviour among professionals at mental health outpatient clinics in Stavropol, Russia and Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Astrid Berge; Grimholt, Tine K; Loskutova, Ekaterina; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2016-07-27

    Attitudes toward suicidal behaviour can be essential regarding whether patients seek or are offered help. Patients with suicidal behaviour are increasingly treated by mental health outpatient clinics. Our aim was to study attitudes among professionals at outpatient clinics in Stavropol, Russia and Oslo, Norway. Three hundred and forty-eight (82 %) professionals anonymously completed a questionnaire about attitudes. Professionals at outpatient clinics in Stavropol (n = 119; 94 %) and Oslo (n = 229; 77 %) were enrolled in the study. The Understanding Suicidal Patients (USP) scale (11 = positive to 55 = negative) and the Attitudes Towards Suicide Scale (ATTS) (1 = totally disagree, 5 = totally agree) were used. Questions about religious background, perceived competence and experiences of and views on suicidal behaviour and treatment (0 = totally disagree, 4 = totally agree) were examined. All groups reported positive attitudes, with significant differences between Stavropol and Oslo (USP score, 21.8 vs 18.7; p attitudes towards helping suicidal patients, with significant differences between cities. A need for further education was reported in both cities, but education was less integrated in mental health care in Stavropol than it was in Oslo. In both cities, psychiatric disorders were considered the major reasons for suicide, and psychotherapy was the most important treatment measure.

  18. Getting caught up in the game: managing non-formal dynamics in the remediation of contaminated sediments in Oslo harbor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, M.; Buuren, A. van; Sparrevik, M.; Slob, A.; Ellen, G.J.; Oen, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at describing, analyzing and evaluating the relation between management styles and process dynamics of a complex planning process confronted with unexpected dynamics. The development of an aquatic disposal site for dredged contaminated sediments in Oslo was managed by a project

  19. Světový knihovnický a informační kongres IFLA (Oslo 2005)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgetová, Jarmila

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2005, č. 4 (2005), s. 19-22 ISSN 1210-8502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70830501 Keywords : IFLA Congress in Oslo * International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies

  20. Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Cathrine; Vallersnes, Odd M; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hovda, Knut E

    2012-01-04

    Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt"), and we evaluate the safety of this current practice. All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years) treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009) were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization. There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62%) were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%), opioids (22%) and CO or fire smoke (10%). The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other) and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91%) patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse. More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of the annual number of poisoned patients treated at the EMA

  1. Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt", and we evaluate the safety of this current practice. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (> or = 16 years treated at the EMA during one year (April 2008 to April 2009 were included consecutively in an observational study design. The treating physicians completed a standardized form comprising information needed to address the study's aims. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with hospitalization. Results There were 2348 contacts for 1856 individuals; 1157 (62% were male, and the median age was 34 years. The most frequent main toxic agents were ethanol (43%, opioids (22% and CO or fire smoke (10%. The physicians classified 73% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse taken for recreational purposes, 15% as other accidents (self-inflicted or other and 11% as suicide attempts. Most (91% patients were treated with observation only. The median observation time until discharge was 3.8 hours. No patient developed sequelae or died at the EMA. Seventeen per cent were hospitalized. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, respiratory depression, paracetamol, reduced consciousness and suicidal intention were factors associated with hospitalization. Forty-eight per cent were discharged without referral to follow-up. The one-month mortality was 0.6%. Of the nine deaths, five were by new accidental overdose with substances of abuse. Conclusions More than twice as many patients were treated at the EMA compared with all hospitals in Oslo. Despite more than a doubling of

  2. Living conditions in the districts of Oslo and poisonings by substances of abuse treated at casualty clinic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Maja; Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2015-11-17

    Use of and acute poisoning by substances of abuse represent a major health problem and are often linked to social destitution. We describe associations between place of residence, living conditions and the incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse in Oslo. All patients who were 12 years of age or older and resident in Oslo and who were treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) were included prospectively for a continuous period of one year, from October 2011 to September 2012. The 15 districts of Oslo were categorised into three groups of living conditions, from the best (I) to the poorest (III) living conditions, based on the City of Oslo's living conditions index. Homeless people were grouped separately. The incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse treated in the OAEOC was estimated. Of a total of 1,560 poisonings by substances of abuse, 1,094 cases (70%) affected men. The median age was 41 years. The most frequent toxic agents were ethanol, with 915 cases (59%), and heroin, with 249 cases (16%). The incidence of poisoning by substances of abuse treated in the OAEOC per year per 1,000 inhabitants amounted to 1.75 in living conditions group I, to 2.76 in living conditions group II and 3.41 in living conditions group III. Living conditions group III had a significantly higher incidence than living conditions group II (p < 0.001), and living conditions group II had a significantly higher incidence than living conditions group I (p < 0.001). The incidence of acute poisoning by substances of abuse was higher, the poorer the living conditions in the district.

  3. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  4. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...

  5. Civil Surgeon Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  6. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  7. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.

    1996-01-01

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  8. Stochastics of environmental and financial economics Centre of Advanced Study, Oslo, Norway, 2014-2015

    CERN Document Server

    Nunno, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings offer a selection of peer-reviewed research and survey papers by some of the foremost international researchers in the fields of finance, energy, stochastics and risk, who present their latest findings on topical problems. The papers cover the areas of stochastic modeling in energy and financial markets; risk management with environmental factors from a stochastic control perspective; and valuation and hedging of derivatives in markets dominated by renewables, all of which further develop the theory of stochastic analysis and mathematical finance. The papers were presented at the first conference on “Stochastics of Environmental and Financial Economics (SEFE)”, being part of the activity in the SEFE research group of the Centre of Advanced Study (CAS) at the Academy of Sciences in Oslo, Norway during the 2014/2015 academic year.

  9. The production of *sp81m*Kr generators at the Oslo cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjroenstad, T.; Holtebekk, T.; Ruud, A.

    1984-01-01

    The techniques developed for the production of *sp81m*Kr(13s) ventilation generators at the Oslo cyclotron are described. The procedure is based on the reaction *sp82*Kr(p,2n)*sp81*Rb using krypton gas of natural composition as target. The target chamber is designed for a gas pressure of 10 bar. The production unit is dimensioned for a parallel production of five generators, but this number may easily be increased. Attention is drawn to the fact that *sp81m*Rb(31 min) is produced in about the same amount as the *sp81*Rb (4.57 h) ground state. The consequences for the calibration procedure is discussed. Routine production has been exerted without major difficulties for nearly 1.5 years. The procedure has proven to be inexpensive and reliable. (Auth.)

  10. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.C.; Selte, H.K.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM 1 0), while the associations with SO 2 and NO 2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  11. On the history of codification of Hungarian civil law and the new Hungarian civil code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines the basic tendencies in the development of the codification of Hungarian civil law in the period of representative and civil society. The second part deals with the new Hungarian Civil Code (2013/14 its content, methods of regulation and its relation to other civil legislation, temporal validity with the adherence to the idea of validity pro futuro, as well as its tendency to harmonize its norms with the guidelines of the European civil law. In accordance with the idea of completeness, the lawmakers incorporated all of the areas of civil law according to the pandecta system - personal law, corporate law with civil association law, family law, obligations and inheritance. The Code is based on the principle of equality of parties in civil relations, the principle of good faith, fraus legis prohibition. Family law is based on specific principles of protection of marriage, family and children. Contract law is based on the freedom of contract, limited by good customs and morality. Tort law is guided by the principle of prohibiting the harm to others, full compensation of material and imaterial damages. Contractual responsibility is regulated separately, so that the tort rules apply if the specific rules of contractual responsibility donot say otherwise. Other grounds for obligations are also regulated, as well as unjustified enrichment, doing business without order or authority, unilateral expression of intention and securities. The grounds for inheritance are contractual, statutory or based on the will. Freedom of disposition by will is limited by statutory rules regulating the forced share. The system of transfer of property ex lege after the death is adopted. The state is a successor if there are no testamentary, statutory or contractual inheritors.

  12. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø.; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Background Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care. PMID:24872862

  13. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ø. Nordanger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective: To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method: We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results: All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions: Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  14. Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastases: The OSLO-COMET Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretland, Åsmund Avdem; Dagenborg, Vegar Johansen; Bjørnelv, Gudrun Maria Waaler; Kazaryan, Airazat M; Kristiansen, Ronny; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Hausken, John; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Abildgaard, Andreas; Barkhatov, Leonid; Yaqub, Sheraz; Røsok, Bård I; Bjørnbeth, Bjørn Atle; Andersen, Marit Helen; Flatmark, Kjersti; Aas, Eline; Edwin, Bjørn

    2018-02-01

    To perform the first randomized controlled trial to compare laparoscopic and open liver resection. Laparoscopic liver resection is increasingly used for the surgical treatment of liver tumors. However, high-level evidence to conclude that laparoscopic liver resection is superior to open liver resection is lacking. Explanatory, assessor-blinded, single center, randomized superiority trial recruiting patients from Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway from February 2012 to January 2016. A total of 280 patients with resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic (n = 133) or open (n = 147) parenchyma-sparing liver resection. The primary outcome was postoperative complications within 30 days (Accordion grade 2 or higher). Secondary outcomes included cost-effectiveness, postoperative hospital stay, blood loss, operation time, and resection margins. The postoperative complication rate was 19% in the laparoscopic-surgery group and 31% in the open-surgery group (12 percentage points difference [95% confidence interval 1.67-21.8; P = 0.021]). The postoperative hospital stay was shorter for laparoscopic surgery (53 vs 96 hours, P < 0.001), whereas there were no differences in blood loss, operation time, and resection margins. Mortality at 90 days did not differ significantly from the laparoscopic group (0 patients) to the open group (1 patient). In a 4-month perspective, the costs were equal, whereas patients in the laparoscopic-surgery group gained 0.011 quality-adjusted life years compared to patients in the open-surgery group (P = 0.001). In patients undergoing parenchyma-sparing liver resection for colorectal metastases, laparoscopic surgery was associated with significantly less postoperative complications compared to open surgery. Laparoscopic resection was cost-effective compared to open resection with a 67% probability. The rate of free resection margins was the same in both groups. Our results support the continued

  15. Body mass index and progressive hand osteoarthritis: data from the Oslo hand osteoarthritis cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, K; Slatkowsky-Christensen, B; van der Heijde, D; Kvien, T K; Hagen, K B; Haugen, I K

    2015-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and hand osteoarthritis (OA). We aimed to explore the association between BMI and progressive hand OA in a longitudinal study of the Oslo hand OA cohort. Participants with existing hand OA had hand radiographs and BMI data taken at baseline and 7-year follow-up (n = 103). The radiographs were read according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. First, we examined the association between baseline BMI and incident OA (KL grade ≥ 2) in joints without OA at baseline (adjusted for age and sex) using generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses. Second, we examined whether changes in BMI from baseline to follow-up were associated with increasing KL sum score from baseline to follow-up using linear regression. We repeated the analyses using changes in number of joints with symptomatic OA and patient-reported pain and physical function as the outcome. The mean (SD) age at baseline was 61.6 (5.6) years and 91 (94%) of the cohort were women. The mean (SD) BMI was 25.7 (4.0) kg/m(2) at baseline and the mean (SD) BMI change was 1.1 (2.0) kg/m(2). There was no relationship between baseline BMI and development of more joints with OA during follow-up. Similarly, there was no association between change in BMI and hand OA progression, increasing hand pain or disability. In the Oslo hand OA cohort, higher BMI was not related to hand OA progression.

  16. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents' proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  17. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Hammad Raza; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Hussain, Akthar; Selmer, Randi; Ahlberg, Nora

    2006-07-10

    In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000-2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46%) and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38%) in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) was used as a measure of psychological distress. Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p < 0.005). The Pakistani immigrants also reported higher distress, mean HSCL score 1.53(1.48-1.59), compared to the ethnic Norwegians, HSCL score 1.30(1.29-1.30). The groups differed significantly (p < 0.005) with respect to social support and feeling of powerlessness, the Pakistanis reporting less support and more powerlessness. The expected difference in mean distress was reduced from 0.23 (0.19-0.29) to 0.07 (0.01-0.12) and 0.12 (0.07-0.18) when adjusted for socioeconomic and social support variables respectively. Adjusting for all these variables simultaneously, the difference in the distress level between the two groups was eliminated Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions

  18. Ethnic differences in obesity among immigrants from developing countries, in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B N; Meyer, H E; Wandel, M; Dalen, I; Holmboe-Ottesen, G

    2006-04-01

    To compare ethnic and gender differences in generalized and central obesity and to investigate whether these differences persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. In 2002, the population-based cross-sectional, Oslo Immigrant Health study was conducted. A total of 7890 Oslo residents, born between 1942 and 1971 in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam, were invited and 3019 attended. Participants completed a health questionnaire and attended a clinical screening that included height, weight, waist and hip measurements. Generalized obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m2) was greatest among women from Turkey (51.0%) and least among men from Vietnam (2.7%). The highest proportions of central obesity (waist hip ratio (WHR)>or =0.85) were observed among women from Sri Lanka (54.3%) and Pakistan (52.4%). For any given value of BMI, Sri Lankans and Pakistanis had higher WHR compared to the other groups. Despite a high mean BMI, Turkish men (27.9 kg/m2) and women (30.7 kg/m2) did not have a corresponding high WHR. Ethnic differences in BMI, waist circumference and WHR persisted despite adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. We found large differences in generalized and central obesity between immigrant groups from developing countries. Our data find high proportions of overweight and obese subjects from Pakistan and Turkey, but low proportions among those from Vietnam. Subjects from Sri Lanka and Pakistan had the highest WHR for any given value of BMI. Our findings, in light of the burgeoning obesity epidemic, warrant close monitoring of these groups.

  19. State-Sponsored Homophobia and the Denial of the Right of Assembly in Central and Eastern Europe : The "Boomerang" and the "Ricochet" between European Organizations and Civil Society to Uphold Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    State-sponsored homophobia emerged in certain Central and Eastern European states in the past decade, with the denial of the right of assembly for gay pride marches. However, more recently there has been progress in the recognition of the fundamental democratic right of assembly. What accounts for

  20. Bilismen er skadelig for miljoeet, men spiller jeg noen rolle : en studie av holdninger til og bruk av transportmidler blant ungdom i Oslo : summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The report throws light on attitudes toward environmental consequences of transport means among young people in Oslo. A central question is whether young people's use of transport modes is related to their attitudes toward the environmental consequen...

  1. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  2. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  3. Atmospheric contribution of nutritional salts to the Inner Oslo fjord; Atmosfaerisk tilfoersel av naeringssalter til indre Oslofjord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Wenche

    1999-07-01

    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research has calculated how large the contribution of atmospheric total nitrogen and phosphorus is to the Inner Oslo fjord. It is possible to neglect the local contribution of nitrogen and suppose with great probability that the contribution is at the same level as the background level in the area, that is a contribution of 600-700 mg N/m2 a year for the period 1996-1998. This amounts to 66-77 tons of nitrogen a year or about 2 % of the total addition of nitrogen to the Inner Oslo fjord. As to phosphorus the estimates are more uncertain as relatively little is known about atmospheric phosphorus. Certain investigations indicate that the contribution level is about 30 mg P/m2 a year, that is about 3 tons or 3-4 % of the total phosphorus contribution.

  4. Time Trends in School Well-Being Among Adolescents in Oslo: Can Trends be Explained by Social Relationships?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsen, Tiril

    2017-01-01

    Even though well-being in the domain of school is important for mental health, time trend research of this topic is limited. In particular, there is a lack of research investigating differences between ethnic minority and majority students, and there is a lack of literature empirically exploring possible explanations for the time trends in school well-being. The aims of this study were to investigate time trends in school well-being among adolescents in Oslo, explore moderations by gender and...

  5. A Norwegian speaks Norwegian : An analysis of categorization and identity construction in narratives of Latin American migrants in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Pajaro, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to trace how Latin American migrants residing in Oslo use group categories for self- and other-identification for the negotiation and construction of identities in interaction. Identity construction is an essential process for migration and resettlement, as the relocation of the self in a new context requires a constant process of redefinition of the self in relation to the new environment and community. I consider group categorization labels such as "foreigner," "Norweg...

  6. A one-year observational study of all hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo: complications, treatment and sequelae

    OpenAIRE

    Lund Cathrine; Drottning Per; Stiksrud Birgitte; Vahabi Javad; Lyngra Marianne; Ekeberg Ivind; Jacobsen Dag; Hovda Knut

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Changes in poisoning trends may affect both complications and outcomes in patients with acute poisoning. This study reports the treatments given and the frequency of complications, also related to treatment, mortality and sequelae related to various toxic agents. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (≥16 years) admitted to the five hospitals in Oslo were included consecutively during one year (2008 to 2009) in an observational cross-sectional multicenter study. A standar...

  7. The Relationship between Port Stakeholders and their Supply Chain Strategies: Empirical Evidence from the Oslo Fjord Region

    OpenAIRE

    Busa, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the choice and the effect of port stakeholders’ supply chain strategies and their effect on port performance. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a qualitative research methodology is applied. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data from various port stakeholders (located in the Oslo Fjord region). The collected data was analyzed by using NVivo software. Findings: The findings of this study illustrate various port...

  8. Stock Price Performance Following Equity Offerings at Oslo Stock Exchange: Is Investing in SEO Companies Hazardous to Your Wealth?

    OpenAIRE

    Grieg, Benedicte Willumsen

    2012-01-01

    I examine the stock price performance following a seasoned equity offering at Oslo Stock Exchange. Through an empirical analysis I find that the existence of a negative announcement effect associated with issuing seasoned equity, as well as a long-run underperformance, is also applicable in the Norwegian market. The level of asymmetry can to a large extent explain the price drop and varies with characteristics like sector, offering size, floatation method, and pre-offer performance. The long-...

  9. Attitudes toward suicidal behaviour among professionals at mental health outpatient clinics in Stavropol, Russia and Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Norheim, Astrid Berge; Grimholt, Tine K.; Loskutova, Ekaterina; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2016-01-01

    Background Attitudes toward suicidal behaviour can be essential regarding whether patients seek or are offered help. Patients with suicidal behaviour are increasingly treated by mental health outpatient clinics. Our aim was to study attitudes among professionals at outpatient clinics in Stavropol, Russia and Oslo, Norway. Methods Three hundred and forty-eight (82?%) professionals anonymously completed a questionnaire about attitudes. Professionals at outpatient clinics in Stavropol (n?=?119; ...

  10. Glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen office block in Middelthunsgt. 17. [Oslo, Norway]. Glassgaardsklima i Kredittkassens kontorbygg i Middelthunsgt. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Harsem, T T

    1986-09-01

    The report deals with the glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen head office block in Oslo (Norway). The climate has been simulated by means of the computer program Royal-DEBAK. Considered in particular are the summery and bright sunny day conditions together with the annual power required and energy consumption. The use of insulating glasses, indoor curtains, ventilation systems in the narrow zone of the glass roof, and cooling systems in the floor are important parts of the concept. 9 drawings.

  11. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  12. CIVIL RIGHTS AND MINORITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARTMAN, PAUL

    A MAJOR INTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS AMENDMENTS, TO GUARANTEE EQUAL RIGHTS TO ALL CITIZENS REGARDLESS OF RACE, CREED, OR COLOR, HAS BEEN REINFORCED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES OF MANY STATES. IN SOME STATES SUCH LAWS HAVE BEEN ON RECORD FOR THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENTURY. IN OTHER STATES THE SAME CONSTITUTIONAL INTENT HAS BEEN DENIED BY…

  13. Civil Law and Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of

  14. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  15. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  16. Overweight and weight dissatisfaction related to socio-economic position, integration and dietary indicators among south Asian immigrants in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg, Marte; Kumar, Bernadette; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-05-01

    To investigate how socio-economic position, demographic factors, degree of integration and dietary indicators are related to BMI/waist:hip ratio (WHR) and to weight dissatisfaction and slimming among South Asians in Oslo, Norway. Cross-sectional study consisting of a health check including anthropometric measures and two self-administered questionnaires. Oslo, Norway. Pakistanis and Sri Lankans (n 629), aged 30-60 years, residing in Oslo. BMI was positively associated with female gender (P = 0.004) and Pakistani origin (P integration (measured by a composite index, independent of duration of residence; P = 0.017). One-third of those with normal weight and most of those obese were dissatisfied with their weight. Among these, about 40 % had attempted to slim during the past year. Dissatisfaction with weight was positively associated with education in women (P = 0.006) and with integration in men (P = 0.026), and inversely associated with physical activity (P = 0.044) in men. Women who had made slimming attempts had breakfast and other meals less frequently than others (P < 0.05). Weight dissatisfaction exists among South Asian immigrants. More research is needed regarding bodily dissatisfaction and the relationship between perception of weight and weight-change attempts among immigrants in Norway, in order to prevent and treat both obesity and eating disorders.

  17. Confucius meets Weber or "Managerialism takes all"? Comparing civil servant values in China and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Z.; Yang, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the validity of normative claims on how civil servant values in East Asian and Western European administrations differ. By triangulating quantitative and qualitative survey data from a sample of Chinese (n = 508) and Dutch (n = 238) civil servants, we aim to answer two main

  18. A Strategic Approach for Supporting the Future of Civil Engineering Education in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, Demos C.; Loukogeorgaki, Eva

    2005-01-01

    A new strategic vision of the extensively debated European higher education is proposed with focus on civil engineering. Civil engineering education for the future is considered with relevance to potential world-wide trends and anticipated societal requirements and, therefore, required employee qualifications of the construction-related providers…

  19. Capitalizing on Emergence: The ‘New’ Civil Security Market in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the European Union has supported the development of a new civil security market, capable of providing security technology for new and global security challenges. This article analyses the emerging growth market for civil security in relation to contemporary notions of potential

  20. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  1. GPS Civil Monitoring Performance Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...

  2. Re-thinking civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.

  3. Civil partnerships five years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  4. The Evolution and Challenges of the Danish Civil Service System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2013-01-01

    service is examined. The Danish civil service system has been characterized by long-term gradual evolution and adoption of many of the prevailing institutions in medieval and modern European state administration. This adaptation to prevailing trends has been predominantly characterized by integration...

  5. 77 FR 55175 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0131; Notice 1] RIN 2127-AL16 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposes to increase the maximum civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements... and consumer information provisions. Specifically, this proposes increases in maximum civil penalty...

  6. 75 FR 79978 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0114; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for related series of violations of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety... Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection...

  7. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0066; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AK40 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements involving school buses, bumper... theft protection requirements. This action is taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty...

  8. 77 FR 70710 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0131; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AL16 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements for the National Traffic and... provisions. Specifically, this increases the maximum civil penalty amounts for single violations of motor...

  9. 75 FR 49879 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0114; Notice 1] RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposes to increase the maximum civil penalty amounts for violations covering a related series of... action would be taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as...

  10. Statistical analysis and definition of blockages-prediction formulae for the wastewater network of Oslo by evolutionary computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarelli, Rita; Kristensen, Stig Morten; Røstum, Jon; Saegrov, Sveinung; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Oslo Vann og Avløpsetaten (Oslo VAV)-the water/wastewater utility in the Norwegian capital city of Oslo-is assessing future strategies for selection of most reliable materials for wastewater networks, taking into account not only material technical performance but also material performance, regarding operational condition of the system.The research project undertaken by SINTEF Group, the largest research organisation in Scandinavia, NTNU (Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet) and Oslo VAV adopts several approaches to understand reasons for failures that may impact flow capacity, by analysing historical data for blockages in Oslo.The aim of the study was to understand whether there is a relationship between the performance of the pipeline and a number of specific attributes such as age, material, diameter, to name a few. This paper presents the characteristics of the data set available and discusses the results obtained by performing two different approaches: a traditional statistical analysis by segregating the pipes into classes, each of which with the same explanatory variables, and a Evolutionary Polynomial Regression model (EPR), developed by Technical University of Bari and University of Exeter, to identify possible influence of pipe's attributes on the total amount of predicted blockages in a period of time.Starting from a detailed analysis of the available data for the blockage events, the most important variables are identified and a classification scheme is adopted.From the statistical analysis, it can be stated that age, size and function do seem to have a marked influence on the proneness of a pipeline to blockages, but, for the reduced sample available, it is difficult to say which variable it is more influencing. If we look at total number of blockages the oldest class seems to be the most prone to blockages, but looking at blockage rates (number of blockages per km per year), then it is the youngest class showing the highest blockage rate

  11. Posttraumatic responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror among Norwegian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Jakobsen, Reidar; Olff, Miranda; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-12-01

    The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the ung@hordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones' lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. Overview of experimental progress on understanding photon strength functions with an emphasis of the Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krticka, Milan

    2015-10-01

    The so-called Photon Strength Functions (PSFs) for different multipolarities are, together with the Nuclear Level Density (NLD) the key entities describing the statistical γ-decay of nucleus. It is well known that PSFs at energies above the threshold for particle emission are well described by the Lorentzian shape of the Giant Electric Dipole Resonance (GEDR). On the other hand, shapes of RSFs at the low-energy tail of GEDR are known rather poorly. Information on the PSFs at the GEDR tail can be obtained from several different experimental techniques. They will be summarized and the most important ones briefly introduced in this contribution. Special emphasis will be put on the so-called Oslo method which allows simultaneous extraction of the NLD and the PSFs from particle- γ coincidence measurements. This method has been used for determining the NLD and the PSFs in many nuclei in A ~ 45- 240 range during past years. Examples of the most interesting results obtained with this method will be shown. The results will be compared to information on the PSFs available from other experimental techniques. The strengths and the weaknesses of the method will be thoroughly discussed.

  13. Diabetes Risk by Length of Residence among Somali Women in Oslo Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Kumar, Bernadette; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes represents a major health problem worldwide, with immigrants strongly contributing to the increase in diabetes in many countries. Norway is not immune to the process, and immigrants in the country are experiencing an increase in the prevalence of diabetes after arrival. However, the dynamics of these transitions in relation to the duration of residence in the new environment in Norway are not clearly understood. From this background, a cross-sectional quantitative study using a respondent-driven sampling method was conducted among 302 Somali women living in Oslo area. The results show that 41% of the study participants will be at risk for developing diabetes in the coming 10 years, which coincides with 85% of the study participants being abdominally obese. Significant associations were found between years of stay in Norway and the risk for diabetes with those who lived in Norway >10 years, having twofold higher odds of being at risk for developing diabetes compared to those who lived in Norway ≤5 years (OR: 2.16, CI: 1.08-4.32). Understanding the mechanisms through which exposure to the Norwegian environment leads to higher obesity and diabetes risk may aid in prevention efforts for the rapidly growing African immigrant population.

  14. Suboptimal Iodine Status among Pregnant Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, Sigrun; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Borthne, Sandra; Pajalic, Zada; Blix, Ellen; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2018-02-28

    Norway has been considered iodine replete for decades; however, recent studies indicate reemergence of inadequate iodine status in different population groups. We assessed iodine status in pregnant women based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and iodine intake from food and supplements. In 804 pregnant women, 24-h iodine intakes from iodine-rich foods and iodine-containing supplements were calculated. In 777 women, iodine concentration was measured in spot urine samples by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, 49 of the women collected a 24-h urine sample for assessment of UIE and iodine intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Median UIC was 92 µg/L. Fifty-five percent had a calculated iodine intake below estimated average requirement (EAR) (160 µg/day). Iodine intake from food alone did not provide the amount of iodine required to meet maternal and fetal needs during pregnancy. In multiple regression models, hypothyroidism, supplemental iodine and maternal age were positively associated with UIC, while gestational age and smoking were negatively associated, explaining 11% of the variance. This study clearly shows that pregnant women in the Oslo area are mild to moderate iodine deficient and public health strategies are needed to improve and secure adequate iodine status.

  15. Knowledge about Iodine in Pregnant and Lactating Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Henjum, Sigrun

    2017-05-13

    Lack of knowledge about iodine may be a risk factor for iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about iodine and predictors of iodine knowledge scores among pregnant and lactating women. The study also examined whether iodine knowledge scores were associated with iodine status. A cross-sectional study was performed on 804 pregnant women and 175 lactating women from 18 to 44 years of age in 2016 in the Oslo area, Norway. Knowledge about iodine was collected through a self-administered, paper-based questionnaire. Iodine concentrations in urine and breast milk were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS). 74% of the pregnant women and 55% of the lactating women achieved none to low iodine knowledge scores. Higher educated pregnant women and those who had received information about iodine had significantly higher knowledge scores. In lactating women, increased age was associated with higher knowledge scores. Knowledge scores were not associated with participants' iodine status. This study revealed a lack of knowledge about the importance of iodine in pregnant and lactating women, as well as about the most important dietary sources. Public education initiatives are required to increase the awareness about iodine in these population groups.

  16. The aftermath of terrorism: posttraumatic stress and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Øivind; Blix, Ines; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we wanted to investigate the link between exposure, posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and functional impairment in the aftermath of terrorism. Posttraumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment related to the Oslo bombing 22nd of July, 2011, in directly and indirectly exposed individuals (N = 1927) were assessed together with demographics, exposure, peri-traumatic reactions, and event centrality approximately 1 year after the attack. Directly and indirectly exposed individuals qualifying for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported similar peri-traumatic reactions, event centrality, and functional impairment. However, clusters within the PTSD symptomatology were differentially associated with impairment as a function of their exposure. In the directly exposed group, all clusters within the PTSD symptomatology were associated with impairment in function, while only emotional numbing was associated with impairment within the indirectly exposed group. Considering that terror attacks frequently involve directly exposed individuals and a larger population of indirectly exposed individuals, this finding is of importance, especially in the design of intervention programs and the development of treatment policies.

  17. Abscess infections and malnutrition--a cross-sectional study of polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeland, Mone; Wandel, Margareta; Böhmer, Thomas; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-06-01

    Injection drug use and malnutrition are widespread among polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway, but little is known about the frequency of abscess infections and possible relations to malnutrition. To assess the prevalence of abscess infections, and differences in nutritional status between drug addicts with or without abscess infections. A cross-sectional study of 195 polydrug addicts encompassing interview of demographics, dietary recall, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. All respondents were under the influence of illicit drugs and were not participating in any drug treatment or rehabilitation program at the time of investigation. Abscess infections were reported by 25% of the respondents, 19% of the men and 33% of the women (p = 0.025). Underweight (BMI 15 μmol/L) was 73% in the abscess-infected group and 41% in the non-abscess-infected group (p = 0.001). The concentrations of S-25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 was very low. The prevalence of abscess infections was 25% among the examined polydrug addicts. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessment indicated a relation between abscess infections and malnutrition.

  18. Diabetes Risk by Length of Residence among Somali Women in Oslo Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi A. Gele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes represents a major health problem worldwide, with immigrants strongly contributing to the increase in diabetes in many countries. Norway is not immune to the process, and immigrants in the country are experiencing an increase in the prevalence of diabetes after arrival. However, the dynamics of these transitions in relation to the duration of residence in the new environment in Norway are not clearly understood. From this background, a cross-sectional quantitative study using a respondent-driven sampling method was conducted among 302 Somali women living in Oslo area. The results show that 41% of the study participants will be at risk for developing diabetes in the coming 10 years, which coincides with 85% of the study participants being abdominally obese. Significant associations were found between years of stay in Norway and the risk for diabetes with those who lived in Norway >10 years, having twofold higher odds of being at risk for developing diabetes compared to those who lived in Norway ≤5 years (OR: 2.16, CI: 1.08–4.32. Understanding the mechanisms through which exposure to the Norwegian environment leads to higher obesity and diabetes risk may aid in prevention efforts for the rapidly growing African immigrant population.

  19. Professor Svein Stølen, Rector of the University of Oslo, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2018-01-01

    Professor Svein Stølen, Rector of the University of Oslo, Norway, signing the CERN guestbook in the presence of Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources. The other members of the visiting Norwegian delegations were Prof. Per Morten Sandset (Vice Rector, UiO), Prof. Margareth Hagen (Vice rector, University of Bergen (UiB)), Prof. Morten Dæhlen (Dean, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, UiO), Prof. Helge K. Dahle (Dean, Department of Physics, UiB), Prof. Jøran I. Moen (Head, Department of Physics, UiO), Prof. Øyvind Frette (Head Department of Physics and Technology, UiB), Prof. Alexander L. Read (Chairperson, Norwegian CERN project leaders committee), Prof. Eivind Osnes (Norwegian CERN delegate), Dr Bjørg Mikalsen (Adviser, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, UiO), Dr Liv Furuberg (Norwegian CERN delegate; Special Adviser, Research Council of Norway) and Dr Hanne Hvatum (Senior Advisor, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway).

  20. El Manual de Oslo y la innovación social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echevarría, Javier

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Oslo’s Handbook (2005 analyse four types of innovations: processes, goods, organization and marketing. However, there are social innovations not oriented to markets. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to identify good practices of social innovation, which is based on different kinds of values which are satisfied by innovation practices (axiological conception. The social acceptation and use of innovative proposals is the main criteria to construct systems of indicators of social innovation. Different sources, scopes and types of innovation should be distinguished. As a conclusion, a new research program is proposed for the studies of innovation.El Manual de Oslo (2005 distingue cuatro tipos de innovación: de bienes, de procesos, organizativa y de mercadotecnia. Sin embargo, hay innovaciones sociales no orientadas a los mercados. Este artículo propone un nuevo marco conceptual para identificar buenas prácticas de innovación social, que está basado en los diferentes tipos de valores que son satisfechos por las prácticas innovadoras (concepción axiológica. La aceptación social y el uso de las propuestas innovadoras constituyen los criterios principales para construir sistemas de indicadores de innovación social. Hay que distinguir entre diferentes fuentes, tamaños y tipos de innovación. Como conclusión, se propone un nuevo programa de investigación para los estudios de innovación.

  1. Experience of dietary advice among Pakistani-born persons with type 2 diabetes in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerli, Rønnaug Aa; Lien, Marianne E; Wandel, Margareta

    2005-12-01

    Experience and implementation of dietary advice are influenced by various factors including ethnic, cultural and religious background. The aim is to explore how ethnic minority persons with diabetes experience dietary advice given by Norwegian health-workers, which strategies they have in response to the advice and how they explain their actions. In-depth interviews were performed with 15 Pakistani-born persons with type 2 diabetes living in Oslo. The analyses are based on the principles of Giorgi's interpretation of phenomenology. The participants expressed great concern to follow the advice. However, narratives about constraints were numerous. These concerned different life-situational factors, but more importantly they were related to communication problems arising from discontinuities between universalising medical knowledge and lay knowledge, as well as between different types of culturally defined lay knowledge. As a consequence, advice was generally experienced as inadequately based on the participant's food-cultural background, leaving the person with diabetes to do the translation between different levels of knowledge. In general health-workers would benefit from expanding their knowledge of the many positive aspects of their patients' cultural background, and apply their knowledge thereafter, whether it concerns (food)-culture or the impact of religion in everyday life.

  2. Departamento de Obras Civiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Director Departamento de Obras Civiles

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Es la unidad académica que se crea como estructura básica para la formación profesional del Constructor Civil. El departamento está orientado a las siguientes áreas: Obras Viales, Fluviales y Marítimas; Hormigones y Mecánica de Suelos; Laboratorios y Control de Calidad; Planificación y Programación; Administración; Organización y Gestión Financiera, conocimientos insertos en un total de 33 asignaturas, prácticas y seminarios siendo equivalentes a más de 100 créditos, lo cual representa un 42% del total de las asignaturas correspondientes al Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Construcción Civil.

  3. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.

  4. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  5. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  6. Overdose prevention training with naloxone distribution in a prison in Oslo, Norway: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Aase Grønlien; Madah-Amiri, Desiree

    2017-11-21

    Prison inmates face a ten times increased risk of experiencing a fatal drug overdose during their first 2 weeks upon release than their non-incarcerated counterparts. Naloxone, the antidote to an opioid overdose, has been shown to be feasible and effective when administered by bystanders. Given the particular risk that newly released inmates face, it is vital to assess their knowledge about opioid overdoses, as well as the impact of brief overdose prevention training conducted inside prisons. Prison inmates nearing release (within 6 months) in Oslo, Norway, voluntarily underwent a brief naloxone training. Using a questionnaire, inmates were assessed immediately prior to and following a naloxone training. Descriptive statistics were performed for main outcome variables, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the participants' two questionnaire scores from pre-and post-training. Participating inmates (n = 31) were found to have a high baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and care regarding opioid overdoses. Nonetheless, a brief naloxone training session prior to release significantly improved knowledge scores in all areas assessed (p < 0.001). The training appears to be most beneficial in improving knowledge regarding the naloxone, including its use, effect, administration, and aftercare procedures. Given the high risk of overdosing that prison inmates face upon release, the need for prevention programs is critical. Naloxone training in the prison setting may be an effective means of improving opioid overdose response knowledge for this particularly vulnerable group. Naloxone training provided in the prison setting may improve the ability of inmates to recognize and manage opioid overdoses after their release; however, further studies on a larger scale are needed.

  7. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  8. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration......- and citizenship-regimes. Locating transnationalism as part of the political opportunity structure also indicates that the state(s) to some degree can facilitate transnationalism, directly and indirectly. A substantial part of political engagement now occurs via transnational channels. What is uncertain is to what...

  9. Dynamic metabolism modelling of urban water services--demonstrating effectiveness as a decision-support tool for Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Sægrov, Sveinung; Brattebø, Helge

    2014-09-15

    Urban water services are challenged from many perspectives and different stakeholders demand performance improvements along economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In response, urban water utilities systematically give more attention to criteria such as water safety, climate change adaptation and mitigation, environmental life cycle assessment (LCA), total cost efficiency, and on how to improve their operations within the water-energy-carbon nexus. The authors of this paper collaborated in the development of a 'Dynamic Metabolism Model' (DMM). The model is developed for generic use in the sustainability assessment of urban water services, and it has been initially tested for the city of Oslo, Norway. The purpose has been to adopt a holistic systemic perspective to the analysis of metabolism and environmental impacts of resource flows in urban water and wastewater systems, in order to offer a tool for the examination of future strategies and intervention options in such systems. This paper describes the model and its application to the city of Oslo for the analysis time period 2013-2040. The external factors impacting decision-making and interventions are introduced along with realistic scenarios developed for the testing, after consultation with officials at the Oslo Water and Wastewater Works (Norway). Possible interventions that the utility intends to set in motion are defined and numerically interpreted for incorporation into the model, and changes in the indicator values over the time period are determined. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the DMM, as a decision-support tool for water-wastewater utilities. The scenarios considered and interventions identified do not include all possible scenarios and interventions that can be relevant for water-wastewater utilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Patients presenting with acute poisoning to an outpatient emergency clinic: a one-year observational study in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2015-08-13

    In Oslo, the majority of patients with acute poisoning are treated in primary care, at an emergency outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources. We describe the poisonings currently seen in this setting. We compare our findings with previous studies, with special concern for the appearance of new toxic agents, and changes in overall numbers and patterns of poisoning. Observational study. Patients above the age of 12 years presenting at Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (Oslo Legevakt) with acute poisoning were included consecutively from October 2011 through September 2012. Physicians and nurses registered data on preset forms. Main outcome measures were toxic agents, age, sex, intention, referral and time of presentation. There were 2923 episodes of acute poisoning in 2261 patients. Median age of the patients was 32 years, and 1430 (63%) were males. The most frequent toxic agents were ethanol in 1684 (58%) episodes, heroin in 542 (19 %), benzodiazepines in 521 (18%), amphetamine in 275 (9%), fire smoke in 192 (7%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in 144 (5%), and cannabis in 143 (5%). In 904 (31%) poisonings there were more than one toxic agent. In 493 episodes (17%), the patient was hospitalised, and in 60 episodes (2%) admitted to a psychiatric ward. Most poisonings, 2328 (80%), were accidental overdoses with substances of abuse, 276 (9%) were suicide attempts, and 312 (11%) were accidents. Among ethanol poisonings in patients above the age of 26 years, 685/934 (73%) were in males, and 339/934 (36%) presented during weekends. However, among ethanol poisonings in patients under the age of 26 years, 221/451 (49 ) were in females, and 297/451 (66%) presented during weekends. The poisonings treated in this primary care setting were mostly due to accidental overdoses with ethanol or other substances of abuse. There is a disconcerting weekend drinking pattern among adolescents and young adults, with young females presenting as often as

  11. Understanding civil society before and after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Miszlivetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrapped in the ambiguities of the Realpolitik of the Yalta system, East and Central European societies had to proceed on a long path of learning in order to find the right modes of self-organization and articulation to defend their values and identities vis-à-vis dictatorship and authoritarian rule. These bitter lessons contributed to the emergence of a new «strategy», a new vision which materialized in the emerging political philosophy and the political and social practice of civil society. This development would not have been possible without a gradual and fundamental change in political thinking and goal-setting, expressed in the development of a new concept of civil society.Atrapados en las ambigüedades de la Realpolitik del sistema de Yalta, las sociedades del Centro y Este de Europea han tenido que proceder a un largo camino de aprendizaje a fin de encontrar formas correctas de autoorganización y la articulación de la defensa de sus valores e identidades vis-à- vis con una dictadura y una administración autoritaria. Estas amargas lecciones contribuyeron a la emergencia de una nueva «estrategia», una nueva visión materializada en la emergente filosofía política y la práctica social y política de la sociedad civil. Este desarrollo no hubiera sido posible sin el gradual y fundamental cambio en el pensamiento político y el establecimiento de metas, expresadas en el desarrollo de un nuevo concepto de sociedad civil

  12. The French regime of civil liability for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, Marc

    2013-01-01

    As civil liability for nuclear is a matter of discussion and initiatives at the European and international levels, the author proposes an overview of the legal framework of the French regime of civil liability for nuclear which is a combination of two international treaties (Paris and Brussels conventions) and a national arrangement (a 1968 law). He presents and comments the main characteristics of this regime (geographical scope of application, concerned activities, excluded events, covered damages, principles regarding operator's liability) and the improvements brought by Paris and Brussels convention review protocols

  13. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    specific climatic challenge or clean the air. With nanotechnology, the artificial and the natural move closer together; this is the perspective for civil engineer Chris McCarthy’s work all over the world. And what is new is not just the way the construction materials are put together; they also require......Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...

  14. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...... theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...

  15. En begivenhetsstudie av laksesektoren på Oslo Børs i perioden 2012-2016 : kvartalsresultat vs. analytikernes forventninger

    OpenAIRE

    Mellingen, Torstein Nyhammer

    2017-01-01

    In this master thesis I investigate three issues. First I start by analysing whether the analysts Henning Lund, Kjetil Lye and Kolbjørn Giskeødegård have been able to give their customers excess returns through trade recommendations for salmon stocks at Oslo Stock Exchange between 01.01.2012 – 31.12.2016. By conducting an event study I also analyse how the stock prices for eight salmon companies2 react before, during and after publication of quarterly reports, as well as how the stock prices ...

  16. Bruk av analgetika og andre medikamenter blant gravide i Oslo - en spørreskjemaundersøkelse

    OpenAIRE

    Arntsen, Siri Annie; Wedding, Iselin Marie

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are few studies on the subject of drug use during pregnancy over the last decades. The aim of this study was to examine the self-reported prevalence of drug use among pregnant women in Oslo, which type of drugs are most frequently used and to describe changes in drug intake during the first 17-18 gestational weeks. Material and method: 1749 pregnant women, 86 % of the invited and 92 % of those who accepted the invitation, answered a self-completion questionnaire at the a...

  17. How persistent is civilization growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy cons...

  18. The general principles of civil law: their nature, roles and legitimacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Leczykiewicz, D.; Weatherill, S.

    2013-01-01

    The references made by the Court of Justice in a number of recent cases to ‘the general principles of civil law’ may have been accidental, but they may also represent a deliberate first step towards a new European legal category and a new approach towards European private law. Because of their

  19. Dental arch relationship in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following Warsaw (one-stage repair) and Oslo protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Piotr; Hortis-Dzierzbicka, Maria; Dudkiewicz, Zofia; Semb, Gunvor

    2009-11-01

    To compare the dental arch relationship following one-stage repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in Warsaw with a matched sample of patients treated by the Oslo Cleft Team. Study models of 61 children (mean age, 11.2; SD, 1.7) with a nonsyndromic complete UCLP consecutively treated with one-stage closure of the cleft at 9.2 months (range, 6.0 to 15.8 months; SD, 2.0) by the Warsaw Cleft Team at the Institute of Mother and Child, Poland, were compared with a sample drawn from a consecutive series of patients with UCLP treated by the Oslo Cleft Team and matched for age, gender, and soft tissue band. The study models were given random numbers to blind their origin. Four examiners rated the dental arch relationship using the GOSLON Yardstick. The strength of agreement of rating was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics. An independent t-test was carried out to compare the GOSLON scores between Warsaw and Oslo samples, and Fisher's exact tests were performed to evaluate the difference of distribution of the GOSLON scores. The intrarater and interrater agreements were high (K > or = .800). No difference in dental arch relationship between Warsaw and Oslo groups was found (mean GOSLON score = 2.68 and 2.65 for Warsaw and Oslo samples, respectively). The distribution of the GOSLON grades was similar in both groups. The dental arch relationship following one-stage repair (Warsaw protocol) was comparable with the outcome of the Oslo Cleft Team's protocol.

  20. Homeland Security and Civil Liberties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leonard; Lovelace, Douglas C., Jr

    2004-01-01

    .... The conference examined national security issues related to civil liberties, immigration policy, privacy issues, first amendment rights, and the balance of executive and judicial power in relation...

  1. Projections of concentration levels of NO2 and PM10 for Oslo for 2005 and 2010. A sensitivity and initiative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloerdal, Leiv Haavard; Toennesen, Dag

    1999-10-01

    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) has performed model projections and calculated the effect of different abatement measures for the air quality of Oslo towards 2010. The calculations have been performed for the components of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and airborne particulate matter (PM 1 0). The aim of the work has been to find out what types of measures are needed in order to reach the National goals on future local air quality set by the authorities. The results of the model simulations reveal that substantial abatement measures are needed if all of the residential buildings in Oslo shall reach the proposed goals. (author)

  2. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the role that churches can and should play in civil society to develop societal morally. The central-theoretical argument is that the biblical notion of the kingdom of God can, when it is systematically and theologically developed, offer an acceptable foundation for the civil action of churches. In light of this ...

  3. Managing Transboundary Crises : The Emergence of European Union Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, Arjen; Rhinard, Mark; Ekengren, Magnus

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of

  4. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  5. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  6. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  7. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable civil...

  8. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  9. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  10. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  11. Constraining the cross section of 82Se(n, γ)83Se to validate the β-Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, K.; Liddick, S. N.; Crider, B. P.; Dombos, A. C.; Lewis, R.; Spyrou, A.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Prokop, C. J.; Naqvi, F.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Campo, L. C.; Renstrom, T.; Siem, S.; Bleuel, D. L.; Perdikakis, G.; Quinn, S.

    2017-09-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei are important for a variety of basic and applied nuclear science problems. However, because of the short half-lives of the nuclei involved and the nonexistence of a neutron target, indirect measurement methods are required. One such method is the β-Oslo method. The nuclear level density and γ strength function of a nucleus are extracted after β-decay and used in a statistical reaction model to constrain the neutron capture cross section. This method has been used previously, but must be validated against a directly measured neutron capture cross section. The neutron capture cross section of 82Se has been measured previously, and 83Se can be accessed by the β-decay of 83As. The β-decay of 83As to 83Se was studied using the SuN detector at the NSCL and the β-Oslo method was utilized to constrain the neutron capture cross section of 82Se, which is compared to the directly measured value.

  12. Danish translation and validation of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaires on overuse injuries and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J E; Rathleff, C R; Rathleff, M S; Andreasen, J

    2016-12-01

    The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire (OSTRC-O) and the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaire on Health Problems (The OSTRC-H) make it possible to monitor illness and injury at regular intervals capturing prevalence and incidence of acute injury, overuse injury, and illnesses. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and establish the face validity of the OSTRC-O and the OSTRC-H into a Danish context (DK) through cognitive interviews and the assessment of test-retest reliability. The OSTRC-O.DK was distributed to 57 heterogenous respondents; response rate was 89%. The OSTRC-H was distributed to 58 heterogenous respondents; response rate was 86%. No major disagreements were observed between the original and translated versions of the questionnaires. The OSTRC-O had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.80-0.93). The primary reliability analyses including all participants, showed reliability ICC: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.77. The secondary reliability analyses that only included subjects who did not change injury region from the test to the retest showed an ICC of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92).The questionnaires were found to be valid, reliable, and acceptable for use in a Danish population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings selected for safety inspections in the city of Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune; Sørensen, Michael W J; Nævestad, Tor-Olav

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports an analysis of factors influencing safety in a sample of marked pedestrian crossings in the city of Oslo, Norway. The sample consists of 159 marked pedestrian crossings where a total of 316 accidents were recorded during a period of five years. The crossings were selected for inspection because of they were, for various reasons, regarded as sub-standard. The sample of crossings is therefore not representative of all pedestrian crossings in Oslo. Factors influencing the number of accidents were studied by means of negative binomial regression. Factors that were studied included the volume of pedestrians and vehicles, the number of traffic lanes at the crossing, the location of the crossing (midblock or junction), the type of traffic control, the share of pedestrians using the crossing and the speed of approaching vehicles. The analysis confirmed the presence of a "safety-in-numbers" effect, meaning that an increase in the number of pedestrians is associated with a lower risk of accident for each pedestrian. Crossings located in four-leg junctions or roundabouts had more accidents than crossings located in three-leg junctions or on sections between junctions. A high share of pedestrians crossing the road outside the marked crossing was associated with a high number of accidents. Increased speed was associated with an increased number of accidents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of drugs used by nightclub patrons and criminal offenders in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Nordfjærn, Trond; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line; Edland-Gryt, Marit; Furuhaugen, Håvard; Karinen, Ritva; Øiestad, Elisabeth L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate psychoactive drug use among nightclub patrons by analysing samples of oral fluid and compare with findings in blood samples from criminal suspects. We hypothesized that the profile of illicit drug use among nightclub patrons is different from what we observe in those forensic cases. Research stations were established outside nine popular nightclubs with different profiles and patron-characteristics in downtown Oslo. Data and sample collection was conducted on Fridays and Saturdays in March and May 2014. Individuals and groups who entered defined recruitment zones from 23:00 to 03:30 were invited to participate in this voluntary and anonymous study. Oral fluid was collected using the Intercept Oral Fluid Sampling Device. Methanol was added to increase the recovery of cannabinoids from the device. Sample preparation was performed using liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate/heptane (4:1) after adding internal standards, ammonium carbonate buffer pH 9.3 and Triton X100. The first 80 samples were analysed for 122 substances, which included psychoactive medicinal drugs, classical illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS). Based on the findings and discussions with police and customs authorities, the remaining oral fluid samples were analysed for 46 substances. Among the 500 samples collected during the study period, we found illicit drugs in 25.4% and medicinal drugs in 4.2% of the samples. The most prevalent substances were: cocaine 14.6%, THC 12.4%, amphetamine/methamphetamine 2.8%, diazepam 1.2% and clonazepam 1.0%. Various NPS were found in 1.4% of the samples. The prevalence of drugs in blood samples from criminal suspects were for cocaine 3.4%, THC 34.7%, amphetamine/methamphetamine 37.0%, diazepam 12.0%, and clonazepam 29.3%. Multi-drug use was more common among criminal suspects (41.3%) than among club patrons (6.8%). The results showed that the drug use pattern among nightclub patrons was substantially

  15. Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol – chemical transport model Oslo CTM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. A. Isaksen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The global chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 has been extended to include the formation, transport and deposition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Precursor hydrocarbons which are oxidised to form condensible species include both biogenic species such as terpenes and isoprene, as well as species emitted predominantly by anthropogenic activities (toluene, m-xylene, methylbenzene and other aromatics. A model simulation for 2004 gives an annual global SOA production of approximately 55 Tg. Of this total, 2.5 Tg is found to consist of the oxidation products of anthropogenically emitted hydrocarbons, and about 15 Tg is formed by the oxidation products of isoprene. The global production of SOA is increased to about 69 Tg yr−1 by allowing semi-volatile species to partition to ammonium sulphate aerosol. This brings modelled organic aerosol values closer to those observed, however observations in Europe remain significantly underestimated. Allowing SOA to partition into ammonium sulphate aerosol increases the contribution of anthropogenic SOA from about 4.5% to 9.4% of the total production. Total modelled organic aerosol (OA values are found to represent a lower fraction of the measured values in winter (when primary organic aerosol (POA is the dominant OA component than in summer, which may be an indication that estimates of POA emissions are too low. Additionally, for measurement stations where the summer OA values are higher than in winter, the model generally underestimates the increase in summertime OA. In order to correctly model the observed increase in OA in summer, additional SOA sources or formation mechanisms may be necessary. The importance of NO3 as an oxidant of SOA precursors is found to vary regionally, causing up to 50%–60% of the total amount of SOA near the surface in polluted regions and less than 25% in more remote areas, if the yield of condensible oxidation products for β-pinene is used for NO3 oxidation of all terpenes

  16. Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts for urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, G.; Brattebo, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the urban water and wastewater network is directly related to both the quantity and the desired quality of the supplied water/treated wastewater - in other words, to the level of service provided to consumers. The level of service is dependent on not just the quantity and quality of the water but also the state of the infrastructure. Maintaining the infrastructure so as to be able to provide the required high level of service also demands energy. Apart from being a significant operational cost component, energy use also contributes to life-cycle environmental impacts. This paper studies the direct energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the water and wastewater system in Oslo; and presents a break-up among the different components of the network, of quantities, costs and environmental impacts. Owing to the diversity in the periods of time for which comprehensive data for the whole system are available, the study period is restricted to years 2000-2006. The per-capita annual consumption of energy in the operational phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh; and per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. The energy consumed on the upstream, per unit volume water supplied was around 0.4 kWh on average, while the corresponding value for the downstream was 0.8 kWh per cubic metre wastewater treated. The upstream Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged between 70 and 80 g per cubic metre of water supplied, about 22% greater on average than the corresponding specific GHG emissions on the downstream. -- Research highlights: → Annual per-capita energy consumption in the Operation and Maintenance (O and M) phase of the system varied between 220 and 260 kWh. → Annual per-capita annual expenses on energy in inflation-adjusted year-2006-Euros ranged between 6.5 and 11 Euros. → Upstream O and M energy consumption per

  17. Departamento de Obras Civiles

    OpenAIRE

    Director Departamento de Obras Civiles

    1984-01-01

    Es la unidad académica que se crea como estructura básica para la formación profesional del Constructor Civil. El departamento está orientado a las siguientes áreas: Obras Viales, Fluviales y Marítimas; Hormigones y Mecánica de Suelos; Laboratorios y Control de Calidad; Planificación y Programación; Administración; Organización y Gestión Financiera, conocimientos insertos en un total de 33 asignaturas, prácticas y seminarios siendo equivalentes a más de 100 créditos, lo cual representa un 42%...

  18. Civil-Society Organizations’ Capacity Building in the Local Governmental Sector: Is It Working? A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máthé Réka Zsuzsánna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role that a strong civil society plays in socio-economic development is a subject of major scholarly attention today. Many benefits from having a strong civil society are reported in the literature. There is, however, no generally accepted view regarding how capacity-building efforts can help to develop a strong civil society, especially in the Central and Eastern European countries.

  19. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT aims to publish definitive and original research papers of high standard, containing material of broad interest and of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems. It provides a forum for ...

  20. Civil works for NPPs construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portenseigne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Christophe Portenseigne, Technical Director of Bouygues Travaux Publics, provided explanations on the main challenges of Civil work for the construction of the 3. generation of NPPs. He then provided an overview of the new Civil Work concepts for the 4. generation of NPPs

  1. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  2. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  3. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  4. Social movements, public spheres and the European politics of the environment: green power Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This book examines how the European environmental movement, as part of an emerging European civil society, has impinged on the problem definitions and solution strategies in the European politics of the environment. Examining core case studies in European environmental policy - biodiversity politics

  5. Lineage of global civil engineering. Global civil engineering no keifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, M

    1994-04-15

    This paper considers which way the global civil engineering should go in the future. Civil engineering has now a paradigm with a new dimension debuted as the global environmental problems are taken up specifically. Achieving the target of civil engineering requires a critical review that how the cost effect and efficiency discussions in only the dimensions of the conventional technologies and economies can be incorporated into the dimensions and measures of new fields to create the new horizons. Conceiving the relationship between civil engineered structures and environmental climate encounters the indispensable judgment criterion on how such social scientific conditions as weather, culture, religion, economy, and politics are combined to reach a judgment. The global civil engineering is desired to have the ideas and directional role to work on the ultimate assignment of environment and development called a global environmental problem analytically, comprehensively, innovatively and creatively as the civil engineering science, rather than as a mere existence of one area of the advanced civil engineering science. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Dental arch relationship in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following warsaw (one-stage repair) and oslo protocols.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Hortis-Dzierzbicka, M.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Semb, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the dental arch relationship following one-stage repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in Warsaw with a matched sample of patients treated by the Oslo Cleft Team. MATERIAL: Study models of 61 children (mean age, 11.2; SD, 1.7) with a nonsyndromic complete UCLP

  7. Muusikamaailm : Uusooper täna Houstonis. Budapesti kevadfestivalil. Müncheni linna muusikapreemia. Lauljate "Orfeo" Hannoveris. Oslo saab uue ooperimaja / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    G. Floydi ooperite "Cold Sassy Tree" ja "Susannah" lavastustest Houstonis USAs. Budapesti kevadfestivalil toimub P. Eötvösi ooperi "Kolm õde" esmalavastus Ungaris. Tänavu pälvis Müncheni linna muusikapreemia Müncheni Kammerorkester. Rahvusvahelise lauljate konkursi "Orfeo 2000" võitjatest. Oslo uus ooperimaja valmib kava kohaselt 2007. aastal

  8. Asymmetric lithosphere as the cause of rifting and magmatism in the Permo-Carboniferous Oslo Graben, in Permo-Carboniferous Rifting and Magmatism in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascal Candas, C.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Davies, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to other Permo-Carboniferous rift basins of NW Europe, the Oslo Graben has two distinct characteristics. First, it initiated inside cold and stable Precambrian lithosphere, whereas most Permo-Carboniferous basins developed in weaker Phanerozoic lithosphere, and second, it is characterized

  9. Volumetric fluorescence retinal imaging in vivo over a 30-degree field of view by oblique scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (oSLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Song, Weiye; Shao, Di; Zhang, Sui; Desai, Manishi; Ness, Steven; Roy, Sayon; Yi, Ji

    2018-01-01

    While fluorescent contrast is widely used in ophthalmology, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence retinal imaging over a large field of view (FOV) has been challenging. In this paper, we describe a novel oblique scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (oSLO) technique that provides 3D volumetric fluorescence retinal imaging with only one raster scan. The technique utilizes scanned oblique illumination and angled detection to obtain fluorescent cross-sectional images, analogous to optical coherence tomography (OCT) line scans (or B-scans). By breaking the coaxial optical alignment used in conventional retinal imaging modalities, depth resolution is drastically improved. To demonstrate the capability of oSLO, we have performed in vivo volumetric fluorescein angiography (FA) of the rat retina with ~25μm depth resolution and over a 30° FOV. Using depth segmentation, oSLO can obtain high contrast images of the microvasculature down to single capillaries in 3D. The multi-modal nature of oSLO also allows for seamless combination with simultaneous OCT angiography.

  10. The Catholic Propaganda abroad two Spains during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GONZÁLEZ GULLÓN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the propaganda abroad developed the priests Leocadio Lobo and Alberto Bonet during the Spanish Civil War, both the service of republican government and the insurgent coalition, respectively. This has been resorted to important documentary sources and texts of the time, which gives us a fairly detailed picture of the dialectic that generated intense fighting in various European countries the performance of the Spanish Church between 1936 and 1939.

  11. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  12. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  13. Material civilization: things and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  14. Julgamentos parciais no processo civil

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos Nachif Correia Filho

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho trata fundamentalmente da admissibilidade dos julgamentos parciais do mérito e de questões de mérito no sistema processual civil brasileiro, considerando especialmente o modelo constitucional de processo civil, bem como no sistema processual prospectivo previsto no Projeto de Novo Código de Processo Civil, que deve entrar vigor em breve. Com este objetivo, será abordado no início da dissertação o dogma da unidade estrutural da sentença, sua origem, fundamentos e aplicabilidade n...

  15. Civilization and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Shogo

    This book critically examines the influence of International Society on East Asia, and how its attempts to introduce ‘civilization’ to ‘barbarous’ polities contributed to conflict between China and Japan. Challenging existing works that have presented the expansion of (European) International...... China and Japan engaged with this dualism, this book highlights a darker side of China and Japan’s socialization into International Society which previous studies have failed to acknowledge. Drawing on Chinese and Japanese primary sources seldom utilized in International Relations, this book makes...

  16. Civil liability on nuclear activities; Responsabilidade civil nas atividades nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittar, C A

    1983-12-31

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs.

  17. Low level of alcohol drinking among two generations of non-Western immigrants in Oslo: a multi-ethnic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Ellen J

    2012-07-23

    Alcohol drinking is a risk factor for harm and disease. A low level of drinking among non-Western immigrants may lead to less alcohol-related harm and disease. The first aim of this study was to describe frequency of drinking in two generations of immigrants in Oslo, contrasting the result to drinking frequency among ethnic Norwegians. The second aim was to study how frequency of drinking among adult immigrants was associated with social interaction with their own countrymen and ethnic Norwegians, acculturation, age, gender, socioeconomic factors and the Muslim faith. The Oslo Health Study (HUBRO) was conducted during the period 2000 to 2002 and consisted of three separate surveys: a youth study (15-16-year-olds, a total of 7343 respondents, response rate 88.3%); adult cohorts from 30 to 75 years old (18,770 respondents, response rate 46%); the five largest immigrant groups in Oslo (aged 20-60 years, a total of 3019 respondents, response rate 39.7%). Based on these three surveys, studies of frequency of drinking in the previous year (four categories) were conducted among 15-16-year-olds and their parents' generation, 30-60-year-old Iranians, Pakistanis, Turks and ethnic Norwegians. A structural equation model with drinking frequency as outcome was established for the adult immigrants. Adults and youth of ethnic Norwegian background reported more frequent alcohol use than immigrants with backgrounds from Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Iranians reported a higher drinking frequency than Turks and Pakistanis. In the structural equation model high drinking frequency was associated with high host culture competence and social interaction, while high own culture competence was associated with low drinking frequency. Adult first-generation immigrants with a longer stay in Norway, those of a higher age, and females drank alcohol less frequently, while those with a higher level of education and work participation drank more frequently. Muslim immigrants reported a significantly

  18. Localized real-time information on outdoor air quality at kindergartens in Oslo, Norway using low-cost sensor nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Grossberndt, Sonja; Fredriksen, Mirjam F; Sousa-Santos, Gabriela; Vogt, Mathias; Bartonova, Alena

    2018-08-01

    In Norway, children in kindergartens spend significant time outdoors under all weather conditions, and there is thus a natural concern about the quality of outdoor air. It is well known that air pollution is associated with a wide variety of adverse health impacts for children, with greater impact on children with asthma. Especially during winter and spring, kindergartens in Oslo that are situated close to streets with busy traffic, or in areas where wood burning is used for house heating, can experience many days with bad air quality. During these periods, updated information on air quality levels can help the kindergarten teachers to plan appropriate outdoor activities and thus protect children's health. We have installed 17 low-cost air quality nodes in kindergartens in Oslo. These nodes are smaller, cheaper and less complex to use than traditional equipment. Performance evaluation shows that while they are less accurate and suffer from higher uncertainty than reference equipment, they still can provide reliable coarse information about local pollution. The main challenge when using this technology is that calibration parameters might change with time depending on the atmospheric conditions. Thus, even if the sensors are calibrated a priori, once deployed, and especially if they are deployed for a long time, it is not possible to determine if a node is over- or under-estimating the concentration levels. To enhance the data from the sensors, we employed a data fusion technique that allows generating a detailed air quality map merging the data from the sensors and the data from an urban model, thus being able to offer air quality information to any location within Oslo. We arranged a focus group with the participation of local administration, kindergarten staff and parents to understand their opinion and needs related to the air quality information that was provided to the participant kindergartens. They expressed concern about the data quality but agree that

  19. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele AA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele,1,2 Samera A Qureshi,1 Prabhjot Kour,1 Bernadette Kumar,1 Esperanza Diaz1,3 1Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, 2Department of Health, Institute of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo; 3Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Abstract: Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women’s participation in cervical cancer screening: 1 in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2 verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3 the initiation of better recall

  20. Applied statistics for civil and environmental engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kottegoda, N T

    2009-01-01

    Civil and environmental engineers need an understanding of mathematical statistics and probability theory to deal with the variability that affects engineers'' structures, soil pressures, river flows and the like. Students, too, need to get to grips with these rather difficult concepts.This book, written by engineers for engineers, tackles the subject in a clear, up-to-date manner using a process-orientated approach. It introduces the subjects of mathematical statistics and probability theory, and then addresses model estimation and testing, regression and multivariate methods, analysis of extreme events, simulation techniques, risk and reliability, and economic decision making.325 examples and case studies from European and American practice are included and each chapter features realistic problems to be solved.For the second edition new sections have been added on Monte Carlo Markov chain modeling with details of practical Gibbs sampling, sensitivity analysis and aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, and co...

  1. Evolution of civil aircraft industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram I. Afyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil aircraft industry market is а complex multistage system of manufacturers and consumers, which affects countries all over the world. The globalization and world economic growth caused inevitable merger of national markets into one system where the key role belongs to few corporations. In the article the author analyze peculiarities of civil aircraft industry global market shaping. Main reasons of aircraft industry centers appearance are considered through socio political and economic development of the industry. Factors that caused national specialization of manufacturing countries are examined along with peculiarities of Boeing leadership. The main stages of the industry development are described starting from the beginning of the 20th century up to the present day. The author highlights specific characters of European manufacturers development and their merger into one multinational conglomerate. Besides, modern market status is examined through benchmark study of the main competitors. Main tendencies of the industry are segmentation and new aviation industry clusters appearance. Key actors of regional aviation are described, which are Embraer and Bombardier. Reasons of their appearance and development are analyzed. Main pretenders for the aviation industry global market entrance are outlined.

  2. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4-5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465) was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716) were 19% and 30%. Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4-5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related to later post-traumatic stress reactions. Our results indicate that

  3. The 33rd IGC, Oslo, Norway 2008; Geoscience World Congress 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, A.; Bjoerlykke, A.

    2007-12-01

    The International Geological Congress (IGC) has been arranged every four years since 1878. During the previous Congress in Florence, Italy, 2004, the Nordic countries were awarded the organisation of the 33rd IGC, which will be held in Oslo, Norway, August 6-14, 2008. We expect between 6000 and 9000 participants to the Congress, which also includes workshops, short-courses, and business meetings, as well as more than 50 pre -and post Congress excursions. The Congress is organised under the umbrella of IUGS and the patronage of UNESCO. The Congress will run with 40 parallel sessions and cover the whole width of the geosciences. About 500 symposia will run in 40 parallel sessions. There will be a major poster session, as well as a large exhibition (Geoexpo 2008), in which industry and other organisations will be able to exhibit their products and services. A number of international affiliations have announced their interest in organising annual business meetings during the Congress. In addition, a number of workshops and short-courses will be arranged. More than 50 excursions are planned for the two weeks before the Congress and one week after. These run in all the Nordic Countries, as well as in NW Russia, Ukraine, Greenland, Svalbard, and the Faeroes Islands. These excursions will give the participants a first-hand insight into Nordic Geosciences, as well as the Nordic natural and cultural heritage. Two major international events are important for the Congress. The "International Polar Year" (IPY) and the United Nations' "International Year of Planet Earth" (IYPE) are both running in the period 2007-2009. The Congress focuses on many of the main themes of IYPE, with major emphasis on "Geoscience and Society". Seven major themes will be treated in full-day plenary sessions of lectures given by invited lecturers. These plenary sessions will have a scientific part in the morning, a key-note lecture at lunch-time, and a societal part in the afternoon, followed by a

  4. Radiation protection in civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlborn, K.

    The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.) [de

  5. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  6. Librarians, Civil Liberties and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Derek

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of current civil liberties issues in Australia with the status of similar issues in Britain and the United States. Included are political affiliation of government employees, censorship, rights of the individual, privacy, and freedom of information. (JAB)

  7. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  8. Quantification of Health Effects Related to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and Particulate Matter Exposure. Report from the Nordic Expert Meeting Oslo, 15-17 October, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clench-Aas, J.; Krzyzanowski, M. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The Nordic Council of Ministers founded a workshop of European and Nordic experts to assess the current literature and develop dose-response functions for the criteria air quality indicators of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} and particulate matter. This is the report from the workshop held in Oslo on October 15-17, 1995. Estimates of exposure-response relationships are needed to assess the health impact of environmental factors. Based on available research evidence, the relationships for the common air pollutants - particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide - were reviewed. The Meeting concluded by quantifying exposure-response relationships for particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and ozone; the relationship for NO{sub 2} was not quantified. The Meeting also identified other exposure-response relationships considered to be substantiated, but for which the available data did not provide sufficient background to quantify the risk. The reported concentration-response associations relate to short-term changes in risk due to changes in levels of pollutants. For chronic effects of prolonged exposures the data were judged to be insufficient for quantification. 211 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. High technology and civil rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, P.

    1982-01-01

    Court decision reflect the widely felt lack of clarity about the present legal situation in the field of high technology. This confusion is also due to the fact that this legal situation is surrounded by civil rights constellations, which have more and more eroded the contours of our legal system in recent years: Today, civil rights are no longer specific, well-definable bulwarks for the citizen, but are more and more frequently interpreted by the supreme courts as sources of procedural requirements with more or less certain often vague consequences. This shifting of the accent in civil rights towards procedural matters is due to an innate logical necessity, however: The same civil right considered in the same situation, e.g., in planning for high technology, may give rise to very different, even contradictory individual claims. Therefore, one of the main modern objectives of civil rights becoming more and more apparent is the need to reconcile conflicting positions, which makes civil rights a driving force in balancing interests in the easiest possible way. Yet, one of the main deficiencies in this rapidly growing procedural approach is the one-sidedness often to be found as a result of isolated, punctual actions. This misses the objective of achieving adequate harmonization. As examples of such one-sided, isolated civil rights approaches, legal opinions are cited on the so-called public participation (possibility to object for those concerned) in the licensing procedures under the German Atomic Energy Act and for protection against environmental impacts. Quity rightly, this participation of the public is interpreted as an advance protection of civil rights. However, its consequences quite often are exaggerated. (orig.) [de

  10. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittar, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  11. Canon and archive in messages from Oslo Cathedral Square in the aftermath of July 22nd 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel Lied

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we ask if central values which people were in dialogue with in the memorial messages from Oslo Cathedral Square in the aftermath of July 22nd 2011, may be seen as a part of Norwegian cultural memory, and if so, how. We answer this question in the affirmative, by elaborating on presentations of the Norwegian flag as a symbol of the values unity and solidarity, and on presentations of love and roses as weapons promoting the values love, humanity and calmness. In our discussion we have drawn on theory of cultural memory and suggested that the use of the Norwegian flag in the messages may be understood in the frame of Assmann’s term “canon”, representing the active part of cultural remembrance, and that the message from the use of roses and hearts may be understood in the frame of the term “archive”, representing the passive part of remembrance

  12. Modeling and measurements of urban aerosol processes on the neighborhood scale in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karl, M.; Kukkonen, J.; Keuken, M.P.; Lützenkirchen, S.; Pirjola, L.; Hussein, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of 1 h, i.e., on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the

  13. The Oslo Health Study: The impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjertness Espen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals

  14. Five-year mortality after acute poisoning treated in ambulances, an emergency outpatient clinic and hospitals in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Cathrine; Bjornaas, Mari A; Sandvik, Leiv; Ekeberg, Oivind; Jacobsen, Dag; Hovda, Knut E

    2013-08-21

    The long-term mortality after prehospital treatment for acute poisoning has not been studied previously. Thus, we aimed to estimate the five-year mortality and examine the causes of death and predictors of death for all acutely poisoned patients treated in ambulances, the emergency outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo during 2003-2004. A prospective cohort study included all adults (≥16 years; n=2045, median age=35 years, male=58%) who were discharged after treatment for acute poisoning in ambulances, the emergency outpatient clinic, and the four hospitals in Oslo during one year. The patients were observed until the end of 2008. Standardized mortality rates (SMRs) were calculated and multivariate Cox regression analysis was applied. The study comprised 2045 patients; 686 treated in ambulances, 646 treated in the outpatient clinic, and 713 treated in hospitals. After five years, 285 (14%) patients had died (four within one week). The SMRs after ambulance, outpatient, and hospital treatment were 12 (CI 9-14), 10 (CI 8-12), and 6 (CI 5-7), respectively. The overall SMR was 9 (CI 8-10), while the SMR after opioid poisoning was 27 (CI 21-32). The most frequent cause of death was accidents (38%). In the regression analysis, opioids as the main toxic agents (HR 2.3, CI 1.6-3.0), older age (HR 1.6, CI 1.5-1.7), and male sex (HR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.9) predicted death, whereas the treatment level did not predict death. The patients had high mortality compared with the general population. Those treated in hospital had the lowest mortality. Opioids were the major predictor of death.

  15. The Oslo Health Study: The impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Selmer, Randi; Bjertness, Espen; Thelle, Dag

    2004-01-01

    Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL) in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals, but social inequality in

  16. The URban Greenhouse gas Emissions assessment through inverse modeling (URGE) project: a pilot study in the Oslo area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, I. J.; Lopez-Aparicio, S.; Schneider, P.; Schmidbauer, N.; Vogt, M.

    2017-12-01

    Norway has set the target of cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 40% compared to 1990 levels by 2030. This goal will require the implementation of policy measures aiming at strong reductions of GHGs emissions, especially in the urban environment. The implementation of urban policy measures is still a challenging task and it requires control and verification for success. The URGE project aims at assessing the emission flux of GHGs including comprehensive uncertainty estimates based on inverse transport modelling techniques and optimized use of measurements. The final goal is to establish a coherent and consistent GHG urban emission inventory. This will be carried out in a case study in Oslo (Norway), where CO2 will be the priority compound. The overall outcome of the project will provide support in the development of strategies to effectively reduce GHG emissions in the urban environment. The overall goal will be reached through establishing the baseline urban CO2 emission inventory for Oslo; determining the optimal measurement locations based on transport modelling (with flexpart-wrf); designing and carrying out a pilot measurement campaign of the CO2-rich air downwind of the city plume combining state-of-the-art instruments (Picarro) and small sensors; assessing the feasibility of determining the background concentration surrounding the city with satellite measurements (OCO2); and providing optimised estimates of the emissions and their uncertainties via inverse modelling (source-receptor relationship). One of our main interests is the interoperability and exchange of information with similar activities in other urban areas. We will present the overall project and the preliminary results of the network design. We will discuss the data exchange formats, the algorithms and data structures that could be used for results and methodology intercomparisons as well as the suitability to apply the same techniques to other atmospheric compounds.

  17. Advanced e-Infrastructures for Civil Protection applications: the CYCLOPS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Ayral, P. A.; Fiorucci, P.; Pina, A.; Oliveira, J.; Sorani, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the full cycle of the emergency management, Civil Protection operative procedures involve many actors belonging to several institutions (civil protection agencies, public administrations, research centers, etc.) playing different roles (decision-makers, data and service providers, emergency squads, etc.). In this context the sharing of information is a vital requirement to make correct and effective decisions. Therefore a European-wide technological infrastructure providing a distributed and coordinated access to different kinds of resources (data, information, services, expertise, etc.) could enhance existing Civil Protection applications and even enable new ones. Such European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure should be designed taking into account the specific requirements of Civil Protection applications and the state-of-the-art in the scientific and technological disciplines which could make the emergency management more effective. In the recent years Grid technologies have reached a mature state providing a platform for secure and coordinated resource sharing between the participants collected in the so-called Virtual Organizations. Moreover the Earth and Space Sciences Informatics provide the conceptual tools for modeling the geospatial information shared in Civil Protection applications during its entire lifecycle. Therefore a European Civil Protection e-infrastructure might be based on a Grid platform enhanced with Earth Sciences services. In the context of the 6th Framework Programme the EU co-funded Project CYCLOPS (CYber-infrastructure for CiviL protection Operative ProcedureS), ended in December 2008, has addressed the problem of defining the requirements and identifying the research strategies and innovation guidelines towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection. Starting from the requirement analysis CYCLOPS has proposed an architectural framework for a European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure. This architectural framework has

  18. 30 CFR 947.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 947.845 Section 947.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  19. 30 CFR 941.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 941.845 Section 941.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  20. 30 CFR 912.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 912.845 Section 912.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  1. 30 CFR 921.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 921.845 Section 921.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  2. 30 CFR 939.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 939.845 Section 939.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  3. 30 CFR 937.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 937.845 Section 937.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  4. 30 CFR 942.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 942.845 Section 942.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  5. 30 CFR 903.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for violations...

  6. 30 CFR 910.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 910.845 Section 910.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  7. 30 CFR 922.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 922.845 Section 922.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  8. 30 CFR 933.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 933.845 Section 933.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chaper, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  9. 30 CFR 905.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 905.845 Section 905.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  10. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment...

  11. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction...

  12. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether...

  13. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  14. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement...

  15. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement...

  16. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  17. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  18. Time for EU Matters: The Europeanization of Dutch Central Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent does the European Union (EU) affect national governments? This article seeks to answer this question by assessing the Europeanization of Dutch central government. Using data from a large-scale survey among civil servants, we assess to what extent the EU affects the structure and

  19. Bring European finance ministries kicking and screaming into geopolitics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2017-01-01

    the Atlantic, it is the ministries of finance that play the central role in controlling budgets — defense and otherwise. This means that real progress on raising European defense spending will require convincing the finance ministers and their top civil servants of the new realities of European geopolitics...

  20. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Petersen, Clement Salung

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary - the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  1. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  2. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  3. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  4. Some aspects on parental protection in the current Romanian Civil Code

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Cojocaru

    2013-01-01

    The new Civil Code has come to meet the diversification and complexity of social relationships, the growing interference between economic and social life in Romania and the one in Europe and in the world and not least the connection in a greater extent of the Romanian law to the European law. The issues which could occur, given precisely such interconnection with the European law, are those which give rise to issues of civil law enforcement in space, especially when the question would be the ...

  5. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  6. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  7. Civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    An international Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage was adopted in Vienna on 19 May 1963 by a sixty-nation conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Convention, which is subject to ratification by the States signing it, will come into force three months after the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification. The Convention is designee only to establish minimum rules regarding civil liability for nuclear damage; it may thus well be described as a framework convention, the main provisions of which represent the essential common denomination acceptable to as many States as possible. It leaves wide scope for national legislation and regional arrangements with a view to implementing these provisions The Convention does not purport to create a uniform civil law in this field, but it contains the minimal essential for protection of the public and forms the legal basis for uniform world-wide liability rules

  8. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  9. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  10. On civil engineering disasters and their mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Qu, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, floods, landslides, and debris flows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientific and technological challenges.

  11. Long-acting reversible contraception for adolescents and young adults - a cross-sectional study of women and general practitioners in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratlie, Marte; Aarvold, Trine; Skårn, Elling Skeide; Lundekvam, Jonas Andre; Nesheim, Britt-Ingjerd; Askevold, Erik Tandberg

    2014-06-01

    To investigate awareness and use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in the Norwegian primary care sector. We surveyed 359 women aged 16 to 23 years visiting a free sexual health clinic and 140 general practitioners (GPs) in Oslo, Norway, to assess contraceptive usage patterns, knowledge, opinions, and counselling content. Eighty-two percent (n = 295) of the female respondents were current contraceptive users and of this group, 12% (n = 34) were LARC users. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs, 56%) and condoms (20%) were the methods most commonly used. Apart from those two, the women considered themselves insufficiently knowledgeable about other family planning modalities. Knowledge was an independent predictor of current LARC use (p Oslo, Norway. These young women need better contraceptive counselling. Dispelling misconceptions and improved provider training could encourage GPs to cover LARCs when giving contraceptive guidance.

  12. Nuclear safety research at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants currently generate some 35 % of electricity used in the European Union and applicant countries. Nuclear safety will therefore remain a priority for the EU, particularly in view of enlargement, the need to monitor ageing nuclear installations and the licencing of advanced new reactor systems. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), with its long involvement and recognised competence in nuclear safety related activities, provides direct support to the European Commission services responsible for nuclear safety and civil protection. (author)

  13. OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN CIVIL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Russian civil procedure is not a pure Continental model because it also has procedural features of the common law system, as well as some other original and exceptional features. This article examines the main aspects of Russian civil justice: its main principles; judicial organization, including the structure of the courts and the division between courts of general jurisdiction and arbitrazh (commercial courts, and the Intellectual Property Court; sources of procedural law; bar organization; the jurisdiction of the courts; actions and proceedings; legal costs; evidence; administrative procedure; class actions; enforcement proceedings; and arbitration and mediation.

  14. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  15. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles.

  16. Proximity to terror and post-traumatic stress: a follow-up survey of governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marianne B; Nissen, Alexander; Heir, Trond

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among governmental employees after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeted towards the Norwegian Ministries, and to explore the importance of proximity to the bomb explosion as a predictor of PTSD. A cross-sectional study. Data were collected from a survey 10 months after the Oslo bombing on 22 July 2011. A total of 3520 employees were invited to the study. Net samples comprised 1927 employees in 14 of the 17 Norwegian Ministries. The employees reported where they were at the time of the explosion. PTSD was assessed with the Norwegian version of the PTSD checklist (PCL). A total of 207 of the 1881 (11%) ministerial employees who completed the survey were present at work when the bomb exploded. Of these, a quarter (24%, 95% CI 18.4 to 30.0) had symptom levels equivalent to PTSD, while the prevalence was approximately 4% among those not present at work. In the latter group the prevalence was similar irrespective of whether their location was in Oslo, other places in Norway or abroad. Leadership responsibility was associated with lower risk for PTSD. The risk of PTSD is mainly associated with being present at work at the time of a terror attack. For those not present at work, the risk of PTSD is low and independent of proximity to the terror scene. The findings may have implications for planning and priority of healthcare services after a work place terror attack.

  17. If it works there, will it work here? The effect of a multi-component responsible beverage service (RBS) programme on violence in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardhamar, Torbjørn; Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Pedersen, Willy

    2016-12-01

    The Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems (STAD) programme has been regarded as one of the most successful programmes to date, in reducing alcohol-related violence. This multi-component Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) programme was implemented in Stockholm, Sweden, and has been documented to be extremely effective in reducing alcohol-related nightlife violence. The SALUTT programme in Oslo, Norway was carefully modelled on the STAD project. We investigate whether the results from STAD were replicated in the SALUTT intervention. Using geocoded data, the level of violence in the intervention area was compared with different control areas before and after the intervention. Autoregressive moving average models (ARIMA). The SALUTT programme had no statistically significant effect on violence. However, the level of violence in the different potential control areas of Oslo fluctuated without a clear common trend. Hence, it was difficult to establish proper control areas. The results from the Swedish STAD-intervention were not replicated in Oslo. Successful interventions are not necessarily replicated in other contexts, and the current literature does not shed sufficient light on the conditions under which such interventions actually work. Moreover, more attention should be devoted to the identification of adequate control areas in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oslo Art and Design Education (University College 1966–1994 – An educational institution with corporate responsibility and sustainability in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Veiteberg Kvellestad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The artile chronicles the Department of Art, Design and Drama at Oslo and Akershus University College ca. 1950 to 1990. The school bore the name Oslo Art and Design Education College (SLFO from 1966 to 1975 and Oslo Art and Design Education University College from 1975 to 1994. The institution had a clear teaching focus while running extensive programs on professional training, pilot projects and guidance service. The tradition of quality in the choice of material as well as work with engineering and design was strong, but greater emphasis was eventually placed on experimentation with material, tools and techniques. The students were both encouraged and challenged to be creative and rely on their own ideas in experimentation. The article set its focus on change and training in textiles needlework teacher education. The source materials are annual reports, published texts found in the Institute's history collection and interviews of seven employees who worked at the school in part or the whole period. Informants’ arguments and the analysis of texts are related to recent research in Sweden and Norway. The article shows that the institution once stood for attitudes that one would today call sustainable, with strong quality requirements. Thus, the institution showed social responsibility through education and industrial initiatives.

  19. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  20. Organized Civil Society, Participation and Citizenship in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    welfare states and the chapter will discuss these differences and how the economic and social crisis has influenced the position of organised civil society and civic participation in general among European citizens. The chapter will conclude with a programmatic statement on the role of organised civil...... of citizens in the society. The economic and social crisis in Europe has accentuated the importance of different types of civic organisations in defending the social rights of the citizens and mediating between citizens and the political authorities. The main reason for this is the legitimacy crisis...... of the participatory democracy in the post-industrial countries. Additional factor to be considered are difficulties of realizing processes that are able to involve citizens in strategic decision-making at community as well as national level and difficulties in the identification and organization of welfare services...

  1. The Civil War and Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  2. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  3. Measuring competition in civil aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Markets in civil aviation are characterized by large differences in the level of competition, both between time periods as between regions. To measure competition, several indicators are available, such as the number of competitors, the C4-index and the Herfindahl index. We use these measures in

  4. Ancient Civilization in Contemporary Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natunewicz, Chester F.

    The development of more than 325 short radio talks, designed to inform the general public, on the relevance and contemporaneity of classical civilization to our times, is discussed in this address. Materials are derived from a wide range of sources and include such writers as Cicero, Plautus, Horace, Ovid, Quintillian, Aeschylus, and Plutarch.…

  5. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  6. Civil Engineering Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents civil engineering technology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and…

  7. GUARANTEES OF THE RIGHT TO A FAIR CIVIL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Loredana Jalbă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective protection of human rights and provide for more than theoretical and illusory substantive rights, the need to define the right to a fair trial is emerging, along with the necessity that litigants become aware of the guarantees established by article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Thus, the article aims to approach the ample issue regarding the litigants’ right to a fair civil trial in light of current legal regulations, and in particular, in light of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Given the fact that the right to a fair civil trial involves establishing, throughout the trial, a set of rules of procedure aimed at creating a balance between the parties in the process - the so-called guarantees of a fair trial - in her scientific pursuits, the author analyzes both explicit and implicit guarantees of fair trial, highlighting relevant European standards as well as their degree of implementation in the national (procedural law.

  8. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  9. American Society of Civil Engineers | ASCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membership Your New Membership: Getting Started Member Value Civil Engineering Salaries Manage Your Account Vote Now Education & Careers Training & Courses Getting Licensed & Certified Live Exam Reviews Specialty Certifications Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge Volunteer Opportunities Jobs Ethics

  10. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice aims to publish original research papers of high standard, containing material of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems.

  11. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  13. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  14. Evaluation of high-resolution forecasts with the non-hydrostaticnumerical weather prediction model Lokalmodell for urban air pollutionepisodes in Helsinki, Oslo and Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational numerical weather prediction model Lokalmodell LM with 7,km horizontal resolution was evaluated for forecasting meteorological conditions during observed urban air pollution episodes. The resolution was increased to experimental 2.8 km and 1.1 km resolution by one-way interactive nesting without introducing urbanisation of physiographic parameters or parameterisations. The episodes examined are two severe winter inversion-induced episodes in Helsinki in December 1995 and Oslo in January 2003, three suspended dust episodes in spring and autumn in Helsinki and Oslo, and a late-summer photochemical episode in the Valencia area. The evaluation was basically performed against observations and radiosoundings and focused on the LM skill at forecasting the key meteorological parameters characteristic for the specific episodes. These included temperature inversions, atmospheric stability and low wind speeds for the Scandinavian episodes and the development of mesoscale recirculations in the Valencia area. LM forecasts often improved due to higher model resolution especially in mountainous areas like Oslo and Valencia where features depending on topography like temperature, wind fields and mesoscale valley circulations were better described. At coastal stations especially in Helsinki, forecast gains were due to the improved physiographic parameters (land fraction, soil type, or roughness length. The Helsinki and Oslo winter inversions with extreme nocturnal inversion strengths of 18°C were not sufficiently predicted with all LM resolutions. In Helsinki, overprediction of surface temperatures and low-level wind speeds basically led to underpredicted inversion strength. In the Oslo episode, the situation was more complex involving erroneous temperature advection and mountain-induced effects for the higher resolutions. Possible explanations include the influence of the LM treatment of snow cover, sea ice and stability-dependence of transfer

  15. Features of upbringing children in civil law

    OpenAIRE

    Лобжанідзе, Давид

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the features of upbringing children in civil law, in particular under the Civil Code of Georgia. The author examines the concept of the family as a social phenomenon and its underlying principles. Attention is paid also to the court practice of upbringing children and determining the place of their residence. English abstract D. Lobzhanidze Features of upbringing children in civil law. The paper analyzes the features of upbringing children in civil law, in particular u...

  16. Teaching Comparative Law in the 21st Century: Beyond the Civil/Common Law Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the inexorable shift to transnational and global legal practice demands a comparable shift in methods of teaching comparative law to move it beyond its current American common law/European civil law myopia. Proposes an introductory course, Law in Comparative Cultures, which exposes students to a panoply of international legal systems.…

  17. Multilingualism among Brussels-Based Civil Servants and Lobbyists: Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsán, Attila; Erkkilä, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the multilingual and multicultural aspects of community-building, networking and communication in the European Union's (EU) political and administrative system. We investigated the networking and communicative preferences of EU civil servants and lobbyists using survey data and thematic interviews. Our aim was to gain a…

  18. Rebalancing EU Interest Representation? Assocative Democracy and EU funding of Civil Society Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Salgado, R.

    2014-01-01

    European Union (EU) funding of civil society organizations (CSOs) is a substantial and important part of EU governance, but study of such funding is scarce and theoretically underdeveloped. To fill this gap, this article analyzes the main features of EU funding of CSOs and its effects on the EU

  19. Organizational civility as measured by AWLS: a comparison between social and health organizations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Havrdová, Z.; Kebza, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2011) ISSN 0887-0446. [European Health Psychology Conference: Engaging with Other Health Professions: Challenges and Perspectives /25./. 20.09.2011-24.09.2011, Hersonissos, Kréta] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : burnout * organizational civility * values Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  20. Non-invasive dendrochronology of late-medieval objects in Oslo: refinement of a technique and discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Aoife; Streeton, Noëlle L. W.

    2017-06-01

    A technique for non-invasive dendrochronological analysis of oak was developed for archaeological material, using an industrial CT scanner. Since 2013, this experience has been extended within the scope of the research project `After the Black Death: Painting and Polychrome Sculpture in Norway'. The source material for the project is a collection of late-medieval winged altarpieces, shrines, polychrome sculpture, and fragments from Norwegian churches, which are owned by the Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo. The majority cannot be sampled, and many are too large to fit into the CT scanner. For these reasons, a combined approach was adopted, utilizing CT scanning where possible, but preceded by an `exposed-wood' imaging technique. Both non-invasive techniques have yielded reliable results, and CT scanning has confirmed the reliability of the imaging technique alone. This paper presents the analytical methods, along with results from two of the 13 objects under investigation. Results for reliable dates and provenances provide new foundations for historical interpretations.

  1. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-02-04

    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  2. Inflammatory Response After Laparoscopic Versus Open Resection of Colorectal Liver Metastases: Data From the Oslo-CoMet Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretland, Asmund Avdem; Sokolov, Andrey; Postriganova, Nadya; Kazaryan, Airazat M; Pischke, Soren E; Nilsson, Per H; Rognes, Ingrid Nygren; Bjornbeth, Bjorn Atle; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Edwin, Bjorn

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic and open liver resection have not been compared in randomized trials. The aim of the current study was to compare the inflammatory response after laparoscopic and open resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) in a randomized controlled trial.This was a predefined exploratory substudy within the Oslo CoMet-study. Forty-five patients with CLM were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 23) or open (n = 22) resection. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-plasma samples were collected preoperatively and at defined time points during and after surgery and snap frozen at -80 C. A total of 25 markers were examined using luminex and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques: high-mobility box group 1(HMGB-1), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), cytokines, and terminal C5b-9 complement complex complement activation.Eight inflammatory markers increased significantly from baseline: HMGB-1, cfDNA, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein -1β, monocyte chemotactic protein -1, IL-10, and terminal C5b-9 complement complex. Peak levels were reached at the end of or shortly after surgery. Five markers, HMGB-1, cfDNA, IL-6, C-reactive protein, and macrophage inflammatory protein -1β, showed significantly higher levels in the open surgery group compared with the laparoscopic surgery group.Laparoscopic resection of CLM reduced the inflammatory response compared with open resection. The lower level of HMGB-1 is interesting because of the known association with oncogenesis.

  3. [Physical activity, smoking and mortality among men who participated in the Oslo studies of 1972 and 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2014-09-30

    Few Norwegian data are available on the importance of physical activity with regard to mortality. Our objective was to study mortality in light of leisure time physical activity and smoking. Men born in the period 1923-1932 were included in the Oslo Study in 1972-1973 and then investigated again in 2000. A total of 5738 men were included in the analyses. Physical activity was registered as self-reported number of hours at low and high intensity, as well by the Gothenburg question on the degree of leisure activity (sedentary, low, moderate, high). Cox regression analysis was used for statistical computation. After 12 years, men who reported a moderate amount of activity (approximately 30 minutes per day six times per week of low or high activity) in the year 2000 had a 40% lower mortality rate than the physically inactive (the reference group). A change in activity level in older age was independently associated with a risk of death. The Gothenburg question on amount of activity gave the same predictive information value as smoking. Our data indicate that there is a dose-response relationship between the degree of physical activity and early death. An increase in activity was just as strongly associated with reduced mortality as quitting smoking. Based on these data, physical activity should be recommended as a daily habit.

  4. For Whom Does Time Heal Wounds? Individual Differences in Stability and Change in Posttraumatic Stress After the 2011 Oslo Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-02-01

    Prospective studies describing and predicting individual differences in the course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after disasters are scarce. The present study aimed to describe and predict individual differences in both the level and the rate of change in PTSS after the 2011 Oslo bombing, a terrorist attack directed at the Norwegian government. Survey data from ministerial employees (N = 256) were collected 10, 22, and 34 months after the bombing. We used latent growth modeling to examine the development of PTSS, and to identify the strength of predictor variables. High exposure, female sex, and high levels of neuroticism were associated with higher levels of PTSS 10 months after the traumatic event (β ranged from .25 to .30, p < .001), whereas social support was associated with lower levels of PTSS (β = -.30, p < .001). The combination of being female and high in neuroticism was associated with a faster decline in PTSS (β range: -.20 to -.39, p = .010 < .05). High exposure seemed to have a lasting influence by maintaining high levels of PTSS. Our findings suggested that being female, being highly exposed, and having low levels of social support were risk markers for enduring PTSS. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. Perception of threat and safety at work among employees in the Norwegian ministries after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Alexander; Birkeland Nielsen, Morten; Solberg, Øivind; Bang Hansen, Marianne; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Terrorism can heighten fears and undermine the feeling of safety. Little is known, however, about the factors that influence threat and safety perception after terrorism. The aim of the present study was to explore how proximity to terror and posttraumatic stress reactions are associated with perceived threat and safety after a workplace terrorist attack. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to employees in 14 of 17 Norwegian ministries 9-10 months after the 2011 bombing of the government headquarters in Oslo (n = 3520). About 198 of 1881 employees completing the survey were at work when the bomb exploded. Regression analysis showed that this high-exposed group had elevated perceived threat (β = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19 to 0.53) and reduced perceived safety (β = -0.42; 95% CI = -0.62 to -0.23) compared to a reference group of employees not at work. After adjusting for posttraumatic stress reactions, however, proximity to the explosion no longer mattered, whereas posttraumatic stress was associated with both high perceived threat (β = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.63) and low perceived safety (β = -0.71; 95% CI, -0.80 to -0.63). Terror-exposed employees feel more threatened and less safe after a workplace terrorist attack, and this is closely linked to elevated levels of posttraumatic stress reactions.

  6. Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen among employees in the National Hospital, Oslo, Norway: a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovig, B; Rollag, H; Dahl, O

    1985-07-01

    During the last decade, several studies of serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infections in hospital personnel have demonstrated an increased prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B virus (anti-HB) compared with the general population. Norway has a very low incidence rate of hepatitis B as seen on a global scale, and this study was performed to evaluate the infection risk by hospital workers in such environments. The employees, 2,546 (94.7% of the population), in the 800-bed National Hospital in Oslo were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in serum. Five per cent (128 persons) were anti-HBs-positive; this was only slightly higher than that in the general Norwegian population. Male employees were more often positive than females (7.0% vs. 4.4%). Staff more than 50 years of age or with 16 or more years of employment in the health services had a rate twice as high as the rest of the employees. Staff in the porter services (mostly men) had a higher rate than others, whereas the rates in the different professional groups showed no statistical differences. Contrary to many other studies, significant differences in prevalence according to frequency of patient contact or blood handling were not found.

  7. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  8. Detection of latex allergens by immunoelectron microscopy in ambient air (PM10) in Oslo, Norway (1997-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namork, Ellen; Kurup, Viswanath P; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Johansen, Bjørn V

    2004-11-01

    The authors collected ambient air along two highways in Oslo to investigate the annual variations in particulate matter (PM10) and the presence of latex as an outdoor allergen. PMI, was monitored for a period of five years, during which time the use of studded winter tires was reduced. The presence of latex and of common aeroallergens was examined directly on the collection filters with immunoelectron microscopy visualized in a scanning electron microscope. The annual variation in PM10 was similar over the five years of sampling, with increased mass concentrations in winter. Statistical analysis indicated no major effect from the change to nonstudded tires. The most important factors influencing the PM10 concentration were meteorological parameters like wind and rain. Immnunolabeling of the filters showed latex as an outdoor allergen that adhered to carbon aggregates from vehicle emission. The results also indicated cross-reactive epitopes among the common allergens investigated, which for sensitized subjects may add to the risk of developing latex allergy.

  9. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornyi, T.G., E-mail: tornyitom@atomki.hu [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A.C.; Siem, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Krasznahorkay, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Csige, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-21

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE−E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  10. 50 CFR 300.40 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalties. 300.40 Section 300.40... South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.40 Civil penalties. The procedures of 15 CFR part 904 apply to the assessment of civil penalties, except as modified by the requirements of section 8 of the Act. ...

  11. 49 CFR 233.11 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalties. 233.11 Section 233.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.11 Civil penalties. Any person (an... subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except that...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.201 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 1435.201 Section 1435.201... Recordkeeping Requirements § 1435.201 Civil penalties. (a) Any processor, refiner, or importer of sugar, syrup... false data required under § 1435.200(a) through (e), is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $10...

  13. 12 CFR 215.11 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 215.11 Section 215.11 Banks... OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.11 Civil penalties... subject to civil penalties as specified in section 29 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 504). [Reg. O...

  14. 39 CFR 233.12 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 233.12 Section 233.12 Postal... Civil penalties. False representation and lottery orders— (a) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3005, the... be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $11,000 for each day...

  15. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Availability Policies § 229.21 Civil liability. (a) Civil liability. A bank that fails to comply with any...

  16. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5 U.S.C...

  17. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty. Any... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except...

  18. 38 CFR 21.7310 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... her jurisdiction. See part 18 of this chapter. These equal opportunity laws are: (1) Title VI, Civil...

  19. 13 CFR 302.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 302.20 Section 302... TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.20 Civil rights. (a) Discrimination is prohibited... 601 of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) (proscribing...

  20. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination complaints...

  1. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all requirements imposed by or pursuant to...

  2. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57... REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For any... willfully participates in the violation, a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000. (b) For any willful violation...

  3. 49 CFR 235.9 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 235.9 Section 235.9 Transportation... SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of... violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil...

  4. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State or local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations against...

  6. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation... is currently evaluating its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming... civil penalties. UFA takes into account the statutory penalty factors under 49 U.S.C. 521(b)(2)(D). The...

  7. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer its... amended by Executive Order 12259, as applicable. The civil rights compliance requirements for RHS are in 7...

  8. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of...

  9. 22 CFR 127.10 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780 for...

  10. 32 CFR 310.46 - Civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil actions. 310.46 Section 310.46 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.46 Civil actions. An individual may file a civil suit...

  11. 34 CFR 303.424 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 303.424 Section 303.424 Education... Civil action. Any party aggrieved by the findings and decision regarding an administrative complaint has the right to bring a civil action in State or Federal court under section 639(a)(1) of the Act...

  12. 34 CFR 300.516 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 300.516 Section 300.516 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.516 Civil action. (a... aggrieved by the findings and decision under § 300.514(b), has the right to bring a civil action with...

  13. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.21 Civil... Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights...

  14. 33 CFR 401.102 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 401.102 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Penalties-Violations of Seaway Regulations § 401.102 Civil penalty. (a) A person, as described in § 401.101(b), who violates a regulation is liable to a civil penalty of...

  15. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations promulgated...

  16. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will be administered in accordance with applicable Federal Civil Rights Law. All grants made under this subpart are...

  17. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except...

  18. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at...

  19. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  20. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations promulgated...

  1. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Part 3560 RIN 0575AC93 Civil Monetary Penalties AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service (RHS or Agency) proposes to implement two civil monetary... civil monetary penalties under the authority of 42 U.S.C. 1490s (section 543 of the Housing Act of 1949...

  2. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to the...

  3. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 1017.29 Section 1017.29 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Violations § 1017.29 Civil penalty. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 66033, Dec. 14, 2009... subject to a civil penalty under this part: (1) 10 CFR Part 1017—Identification and Protection of...

  4. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  5. Civil Society Participation in EU Gender Policy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2008-01-01

    The participation of transnational advocacy networks (TANs) in the policy processes of the European Union (EU) is a potential site of substantial representation of women (SRW). In the article, it is argued that the institutional context can both enable and constrain civil society actors’ claims......-making. TANs employ framing strategies to make their claims resonate with or challenge the dominant discourse of the EU policies. The institutions use contested frames to constitute legitimate claims-makers, by recognising certain claims as more valid than others. The possibilities of SRW are delimited, since...

  6. Civil society organisations, social innovation and health research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinare, Dace; McCarthy, Mark

    2012-12-01

    European Union strategies and programmes identify research and innovation as a critical dimension for future economic and social development. While European research policy emphasizes support for industry, the health field includes not-for-profit civil society organisations (CSOs) providing social innovation. Yet, the perspectives of CSOs towards health research in Europe are not well understood. STEPS (Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research) was funded by the European Commission's Science in Society research programme. Within the study, we interviewed by telephone respondents of 13 European health CSOs, which represented collectively local and national organizations. Research was valued positively by the respondents. Health CSOs did not seek to do research themselves, but recognized the opportunity of funds in this field and welcomed the possibility of collaborating in research, of using the results from research and of providing input to research agendas. Links between research and users provides knowledge for the public and improves impacts on policy. Research and evaluation can help in demonstrating the benefit of innovative activities, and give support and legitimacy. However, the cultures of, and incentives for, researchers and health CSOs are different, and collaboration requires building trust, a shared language and for the power relations and objectives to match. Health CSOs contribute social innovation in organising services and activities such as advocacy that cannot be satisfactorily met by industry. Engaging CSOs in research and innovation will strengthen the European Research Area.

  7. International experience of the civil service performance and possible ways of its application in Ukraine in terms of administration reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kizilov

    2016-07-01

    servants. The analysis of the international experience showed that: senior civil servants and special education programs for them should be created; must developed the professional competences to ensure successful cooperation with European institutions, international partners and organizations; it is important to develop a competency approach during implementation of the new education programs for the civil servants, in particular should be determined key issues in training, such as human resource management, change management, leadership.

  8. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  9. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  10. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  11. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  12. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  13. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 2: specific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes the main areas of civil forensic psychiatry (FP) and the skills required by psychiatric experts. Some specific areas of civil FP are discussed, including tort law reform, reliability of psychiatric evidence, contentious psychiatric disorders, and the many domains of civil FP. Civil FP is an important sub-specialty component of forensic psychiatry that requires greater emphasis in the training and continuing education of psychiatrists. A process of accrediting psychiatrists as having competency in advanced civil FP may be of value.

  15. Civil disobedience, feminism and body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Romero Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, feminist civil disobedience is analysed as democracy’s daughter. As regards the analysis of different interpretations of natural rights, the path of the ownership of the own body is followed from Sufragism and its epoch until the global world. At the present time, the right to own your body is defended from opposite positions, such as Femen and Islamic Feminism.

  16. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pengzhen; Chen, Shengyong; Zheng, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applicati...

  17. Civil Engineering & Design Standards Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Vänttinen, Eetu

    2014-01-01

    Civil Discipline Engineering department in Foster Wheeler Energia Oy takes care of the construction of foundation, steel frame, platforms, cladding/roofing, HVAC, elevator, hoist and central vacuum system of the boiler building. The goal of the thesis was to compile a design manual for the department to ease up the startup of the design of a new project and standardize the design. Main objective was to gather together all the existing guidelines, standards and directives regarding the des...

  18. The Aftermath of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...

  19. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  20. INADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE IN CIVIL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Dika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the exclusion of specific means of evidence as instruments for determining the object of evidence, as well as the taking of evidence in the framework of the Croatian civil procedure law. The introduction lays the grounds for classifying and qualifying exclusion of evidence (general, special; absolute, relative; removable, irremovable; direct, indirect, after which greater attention is paid to the so called absolute and relative type; exclusionary evidence of the direct relative type pertaining to the establishing of facts, and evidence dismissals. With regard to the indirect relative type, the paper examines exclusionary evidence concerning the object of evidence. The remainder of the paper focuses on illegally obtained evidence, while outlining the constitutional, statutory, judicature and doctrinaire premises of bearing for such evidence. Subsequently, the question of evidence obtained in violation of the Constitutional guarantee of respect and legal protection of private and family life, dignity, reputation and honour, as well as evidence obtained by breach of the Constitutional guarantee of freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication, and in violation of the right to safety and privacy of personal data, are discussed too. In addition, the paper analyses the institutions of preclusion of evidence and the so called informative evidence. Concluding, the author points to a lacking regulation of inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law, underlining the need to determine de lege ferenda legal requirements with a view to operationalizing inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law.

  1. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  2. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  3. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  4. The protocol of the Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium; LUCID: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerland, Bjørn Erik; Hov, Karen Roksund; Bruun Wyller, Vegard; Qvigstad, Eirik; Skovlund, Eva; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir

    2015-02-10

    Delirium affects 15% of hospitalised patients and is linked with poor outcomes, yet few pharmacological treatment options exist. One hypothesis is that delirium may in part result from exaggerated and/or prolonged stress responses. Dexmedetomidine, a parenterally-administered alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist which attenuates sympathetic nervous system activity, shows promise as treatment in ICU delirium. Clonidine exhibits similar pharmacodynamic properties and can be administered orally. We therefore wish to explore possible effects of clonidine upon the duration and severity of delirium in general medical inpatients. The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel group study with 4-month prospective follow-up. We will recruit 100 older medical inpatients with delirium or subsyndromal delirium in the acute geriatric ward. Participants will be randomised to oral clonidine or placebo until delirium free for 2 days (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria), or after a maximum of 7 days treatment. Assessment of haemodynamics (blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram) and delirium will be performed daily until discharge or a maximum of 7 days after end of treatment. The primary endpoint is the trajectory of delirium over time (measured by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale). Secondary endpoints include the duration of delirium, use of rescue medication for delirium, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clonidine, cognitive function after 4 months, length of hospital stay and need for institutionalisation. LUCID will explore the efficacy and safety of clonidine for delirium in older medical inpatients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01956604. EudraCT Number: 2013-000815-26.

  5. Long-term survival in pre-specified groups at risk in the Oslo Study, 1972-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ingar

    2015-03-01

    Using the Oslo Study of 1972-1973, we wished to compare the long-term mortality pattern up to 40 years, in both the healthy cardiovascular groups at supposedly high and low risk, and in some groups having cardiovascular disease at screening. At the screening, 16,203 (63% of those invited) men aged 40-49 years participated. Study groups were identified by means of questionnaires regarding diseases, blood pressure and measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. We identified six groups: very high cholesterol, very high blood pressure, very high glucose, non-smoking with non-elevated such risk factors, from a randomized diet and antismoking trial, and a randomized drug treatment in mild-to-moderate hypertension. Statistical analyses were by Cox regression analysis, with Kaplan-Meier graphs. The supposedly low-risk group had a total mortality of one-third of other groups, such as: men with hypertension, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia, or those whom participated in the two trials. Between these latter groups, we found 2-5 years of difference in their median survival time, but their absolute risk stayed at rather high levels through all the years, with the median remaining a lifetime that was 3-8 years shorter than the men whom were free of known cardiovascular disease, diabetes or hypertension. The long-term preventive effects on total mortality seem large, if the levels of the classical risk factors of blood pressure, total cholesterol and glucose can be adequately controlled, concurrently with a non-smoking behavior. The study indicated that non-smoking and a low total cholesterol value were the most important contributors to extended survival. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Toxin production and antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli isolated from bathing areas along the coastline of the Oslo fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Colin; Nordlie, Anne-Lise; Hjeltnes, Bjarne

    2014-09-01

    The presence of enterovirulent and/or antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli in recreational bathing waters would represent a clear health issue. In total, 144 E. coli isolated from 26 beaches along the inner Oslo fjord were examined for virulence determinants and resistance to clinically important antibiotics. No isolates possessed the genetic determinants associated with enterotoxigenic strains and none showed the prototypic sorbitol negative, O157:H7 phenotype. A small number (∼1 %) produced alpha-hemolysin. Occurrences and patterns of antibiotic resistances were similar to those of E. coli isolated previously from environmental samples. In total, 6 % of the strains showed one or more clinically relevant resistances and 1.4 % were multi-drug resistant. Microarray analyses suggested that the resistance determinants were generally associated with mobile genetic elements. Resistant strains were not clonally related, and were, furthermore not concentrated at one or a few beach sites. This suggests that these strains are entering the waters at a low rate but in a widespread manner. The study demonstrates that resistant E. coli are present in coastal bathing waters where they can come into contact with bathers, and that the resistance determinants are potentially transferable. Some of the resistances registered in the study are to important antibiotics used in human medicine such as fluoroquinolones. The spread of antibiotic resistant genes, from the clinical setting to the environment, has clear implications with respect to the current management of bacterial infections and the long term value of antimicrobial therapy. The present study is the first of its kind in Norway.

  7. Intimate partner violence and prescription of potentially addictive drugs: prospective cohort study of women in the Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyb, Grete; Tverdal, Aage; Jacobsen, Geir Wenberg; Schei, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prescription of potentially addictive drugs, including analgesics and central nervous system depressants, to women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Design Prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Information about IPV from the Oslo Health Study 2000/2001 was linked with prescription data from the Norwegian Prescription Database from 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2009. Participants The study included 6081 women aged 30–60 years. Main outcome measures Prescription rate ratios (RRs) for potentially addictive drugs derived from negative binomial models, adjusted for age, education, paid employment, marital status, chronic musculoskeletal pain, mental distress and sleep problems. Results Altogether 819 (13.5%) of 6081 women reported ever experiencing IPV: 454 (7.5%) comprised physical and/or sexual IPV and 365 (6.0%) psychological IPV alone. Prescription rates for potentially addictive drugs were clearly higher among women who had experienced IPV: crude RRs were 3.57 (95% CI 2.89 to 4.40) for physical/sexual IPV and 2.13 (95% CI 1.69 to 2.69) for psychological IPV alone. After full adjustment RRs were 1.83 (1.50 to 2.22) for physical/sexual IPV, and 1.97 (1.59 to 2.45) for psychological IPV alone. Prescription rates were increased both for potentially addictive analgesics and central nervous system depressants. Furthermore, women who reported IPV were more likely to receive potentially addictive drugs from multiple physicians. Conclusions Women who had experienced IPV, including psychological violence alone, more often received prescriptions for potentially addictive drugs. Researchers and clinicians should address the possible adverse health and psychosocial impact of such prescription and focus on developing evidence-based healthcare for women who have experienced IPV. PMID:22492384

  8. Lifelong benefits on myocardial infarction mortality: 40-year follow-up of the randomized Oslo diet and antismoking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, I; Retterstøl, K; Norum, K R; Hjermann, I

    2016-08-01

    The effects of saturated fat on atherosclerotic vascular disease are currently debated. In the Oslo cardiovascular study initiated in 1972/1973, a 5-year randomized intervention was conducted in healthy middle-aged men at high risk of coronary heart disease to compare the effects on coronary heart disease incidence of diet and antismoking advice versus control (no intervention). A significant reduction (47%) in first myocardial infarction incidence was observed. We have followed mortality up to 40 years to establish whether a lifelong benefit on mortality risk of myocardial infarction could be observed. In the present study, a total of 16 203 men (63% of those invited), aged 40-49 years, participated in a screening examination. Overall, 1232 men with total serum cholesterol levels of 6.9-8.9 mmol L(-1) (80% smokers) were included in the study. The dietary intervention consisted of mainly decreasing the intake of saturated fats and increasing fish and vegetable products, as well as weight reduction in overweight subjects. Smokers were advised to stop smoking. Cox regression analysis was used for statistical analyses. The intervention group showed a sustained reduced risk of death at first myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.51-1.00; P = 0.049), compared to control subjects up to 40 years. During follow-up, the beneficial effect developed gradually but proportionally up to about 15 years after randomization. Later, the curves were parallel. All-cause mortality decreased in the period 8-20 years after randomization, but not thereafter. Receiving advice about a healthy lifestyle led to a long-term reduced risk of coronary mortality during the following 40 years. Our results suggest that systematically providing effective counselling for a healthy lifestyle for 5 years can lead to lifelong benefits. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. A one-year observational study of all hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo: complications, treatment and sequelae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Changes in poisoning trends may affect both complications and outcomes in patients with acute poisoning. This study reports the treatments given and the frequency of complications, also related to treatment, mortality and sequelae related to various toxic agents. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (≥16 years) admitted to the five hospitals in Oslo were included consecutively during one year (2008 to 2009) in an observational cross-sectional multicenter study. A standardized form was completed by the treating physician, which covered the study aims. Results There were 1065 admissions in 912 patients. The median length of hospital stay was one day, and 49% were observed in an intensive care unit (ICU). Active treatment was given to 83%, and consisted of supportive therapy (70%), antidote(s) (38%), activated charcoal (16%) and gastric lavage (9%). The most commonly used antidotes were flumazenil (19%), naloxone (17%) and N-acetylcysteine (11%). The rate of treatment-related complications was 2.4% (21/884). Neither flumazenil, naloxone, nor the combination, was associated with convulsions or other complications. Among those receiving N-acetylcysteine, 5% (6/120) developed allergic reactions, one of which mandated discontinuation of treatment. Nineteen percent presented in a coma. Complications developed in 30%, compared with 18% in a 2003 study, mainly respiratory depression (12%), prolonged QTc interval (6%) and hypotension (5%). Eight patients died (0.8%) and five (0.5%) survived with permanent sequelae, mainly anoxic brain damage. Discussion Few patients stayed more than two days. The use of the ICU was liberal, considering that only one out of five presented in a coma. Antidotes were frequently given diagnostically. Although N-acetylcysteine induced allergic reactions, most were mild and treatment discontinuation was only necessary once. The frequency of complications had almost doubled in five years, although the poisoning pattern was largely

  10. Drug-related problems and changes in drug utilization after medication reviews in nursing homes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fog, Amura Francesca; Kvalvaag, Gunnar; Engedal, Knut; Straand, Jørund

    2017-12-01

    We describe the drug-related problems (DRPs) identified during medication reviews (MRs) and the changes in drug utilization after MRs at nursing homes in Oslo, Norway. We explored predictors for the observed changes. Observational before-after study. Forty-one nursing homes. MRs performed by multidisciplinary teams during November 2011 to February 2014. In all, 2465 long-term care patients. DRPs identified by explicit criteria (STOPP/START and NORGEP) and drug-drug interaction database; interventions to resolve DRPs; drug use changes after MR. A total of 6158 DRPs were identified, an average of 2.6 DRPs/patient, 2.0 for regular and 0.6 for pro re nata (prn) drugs. Of these patients, 17.3% had no DRPs. The remaining 82.7% of the patients had on average 3.0 DRPs/patient. Use of unnecessary drugs (43.5%), excess dosing (12.5%) and lack of monitoring of the drug use (11%) were the most frequent DRPs. Opioids and psychotropic drugs were involved in 34.4% of all DRPs. The mean number of drugs decreased after the MR from 6.8 to 6.3 for regular drugs and from 3.0 to 2.6 for prn drugs. Patients with DRPs experienced a decrease of 1.1 drugs after MR (0.5 for regular and 0.6 for prn drugs). The reduction was most pronounced for the regular use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, diuretics, antithrombotic agents, antacid drugs; and for prn use of anxiolytics, opioids, hypnotics/sedatives, metoclopramide and NSAIDs. The medication review resulted in less drug use, especially opioids and psychotropic drugs.

  11. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Qureshi, Samera A; Kour, Prabhjot; Kumar, Bernadette; Diaz, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali) women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women's participation in cervical cancer screening: 1) in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2) verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3) the initiation of better recall through SMS and letters written in native languages. Finally, an intervention study that compares the aforementioned strategies and proves their effectiveness in increasing immigrant women's participation in cervical cancer screening is recommended.

  12. A one-year observational study of all hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo: complications, treatment and sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Cathrine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Changes in poisoning trends may affect both complications and outcomes in patients with acute poisoning. This study reports the treatments given and the frequency of complications, also related to treatment, mortality and sequelae related to various toxic agents. Methods All acute poisonings in adults (≥16 years admitted to the five hospitals in Oslo were included consecutively during one year (2008 to 2009 in an observational cross-sectional multicenter study. A standardized form was completed by the treating physician, which covered the study aims. Results There were 1065 admissions in 912 patients. The median length of hospital stay was one day, and 49% were observed in an intensive care unit (ICU. Active treatment was given to 83%, and consisted of supportive therapy (70%, antidote(s (38%, activated charcoal (16% and gastric lavage (9%. The most commonly used antidotes were flumazenil (19%, naloxone (17% and N-acetylcysteine (11%. The rate of treatment-related complications was 2.4% (21/884. Neither flumazenil, naloxone, nor the combination, was associated with convulsions or other complications. Among those receiving N-acetylcysteine, 5% (6/120 developed allergic reactions, one of which mandated discontinuation of treatment. Nineteen percent presented in a coma. Complications developed in 30%, compared with 18% in a 2003 study, mainly respiratory depression (12%, prolonged QTc interval (6% and hypotension (5%. Eight patients died (0.8% and five (0.5% survived with permanent sequelae, mainly anoxic brain damage. Discussion Few patients stayed more than two days. The use of the ICU was liberal, considering that only one out of five presented in a coma. Antidotes were frequently given diagnostically. Although N-acetylcysteine induced allergic reactions, most were mild and treatment discontinuation was only necessary once. The frequency of complications had almost doubled in five years, although the poisoning pattern was

  13. Inorganic and carbonaceous components in indoor/outdoor particulate matter in two residential houses in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Mihalis; Aleksandropoulou, Victoria; Hanssen, Jan Erik; Dye, Christian; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2008-03-01

    A detailed analysis of indoor/outdoor physicochemical aerosol properties has been performed. Aerosol measurements were taken at two dwellings, one in the city center and the other in the suburbs of the Oslo metropolitan area, during summer/fall and winter/spring periods of 2002-2003. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the chemical characteristics (water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components) of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles and their indoor/outdoor relationship. Results demonstrate that the carbonaceous species were dominant in all fractions of the PM10 particles (cut off size: 0.09-11.31 microm) during all measurement periods, except winter 2003, when increased concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were predominant because of sea salt transport. The concentration of organic carbon was higher in the fine and coarse PM10 fractions indoors, whereas elemental carbon was higher indoors only in the coarse fraction. In regards to the carbonaceous species, local traffic and secondary organic aerosol formation were, probably, the main sources outdoors, whereas indoors combustion activities such as preparation of food, burning of candles, and cigarette smoking were the main sources. In contrast, the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were higher outdoors than indoors. The variability of water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations outdoors was related to changes in emissions from local anthropogenic sources, long-range transport of particles, sea salt emissions, and resuspension of roadside and soil dusts. In the indoor environment the infiltration of the outdoor air indoors was the major source of inorganic ions.

  14. The Influence of Parental Divorce on Educational Ambitions of 18/19 Year-Old Adolescents from Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Bjertness, Espen; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Haavet, Ole R; Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    Former studies have shown that children and adolescents of divorced parents have significantly poorer educational attainment than their peers from continuously married parents. Educational ambition is important because it has relationship with educational attainment. Our aim was to investigate the associations between parental divorce and educational ambitions among adolescents in the Scandinavian region. Data were used from Young-HUBRO surveys that were conducted in Oslo in the years 2000/2001 and 2004. A change in educational ambition was investigated in a prospective study (n = 1,861) by comparing 18/19 year-olds who experienced late parental divorce with adolescents of continuously married parents. 18/19 year-old adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 2,391) with their peers from continuously married parents. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to include, among others, mental health problem as a potential confounder. The prospective study showed that a change from ambition for university/college education to having undecided educational ambition was significantly higher among adolescents with experience of late parental divorce than among adolescents of continuously married parents (OR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.1-3.0). In the cross-sectional study, adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood or adolescence were more likely to have undecided educational ambition, compared to their peers from continuously married parents (OR 1.3; 95 % CI 1.1-1.8). In conclusion, experience of parental divorce seems to be associated with undecided educational ambition among 18/19 year-old adolescents. Mechanisms that reduce the adverse influence of parental divorce on educational ambitions need to be in place.

  15. The relation of early experienced negative life events and current itch. A longitudinal study among adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Dalgard, Florence

    2012-03-01

    Negative life events have impact on mental health and skin diseases among adults. Itch is a common, disabling skin symptom. The aim was to describe negative life events associated with current itch and to analyze the impact of number of negative life events on symptoms of itch, controlling for possible confounders. This school-based longitudinal survey was conducted among 15 and 18 years old high-school students in Oslo, Norway. From a baseline cohort of 3811 students, 2489 (65%) participants were followed-up after three years later. They completed questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Current itch was measured with a validated instrument asking for symptoms on a four point Likert scale at follow-up. More girls than boys reported itch. There were no gender differences in number of negative life events. Death among close relative/friend was the most common negative life event among boys and girls. All negative life experiences before 15 years of age were statistically significantly associated with itch, but after 15 years only half of the negative life events were associated with itch. The bivariate association between number of negative life events and itch was statistically significant, and only when adjusting for mental distress at baseline there was a considerable drop in the Odds Ratio. There is a clear association between number of negative life events at baseline and itch at follow-up three years later among adolescents. It is therefore important to discuss possible adverse experiences with adolescents presenting with severe symptoms of itch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentration distribution of NO2, PM10 and PM2,5 in severe pollution episodes in Oslo, Drammen, Bergen and Trondheim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloerdal, Leiv Haavard; Toennesen, Dag

    1999-04-01

    Based on hourly model calculations of NO 2 , PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 through a 6 months winter season in the cities of Oslo, Drammen, Bergen and Trondheim, the 10 most severe pollution episodes have been analysed. Concentration distributions, calculated as the average of these episodes have been combined with the population distribution in order to reveal the exposure levels in such episodes. The model calculations have only been performed for the city background, i.e. on a km 2 grid system. (author)

  17. Air pollution exposure in Oslo, Drammen, Bergen and Trondheim. Calculations of NO2, PM10 and PM2,5 for the winter 1995 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloerdal, Leif Haavard

    1998-07-01

    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) commissioned by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (Statens forurensningstilsyn), has calculated human exposure values to NO 2 , PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 in the cities of Oslo, Drammen, Bergen and Trondheim. In Oslo, Drammen and Bergen the calculations are made for the winter 1995 to 1996. For Trondheim the necessary meteorological data were missing and the calculations are therefore made for the winter of 1994 to 1995. In the project only simplified exposure calculations are carried out where estimated ground concentrations and population distribution information at the km 2 level are connected. The calculations are then made as if everyone have been outside at the home address during the entire estimation period, termed ''potential exposure''. The population exposure load is estimated for excesses of various air quality criteria and the results are presented. In addition values for the worst hour and/or the worst day of exposure for each of the four cities are presented. The term worst is defined as the hour or the day in the simulation period where the most number of people are exposed to concentrations exceeding the threshold values for air quality recommended by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. For NO 2 these threshold figures are 100 microgram/m 3 for hour values and 75 microgram/m 3 for day values. For PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 criteria for hour values do not exist while day values are now stipulated as 35 microgram/m 3 for PM 1 0 and 20 microgram/m 3 for PM 2 ,5. The calculated maximum concentrations may not coincide with these values. The report gives results for exposure estimates for NO 2 , PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 in the cities and evaluates the significance of regional background levels, traffic and heating emissions in contributions to the total population exposure load. The exposure to NO 2 is largest in Bergen. The PM 1 0 and PM 2 ,5 i.e. particle exposure, is greater than for NO 2 and is largest in Oslo

  18. H2moves.eu Scandinavia. ''Experience from operating a 70 MPa hydrogen refuelling station in Oslo''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.

    2013-02-15

    As part of the H2MOVES Scandinavia project H2 Logic were to construct a large scale hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) in Oslo providing hydrogen for FCEV's from Daimler and Hyundai in the project. The effort has provided extensive results and lessons learned across the entire process from site selection, HRS design and manufacturing to the final installation and operation. An extensive site screening of more than 30 sites in Oslo was firstly conducted to identify the most optimal location for the HRS. A suitable site was identified at the research organisation SINTEF in Gaustad in the western part of Oslo. The location was strategically well located with regards to the other HRS's in the city ensuring good refuelling coverage in Oslo. The HRS was manufactured, installed and operated by H2 Logic based on the company's H2Station technology. The HRS provides 70MPa refuelling in accordance with the SAE J2601, and operation results have confirmed refuelling times consistently below four minutes for a full tank. The HRS includes onsite electrolysis production providing a 20kg/day base load supply, with potentially additional trucking-in of hydrogen up to a total capacity of 200kg/day. The installation of the HRS took in total 10 days, from arrival at site, until first refuelling was conducted. This included local inspection by third parties and authorities as well as several days of hydrogen production and compression to reach the necessary refuelling pressure. Before opening a refuelling recommendation process was successfully conducted by Daimler. The HRS opened on 21st November 2011 and has been operated for 13,5 months during the remainder project period (ending December 2012). The HRS is expected to continue operation beyond the project. Below are shown the major operation results from the HRS during the project: 1) 701 kg dispensed; 2) 313 refueling's conducted; 3) Average availability of 97% during first half of 2012; 4) 53% of all down

  19. Use of emergency care services by immigrants—a survey of walk-in patients who attended the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Sven Eirik; Aga, Ruth; Natvig, Bård; Hjortdahl, Per

    2015-10-07

    The Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) experienced a 5-6% annual increase in patient visits between 2005 and 2011, which was significantly higher than the 2-3% annual increase among registered Oslo residents. This study explored immigrant walk-in patients' use of both the general emergency and trauma clinics of the OAEOC and their concomitant use of regular general practitioners (RGPs) in Oslo. A cross-sectional survey of walk-in patients attending the OAEOC during 2 weeks in September 2009. We analysed demographic data, patients' self-reported affiliation with the RGP scheme, self-reported number of OAEOC and RGP consultations during the preceding 12 months. The first approach used Poisson regression models to study visit frequency. The second approach compared the proportions of first- and second-generation immigrants and those from the four most frequently represented countries (Sweden, Pakistan, Somalia and Poland) among the patient population, with their respective proportions within the general Oslo population. The analysis included 3864 patients: 1821 attended the Department of Emergency General Practice ("general emergency clinic"); 2043 attended the Section for Orthopaedic Emergency ("trauma clinic"). Both first- and second-generation immigrants reported a significantly higher OAEOC visit frequency compared with Norwegians. Norwegians, representing 73% of the city population accounted for 65% of OAEOC visits. In contrast, first- and second-generation immigrants made up 27% of the city population but accounted for 35% of OAEOC visits. This proportional increase in use was primarily observed in the general emergency clinic (42% of visits). Their proportional use of the trauma clinic (29%) was similar to their proportion in the city. Among first-generation immigrants only 71% were affiliated with the RGP system, in contrast to 96% of Norwegians. Similar finding were obtained when immigrants were grouped by nationality. Compared to

  20. A one-year observational study of all hospitalized and fatal acute poisonings in Oslo: epidemiology, intention and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Cathrine; Teige, Brita; Drottning, Per; Stiksrud, Birgitte; Rui, Tor Olav; Lyngra, Marianne; Ekeberg, Oivind; Jacobsen, Dag; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2012-10-09

    Up to date information on poisoning trends is important. This study reports the epidemiology of all hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo, including mortality, follow-up referrals, and whether the introduction of over-the-counter sales of paracetamol outside pharmacies had an impact on the frequency of poisonings. All acute poisonings of adults (≥16 years) treated at the five hospitals in Oslo from April 2008 to April 2009 were included consecutively in an observational cross-sectional multicentre study. A standardized form was completed by the treating physician, which covered the study aims. All deaths by poisoning in and outside hospitals were registered at the Institute of Forensic Medicine. There were 1065 hospital admissions of 912 individuals; 460 (50%) were male, and the median age was 36 years. The annual incidence was 2.0 per 1000. The most frequent toxic agents were ethanol (18%), benzodiazepines (15%), paracetamol (11%), and opioids (11%). Physicians classified 46% as possible or definite suicide attempts, 37% as accidental overdoses with substances of abuse (AOSA), and 16% as other accidents. Twenty-four per cent were discharged without any follow-up and the no follow-up odds were highest for AOSA. There were 117 deaths (eight in hospital), of which 75% were males, and the median age was 41 years. Thus, the annual mortality rate was 25 per 100 000 and the in-hospital mortality was 0.8%. Opioids were the most frequent cause of death. The incidence of hospitalized acute poisonings in Oslo was similar to that in 2003 and there was an equal sex distribution. Compared with a study performed in Oslo in 2003, there has been an increase in poisonings with a suicidal intention. The in-hospital mortality was low and nine out of ten deaths occurred outside hospitals. Opioids were the leading cause of death, so preventive measures should be encouraged among substance abusers. The number of poisonings caused by paracetamol remained unchanged after the

  1. pXRF and IR Fluorescence Imaging Studies of CdS Alteration in Paintings by Edvard Munch and Henri Matisse in Oslo, Copenhagen, and San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Wadum, Jørgen; Mass, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    -induced visible fluorescence; ultraviolet-induced infrared fluorescence; multispectral imaging; and x-ray fluorescence. Questions addressed included: is the imaging method being tested comprehensive? Is it efficient at surveying an entire painting? Does it reveal the state of preservation of the pigment? Does...... for Kunst, Copenhagen. They were also tested on Edvard Munch’s The Scream (c. 1910, Munch Museum, Oslo). It was found that ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence has the best ability to discriminate between altered and unaltered cadmium yellow paints (even before alteration is visible to the unaided eye......), while multispectral imaging allows for the most efficient and comprehensive localization of the cadmium pigments in a work....

  2. “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas” (Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway, April 9th — 12th, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway. The circle’s research program runs from 2014 to 2016 and is aimed at examining the concept of crisis as it is used today in academia and public discussion. In this collection of papers from the symposium we present some of the different ways in which the topic of the study group was addressed.

  3. Alternative Dispute Resolution as a form of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Степанович Ткачук

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of alternative civil dispute resolution and understanding of this phenomenon in western legal tradition and through the national paradigm of forms of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests. The conception of “alternative dispute resolution” was analyzed by foreign and national scholars, such as M. Cappelletti, B. Garth, F. Sander, E. I. Nosyreva, O. M. Spektor, V. V. Komarov and others. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the essence of alternative dispute resolution as an order of protection and as a form of protection of civil rights. The author delimits such categories as order of protection and form of protection. From this point of view alternative dispute resolution is considered to be an independent form of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests as well as judicial, administrative, notarial forms of protection and the protection in European court of human rights. As a result alternative dispute resolution can be understood as a form of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests which consists of quasi-judicial and consensual methods of resolving civil disputes, based on voluntariness of treatment of persons, who was a participators of dispute, and voluntariness of enforcement of final decision of such procedure, which thought can be enforced coercively in a simplified procedure

  4. Civil rights reference of administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, J.

    1984-01-01

    The book deals with the constitutional obligations which substantive civil rights demand from administrative procedures. The Federal Constitutional Court distinguishes between protection of civil rights in, and by, administrative and judicial procedures. The author analyses the example of the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court concerning the atomic power plant of Muelheim-Kaerlich. In the licensing procedure pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act, the civil rights of persons concerned are guaranteed by the governmental obligation to its protection. (CW) [de

  5. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) and in...

  6. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  7. Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten. Oslo: Res Publica, 2011. José Luis Martí and Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero's Spain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010 (Simon Laumann Jørgensen)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon Laumann

    2012-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten, Oslo: Res Publica 2011, 199 NOK & José Luis Martí & Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, $ 24.95......Anmeldelse af Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten, Oslo: Res Publica 2011, 199 NOK & José Luis Martí & Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, $ 24.95...

  8. [Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Drulović, J; Stojsavljević, N; Veskov, R; Ivanus, J

    1996-01-01

    The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position, the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence of a linguistic barriers, more scarce-as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are nevertheless picturesque. The medical science from Babylonian period presumed that epileptic manifestations are the consequence of the demonic or ill spiritual actions. There existed an attitude that at the beginning of an epileptic attack the patient was possessed by a demon (the Akkadic, i.e., Babylonian verb "sibtu" denoting epilepsy, had the meaning "to seize" or "to be obsessed"); at the end of the clonic phase the demon departed from the body. Different demons were responsible for different forms of epilepsy such as nocturnal and children epilepsy, absence epilepsy and pure convulsions, simple and complex automatisms, and gelastic epilepsy. Thus, the doctors from the period of Babylon aside from making primordial classification of epilepsies, knew about their clinical picture (prodromal symptoms and aura, Jackson's epilepsy. Todd's paralysis), postictal phenomena and intericatl emotional instability; provocative factors were also known (sleep deprivation, emotions, as well as alcohol, albeit in a negative sense-as a cure for epilepsy). There is no doubt than in the period of Babylon the clinical picture of serial fits and its progress to status epilepticus were clearly recognized and

  9. Assessment of low impact development in road and street planning Case study at Telthusbakken in central Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerlid, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Master thesis - Chalmers University of Technology. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Division of Geo and water Engineering. Climate change and urbanization puts heavy pressure on today’s water systems due to increased rain intensities and development of impervious surfaces. As a result, cities and their road and street environment in urban Norway is subject to more frequent flooding and water related damages. Moreover, the urban watersheds are subject to various p...

  10. For sustainable participation by civil society in Europe in the oversight of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delalonde, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Aarhus Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters, was signed in 1998 by the European Community and European countries including the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU). That same year, the Committee of the Regions adopted a resolution on nuclear safety and local and regional democracy. These two texts indicate strong political and legal recognition of access to information and participation in the nuclear field. Ten years later, it would seem to be important to observe how these principles are actually implemented. As of 2009, the ANCCLI and the European Commission opened an 18-month European dialogue on the practical application of the Aarhus Convention in the nuclear field. The principle of this approach, called ACN for Aarhus Convention and Nuclear, is to promote feedback about practical application of the Aarhus Convention in the nuclear field in the various European countries, and to share this feedback in order to identify both difficulties and good practices and to initiate progress jointly with the various stakeholders concerned (authorities, civil society, operators, experts, local authorities, etc.). It is also an opportunity to look at the conditions for sustainable participation by civil society in monitoring nuclear issues. (author)

  11. MEDICAL ERROR: CIVIL AND LEGAL ASPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletsa, S; Drozd, O; Yunin, O; Mohilevskyi, L

    2018-03-01

    The scientific article is focused on the research of the notion of medical error, medical and legal aspects of this notion have been considered. The necessity of the legislative consolidation of the notion of «medical error» and criteria of its legal estimation have been grounded. In the process of writing a scientific article, we used the empirical method, general scientific and comparative legal methods. A comparison of the concept of medical error in civil and legal aspects was made from the point of view of Ukrainian, European and American scientists. It has been marked that the problem of medical errors is known since ancient times and in the whole world, in fact without regard to the level of development of medicine, there is no country, where doctors never make errors. According to the statistics, medical errors in the world are included in the first five reasons of death rate. At the same time the grant of medical services practically concerns all people. As a man and his life, health in Ukraine are acknowledged by a higher social value, medical services must be of high-quality and effective. The grant of not quality medical services causes harm to the health, and sometimes the lives of people; it may result in injury or even death. The right to the health protection is one of the fundamental human rights assured by the Constitution of Ukraine; therefore the issue of medical errors and liability for them is extremely relevant. The authors make conclusions, that the definition of the notion of «medical error» must get the legal consolidation. Besides, the legal estimation of medical errors must be based on the single principles enshrined in the legislation and confirmed by judicial practice.

  12. Jens Esmark's Christiania (Oslo) meteorological observations 1816-1838: the first long-term continuous temperature record from the Norwegian capital homogenized and analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestmark, Geir; Nordli, Øyvind

    2016-11-01

    In 2010 we rediscovered the complete set of meteorological observation protocols made by Jens Esmark (1762-1839) during his years of residence in the Norwegian capital of Oslo (then Christiania). From 1 January 1816 to 25 January 1839, Esmark at his house in Øvre Voldgate in the morning, early afternoon and late evening recorded air temperature with state-of-the-art thermometers. He also noted air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation and wind directions, and experimented with rain gauges and hygrometers. From 1818 to the end of 1838 he twice a month provided weather tables to the official newspaper Den Norske Rigstidende, and thus acquired a semi-official status as the first Norwegian state meteorologist. This paper evaluates the quality of Esmark's temperature observations and presents new metadata, new homogenization and analysis of monthly means. Three significant shifts in the measurement series were detected, and suitable corrections are proposed. The air temperature in Oslo during this period is shown to exhibit a slow rise from 1816 towards 1825, followed by a slighter fall again towards 1838.

  13. Open versus laparoscopic liver resection for colorectal liver metastases (the Oslo-CoMet Study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretland, Åsmund Avdem; Kazaryan, Airazat M; Bjørnbeth, Bjørn Atle; Flatmark, Kjersti; Andersen, Marit Helen; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Bjørnelv, Gudrun Maria Waaler; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Kristiansen, Ronny; Øyri, Karl; Edwin, Bjørn

    2015-03-04

    Laparoscopic liver resection is used in specialized centers all over the world. However, laparoscopic liver resection has never been compared with open liver resection in a prospective, randomized trial. The Oslo-CoMet Study is a randomized trial into laparoscopic versus open liver resection for the surgical management of hepatic colorectal metastases. The primary outcome is 30-day perioperative morbidity. Secondary outcomes include 5-year survival (overall, disease-free and recurrence-free), resection margins, recurrence pattern, postoperative pain, health-related quality of life, and evaluation of the inflammatory response. A cost-utility analysis of replacing open surgery with laparoscopic surgery will also be performed. The study includes all resections for colorectal liver metastases, except formal hemihepatectomies, resections where reconstruction of vessels/bile ducts is necessary and resections that need to be combined with ablation. All patients will participate in an enhanced recovery after surgery program. A biobank of liver and tumor tissue will be established and molecular analysis will be performed. After 35 months of recruitment, 200 patients have been included in the trial. Molecular and immunology data are being analyzed. Results for primary and secondary outcome measures will be presented following the conclusion of the study (late 2015). The Oslo-CoMet Study will provide the first level 1 evidence on the benefits of laparoscopic liver resection for colorectal liver metastases. The trial was registered in ClinicalTrals.gov (NCT01516710) on 19 January 2012.

  14. Low level of objectively measured physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, and high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Pakistani male immigrants in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Andersen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The level of physical fitness in south Asian immigrants living in Norway is largely unknown, but the level of physical activity seems to be low, possibly in part explaining their high prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, previous studies have used self-reported measures of physical activity, and it might be questioned whether the previous data reflect the true physical activity level.Aim: To describe objectively measured physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes risk in a group of Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway.Methods: One hundred and fifty Pakistani immigrant men in the age group 25-60 years were included. Physical activity level was assessed with an accelerometer. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured until exhaustion on a treadmill, and diabetes risk was evaluated with an oral glucose tolerance test.Results: Mean age was 37.3 years (SD=7.7. Total physical activity level was 308 counts/min (SD=131, and peak oxygen uptake was 34.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 (SD=5.6. Fifty percent of the participants had the metabolic syndrome, and 76% were obese. Physical activity level and cardiorespiratory fitness level were lower, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome higher in a subgroup of taxi drivers as compared with those inother occupations (P<0.05.Conclusions: Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness levels are low and diabetes risk high among Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, especially in taxi drivers

  15. Changes in food habits after migration among South Asians settled in Oslo: the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Margareta; Råberg, Marte; Kumar, Bernadette; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The aim is to explore changes in food habits after migration, and the resultant present food consumption patterns, as well as the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors on these changes. Analyses were based on data collected through the Oslo Immigrant Health study, from 629 persons 30-60 years of age, born in Sri Lanka and Pakistan, and living in Oslo, Norway. A majority of the Sri Lankans reported increase in the consumption of meat, milk, butter, margarine and potatoes. Around half of those from Pakistan reported increased consumption of oil, meat, fish and potatoes. Both groups reported a decrease in bean and lentil consumption. Multivariate regression showed that age was negatively related to increases in butter and margarine consumption, and a good command of the Norwegian language reduced the likelihood of increased consumption of oil and butter. The likelihood of having present fat and sugar rich food patterns were reduced with age and years of education, whereas scoring high on an index of integration increased the likelihood of a fat rich food pattern. In conclusion, a number of demographic and socio-cultural factors may modify the changes in food habits after migration. Some of these may have substantial health implications.

  16. Meeresschutzgebiete für den Nordost-Atlantik und die ostsee im Rahmen der Oslo-Paris-und der Helsinki-Übereinkommen

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Nordheim, Henning

    1999-12-01

    It has been common practice for decades, especially since the Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted in Rio (1992), to protect certain marine areas, and the possibilities and scope of such marine protection measures have been widely discussed. The Helsinki and Oslo-Paris Conventions for the protection of the marine environment, which are relevant for Germany, provide a framework for the establishment of marine protected areas. As early as 1993, the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), in its Recommendation 15/5, decided to create a system of “Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA)”, starting with 62 areas. More protected areas are being added to the system. The Oslo-Paris Commission (OSPARCOM), within the framework of the new 1998 Annex V of the Convention on the Protection and Conservation of the Ecosystems and Biological Diversity of the Maritime Area, has initiated the establishment of a system of protected areas in the North-East Atlantic under the guidance of Germany. Information on the current status of both marine environmental protection systems is provided in this paper.

  17. Performance of breast cancer screening using digital breast tomosynthesis: results from the prospective population-based Oslo Tomosynthesis Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Bandos, Andriy I; Gur, David; Østerås, Bjørn Helge; Gullien, Randi; Hofvind, Solveig

    2018-02-10

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has the potential to overcome limitations of conventional mammography. This study investigated the effects of addition of DBT on interval and detected cancers in population-based screening. Oslo Tomosynthesis Screening Trial (OTST) was a prospective, independent double-reading trial inviting women 50-69 years biennially, comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) plus DBT with FFDM alone. Performance indicators and characteristics of screen-detected and interval cancers were compared with two previous FFDM rounds. 24,301 consenting women underwent FFDM + DBT screening over a 2-year period. Results were compared with 59,877 FFDM examinations during prior rounds. Addition of DBT resulted in a non-significant increase in sensitivity (76.2%, 378/496, vs. 80.8%, 227/281, p = 0.151) and a significant increase in specificity (96.4%, 57229/59381 vs. 97.5%, 23427/24020, p < .001). Number of recalls per screen-detected cancer decreased from 6.7 (2530/378) to 3.6 (820/227) with DBT (p < .001). Cancer detection per 1000 women screened increased (6.3, 378/59877, vs. 9.3, 227/24301, p < .001). Interval cancer rate per 1000 screens for FFDM + DBT remained similar to previous FFDM rounds (2.1, 51/24301 vs. 2.0, 118/59877, p = 0.734). Interval cancers post-DBT were comparable to prior rounds but significantly different in size, grade, and node status from cancers detected only using DBT. 39.6% (19/48) of interval cancers had positive nodes compared with only 3.9% (2/51) of additional DBT-only-detected cancers. DBT-supplemented screening resulted in significant increases in screen-detected cancers and specificity. However, no significant change was observed in the rate, size, node status, or grade of interval cancers. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01248546.

  18. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a) Civil...

  19. International Suspect Screening: NORMAN Suspect Exchange meets the US EPA CompTox Chemistry Dashboard (ICCE 2017 Oslo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Members of the European NORMAN Network of Environmental Laboratories (www.norman-network.com) have many substance lists, including targets, suspects, surfactants, perfluorinated substances and regulated, partially confidential data sets of complex mixtures. The NORMAN Suspect Lis...

  20. Civil defense should be mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts

  1. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  2. European contract law: The contribution of the Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will argue that when contemplating the elaboration of a European civil law, Dutch law may have some interesting ideas to offer. From the wealth of thoughts offered by the General Reporter, only one particular thread will be taken up in depth. It is the protection of the weaker contracting

  3. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  4. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. AIMS AND SCOPE The Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT aims to publish original research papers of high standard, containing material of broad interest and of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems.

  5. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  6. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  7. 17 CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE AND DEMOCRATIC SUSTAINABILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    To Socrates, civil disobedience was morally wrong even when there were justifiable reasons ... issue between the majority and the minority in the society. It is a protest ..... government businesses were halted for about a week and the government of .... 11 William A Herr, “Thoreau: A Civil Disobedience?,” Ethics, Vol. 81, No.

  8. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific remedial...

  9. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1738.17 Civil rights...

  10. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring suit...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1846 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil action. 493.1846 Section 493.1846 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1846 Civil action. If CMS...

  12. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  13. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner, operator...

  14. Promoting Civil Discourse in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Billie F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…

  15. 7 CFR 1735.15 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations on...

  16. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  17. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  18. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  19. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  20. The Civil Service Reform in the Context of Sustainable Development. A Comparison between Romania and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan BERCEANU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the public administration system from most of the EU countries suffered many transformations in order to achieve the objectives proposed by the European Union, such as sustainable development. The civil service represented and still is a very important key factor for a success reformation of the administrative system, because it represents the main resource of the system. The analysis underlines the introduction of the public manager in the Romanian civil service hierarchy and the introduction of the concept dirigenza pubblica, a type of public management, in the Italian public administration. Moreover, we will present the introduction of the dirigente pubblico, public manager, in the Italian civil service system.